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Unit 7

TYPICAL MARINE DIESEL ENGINES

3.1. Doxford

The Doxford J-type is a single acting two-stroke slow speed opposed-piston


reversible engine. Each cylinder contains two pistons which move towards or away from
the central combustion chamber. The crankshaft has three throws, the centre one driven
by the lower piston, the outer two driven by the top piston. The arrangement is shown in
Fig. 2.26, which shows the various items of running gear associated with the pistons and
crankshaft.
The design of the engine ensures excellent balance, e.g. the stroke of the lower
piston is greater than the upper piston to provide primary balance of the reciprocating
parts. With upper and lower pistons connected to the crankshaft the combustion loads are
transferred directly through the running gear. This enables a lighter bedplate construction
and long tie bolts are unnecessary.
The engine construction is made up of a single unit box type bedplate upon
which are mounted columns made up of separate legs and a central strut. The entablature
is a welded box construction upon which the cylinder jackets are mounted. The cylinder
liners protrude into the entablature which forms the scavenge air space. The crankshaft is
generally made in one piece for up to five cylinder engines and above this is in two
pieces. Actual construction may be either fully or semi-built. With fully built designs the
webs are shrunk onto the crankpin, semi-built designs employ a one piece central throw.
The scavenge air is provided by exhaust gas driven turbo-chargers using the
constant pressure system. The uniflow system of scavenging is employed with the lower
piston opening the scavenge ports and the upper piston opening the exhaust ports. An
electrically driven auxiliary fan operates automatically to provide scavenge air when
slow running or manœuvring.
The lubricating oil system supplies the bearings and the cooling oil for the lower
piston. Telescopic pipes are used for oil supply to the centre crosshead bearing and the
lower piston.
The upper pistons are water cooled again by the use of telescopic pipes; the
cylinder jackets are also water cooled. This arrangement prevents leakage into the
cylinder or entablature.
The common rail system of fuel injection is used and engine speed control is
achieved by either an electronic or hydraulic governor.

3.2. Sulzer

The RND-M Sulzer is a single acting, slow speed, two-stroke, reversible engine.
The individual cylinder running gear is made up of a piston, piston rod and
connecting rod joining the single throw crankshaft. The arrangement is shown in Fig.
2.27.
The bedplate is fabricated as a double wall design with longitudinal box section
girders. A-frames are mounted on the bedplate and support the entablature and cylinder
block. The complete assembly of bedplate, A-frames and cylinder block is held together
by tie rods to form a rigid structure. To resist crankshaft loading and transverse bending
the main bearing keeps are held down by jack-bolts. This strong structure is necessary to
withstand the combustion loads which pass via the cylinder head to the engine structure.
The crankshaft is semi-built with the crankwebs being designed to partially balance the
rotating masses. The cylinder cover is made in a single piece and contains the central fuel
injector, the starting air valve, relief valve and indicator cock.
Exhaust gas driven turbo-chargers operating on the constant pressure system
supply scavenge air. Loop type scavenging is employed and an electrically driven
automatically operating auxiliary blower is provided for slow speed and manœuvring
operations.
Lubricating oil is supplied to a low and a medium pressure system. The low-
pressure system supplies the main and other bearings. The crosshead bearings are
supplied by the medium pressure system. Articulated pipes supply the oil to the
crosshead bearings.
Water cooling is used for cylinder jackets and heads and also the pistons.
Telescopic pipes provide the water to the pistons.
Fuel injection uses the jerk pump system and a Woodward type hydraulic
governor is used to control engine speed.
The RL engine is based on the RND-M and provides, with its increased piston
stroke, a bigger output and lower engine speed. New features include a single wall
bedplate with integral thrust block. Also the piston crown and other main components of
the combustion chamber are bore cooled, i.e. by water circulating in holes bored close to
the hot surfaces.

3.3. Pielstick

The Pielstick PC series engines are single acting, medium speed, four-stroke
reversible types. Both in-line and V-configurations are available. The running gear, being
a .trunk type engine, is made up of the piston and the connecting rod which joins the
single throw crankshaft. The arrangement of a PC4 engine is shown in Fig. 2.28.
The crankcase and frame are constructed from heavy plate and steel castings to
produce a low weight rigid structure. The crankshaft is under-slung and this arrangement
confines all stresses to the frame structure. The crankshaft is a one-piece forging and the
connecting rods are H-section steel stampings. The one-piece cylinder head contains two
exhaust and two inlet valves together with a starting air valve, a relief valve, indicator
cock and a centrally positioned fuel injector.
Exhaust gas driven turbo-chargers operating on the pulse system supply
pressurised air to the engine cylinders.
Bearing lubrication and piston cooling are supplied from a common system. The
engine has a dry sump with oil suction being taken from a separate tank.
The cylinder jackets are water cooled together with the cylinder heads and the
exhaust valve cages. The charge air cooler may be fresh or sea water cooled as required.
Fuel injection uses the jerk pump system and a Woodward type hydraulic
governor is used to control engine speed.
3.4. MAN B&W
The L70mc is a single acting, low-speed two-stroke reversible marine diesel engine
manufactured by MAN B&W. it is one of the MC series introduced in 1982, and has a
longer stroke and increased maximum pressure when compared with the earlier L-GF and
L-GB designs.
The bedplate is made of welded longitudinal girders and welded cross girders
with cast steel bearing supports (Fig. 4). The frame box is mounted on the bedplate and
may be of cast or welded type. On the exhaust side of the engine a relief valve and
manhole are provided for each cylinder. On the camshaft side a larger hinged door is
provided. The cylinder frame units, which comprise one or more cylinders, are of cast
iron and bolted together to form the requisite number of engine cylinders. Together with
the cylinder liners they form the scavenge air space and the cooling water space. The
double bottom in the scavenge space is water-cooled. The stuffing box fitted around the
piston rod has sealing rings to prevent oil entering the scavenge space.
On the camshaft side, access covers are provided for inspection and cleaning the
scavenge space. The cylinder cover is a single piece of forged steel, and has holes for
cooling water circulation. It has central opening for the exhaust valves and appropriate
pockets for the fuel valves, a relief valve, a starting air valve and the indicator cock. The
exhaust valve housing is fitted into the center of the cylinder head. It is opened
hydraulically and closed by air pressure. During operation the exhaust valve rotates. The
bedplate, frame box and cylinder frames are connected together with staybolts to form
the individual units. Each staybolt is braced to prevent transverse oscillations.
The crankshaft may be solid or semi-built on a cylinder-by-cylinder basis. A
shaft piece with a thrust collar is incorporated into the crankshaft and at the after end has
a flange for the turning wheel. At the forward end a flange is fitted for the mounting of a
turning device or counterweights.
The running gear consists of a piston, a piston rod and a crosshead assembly and
forged steel connecting rod. The crosshead moves in guide shoes that are fitted on the
frame box ends. The camshaft has several sections, each of which consists of a shaft
piece with exhaust cams, fuel cams and couplings. It is driven by a chain drive from the
crankshaft.
Exhaust gas from the engine is passed into a constant-pressure receiver and then
into the turbochargers. Scavenging is uniflow, and electrically driven auxiliary blowers
are automatically started during low-load operation.
Lubrication oil is supplied to the various bearings and also to the pistons for
cooling. Cylinder oil is supplied via lubrication from a high-level service tank. A separate
lubrication system is provided for the camshaft bearings to prevent contamination of the
main lubricating oil system. Fresh water-cooling is provided for the cylinder jackets,
cylinder covers and exhaust valves.
The engine is designed to run on diesel oil or heavy fuel oil. An electronic
governor is provided as standard.

3.5. OPERATING PROCEDURES

Medium and slow speed diesel engines will follow a fairly similar procedure for
starting and marnœuvring. Where reversing gearboxes or controllable pitch propellers are
used then engine reversing is not necessary. A general procedure is now given for engine
operation which details the main points in their correct sequence. Where a
manufacturer’s instruction book is available this should be consulted and used.

3.5.1. Preparations for stand-by

1. Before a large diesel is started it must be warmed through by circulating hot water
through the jadets, etc. This will enable the various engine parts. to expand in relation
to one another.

2. The various supply tanks, filters, valves and drains are all to be checked.
3. The lubricating oil pumps and circulating water pumps are started and all the visible
returns should be observed.
4. All control equipment and alarms should be examined for correct operation.
5. The indicator cocks are opened, the turning gear engaged and the engine turned
through several complete revolutions. In this way any water which may have collected
in the cylinders will be forced out.
6. The fuel oil system is checked and circulated with hot oil.
7. Auxiliary scavenge blowers, if manually operated, should be started.
8. The turning gear is removed and if possible the engine should be turned over on air
before closing the indicator cocks.
9. The engine is now available for standby.
The length of time involved in these preparations will depend upon the size of the
engine.

3.5.2. Engine starting

1. The direction handle is positioned ahead or astern. This handle may be built into the
telegraph reply lever. The camshaft is thus positioned relative to the crankshaft to
operate the various cams for fuel injection, valve operation, etc.
2. The manœuvring handle is moved to ‘start’. This will admit compressed air into the
cylinders in the correct sequence to turn the engine in the desired direction.
3. When the engine reaches its firing speed fuel is admitted and the combustion process
will accelerate the engine and starting air admission will cease.
3.5.3. Engine reversing

When running at manœuvring speeds:


1. Where manually operated auxiliary blowers are fitted they should be started.
2. The fuel supply is shut off and the engine will quickly slow down.
3. Thedirection handle is positioned astern.
4. Compressed air is admitted to the engine to turn it in the astern direction.
5. When turning astern under the action of compressed air, fuel will be admitted. The
combustion process will take over and air admission cease.

When running at full speed:


I. The auxiliary blowers, where manually operated, should be started.
2. Fuel is shut off from the engine.
3. Blasts of compressed air may be used to slow the engine down.
4. When the engine is stopped the direction handle is positioned astern.
5. Compressed air is admitted to turn the engine astern and fuel is admitted to accelerate
the engine. The compressed air supply will then cease.

3.5.4. Planned maintenance system

Specification check, servicing and reconditioning for:


Cylinder heads
1. inlet and exhaust valve clearance check;
2. valve rocker brackets removal and fitting servicing;
3. valve rocker removal and fitting servicing;
4. valve rocker bearings check;
5. inlet valve rockers check;
6. valve rotators check.

3.6. Vocabulary

auxiliary scavenge blower = suflantă auxiliară de baleiaj


blasts of compressed air = jeturi de aer comprimat
column = coloană
crank web = sisteme cu manivelă
dry sump = baie/carter uscat de ulei
electrically driven auxiliary fan = ventilator auxiliar acţionat electric
entablature = entablament
girder = grindă, traversă
hydraulic governor = regulator hidraulic
indicator cock = robinet de indicator
jack-bolt = bolţ/pivot de îmbinare
loop type scavenging = baleiaj tip contracurent
jerk pump system = system de pompare prin şocuri
uniflow system of scavenging = system de baleiaj într-un singur sens
piston crown = cap de piston
protrude = a ieşi în afara/exterior
relief valve = supapă/ventil de golire
return = retur; cursă inversă
reversible engine = motor reversibil
running gear = mecanism de rulare/rotire
semi-built = semi-încadrat/încastrat
stamping = marcare, presare
strut = bară comprimata, support
telegraph reply lever = manetă de răspuns
telescopic pipes = ţevi telescopice
throw = cursă, deplasare, excentricitate
tie bolt = bolţ de legătură
under-slung = suspendat

3.7. Grammar Adjective + preposition

Adjective + about/with
angry/annoyed/furious about something
We were angry about the delay.
angry/annoyed/furious with somebody for doing something
Are you annoyed with me for being late?
excited/worried/upset/nervous/happy etc about something
Are you excited about going in the ship’s maiden voyage?
delighted/pleased/satisfied/disappointed with something
Were you disappointed with your exam results?

Adjective + at/by/with
surprised/shocked/amazed/astonished at/by something
Everybody was surprised at/by the news.
impressed with/by somebody/something
He is very impressed with/by your English.
fed up/bored with something
I’m fed up with those pumps that have to be repaired every week.

Adjective + of
ashamed of
He was ashamed of his rude behaviour to the authorities.
fond of
The cadet is fond of life at sea.
nervous/afraid of
Everybody was afraid of the hurricane but they tried not to show the fear.
proud of
The Chief Engineer is proud of his team.
full of
The spring was full of grease.
aware of
You should be aware of your responsibilities as a seafarer.
capable of
Any engineer must be capable of repairing both engines and motors aboard.

Adjective + for
eager for
Students are eager for learning new things about their future job.
good/bad for
So many pills are not good for you.
famous for
Some narrow seas are famous for the dangers for navigation.
ready/prepared for
The ship is ready for going into her first long voyage.
late for
It’s late for taking other measures of protection against fire.
fit for
Cadets should be fit for life at sea.
responsible for
The Second Engineer is responsible for auxiliaries.

Adjective + in
interested in
He is mainly interested in maintenance.
involved in
The engineer is involved in all the activities on board.

Sorry about/for
sorry about something
I’m sorry about the noise last night. We had an emergency.
sorry for doing something
I’m sorry for shouting at you earlier but I was very tired and angry.
feel/be sorry for somebody
I feel sorry for the pumpman. He has a lot of problems.