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# <

## Saint Louis University

SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURE
Department of Electronics Engineering

Research
on
Z–Transforms
TOPIC: Z–Transforms and Properties of Z–Transforms
TLO 8: Solve for the Z–Transforms by using the principles of Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus
as well as the Properties of Z–Transforms.

Submitted to:
Submitted by: ENGR. CAROLINE BAUTISTA – MONCADA
ABELLA, Edward A.
DULATRE, Joseph Subject and Schedule:
OLIMPO, Kirk Ivan A. ECE 324 9:30–10:30 MWF
MACARAEG, Sophia Marie B.
RIMORIN, Jan Nicole R. Date Given: APRIL 27, 2018
Date Submitted: MAY 2, 2018
The (unilateral) -transform of a sequence is defined as

(1)

This definition is implemented in the Wolfram Language as ZTransform[a, n, z]. Similarly, the inverse -
transform is implemented as InverseZTransform[A, z, n].
"The" -transform generally refers to the unilateral Z-transform. Unfortunately, there are a number of other
conventions. Bracewell (1999) uses the term " -transform" (with a lower case ) to refer to the unilateral -
transform. Girling (1987, p. 425) defines the transform in terms of samples of a continuous function. Worse yet,
some authors define the -transform as the bilateral Z-transform.
In general, the inverse -transform of a sequence is not unique unless its region of convergence is specified
(Zwillinger 1996, p. 545). If the -transform of a function is known analytically, the inverse -
transform can be computed using the contour integral
(2)
where is a closed contour surrounding the origin of the complex plane in the domain of analyticity
of (Zwillinger 1996, p. 545)
The unilateral transform is important in many applications because the generating function of a sequence
of numbers is given precisely by , the -transform of in the
variable (Germundsson 2000). In other words, the inverse -transform of a function gives precisely
the sequence of terms in the series expansion of . So, for example, the terms of the series
of are given by

(3)

Girling (1987) defines a variant of the unilateral -transform that operates on a continuous
function sampled at regular intervals ,
(4)
where is the Laplace transform,
(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

where

(10)

## This definition is essentially equivalent to the usual one by taking .

The following table summarizes the -transforms for some common functions (Girling 1987, pp. 426-427;
Bracewell 1999). Here, is the Kronecker delta, is the Heaviside step function, and is
the polylogarithm.
1

## The -transform of the general power function can be computed analytically as

(11)

(12)

(13)

where the are Eulerian numbers and is a polylogarithm. Amazingly, the -transforms of are
therefore generators for Euler's number triangle.
The -transform satisfies a number of important properties, including linearity
(14)
translation
(15)
(16)
(17)

(18)

scaling
(19)
and multiplication by powers of
(20)

(21)
(Girling 1987, p. 425; Zwillinger 1996, p. 544).
The discrete Fourier transform is a special case of the -transform with
(22)
and a -transform with
(23)
for is called a fractional Fourier transform.
Z transform is used to convert discrete time Domain into a complex frequency domain where,
discrete time domain represents an order of complex or real Numbers. It is generalize form of
Fourier Transform, which we get when we generalize Fourier transform and get z transform. The
reason behind this is that Fourier transform is not sufficient to converge on all sequence and
when we do this thing then we get the power of complex variable theory that we deal with
noncontiguous time systems and signals.
This transform is used in many applications of mathematics and signal processing. The lists of
applications of z transform are:-
-Uses to analysis of digital filters.
-Used to simulate the continuous systems.
-Analyze the linear discrete system.
-Used to finding frequency response.
-Analysis of discrete signal.
-Helps in system design and analysis and also checks the systems stability.
-For automatic controls in telecommunication.
-Enhance the electrical and mechanical energy to provide dynamic nature of the system.

If we see the main applications of z transform than we find that it is analysis tool that analyze
the whole discrete time signals and systems and their related issues. If we talk the application
areas of
This transform wherever it is used, they are:-
-Digital signal processing.
-Population science.
-Control theory.
-Digital signal processing.
 This one of the many things that makes
the z transform so useful because we
can now easily solve the algebraic equation
Weisstein, E. W. (2018). Z-transform. Retrieved from

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Z-Transform.html

## Moon, T. K. (2008). Z transforms. Retrieved from

http://ocw.usu.edu/Electrical_and_Computer_Engineering/Signals_and_Systems/le

cture2.pdf

## Nicholls, F. (2018). The z-transform. Retrieved from

http://www.dip.ee.uct.ac.za/~nicolls/lectures/eee401f/03_ztrans.pdf

## Applications of z transform. (2018). Retrieved from

http://math.tutorcircle.com/calculus/applications-of-z-transform.html

## AakankshaR. (2015). Applications of z transform. Retrieved from

https://s3.amazonaws.com/ppt-download/z-transform-150605141354-lva1-app689

1.pdf?response-content-disposition=attachment&Signature=WGnmEr3iPW2fITvBuF

pC7xplv1o%3D&Expires=1525216621&AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIA5TS2BVP74IAVEQ

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https://www.researchgate.net/profile/John_Lane5/publication/304717439_UCF_ZTr

ansform_v2/links/5778253e08aead7ba0746244/UCF-ZTransform-v2.pdf?origin=pu

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Fite, B., & Calderon, D. (n.d.). Region of convergence for the z-transform. Retrieved from

http://pilot.cnxproject.org/content/collection/col10064/latest/module/m10622/lates

## Stanford University. (2004). About the region of convergence of the z-transform.

Retrieved from

http://web.stanford.edu/class/archive/ee/ee264/ee264.1052/ROC.pdf

## Region of convergence (ROC). Retrieved from

http://jntuhsd.in/uploads/programmes/Module19_ZT_20.01_.2017_.PDF

Fessler, J. (2004). The z-transform and analysis of LTI systems. Retrieved from

https://web.eecs.umich.edu/~fessler/course/451/l/pdf/c3.pdf

## Wang, R. (2014). Properties of z-transform. Retrieved from

http://fourier.eng.hmc.edu/e102/lectures/Z_Transform/node6.html

## Properties of Z-Transform. Retrieved from

http://jntuhsd.in/uploads/programmes/Module20_ZT_21.01_.2017_.PDF

## Kharrosheh, A. M. (2015). Z-transforms. Retrieved from

https://staff-old.najah.edu/sites/default/files/signal3.pdf

Mathews, J. H., & Howell, R. W. (2012). Z-transforms and applications. Retrieved from

http://mathfaculty.fullerton.edu/mathews/c2003/ZTransformIntroMod.html

## Yalcin, H. (n.d.). Z-transform. Retrieved from

http://web.itu.edu.tr/hulyayalcin/Signal_Processing_Books/EHB_315E_sunumlar_9

_1.pdf

## Wickert, M. (2009). Z-transforms. Retrieved from

http://www.eas.uccs.edu/~mwickert/ece2610/lecture_notes/ece2610_chap7.pdf

## Pfister, H. D. (2018).Properties of the z-transform. Retrieved from

http://pfister.ee.duke.edu/courses/ece485/z_trans_table.pdf

## University of Babylon. (2011). Properties of the z transform. Retrieved from

www.uobabylon.edu.iq/uobcoleges/ad_downloads/4_7629_305.doc