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Mathematical Expression of the CBR Relations

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Show simple item record (/xmlui/handle/11681/19038)

dc.creator Waterways Experiment Station (U.S.);

dc.date.accessioned 2016-10-03T18:54:29Z

dc.date.available 2016-10-03T18:54:29Z

dc.date.issued 1956

dc.identifier 3-441

dc.identifier 4557308

dc.identifier 2439

dc.identifier http://cdm16021.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p266001coll1/id/2439

dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11681/19038

TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 3-441 November 1956 Waterways Experiment Station

CORPS OF ENGINEERS, U. S. ARMY Vicksburg, Mississippi ARMY"-MC VYCK

UW#. MIsS. OF iii Preface The information presented in this report was developed as

part of the CBR relation development work being carried out at the Waterways Ex-

periment Station. Authority for this investigation is contained in In-structions and

Outline for the Review of Design Curves. The project was initiated in October 1953

under the title "Design Curves for Less Than Capacity Operations." The work is being

done for the Airfields Branch, Engineering Division, Military Construction, Office of the

Chief of Engi-neers. Engineers engaged in the direction and accomplishment of this

work include Messrs. W. J. Turnbull, C. R. Foster, and R. G. Ahlvin. V Contents Page

Preface .... iii Summary . .... ....... ...... .. .. . vii Background ...................... .... 1

Mathematical Developments ................... 1 References ................... .... .... 8 vii mmary

This paper presents mathematical developments leading to general equations which

represent the pattern of present CBR relations for air-field pavement design in the

range of CBR values below about 10 to 12. These equations are: 1 P A t = P Ct and =

where t = thickness in inches, P = total load in pounds, p = tire pres-sure in pounds

per square inch, and A = tire contact area in square inches. MATHEMATICAL

EXPRESSION OF THE CBR RELATIONS Background 1. The CBR test is an

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5/17/2018 Mathematical expression of the CBR relations

empirical tool used to evaluate materials in flexible pavement systems. The CBR

values are considered to be indica-tive of the resistance of subgrade and base course

materials to the stresses that may be imposed upon them by repetitive wheel loads.

The design curves used with the CBR method express relationships between loads,

protective thickness of superior material, and CBR of the pertinent layer in the flexible

pavement system. 2. Theoretical shear-stress relationships, allowable deformations,

and relationships between relative sizes of loaded areas were used to ex-trapolate the

basic California Highway Department curves to airplane loadings. Subsequently,

theoretical relationships such as shear stresses, vertical stresses, and vertical

deflections have been used to study the pattern of the CBR design curves. Graphical

relationships have also been used. These studies and service behavior records show

that the CBR de-sign curves can be divided into two parts. At the greater depths

beneath the surface of flexible pavements, required strengths are governed pri-marily

by the gross magnitudes of applied loads. These greater depths are the zone in which

the smaller CBR values are usually encountered. At the lesser depths beneath the

pavement surface, on the other hand, the intensity of applied loads is the primary

governing factor in the deter-mination of required strengths. These lesser depths are

the zone in which the larger CBR values are usually encountered. 3. The

developments presented in this report are concerned with the small CBR range

(greater depths) for which they establish a firm mathematical pattern interrelating the

various pertinent factors. Mathematical Developments 4. Prior work has already

established a relation between design thickness, wheel load, and a constant

dependent on the CBR for single 2 wheel loads having the same contact pressure

(tire pressure).1, 4* This relation is expressed as follows: t = K (1) where: t = thickness

P = wheel load K = a constant dependent on the CBR. The formula is arrived at in the

following manner: Relations obtained from the theory of elasticity for homogeneous-

isotropic material under a uniformly loaded circular area show that for a given intensity

of sur-face load the stresses beneath total loads of different magnitudes will be equal

at homologous points. Homologous points are points beneath two loads of the same

intensity for which the ratio of the depth to the radius of the load is a constant. It is

reasonable to assume that the needed strength and therefore the required CBR will

be the same at depths at which the stresses are identical. Therefore, it may be as-

sumed that for a given CBR and intensity of load, the depth of cover or thickness of

protective layer for any magnitude of load must be such that the ratio of the thickness,

t , to the radius of contact area, r , is a constant, C , or = . (2) r The relation between

load, P , load intensity, p , and radius of con-tact area, r , is: P=pnr2 or r =V x - . (3)

Combining equations 2 and 3 gives: * Raised numbers refer to the list of references at

the end of the text. C X VT.(4) Now being a constant can be designated as K . Thus, K

is a constant dependent on the CBR for a given intensity of pressure. Sub-stituting K

for results in equation 1. t = K . (1) This is the expression presented in earlier work.11

Use of this rela-tion permits the development of increasingly larger wheel load CBR

curves from existing CBR curves. The relation has been shown to give values in good

agreement with those determined by service behavior and empirical tests for CBR

values below about 15 to 20. In the initial development of the CBR relations, tire

pressure was not considered. However, tire pressures used originally in developing

service behavior records for airplane loadings ranged from 60 to slightly above 100

psi. Therefore, when preparation of design curves for 200-psi tires became necessary

the established relationships were assumed to be valid for tire pres-sures up to 100

psi. The simple relation for equal stress at homologous points applies only for a single

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5/17/2018 Mathematical expression of the CBR relations

intensity of applied load and would not serve for extrapolating the design curves from

100- to 200-psi tire pressures, but it was found that the relations of the theory of elas-

ticity for deflection beneath the center of a uniform circular load could be used.1 The

pertinent relation is: 2 w = 1.5 E x r (5) m Yr 2 +t 2 r + t where: w = deflection E =

modulus of elasticity m p, r, and t are the same as in equations 2 and 3. By

considering that an increase in tire pressure would require an in-crease in protective

thickness (depth) such that the theoretical de-flections would be equal, CBR relations

were developed for higher tire pressures. These have since been validated by field

test results.3 5. Equation 5 can be combined with equation 3 to give the following: P 1

2 2 W = 1.5- 1.5 x p x or r + t= (6) xE wnE m 2 2m For a given situation E can be

considered to have a single value, and m if the total load is considered to be constant

and tire pressure per-mitted to vary, the right-hand side of equation 6 is constant when

the deflection is constant and the following expression can be written: r2 +2 =C' (7)

where r and t are as defined previously and C' is a constant. 6. It is now possible to

examine the effect on thickness require-ments of changes in gross load and of

changes in tire pressure. First, consider a change in gross load from Pa to Pb. at

equal tire pres-sure. From equation 1, the following can be written: ta = K =tb or tb- =

b where pa = b (8) a ( a a Now consider a change in tire pressure from pb to pc with

no change in gross load (P = Pc ) . From equation 7, the following can be written: r +

=+Ct' =rc +tc oorr t+t r = tb + b - re wwhheerree Pb == PP . ((99)) Squaring equations

8 and 9 and combining gives: 2 2 b 2 2 tc =t + rb rc (10) This can be developed in the

following manner to give an expression for the combined effect of variations in total

load and tire pressure: 2 2 2 2 Pb xpb rb c re t =t + c a Pb a P P 5 but, npr2 = P,

therefore: 2 2 b Pb Pc t =t +--- - --- c a a spb spc and since, pa -=b and Pb P c P P 2 2

c c 1 1 c a P- p p Sa P This may be written: tc + Pc Pa1 Pc1 (11) a2 It may also be

written: t 2 2 a +--- 1 = c + ---1- . P n Pc Pc a a C c Since the subscripts represent

arbitrary sets of values, the following more general expression can be written: 2 t 2 t 2

2 a 1 c 1 e 1 n 1 -+ - = + = .... - + - a a c c e e n n Or, since any set of values

combined in this way must equal any other set so combined, it follows that the

expression must equal a constant: -t-2 + 1 = D ,where D is a constant . (12) P pit 7.

This expression is similar to equation 1 except that it will accommodate variations in

tire pressure as well as in gross load. The similarity of equations 1 and 12 is readily

apparent, and their combina-tion provides a relation between the constants D and K .

This relation is: D = K + -p-1n (13) 6 Reference to paragraph 4 will show that K can be

considered to have the in. in. 2 units --- and therefore D will have the units in. . Since

K is dependent on the CBR, it follows that D is also dependent on CBR. 8. Values for

the constant K were carefully developed as shown in reference 4. The values

developed in that reference and in reference 1 are shown in the following table. These

are from single-wheel CBR curves for design (or evaluation) of flexible airfield

pavements for capacity operation (5000 coverages). In evaluation of the constant K ,

units must be assigned to the various quantities, therefore t has been taken in inches,

P in pounds, and K in pounds per square inch. Values of K For 100-p For 200-psi R

curves CER curves 0.195 0.199 0.166 0.171 0.147 0.152 0.132 0.138 0.120 0.126

0.111 0.118 0.103 0.110 0.096 0o. 104 0.085 0.093 0.073 0.082 0.067 0.075 0.059

0.068 Values of K2 For 100-psi For 200-psi CER curves CR curves 0.03803 0.03961

0.02755 0.02923 0.02161 0.02311 0.01742 0.01905 0.01440o 0.01588 0.01232

0.01392 0.01060 0.01210 0.00921 0.01o81 0.00723 0.00865 0.00533 0.00672

0.00oo49 0.00563 0.00348 0.00oo462 Values of D = + For 100-psi For 200-psai CBR

curves CBR curves 0.04121 0.04120 0.03073 0.03082 0.02479 0.02470 0.02060

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5/17/2018 Mathematical expression of the CBR relations

0.olo41 0.01024 0.00851 0.00831 0.00767 0.00722 0.00666 0.00621 Values of D x

CMR For 100-psi For 200-psi CBR curves CER curves 0.124 0.124 0.123 0.123 0.124

0.124 0.124 0.124 0.123 0.122 0.124 0.124 0.124 0.123 0.124 0.124 0.125 0.123

0.128 0.124 0.130 0.123 0.133 0.124 The above table also develops values for the

constant D from those for the constant K . Study of the values developed showed a

relationship between D and the CBR. Their simple product was found to be substan-

tially constant for CER values below about 10 to 12. The last column in the table

shows this. The resulting constant has an average value of 2 0.1236 and has the units

of . Thus the following relation can be written: DX CBR = 0.1236 or D = 001=61 2 in

CESR i Ib . (14) This may also be written as : 1 in. D=b 8.1 CER 34 5678 9 10 12 15

17 20 7 9. This value for D can now be substituted in equation 12 and the result

solved for t to give a general relation directly involving gross load, load intensity

required, thickness, and CBR as follows: t = 1 - . 8.1 CBR pi (15) This expression then

is a representation of the CBR design relations for values of CBR less than about 10

to 12. 10. In more recent CBR work, it has become desirable to develop relations for

constant contact areas. Equation 15 can easily be reshaped to permit this by

recognizing that P = Ap , where A is the tire con-tact area. Then: t P -P A (16) 8.1

CBR In these equations t = thickness in inches, P = total load in pounds, p = tire

pressure in pounds per square inch, A = tire contact area in square inches, and the

constant, 8.1, has the units pounds per square inch. 11. It will quickly be noted that for

some combinations of CBR and loading, zero and negative values result. These

merely indicate no need for increasing subgrade strength through use of a base

course. It might also be well to point out that the 10 to 12 CBR upper limit of validity

applies in the 100-psi tire pressure range. For greater pressures the limit of validity is

higher and conversely for lower pressures may be somewhat lower. 8 References 1.

Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Collection of Letter Reports on

Flexible Pavement Design Curves. Miscellaneous Paper No. 4-61, Vicksburg, Miss.,

June 1951. 2. , Investigations of Pressures and Deflections for Flexible Pavements,

Report No. 3, Theoretical Stresses Induced by Uniform Circular Loads. Technical

Memorandum No. 3-323, Vicksburg, Miss., September 1953. 3. , Design of Upper

Base Courses for High-pressure Tires, Report No. 1, Base Course Requirements as

Related to Contact Pres-sures. Technical Memorandum No. 3-373, Vicksburg, Miss.,

December 1953. +. Fergus, S. M., Development of CBR Flexible Pavement Design

Method for Airfields (A Symposium). ASCE Transactions, vol 115, pp 564-565, 1950.

dc.format pdf

dc.language eng

dc.rights This document was published by a federal government agency and is in the public

domain.

dc.source 0558MATH.pdf

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