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METHODIST COLLEGE OF

ENGINEERING &
TECHNOLOGY
(Affiliated to Osmania University)

ENGINEERING PHYSICS
LABORATORY MANUAL

Prepared by :
Dr.K.Anuradha Reddy
Dr.G.Aravind
K.Veerabhadram
E.Bhaskar

1
I/IV B.E.
Index

S.No. Name of the experiment Page No.

1. Determination of wavelength of soduim light using Newton’s rings..........................04

2. Determination of wavelength of Sodium light using - diffraction grating (normal incidence)


......................................................................................................................................... 07

3. Determination of wavelength of a semiconductor laser.............................................09

4. Determination of Numerical aperture (NA) and loss in an optical fiber....................11

5. Determination of width of a single slit by diffraction.................................................14

6. Determination of specific rotation of glucose solution using polarimeter..................16

7. Characteristics of solar cell.........................................................................................19

8. Characteristics of p-n junction diode..........................................................................21

9. Determination of Planck’s constant using photo-cell.................................................23

10. Study of temperature dependence of dielectric constant of a ferroelectric.................26

11. Determination of energy gap of semiconductor..........................................................28

12. Study of thermistor characteristics..............................................................................30

13. Determine the amplitude, time period and frequency using CRO..............................32

14. Viva-Voce Questions and Answers..............................................................................34

15. Drawing B-H curve of a ferromagnet……………………………………………… 57

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DETERMINATION OF WAVELENGTH OF SODUIM
LIGHT USING NEWTON’S RINGS
Experiment number: 1
Aim: To determine the wavelength (λ) of sodium light by forming Newton’s rings.
Apparatus: Sodium vapour lamp, travelling microscope, plano-convex lens of large focal length,
thin glass plate for reflecting the beam, thick glass plate to keep the lens on it, reading lens and
black paper.
Theory:

Figure 1: (a) Experimental arrangement to observe Newton’s rings. (b) Interference pattern as
viewed through the microscope.
A plano-convex lens is placed on a glass plate such that the convex surface rests on the glass
plate. By doing this we have an air film between the convex surface of the lens and the upper
surface of the glass plate. The thickness of the air film is
2
zero at the point of contact of the lens and
glass plate and increases outward. A plane glass plate PP is placed above the len s such that it
makes an angle of 450 with the 
vertical. Sodium light coming from the source falls on PP and is reflected so that it is incident normally
on
the plano-convex lens. A part of the incident ray is reflected by the convex surface (upper surface
of the air film). The remaining part of the ray travels through the air film and is reflected by the
upper surface of the glass plate (lower surface of the air film). The two rays, namely the rays
reflected by the two surfaces of the air film meet at the convex surface of the lens and interfere.
Thus the interference pattern is localized at the convex surface of the lens. The ray reflected by the
convex surface does not undergo any phase change. But the ray reflected by the plane surface of
the glass plate, since this surface is backed by a
denser medium, undergoes an abrupt phase change of . The interference produces maxima and
minima
depending on the path difference which is 2t. Viewing through the microscope from above, the
points on the lens where t is constant lie on a circle. As a result, the maxima and minima appear as
bright and dark circles. These circular fringes are called Newton’s rings. Since the fringes are
localized at the convex surface of the lens, to observe the rings, the microscope should be focused
at this surface. At the point of contact of the convex lens and the glass plate, t = 0. However one
ray suffers a phase change on reflection
and the other does not, therefore the optical path difference is λ/2. Hence the two rays interfere
destructively
and produce a dark spot at the centre of the circular fringe system. The relation between the
3
thickness of the air film’t’ and the distance 'r' from the centre of the lens is

The condition for constructive interference (bright fringe) and destructive interference (dark fringe)
is given by

From this we get an expression for the diameter (D


n
= n2r ) of the nth bright and dark fringes.

The difference between the squares of diameters of mth and nth fringes is

for bright fringe

for dark fringe

From this one gets an expression for  in terms of the diameters of the fringes and R. Note that is the same
whether one chooses dark or bright fringes.
2 2
Dm  Dn
 A
4R(m  n)

We see that mD is proportional to m and not m.mThat means one goes away from the centre, the
fringes are crowded together. On the other hand if one plots
Dm against m, one gets a straight line as
2

shown in fig.9.

: (cm2)

Procedure
4
Number of Rings
1.Bring the point of intersection of the cross-wires of the travelling microscope to the centre of the
ring system.
2.Move the microscope to the left counting the number of the ring till the ring number 25 is reached.
3.Move the microscope in reverse direction until the vertical cross-wire is tangential to the 20th
ring. Note the reading, both the main scale reading (MSR) and the vernier scale coincidence
(VC) on the microscope.

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4.Continue to move the microscope in the same direction and note the readings for the 15th, 10th and
5th ring.
5.Moving the microscope, cross the centre of the ring system and reach the 5th ring on the other side of
the centre and note the reading. Repeat it for the 10th, 15th and 20th ring.

While taking readings, the microscope should be moved either from right to left or from left to right in
one direction only and never go back and forth. Otherwise back-lash error will be introduced.

Observation table:
Value of one main scale division S = 0.05cm
Number of divisions on the vernier scale N = 50
S
Least Count LC  0.05cm
N   0.001cm
50
Vernier scale reading VSR = V C x LC
Total reading TR = MSR + VSR

Radius of curvature (R) of the lens determined by spherometer = _________


cm Plot the graph D2 against the ring number.
From the slope of the straight line i.e., D
m
2 2

 D /(m  n) and using the value of R determine 
n

Precautions:
1.Clean the glass plate and convex lens thoroughly.
2.Adjust the lens until the central spot of the ring system is dark.
3.Avoid back-lash error by moving the telescope in only one direction while taking readings.

Result: The wavelength of sodium light found using Newton's rings = _______cm (or)
_________A0.
DETERMINATION OF WAVELENGTH OF SODIUM LIGHT USING
DIFFRACTION GRATING (NORMAL INCIDENCE)
Experiment number: 2
Aim: To determine the
 ) of sodium light using diffraction grating with the normal
wavelength method. incidence
Apparatus: Spectrometer, sodium vapour lamp, grating, reading lens and spirit level.
Theory: The grating equation is

Where
1.  = the wavelength of light (in cm)
2. n= the order of the maximum
3. N = the number of lines per cm (on the grating number of lines per inch is given. convert
into lines per cm, one inch = 2.54 cm)
4. θ = the angle of diffraction.
The above formula is used to determine the wavelength by measuring θ with the help of
spectrometer.
Description of the spectrometer:

A spectrometer consists of collimator, telescope, vernier table and grating table. Collimator is
fixed
and should always face the source of light. Telescope can be rotated about a vertical axis and can
be fixed at any desired position by using the clamp provided. The grating table can also be rotated
independently about the same axis and can also be fixed by a clamp. The vernier table has two
scales V1 and V2 along with vernier scales which are diametrically opposite to each other on the
circular vernier table.

Adjustment of the spectrometer:


Before starting the experiment, the following preliminary adjustments have to be made.
1.Using a spirit level and adjusting the screws of the vernier table and grating table, make both the
tables horizontal.
2.Focus the telescope such that a distant object comes into sharp focus. That means telescope is
adjusted to focus parallel rays. Do not disturb the focussing of the telescope from now till the
end of the experiment.
3.Rotate the telescope to face the collimator so that it receives the light from source as it emerges
from the collimator. Adjust the collimator until the image of the slit in front of the collimator
is sharp as viewed through the telescope. Then the light rays emerging from the collimator
are parallel. Adjust the slit width to be as small as possible.
Procedure:
1.Bring the telescope such that the image of the slit coincides exactly with the vertical cross-wire of the
telescope. Note the reading on one of the verniers.
2.Looking at the vernier, rotate the telescope exactly by 900 and fix the telescope. Now the telescope
makes exactly 900 with the path of light rays emerging from the collimator.
3.Mount the grating on the grating table and looking through the telescope, rotate the grating table
(vernier table should not move) until the image of the slit reflected by the grating is caught by the
telescope and coincides with the vertical cross-wire. Now the plane of the grating makes 450 with
the path of the ray emerging from the collimator.
4.Looking at the vernier, rotate the grating table through exactly 450 so that the plane of the grating is
normal to the path of the light ray emerging from the slit. Now the light is incident normally on the
grating. Now fix the grating table. It should remain fixed for the rest of the duration of the
experiment.
5.Now release the vernier table and move the telescope to the left and catch the first order diffraction
spectrum. Coincide the vertical cross-wire with the image and note down the readings in both the
vernier scales.
6.Move the telescope and repeat step 5 for the image on the right side.
Observation table:

Value of one main scale division


Number of divisions on the vernier
N  30
scale
Least count of the spectrum LC 
spectrometer Order of the n1 30' 30 
'
1
Number of lines on the grating per 15,000lines
cm N 
2.54cm
In the following table, Main scale reading and vernier scale readings are denoted by a and V
C X LC by b. When the telescope is to the right the total reading a + b is denoted by V1 for vernier
one and by V2 for vernier two which is diametrically opposite to vernier one. When the telescope is
to the left, the same quantities are denoted by V1' and V'2.

θ1  θ1  θ2
θ
V1 ≈ 1V θ2  V2≈V ,2
1 1

, 4
Use the grating equation, find  from the measured value of θ
Precautions:
1.The grating should always be held only by edges (do not put fingers on the surface of the grating).
2.Reading of both verniers should be taken.
3.Avoid back-lash error while taking readings.
4.Grating should be normal to the incident light.
Result:
The wavelength of sodium light found using Diffraction grating is ___________ cm (or)
_________A°.
DETERMINATION OF WAVELENGTH OF A SEMICONDUCTOR LASER
Experiment number: 3
Aim: To determine the (λ) of the given semiconductor laser radiation.
wavelength
Apparatus: Semiconductor laser, diffraction grating, screen, measuring scale, grating stand and
retort stand.
Theory: The characteristics of laser light are, (a) high intensity (b) monochromaticity (c) coherence and
(d) directionality. In this experiment, high intensity of laser radiation is exploited.

Using a diffraction grating, the wavelength of sodium light was determined in experiment 2.
There it was noticed that only the first order diffraction maximum was observable. Since higher
order maxima are of fast decreasing intensity, even the second order maximum was barely visible.
This is because sodium vapor lamp emits ordinary light. Another point to note is the shape of the
maxima appears as shown in experiment 2. The reason is, the shape of the source which is the slit
in front of the collimator is a thin rectangle. Except for these two differences, the principle of
determination of wavelength in this experiment is exactly same as in experiment 2. So the formula
to be used is

wher
e 
 = the wavelength of light
(cm)
N = the number of lines per centimeter on the grating=2500/2.54 lines/cm
n = the order of the spectrum
θ = the angle of diffraction.
In the present experiment, laser light is used, due to the high intensity, in contrast to sodium
light,
several orders of diffraction maxima are observed. θ depends directly on N. In order to be able to
catch
as many orders as possible on the screen (wall in our case), θ has to be small which means N has to
be
small. That is why N in the present case is much smaller (2500 lines per inch) than for the grating
used in experiment 2. The diffraction pattern is caught on a wall at a distance D from the grating as
shown in the figure. If the distance of the nth order maximum from the central spot is d, then

The source of light is the circular aperture of the laser. That is why the diffraction maxima are
circular.
Experimental setup:

Figure 1: (a) Experimental setup to determine the wavelength of laser light. (b) The diffraction pattern
observed on the screen.
Procedure:
1.Setup the apparatus as shown in the figure.
2.Without the grating adjust the direct beam to coincide with the (marked) centre of the screen.
3.Mount the grating and adjust it so that the laser beam reflected by the grating coincides with the
source. Then the grating is normal to the laser beam.
4. With a scale measure d1 and d2 which are the distances respectively of the maxima on the left and
right of the central spot for each order.
Observation table:

Precautions:
1.Do not touch the plane of the grating with hands. Hold it only by the edges.
2.Make the plane of the grating normal to the path of the incident light.
3.Adjust the grating so that the diffraction spots are aligned along horizontal.

Result:
The wavelength of the semiconductor laser = ___________ cm = __________ A°
14
DETERMINATION OF NUMERICAL APERTURE (NA)
AND LOSS IN AN OPTICAL FIBER
Experiment number: 4
Aim: To determine the (a) Numerical Aperture and (b) power loss for an optical fiber.
Apparatus: Optical fiber kit, adapter, optical fibers of lengths 1m and 5m and scaled screen.
Theory:
Numerical Aperture

Light propagates through an optical fiber because of total internal reflection. An optical fiber

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essentially consists of core of refractive n1 and cladding of refractive index n2 . Light entering the
index
fiber successively suffers total internal reflections at the interface of core and cladding as shown in
the figure. For this to happen it is necessary to have n1  n2 .

Figure 13: Propagation of light through an optical fiber.

Consider the ray propagating in the fiber as shown in the figure. In order that it emerges at
an angle with the axis of the fiber, it has to make an angle of incidence  with the interface
between the core and
the cladding. Total internal reflection is possible only if  has to be
larger
c then i has to be smaller  A where  A is the angle of emergence corresponding to
than
than
Ø = c

Thus the largest angle of emergence for a ray to be transmitted through an optical fiber is A . This
also is the largest angle of entry of a ray into the fiber to be able to propagate through it. Therefore
it is called the acceptance angle. The acceptance angle is a measure of the light gathering power of
an optical fiber. Numerical Aperture NA is defined as

Just as  A is the maximum angle that a ray can make at the entry into the cable,  A is also the
maximum
exit angle. Therefore by measuring the maximum exit angle one can find the acceptance angle as shown
in

the figure. When light is transmitted through the cable, when it exits from the cable, it spreads out
into a cone whose angle is the acceptance angle. If the light is caught on a screen, it will form a
bright circular spot. By measuring the diameter W of the spot and the distance L from the end of
the cable to the screen
one can calculate sin A as shown in the figure.

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Procedure:
Numerical Aperture
1.Insert one end of the fiber into the LED and switch on the LED. Arrange the screen to be at a
distance L from the other end of the fiber. Increase the intensity of light until a clear circular
spot is visible on the screen.
2.Measure the diameter W of the spot.
3.Repeat for several values of L

Observation table:

S.No. L(mm) W(mm) NA ΘA

Power loss
1.Connect one end of 1m fiber to P0 and the other end to pin.
2.Plug the ac mains, connect the optical fiber patch cord securely after relieving all twists and
strains in the fiber.
3.Adjust the”Set P0 level” to a suitable value (say -20dbm).
4.Note this as P01.
5.Repeat for 5m fiber and note the reading as P02.
6.Choose different P0 levels and repeat steps 4 and 5.
7.Prepare the following table for each P0 level.

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Observation table:
Trial - 1 Loss in 4m of the cable P  P
01 02

= Trial - 2 Loss in 4m of the P01  P02


cable =
P01  P02 P P
Loss per meter of the cable =  X   01 02  Y 


Do the above calculation for each P0 level.

Precautions:
1. Insert the optical fiber cable into LED by turning the clinch nut clockwise.
2. See that the optical fiber does not have twists or strains.
3. See that the two cables meet at the centre of the adapter while taking readings for P03.
Result:
Acceptance Angle =

Numerical Aperture =

XY
Average power loss per meter of the cable db/m

DETERMINATION OF WIDTH OF SINGLE SLIT BY DIFFRACTION
Experiment number: 5
Aim: To determine the width of single slit by diffraction
Apparatus: Sodium vapour lamp, adjustable single slit, spectrometer, spirit level and magnifying glass.
Theory: Diffraction, loosely speaking is bending of waves around obstacles or around the edges of an
aperture. Diffraction effects are observable when the wavelength of the waves is comparable to the size
of the obstacle or aperture. In while observing the diffraction of light by a single slit, the width of the
slit should be comparable to the wavelength of sodium light. If a single slit of suitable width is
mounted on the prism table of the spectrometer and viewed through the telescope, if there were no
diffraction, one observes only the direct image of the slit. Due to diffraction, on either side, of the
central maximum, there will be minima. Naturally there will be maxima in between successive minima.
The intensity of diffraction pattern due to a single slit is given by
wher
e
e
 sin 

e is the width of the slit,  is the wavelength of light and θ is the angle of diffraction. Then the condition
n
for the nth minimum is given
by

By measuring  for each minimum (each value of n) and by givenλ (5890A0 ) one determines 'e'value.

Procedure:
1.Make the preliminary adjustments of the spectrometer as in experiment 2.
2.Mount the single slit on the prism table and adjust it to be normal to the direction of the light
beam emerging from the collimator.

Figure 1: Diffraction due to a single slit.


3. View through the telescope. The diffraction pattern will be visible as shown in the figure. The
pattern consists of the bright central fringe and fringes of decreasing intensity on either side of the
central fringe.
4. Make the width of the slit as small as possible so that the minima are well separated from each other.
5. Move the telescope to the left to the extreme dark clearly visible minimum as you count the
number of the minimum from the central bright fringe.
6. Coincide the vertical cross-wire with the minimum and note the reading in both the verniers.
7. Gradually move the telescope to the right and repeat the readings for each of the minima which
are to the left of the central maximum and continue to take the readings till you reach the extreme
right end of the pattern.
Observation table:
Measurement of the angle of diffraction:
n - the number of the minimum
V - reading on a vernier (V1= MSR + V C X LC)
V1 The reading on vernier 1 when the telescope is to the left.
V2 The reading on vernier 2 when the telescope is to the left.
V'1 The reading on vernier 1 when the telescope is to the right.
V'2 The reading on vernier 2 when the telescope is to the right.
Position of the minimum
n Telescope is to left Telescope is to right θ1=V11~ V1 θ2=V21 ~ V2 θ=(θ1+ θ2) /4 e(cm)
V1 V2 V1' V2'
a b a+b a b a+b a b a+b a b a+b

Precautions:
1. Telescope and the collimator must be set respectively for receiving and giving out parallel rays.
2. Avoid back-lash errors while taking readings.
3. The slit should be as narrow as possible.
Result:
The width of single slit is __________________cm
DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC ROTATION OF
GLUCOSE SOLUTION USING POLARIMETER
Experiment number: 6
Aim: To determine the specific rotation of glucose solution using polarimeter.
Apparatus: Laurent’s half-shade polarimeter, sodium vapour lamp, glucose, measuring flask, beaker,
analytical balance and weight box.
Theory: When plane polarized light passes through some substances, its plane of polarization rotates
about the direction of propagation. This phenomenon is called optical activity. One such substance is
sugar or glucose solution. The amount of rotation of the plane of polarization of light undergoing in an
optically active solution depends on the length of the solution through which the light travels, and the
concentration of the solution. Specific rotation S is defined as

S =10
LC
Where
 = the amount of rotation of the plane of polarization in degrees.
C = concentration of the solution in g/cc
L = length of the solution in centimeters.
To measure S, by using Laurent’s half-shade polarimeter as shown in the figure1.

Figure 1: Laurent’s half-shade polarimeter.


Unpolarized light from the sodium vapor lamp is incident on N1 which is a Nicol prism called polarizer.
When it emerges from N 1
,the light is plane polarized. This plane polarized light is incident on the half-
shade (HS). The half-shade is a circular disc, one semicircle of which is plane glass plate and the other
semicircle is a quartz half-wave plate. Because of this, the circular beam of light emerging from HS is such
that it is still plane polarized but the light emerging from the two semicircle parts are plane polarized with
their planes of polarizations mutually perpendicular to each other. This light is transmitted through the
sample tube. After emerging from the
sample tube, it is incident on2 which is another Nicol prism called analyser. can be rotated about the axis
N N 2
of the polarizer. The analyser is rotated such that, out of the light that is incident on it, one semicircle
part is transmitted through it (that means the plane polarization is parallel to the Nicol axis). Then
automatically since the other semicircle part has its plane of polarization perpendicular, this part is
completely blocked. As a result when viewed through the eye-piece, one half the field of view looks
bright and the other half looks dark with good contrast between the two. Now if the sample tube is
filled with optically active substance, then, as the plane polarized light passes through the solution,
from both the halves of the beam will have their planes of
polarization rotated. As a result,2 N will neither completely transmit one half nor completely block the other
half
as before. In order to restore the situation that obtained before introducing the optically active solution,2
N has
to be rotated. The angle through which N 2
has to be rotated is exactly the angle through which the
plane of
polarization has been rotated by the optically active solution.
Procedure:
1. Weigh exactly 2g of glucose and dissolve it in exactly 100cc of distilled water in a measuring
flask. The concentration is 0.02g/cc.
2. Illuminate polarimeter with Sodium light and looking through the eye-piece rotate N2 such that
the field of view divided into bright and dark semicircles with good contrast. Note the reading on
the
Circular Scale as . .
3. Take out the sample tube from the polarimeter and fill it with the glucose solution that was
prepared and place it back in the polarimeter.
4. You will find that the contrast in the field of view is not as good as before. Rotate N 2 to restore the
contrast to the state as before. Note the reading in the Circular Scale as for this concentrntratiopn t
5. Prepare glucose solution of different concentrations ( i.e. for 4 g and 6 g of Glucose) and
repeat steps 3 and 4.
Observation table:
1. Least count (LC) of the circular scale =
2. Length of the sample tube (L) = cm
3. Reading on the circular scale when the sample tube is empty θ1 = MSR + (V C x LC) =

 
Graph :
Plot a graph angle θ on the y-
with axis. You should get
concentr a straight line
ation on passing
x-axis
and
through
the
origin.

c(g/cc)

Figure 2: Relation between concentration and angle of rotation of plane of polarization.


Find the slope m of the straight line.
S = m10/L
Precautions:
1. While filling the tube with solution ensure that there are no air bubbles.
2. Close the tube properly so that there is no leakage.
Result:
Specific rotation of glucose solution = __________0/ length concentration. (or)
degree - (g/cm2)-1
CHARATERISTICS OF SOLAR CELL
Experiment Number: 7
Aim: To draw the characteristics and to determine the parameters of the given solar cell.
Apparatus: Solar cell experimental kit consisting of solar cell, illuminator, voltmeter, ammeter,
potentiometer and connecting wires.
Theory: A solar cell is a photovoltaic device. It converts light energy into electrical energy. It is
essentially a large area p-n junction diode made of Si. In an open circuited p-n junction diode, the
junction potential in the depletion layer prevents holes on the p-side and electrons on the n-side from
crossing the junction. When light falls on the diode, electron-hole pairs are created on both sides of the
junction. The junction potential helps electrons on the p-side and holes on the n-side (on both sides they
are minority carriers) to cross the junction and a forward bias voltage Vf is created. But the current is
due to minority carriers and therefore the current Ip is the reverse bias current. As a result the power V p
Ip is negative which means power is generated.

The job of a solar cell is to deliver power to a load. Every source of power has an internal
resistance and so the solar cell also has an internal resistance Ri . The circuit of a solar cell connected to
a load RL is given below:

Figure 1: Schematic diagram of a solar cell connected to a load.

Ip is the photo-induced current (due to minority charge carriers), I is the current due to photo-
induced voltage Vp (forward bias), IL is the current through the load, RL and VL is the Voltage across the
load.

The characteristic of the solar cell is the graph between IL and VL and is shown in the fig.2.

The parameters, namely, the shortcircuit current Isc and the opencircuit voltage Voc can be
determined from the graph.

(mA)

Figure 2: solar cell characteristic.


Further, the maximum power point can be identified and Vm and Im can be read off from the graph. Then
one can calculate the fill factor FF
as
I V
FF m m
 IscVoc
Description: The kit has a solar cell, a light bulb whose intensity can be varied in stages, load
resistors of several values and meters to measure IL and VL .

Figure 3: Circuit diagram to plot solar cell characteristic.


Procedure:
1. Make the connections as shown in fig.3.
2. Choose one intensity of light of the bulb. Vary VL and note VL and IL.
3. Change intensity of light and repeat step 2.
4. From the column for VL X IL identify the values of VL and IL for which the product is
maximum. These values are Vm and Im respectively.
5. Plot VL vs IL curves for each intensity and mark the maximum power rectangles using the Vm
and Im values.
Observation table:
Intensity I1 Intensity I2
VL(volts) IL(mA) VLxIL VL(volts) IL(mA) VLxIL

Determine ocV sc, I , Calculate FF.


Precautions:
1. To get a good characteristic, use maximum intensity of light.
2. Shield the solar cell from ambient light.
Result: For given Solar cell, the parameters are determined as
Voc = Im = FF =

Isc =

Vm =
V
o
l
t
s

m
A

V
o
l
t
s

m
A
CHARACTERISTICS OF P-N JUNCTION DIODE
Experiment Number 8:
Aim: To study the characteristics of p-n junction diode in the forward and reverse bias conditions
Apparatus: Experimental kit that contains p-n junction diode, voltage source, voltmeter, ammeter
(both in milli- and micro-ammeter range), connecting wires and several resistors.
Theory: A p-n junction diode is a semiconductor which is doped with p-type (trivalent) impurities on
one side and with n-type (pentavalent) impurities on the other side of a junction. As a result, majority
carriers are holes in the p-part and electrons in the n-part. Due to the concentration gradient, holes
diffuse into the n-part and electrons diffuse into the p-part crossing the junction. At the junction, electron-
hole recombination takes place so that in a region around the junction there are immobile
uncompensated ions such that there are negative acceptor ions on the p-side and positive donor ions on
the n-side. Because of these ions, the region around the junction is called the space charge region or
depletion region (because it is depleted of mobile charge carriers). Due to the charge in the depletion
region, an electric field is created at the junction. This junction potential prevents further diffusion of
electrons and holes from crossing the junction. This situation, which is called opencircuited condition,
is shown in fig.1(a). The p-n junction is also called a diode where the p-side is called the anode p and
the n-side is called the cathode n.
The diode symbol is shown in fig.1(d).

Figure 1: Schematic diagram of p-n junction. (a) opencircuited (b) forward biased (c) reverse biased.
Arrows indicate the direction of motion of charge carriers.(d) Circuit symbol of p-n diode.
Forward bias: When the diode is connected to a power source such that the positive terminal of the
power source is connected to the p-side (anode) and the negative terminal is connected to the n-side
(cathode), it is called forward biasing. When this is done, the holes in the p-region are repelled by the
positive voltage and electrons in the n-region are repelled by the negative voltage so that both will cross
the junction causing a current from p to n. This current, which is due to majority carriers on both sides
is called the forward bias current and for a voltage of about 0.8V it is a few milliamperes. The forward
bias current increases exponentially with applied voltage. In the diode symbol, the direction of the
arrow is the direction of current in the forward bias condition.
Reverse bias: If the negative terminal of the voltage source is connected to the plate and positive voltage
to cathode, the electrons in the p-region and holes in the n-region (minority carriers in both regions) cross
the junction and constitute the reverse bias current. The direction of reverse bias current is n to p. Since
this current is due to minority carriers, its magnitude is at least 10-4 times the forward bias current and so
it is in
Microamperes or even less. The reverse bias current initially increases slightly with increasing voltage but
quickly reaches a constant value which is known as reverse saturation current I0 when all the minority
carriers participate in conduction. Therefore I0 is a measure of minority carrier density.
Circuit diagram:

Figure 2: Circuit diagram to plot diode characteristic.


Note: In the forward bias, it is necessary to include 1k ohm resistor in the circuit so that not too large a
current flows through the diode.
Procedure:
1.Make the connections as shown in the circuit diagram for forward bias.
2.In this case choose milliammeter to measure the current.
3.Vary the supply voltage in regular steps and note the readings in the voltmeter and milliammeter.
4.Make the connections as shown in the circuit diagram for reverse bias.
5.This time choose microammeter to measure current.
6.Vary the supply voltage in regular steps and note the readings in the voltmeter and microammeter
Forward Bias Reverse Bias
V(volts) I(mA) V(volts) I(µA)

7.Plot the graph (V-I characteristic)


Precautions Figure 3: V-I characteristic of a p-n junction
: diode.
1. When applying forward bias, do not allow the current to exceed 10mA.
2. When applying reverse bias do not apply more than 10V or more than the break down voltage of the
diode.
Result: The diode characteristic in the forward and reverse bias is plotted.
The Knee voltage is Vk = Volts and forward Dynamic resistance RD = Ω
DETERMINATION OF PLANCK’S CONSTANT USING PHOTO-CELL
Experiment number: 9
Aim: To determine the value of Planck’s constant h using photo-cell.
Apparatus: Photo-cell kit containing power supply, voltmeter, ammeter, lamp house, photo-cell
mounted in a box with an opening, filters for several wavelengths and filter stand.
Theory: When light is incident on the surface of a metal, if the frequency of the light is sufficiently
high, electrons are ejected from the metal surface. This phenomenon is photo-electric effect. If the
metallic surface is made the cathode and an anode is placed in front of it inside an evacuated glass tube,
it is called a photo-cell. If a positive voltage is applied to the anode with respect to the cathode, when
light is incident on the photo-cell, the ejected electrons (photo-electrons) are collected by the anode and
as a result, a current (photo-current) flows. Einstein explained why electrons are ejected from a
metallic surface when light falls on it. Einstein considered a beam of light of frequency v to be a stream
of particles each of energy hv . When these particles (photons) fall on a metallic surface, an electron
absorbs one of these photons, gains energy hv , spends some of it ( which is known as the photo-
electric work function) in coming out of the metal and the remaining energy is retained by it as kinetic
energy. This whole process was summarized by Einstein in his famous photo-electric equation:
hv=½ mv²+ø
Here  is the velocity of the photo-electron and m is its mass. The kinetic energy of the electron depends
on the energy of the absorbed photon which means on the frequency of the incident light. Because of the
kinetic energy, electrons emitted by the cathode reach the anode. If instead of a positive potential, if a
negative potential is applied to the anode, then, when the potential reaches a value Vs, no electrons reach
the anode so that the photo- current becomes zero. This happens because the electron spends all its
kinetic energy in overcoming the negative potential which means

½ mv2 =evs

That is, the kinetic energy of the electron has been converted into potential energy eVS where e is the
charge of the electron. VS is known as the stopping potential.
Now the Einstein’s equation can be written as
hv  eVs  
Expressing in terms of wavelength  instead of frequency(v=c/λ
λ ,c is the velocity of light),
hc
 eVs  

If we use light of two wavelengths  1 λ2 the corresponding stopping potentials Vs1and Vs2 we can
and write
hc
 eVs2  
2

or
36
so that the planck’s constant h is given by
h = e(Vs1 Vs2)12
joule second
c(2  1 )
Circuit
diagram:

Figure 1: Circuit diagram to determine Planck’s constant.

Procedure:
1.Make the circuit connections as shown in fig 1.
2.Keep the left hand side switch on the panel towards the sensitive side and the right hand side
switch towards 1V side. Switch on the unit. Set the microammeter reading to zero with the
help of the potentiometer marked”zero adjust”.
3.Allow the light from the source to fall on the cover of the photo-cell. Adjust the distance between
the light source and the photo-cell until the deflection in the microammeter is about 20
divisions. 132
4.Choose a filter of wavelength  1and place it in the slot provided in the path of light.
5.Observe the deflection in the microammeter. This is the current for zero anode potential.
6.Apply negative potential to the anode increasing it gradually until the current reduces to zero. Note
the potential Vs1 at which the current reduces to zero. This is the stopping potential for λ1 .
7.Repeat the experiment for two more wavelengths and and note down the corresponding
stopping potentials Vs2 and Vs3
8 . Use the following standard values and determine h.
Standard values:
Electron charge (e) = 1.6x10-19 coul, c=3x108 m/s
10 10 10
 (green)  5645 X10 m,  (blue)  5265 X10 m,  (red )  6143 X10 m
1 2

Observation table:
Wavelength (  ) Stopping potential Vs (Volts)

Precautions :
1.Do not place the light source very close to photo-cell.
2.Read stopping potential carefully.
Result: The value of Planck’s constant is found to be __________________joule second

37
STUDY OF TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF DIELECTRIC
CONSTANT OF A FERROELECTRIC
Experiment number: 10
Aim: To study the temperature dependence of the dielectric constant of a ferroelectric substance and to
determine the transition temperature.
Apparatus: Apparatus with a parallel plate capacitor and heating arrangement, capacitor meter,
temperature meter and ferroelectric sample.
Theory: If a parallel plate capacitor has capacitance C0 when the space between the plates has air and if
its capacitance increases to C when the space between the plates is filled with a dielectric, then the
dielectric constant of the dielectric is defined as

K (or)  =

A ferroelectric is a material which has spontaneous polarization. That is, it has polarization
(which is defined as electric dipole moment per unit volume) even when there is no electric field
applied to it. The spontaneous polarization of a dielectric decreases with increasing temperature and
finally vanishes at a temperature known as transition temperature. At this temperature, the ferroelectric
undergoes a phase transition from ferroelectric phase to paraelectric phase. This transition can be
observed by measuring the dielectric constant of the ferroelectric material. As the temperature is
increased, the dielectric constant increases, has a peak at the transition temperature and beyond that
the dielectric constant decreases as
1/T. This behaviour is shown in the figure 1.

(K)

Figure 1: Temperature dependence of dielectric constant of a ferroelectric.


If the ferroelectric is placed between the plates of a capacitor and the temperature is varied, then
the capacitance of the capacitor as a function of temperature gives, in view of the relation between
capacitance and dielectric constant, the temperature dependence of the dielectric constant.

Procedure:
1. Place the ferroelectric which is in the form of a circular disc between the plates of the parallel
plate capacitor. Reduce the spacing between the plates by gently rotating the screw until the
ferroelectric sits snugly between the plates.

38
2. Connect the capacitor meter and measure the capacitance at room temperature.
3. Switch on the heater and as the temperature increases note the temperature and the reading on the
capacitor meter for every 100 .
4. After some temperature, the capacitance starts to increase rapidly.
5. After reaching a maximum value, the capacitance starts to decrease rapidly initially and slowly
later.
6. Note the reading for every 100 in decreasing temperature.
Observation table:
Capacitance without dielectric (of air gap) C0= nF

Capacitance (nF)
S.No T(0 c) T=t+273(k)
Heating Cooling

Plot the graphs with capacitance on the y-axis and temperature on the x-axis for while
temperature increasing and while temperature decreasing. Each of the graphs will be as shown in the
figure but the positions of the maxima may be different. From the position of the maximum, note down
the transition temperature for while temperature is increasing and while temperature is decreasing. The
average of the two is the transition temperature.

Precautions:
1.The transition temperature will be different while heating and cooling. Do not try to make them
same.
2.Near the transition temperature, the reading in the capacitor meter may go out of scale. Do not worry.
Wait for the temperature when it comes back into the range and note the readings.

Result:
The transition temperature of the ferroelectric material = _________ 0c. (or) K.

39
DETERMINATION OF ENERGY GAP OF SEMICONDUCTOR
Experiment number: 11
Aim: To determine the energy band gap of a semiconductor material.
Apparatus: Experimental kit to measure the energy gap, p-n junction diode, heater, thermometer and
connecting wires.
Theory:
When a diode is reverse biased, the current in the diode is due to the minority carriers on both sides of
the junction. In a semiconductor, the majority carriers are impurity induced while the minority carriers
are thermally induced. Therefore the current due to minority carriers is temperature-dependent. When
the reverse bias voltage of the diode is sufficiently large, the reverse bias current reaches a constant
value

40
known as the reverse saturation I0 which is given by
current
I   Eg / kT
0
Ae

Where A is a constant, Eg is the energy gap of the semiconductor, k is the Boltzmann constant and T
is the temperature of the diode. Taking log on both side

If I0 is plotted against 1/T we get a straight whose slope is  Eg / k. Eg in eV is given by


ln line Then
I0
E g = 1.9833 X 10-4 X slope eV

()

Figure 1: Graph between


I0 and 1/T
ln

Circuit diagram:

Figure 2: Circuit diagram to determine the energy gap of a semiconductor.

41
Procedure:
1.Make the connections as shown in the circuit diagram.
2.Immerse the diode in a beaker containing oil and place a thermometer in the oil.
3.Increase the voltage until the current in the ammeter shows a constant value.
4.Note the ammeter reading and the temperature.
5.Increase the temperature until the temperature reaches 800
6.Switch off the heater and note down the readings of current and the temperature for every five
degrees in decreasing order until the temperature reaches 40 0.

Observation table:

T ( )

Precautions:
1. At all temperatures, Ensure that the reverse current is in saturation.

Result:
The energy gap of the semiconductor = _______________eV.

42
43
STUDY OF THERMISTOR CHARACTERISTICS
Experiment number:12
Aim: To study the thermistor resistance - temperature characteristics.
Apparatus: Thermistor kit contains resistance, voltage source, thermistor, Galvanometer, heat bath,
thermometer & connecting wires.
Theory: A thermistor is a semiconducting device whose resistance decreases exponentially with increasing
temperature. For example, typically, R = 100 Ω at 300C and R = 10 Ω at 800C for some thermistors (it
could be different for different thermistors). Since the variation of resistance is large, a Wheatstone’s
bridge can be used to measure it. The variation in resistance of a thermistor follows the equation
RT (or) R(T)=AeB/T
A and B are constants which have to be determined in the experiment and T is the temperature in
degrees Kelvin. Rewriting the equation,
B
lnR(T)  lnA 
T
1

44
If one plots ln R(T) for different temperatures on y-axis and on x-axis, one gets a straight line whose

T
slope is B and the intercept on y-axis is ln A as shown in the figure 1.

{
Figure 1: (a & b) Thermistor characteristic.
Procedure
:
1.Immerse thermistor in oil in a test tube and place the test tube in a beaker of water.
2.Make connections as shown in fig 2.

Figure 2 : Circuit diagram to plot Thermistor characteristic.

45
3. Choose P = Q = 470 Ώand adjust R to balance the Wheatstones bridge(make the galvanometer to
0). The value of R is equal to the resistance of the thermistor at room temperature.
4. Switch on the heater and heat till the temperature reaches 90 0c, switch off the heater and as the
temperature decreases note the Resistance while balancing the bridge by changing R for every
100C fall.
Observation table:

t T=t+273(k)

Plot the graph with 1/T on the x-axis and ln R on the y-axis From the graph determine the B of the
thermistor. Plot the graph with T on X-axis and R on Y-axis fig. 1 (b).

Choosen (Rx, Tx) and

We have ln R  ln

Substitue R= Rx, T=Tx, B = Slope from Fig. 1 (a) and calculate ln A and A

Precautions:
1. While heating, the temperature rises fast. Therefore readings should be taken quickly only while
cooling.

Result:
Temperature characteristics of thermistor studied and constants determined as
A = ________________Ohms, B = ___________________ K

46
CRO - MEASUREMENT OF
AMPLITUDE, TIME PERIOD AND
FREQUENCY
Experiment number: 13
Aim: To determine the amplitude, time period and frequency of a given signal using CRO.
Apparatus: Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO), one signal generator and connecting wires.
Theory:
A cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO) is a basic testing and measuring instrument in an electronics
laboratory. Apart from many other controls, the essential components of a CRO are as shown in the
figure, an electron gun, deflecting X - and Y - plates and a phosphor screen. From the electron gun one
gets a thin pencil of electron beam. When it hits the screen a bright spot is visible. The electron beam
passes through regions where two pairs of deflecting plates are placed one after another to deflect the
beam, one pair which are called the X-plates to deflect along the x-axis and another which are called
the Y-plates to defect the beam along the Y-axis. When no voltage is applied to the plates, the beam is at
the centre of the screen. When a dc voltage is applied to the X-plates the beam is shifted horizontally
by an amount propor- tional to the magnitude of the voltage. Similarly, when a dc voltage is applied to
the Y-plates, the beam shifts vertically. When a voltage is applied to both the plates, the beam is shifted
at an angle. This is visible as shift of the spot on the screen. In most of the applications, a sawtooth
wave is applied to the X-plates.
A sawtooth, as shown in the figure, starts at a negative voltage - V0 and starts all over again. If such a
signal is applied to the X-plates, the spot on the screen starts from extreme left, shifts to the right uni-
formly in time till it reaches the right extreme, suddenly - shifts back to the left extreme and starts all
over again. Due to the persistence of the phosphor screen, it appears as if a horizontal line is drawn
across the screen. This line represents a time axis. Now, if a time-varying voltage is applied to the Y-
plates, then we get a trace of a waveform which represents the time - variation of the applied voltage.
So the amplitude and frequency can determined.

Procedure:
1. After switching on, the CRO, make the spot bright and sharp by using the control "Intensity" and "Focus".
2. Bring the spot to the centre of the screen (the screen has graduations on x-and y-axes) using the controls
"X- shift" and "Y-shift".
3. Using the control for "Y-scale", set it to say, 1 V/cm.

47
4. Using the control for "X-scale", set it to say, 1 msec/cm.
5. Choosing a certain voltage, say 1.5V and a certain frequency. say 1kHz in the signal generator, feed the

48
output of the signal generator to the Y-plates of the CRO. A sine wave will appear on the screen.
6. Measure the peak value in cm using the y-scale. Note it as y in cm.
7. Change the Y-scale to say 0.5 V/cm and repeat the measurement.
8. Measure the distance along x-axis covered by say, five (n) waves. Note it as x in cm.
9. Change the X-scale, say 5msec/cm and repeat the measurement.
From x we get the distance in cm for one wave by dividing x by n. By multiplying this with X-scale, we get the
time period T of the wave. 1/T is the frequency of the wave.
Observations & Calculations:
To measure the Time period & Frequency:
Type of No. of Division on X- Value on CRO Time (T = a x b) Frequency
Wave Axis (a) Time/Div (b) Sec Sec (f=1/T) Hz

To measure the amplitude of Unknown Voltage :


Type of No. of Division on Y- Value on CRO Voltage Amplitude = V/2
Wave Axis (a) Volts / Div (b) Sec (V=a x b) volts Volts

Precautions:
1. The various controls of CRO are handled gently without applying force
2. The intensity of the trace is always kept at minimum required level. At no time spot is allowed to stay
onthe screen for a longtime.
Result:
Amplitude = Volts
Frequency = KHz
Time period = Seconds

49
Viva-Voce
Questions and Answers

50
1. DETERMINATION OF WAVELENGTH OF
SODUIM LIGHT USING NEWTON’S RINGS

1. What are Newton's rings?


A Newton's rings are alternate dark and bright circular rings observed due to the interference of reflected
light.

2. Why are these circular rings called Newton's rings?


A These rings were first observed by Newton, therefore, they are called Newton's rings.

3. How are they formed?


A When a Plano-convex surface is placed on the surface of glass plate, an air film of increasing
thickness between the two is formed. When monochromatic light is allowed to fall normally on
film the rings are produced by the interference of light reflected from top and bottom surfaces of
the air film.

4. Why are these rings circular?


A These rings are circular because the air film has a circular symmetry and the thickness of an air
film corresponding to each ring is same throughout the circle. (or)
Because the path difference is uniform around a circular path.

51
5. Why do you get rings closer as the order of the rings increase?
A The fringe width decreases with increase in the order of fringe because m Where D = Diameter,
D m = order of fringe.

6. Why do you use an extended source of light here?


A An extended source is required to view the whole film at a time.

7. Do you get rings in the transmitted light?


A Yes, the ring pattern is just opposite to the ring pattern due to the reflected light.

8. What should be the approximate thickness of the air film so that it is seen coloured in
the reflected white light?
A The thickness of the air film should be the order of wavelength of the incident light

9. Why is the center of the ring dark?


A At center, the thickness of the air film is zero and at this point the path difference between the
reflected rays will be  /2. This is the condition of destructive interference i.e., centre of the
ring will be dark.

10. What will happen when sodium lamp is replaced by white light source?
A The coloured rings will be seen in place of alternate bright and dark rings.

11. Where are the rings formed in your experiment?


A Rings are formed in an air film between the plano-convex lens and glass plate.

12. Why are you using a lens of large radius of curvature?

52
A Due to the large radius of curvature of spherical surface, the diameters of the rings shall be large
and hence greater accuracy in their measurement shall be attained. Secondly, it will also justify the
assumption made in the derivation of the formula.

13. What will happen if front surface of the glass plate is silvered.
A The transmitted part of the light waves will also be reflected. Then due to the superposition of
reflected and transmitted wave system, the uniform illuminations will be observed.

14. What will happen if an air film is replaced by a transparent liquid of refractive index µ ?
A The diameter of the rings contracted by a factor of 1/ õ .

15. Should you not get two sets of rings in the case of sodium light as it also has two wavelengths?
A In the case of sodium light, the wavelengths of the two lines are nearly equal, they produce
superimposed system of rings and hence the ring system appears as due to one wavelength.

16. What are the uses of Newton's rings?


A The uses of Newton's rings are : (i) to determine the wavelength of monochromatic light, (ii) to
determine the refractive index of a liquid, (iii) to measure the radius of a spherical surface and (iv)
to measure expansion-coefficients of crystals.

17. Why the glass plate G is inclined at 45o to the. vertical?


A To make the light incident normally on the airfilm.
2 2

53
18. To determine the wavelength of sodium light, why the  4 pR ) is used
formula ( Dn  p  Dn
instead of the formula for the nth ring nD2  4nR .
A Due to dust particles or unclear surfaces of the lens and
plate the contact of the lens and plate at the centre may not
be perfect. The central spot although dark may not be the
zeroeth ring and therefore the order 'n' of the ring cannot be
known accurately. Since the difference of the squares of
the diameters do not require the separate values of the two
orders, the error due to imperfect contact at the centre can
be eliminated.
19. Out of the two given lenses, one plano-convex and the other bi-convex,
material and having same power), which one will be preferred?
A Bi-convex lens will be preferred because it will have a
larger radius of curvature than that of plano-convex lens.

54
20. How can you produce Newton's rings with bright centre in reflected light?
A It can be produced by introducing oil as thinfilm ( =1.57) in between the crown glass (µ =1.50)
lens and flint glass (µ =1.65) plate.

21. What is meant by interference?


A The phenomenon of non-uniform distribution of energy in the medium due to superposition of two
light waves is called interference of light.

22. What is the main condition to produce interference of light?


A The two sources of light must be conerent sources.

55
2. DETERMINATION OF WAVELENGTH - DIFFRACTION GRATING
(NORMAL INCIDENCE)

1. What is meant by a normal spectrum?


A It is the spectrum in which the angular separation is directly proportional to the difference in
the wavelength.

2. How many types of spectra do you know?


A Two types of spectra: (i) emission spectra and (ii) absorption spectra.

3. How do you classify emission spectra?


A (i) Line spectrum, (ii) Band spectrum and (iii) Continuous spectrum

4. How do you define grating element?


A Grating element is defined as the distance between the centres of any two successive ruled lines.

5. What do you mean by a plane transmission diffraction grating?


A A diffraction grating is an optically flat glass plate on which a large number of equidistant parallel
ruled lines are drawn. The light cannot pass through the ruled lines while the spacing between
them is transparent to the light. Hence, a diffraction grating is equivalent to a system of
combination of N number of slits placed parallel to each other.

6. Is it possible for you to get third order spectrum?


A No, it is not possible.

7. Explain how to transmission grating is constructed?


A The gratings are made by ruling equidistant parallel lines on an optically transparent glass with
the help of a precision machine. Rulings are made by using a sharp diamond point.

8. Are you using original grating in your experiment?


A No, it is not original grating. It is a replica of the grating.

9. What is a grating replica?


A Grating replica is a photographic reproduction or a copy of the original grating. A thin layer of
collodion solution is poured uniformly over the original grating surface and the solution is
allowed to dry to form a strong collodion film. This film is then removed from the grating surface
and the impressions of the rulings of original grating are preserved by mounting the collodion film
between glass plates.

10. Does the performance of grating replica is same as the original grating?
A No. Due to involvement of distortion and shrinkage in its making, grating replica does not perform
exactly as the original grating.

56
11. Why replica grating is being used if its performance is poor in comparison of original
grating? A Due to complicated and expensive process in manufacturing of the original grating,
replica grating is preferred in general use. The cost of replica grating is very less compared to that of an
original
grating.

12. What are the requisites of a good grating?


A A good quality grating requires the following properties—
(i) Lines should be exactly similar in form and parallel to each other.
(ii) The lines over the whole ruled surface should be as equally spaced as possibly.
(iii) The number of lines on the grating surface should be very large.

13. How do you find percentage error?


A.

Percentage error =

14. What will be nature of the grating spectra when monochromatic light falls normally on it?
A When monochromatic light falls normally on the grating, the zero order image is formed in the
direction of incidient light consisting of maxima and minima on either side of it.

15. Why does the separation of the spectral lines are not same in different orders of the spectra?
A This is due to the dispersive power of the grating which increases with increases in the order of the
spectrum. The spectra lines are more separated in the higher orders than the lower orders.

57
16. Is it necessary to set the rules surface of the g⎝ rating facing towards the
telescope?Ex⎠plain.
A Yes, it is necessary to set the grating with rules surface facing the telescope to
get the actual angle of diffraction. If the lines are facing towards the
collimator then after diffraction from the lines refraction also takes place in
the thick glass plate. Due to this refraction of the diffracted light the
measured angle will not be the actual angle of diffraction.

17. What is the use of collimator?


A The collimator is used to obtain a parallel beam of light from a given source.

18. Define least count?


A Least Count The minimum measurement that can be made by using a
particular instrument is known as its least count.

19. What is the main difference between a telescope and a microscope?


A A Telescope is an optical instrument used to obtain a magnified and clear
image of a very distance object. A Microscope is an optical instrument used
to magnify the image of a very small object placed near it.

58
3. DETERMINATION OF WAVELENGTH OF A
SEMICONDUCTOR LASER

1. What is meant by LASER?


A Laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Laser light is
highly monochromatic, coherent, directional and intense. These properties differentiate laser from
ordinary light.
2. What is Coherence?
A Two waves are said to be coherent if they have a constant phase relation or predictable amplitude
relation between them. It they have this constant phase relation at every point is space, they are
said to be spatially coherent. If they have the constant phase relation at every time, they are said
to have temporal coherence. Usually, waves sampled from two portions of the same wavefront∆
are coherent. Laser radiation is highly coherent.
3. Why are laser rays harmful?
A Laser light is highly directional, has very little divergence. Hence, all the power of the radiation is
focused in a very small solid angle. This gives laser light very high intensity (power per unit area
is very high), which in turn can make them harmful.
4. Explain why ordinary light spreads while laser does not?
A Laser is said to be highly collimated - i.e. it has very little spread. In a collimated beam, waves are
nearly parallel to each other. Laser light is produced by several reflections between two perfectly
parallel mirrors in the optical resonance cavity. This constrains the stimulated emitted photons to
form near parallel oscillations within the cavity during the process of multiple reflections. Hence,
when the laser beam emerges, it has photons already collimated with each other. Typical
divergence of laser is of the order of radians. Ordinary light on the other hand comes from
incoherent atomic sources and the waves therefore disperse in all directions.

59
5. What is the line width of a laser?
A Line width is also called as the spectral width. It is the frequency spread Δv of a . It is
spectral line
a measure of monochromaticity of a light source. Typical white light source has Δv ≈300 nm
while
laser has typical Δv ≈0.001 nm.

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4. DETERMINATION OF NUMERICAL APERTURE (NA)
AND LOSS IN AN OPTICAL FIBER

1. What are the basic parts of an optical fiber?


A The fiber consists of (i) Core (ii) Cladding (iii) Buffer jacket to strengthen and protect the fiber
(iv) Protective outer jacket.

2. What possible materials are used for the core and the cladding?
A The core must always have a refractive index higher than the cladding to enable total
internal reflection. Core and cladding are usually made out of glasses (SiO2 , GeO2 ) and
plastics.

3. Explain the principle of light propagation through a fiber?


A The basic principle is that of total internal reflection at the core-cladding boundary. When the light is
launched within the acceptance cone, it suffers multiple internal reflections to finally reach the other
end of the fiber. This is because this angle of incidence makes the light incident at critical angle or
less on the core-cladding interface. If the light is launched at greater than the acceptance angle, it
will be incident at an angle greater than critical angle at the core cladding interface and does not
undergo multiple reflections.

4. What is meant by NA of an optical fiber and what are its units?


A NA stands for Numerical Aperture. It is defined as the light gathering capacity of the fiber
and is given by :
2 2
n1  n 2
NA  sin(i ) 
no
Here,  i is the acceptance angle, n0 is the refractive index of launching medium, n1 and n2 are the
refractive indices of the core and the cladding respectively. Since it is a ratio of refractive indices,
it has no units.

5. What is meant by the acceptance angle of a fiber?


A When light is launched at the entrance of the fiber, only the rays that make an angle greater than
the critical angle at the core-cladding interface will undergo multiple reflections by total internal
reflection and propagate inside the core. The other rays are refracted to the cladding and lost.
Acceptance angle is the maximum launch angle at the fiber entrance which will enable total
internal reflection at the core-cladding boundary.

6. What is the principle of total internal reflection?


A When light is incident on a rarer medium from a denser medium at a perticular critical angle ( θ c)
or
any angle of incidence θ>θc , it gets totally reflected back into the incident medium. This
phenomenon
is called the total internal reflection. At the critical angle of incidence, the refracted ray grazes the
interface - i.e. the angle of refraction is 900.
7. What are the applications of Fiber optics?
A Fiber optics are extensively used in (i) Communications (Telecommunications, LAN etc.) (ii)
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Medicine (Endoscopy, surgery etc.) and (iii) sensors (pressure, displancement, temperature, flow-
rates etc.)

8. Define attenuation?
A Attenuation is the loss of input power inside the optical fiber. It is a function of fiber material,
wavelength of light and length of fiber.

9. What are the sources of attenuation is an optical fiber?


A (i) Scattering losses - these are mainly caused due to insomogeneities and fluctuations in the
refractive indices of glasses. (ii) Absorption losses - mainly of three types. They are UV absorption,
IR absorption and Ion resonance absorption. UV absorption in Si takes place around 0.14µm. IR
absorption shows peaks at 8 µm while there are minor peaks at 3.2, 3.8 and 4.4 µm. Ion
resonance absorption
is mainly by -OH- absorption at 0.95, 1.25 and 1.39 µm . (iii) Bending losses. These occur
whenever
there is a deviation of the fiber from a straight line configuration. Bends with radius of curvature
of fiber and results in heavy losses.

10. How do you differentiate (i)dB (ii) dBm (iii) dBi ?


A dB is the typical difference of two signal levels on a logarithmic scale. Hence, doubling (or halving)
the
power level adds (or substracts) 3dB to the power level. Similarly a 10dB loss (or gain) will correspond
to a tenfold increase (or decrease) in the signal level dBm is dB milliwatt. It is a signal strength or
power level 0 dBm is defined as 1 mW power terminating into a load like an antenna. Since these are
also measured on the logarithmic scales, 15 dbm is 32 m W, 21dbm is125mW, 24 dbm is 250 mW.
dBi is the gain over a theoretical istropic point source. Gains or losses in the microwave region are
typically given in this unit.

11. What is the principle of LED?


A LED stands for Light Emitting Diode. Most LEDs are made out of diodes of doped Aluminum-
Gallium- Arsenide (AlGaAs) compound semiconductor. When the diode is forward biased,
electrons move across the barrier and fall into the holes on the p-type side. This involves the
falling of the electrons from the CB to lower orbital, hence releasing photons of energy. In normal
Si diodes, these photons have too low a frequency (usually in IR region- used in remote controls)
and cannot be seen by the human eye. But in diodes made out of AlGaAs compound, the emitted
photons have frequency in visible region. This is because in AlGaAs diodes, the energy gaps are
much higher than in Si diodes. The Visible LED diode is housed in special polished plastic bulbs
that ensures most of the photons emitted are ejected out and no absorbed by the semiconductor.

12. What is an optical fibre?


A It is hair thin transparent material used for the loss less propagation of light.

13. Define critical angle?


A When a light ray is moving from denser medium to raser medium, at a particular angle of
incidence.
The angle of refraction is 900. The corresponding angle is called critical angle.

62
5. DETERMINATION OF WIDTH OF A SINGLE SLIT BY DIFFRACTION
1. What is diffraction?
A Bending of light ray around the edges of a slit or corners of an obstacle is known as diffraction.
2. What is the condition for diffraction?
A Where d - width of the slit
λ- wavelength of light
3. What are the differences between interference and diffraction ?
A DIFFRACTION INTERFERENCE
1. Single source 1. Two or more descrete sources
2. Fringe width never equal 2. May / may not be equal
3. Minima not of zero intensity 3. May / may not be of zero intensity
4. Maxima are not of uniform intensity 4. same intensity
5. Coherence by division of wavefront 5. By division of wave fronts or division of amplitude
4. Define Huygen's principle?
A Every point on the primary wavefront acts like a source for secondary waves.
5.State the principle for single slit diffraction experiment?
A Nα sinθ
λ- wavelength of light
e=slit width
θ=diffraction angle
n=order of maxima

63
64
6. How does the diffraction angle depend on wavelength of light?
A. λαesinθ
λ increases =>θ increases
λ decreases=> θ decreases
for the given constant e, n

65
7. What is the diffraction pattern observed for white light ?
A Central maxima is white followed by a group of spectras on either sides of it with
violet fringe nearer to central maxima & red fringe further from central maxima in every
spectra (n)
8. List out few of the applications?
A Wavelength of unknown source can be determined accurately, used for spectral studies since angular
dispersion is greater when compared to that of prism

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6. DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC ROTATION OF
GLUCOSE SOLUTION USING POLARIMETER

1. What is specific rotation?


A. Specific rotation of a substance is defined as the rotation produced by 1 decimeter length of
a substance when its concentration is 1 g / cm3.

2. What are you determining in this experiment?


A. The specific rotation of cane sugar solution (or) Glucose Solution

3. What is the unit of specific rotation?


A. The unit of specific rotation is degree / (decimeter -( g / cc)).

4. What does Polarisation of light tell about the nature of light?


A. Light waves are transverse in nature.

5. How does polarised light differ from ordinary light?


A. The ordinary light is symmetrical about the direction of propagation whereas the polarised light
is not symmetrical about the direction of propagation.

6. Does specific rotation depend upon temperature?


A. Yes, specific rotation depends upon temperature

7. What is polarimeter?
A. It is an instrument used for measuring the specific rotation of an optically active substance.

8. What are the essential parts of a polarimeter?


A. A polariser, an analyser and a polarimeter tube.

67
9. Why do you use sodium light in half shade polarimeter?
A. The half shade polarimeter introduces a path difference /2 between the ordinary and extraor-
of
dinary rays for a particular wavelenght for which it is designed. This matches with the
wavelength of sodium light.

10. What is the value of specific rotation of cane sugar?


A. The specific rotation of cane sugar is + 66.5o at 20oC.

11. What do you understand by optical rotation?


A. The property of rotating the plane of polarisation of light by certain substance is known as
optical rotation or optical activity. When plane polarised light is passed through such
substances, they rotate the plane of polarisation of light through a certain angle.

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12. What are optically active substances?
A.The substances which exhibit the phenomenon of optical activity are known as optically active
substance. Optically active substances are mainly of two types.
i. Dextro-rotatory or Right handed (Examples: canesugar, sugar solution, glucose, tartaric acid,
camphor etc.)
ii. Leavo-rotatory or Left handed (Examples. Fruit sugar, fructose, nicotine, turpentine etc.)

13. What do you mean by plane of polarisation?


A.A plane containing the directon of propagation of light but containing no vibrations is called the
plane of polarisation.
14. What are the different factors on which the angle of θ of plane of polarisation
rotation depends?
A.It depends upon the following factors
i. Length (l) of the optically active substance traversed (θα l )
ii. Concentration of the solution (θαc )

iii. Wavelength of light used(θα1/λ2)


iv. Temperature of the substance.

15. What is the origin of optical rotation?


A It is due to i) crystalline arrangement in inorganic crystals and ii) molecular structure in liquids and
solutions

16. What is the use of introducing half shade or bi-quartz device in the polarimeter?
A.It increases the sensitivity of the polarimeter considerably.

17. What is bi-quartz polarimeter?


A.It is same as half shade device with the difference that half shade device is replaced by a bi-
quartz device. In polarimeter white light is used instead of sodium light.

Table A : Specific rotation


Optically active substance Solvent Specific rotation (dm)-1 (g/cc)-1
Cane-sugar Water +66.5o
Glucose Water +52o
Fructose Water -91o
Camphor Alcohol +41o
Turpentine Pure -37o
Nicotine Pure -122o
7. CHARATERISTICS OF SOLAR CELL

1. What is a solar cell?


A Solar cell is a collection of p-n junctions.
2. What is the principle of a Solar Cell?
A The Solar Cell is a p-n junction that works on the principle of photovoltaic effect.
3. Define Photovoltaic effect?
A The p-n junction absorbs the light energy incident on it and this creates and electronhole pair. The
movement of the electron-hole pairs creates current which is measured across a load resistor
4. What are the (i) Dark Current (ii) Open Circuit Voltage (Voc) and (iii) Short circuit current (Isc)?
A Dark current is the current measured across the solar cell without any light shining on it. When light
is incident on the solar cell, the voltage measured across the solar cell without any load attached will
be a maximum. This is a maximum because without any load, electrons and holes will accumulate
at the two ends of the p-n junctions. This voltage is called open circuit voltage. When a minimum
load is attached across the solar cell, there will be voltage drop across the load. But if the load is
a minimum, then maximum current will pass through the load. This current is called the short
circuit current. The voltage is minimum at this point.
5. What is the direction of current in solar cells?
A Without any load, the dark current and diode saturation current in a solar cell are due to the
minority carriers. However, when the light shines on the cell, majority carriers create a current
that is opposite to the direction of current due to the minority carriers.
6. How do you connect the ammeter and voltmeter in the circuit?
A Ammeter has very low internal resistance and should therefore be connected in siries. Voltmeter
has a very high internal resistance and must therefore be connected in parellel.
7. What is meant by the Fill factor of the Solar cell?
A Fill factor is the maximum extractable power of the solar cell that can be used.

8. What is the efficiency η (eta) of the solar cell?


A Efficiency is the ratio of power output per unit area to the power input per unit area. Most
commercial solar cells have efficiency in the region of 10-25 percent.
9. What applications does a solar cell have?
A Solar cells are used for domestic lighting purposes, streetlights, wristwatches, calculators etc.
They are also being extensively used to power space shuttles and modules.
10. What is the nature of current in the solar cell?
A It is reverse bias current.
11. What materials are used for the preparation of solar cells?
A Silicon, Gallium, Arsenide and Cadmium sulphide.
8. CHARACTERISTICS OF p-n JUNCTION DIODE

1. What are intrinsic semiconductors?


A Intrinsic semiconductors are undoped semiconductors. In these the number of electrons in the CB
equal the number of holes in the VB. Both electrons and holes are produced by thermal activation.
Pure Ge and Si are examples. They may have defects, but do not have impurity type of
imperfections.

2. What are extrinsic semiconductors?


A Extrinsic semiconductors are bosically doped semiconductors. The impurities contribute extra
charge carriers for conduction. Hence, in an n-type semiconductor, the number of electrons in the
CB exceed the number of holes in VB, making electrons the majority carriers. For p-type, number
of holes in VB exceed the number of electrons in CB making holes the majority carriers.

3. What material should be added to make an n-type extrinsic semiconductor?


A Doping atoms are called as DONOR impurities here because they are Group V pentavalent atoms
like P, As, Sb etc. Four valence electrons of the pentavalent atom forms for covalent bonds with
adjacent Si atoms. The fifth one is the extra electron contributed by the impurity.

4. What material should be added to make a p-type extrinsic semiconductor?


A Here, the doping atoms are called as ACCEPTOR impurities because they are group III trivalent
atoms like B, Ga, In etc. The three electrons form three covalent bonds with three neighbouring Si
atoms. There is high electropositivity where the fourth bond ought to be. This region therefore
traps any nearby electron, thus creating a hole.

5. How does the resistivity of a semiconductor depend on temperature?


A Higher the temperature, greater will be the number of electrons excited into the CB from VB.
Hence in a semiconductor, higher temperature makes resistivity go lower. It may be noted that in
metals, it is exactly the reverse - i.e. resistivity increases with temperature.

6. What is the depletion layer and how is it formed?


A When a p- type and an n- type semiconductor are brought together, due to thermal vibrations, holes
from p-type diffuse into the n-type material and vice-versa. However, the crossed carriers are now
in regions where they are surrounded by carriers of opposite sign. Therefore, rapid recombination
takes place at the junction, which is soon devoid of holes and electrons. This region effectively
forms an junction barrier or the potential barrier and is called the depletion layer.

7. What is forward bias? Explain the current flow in forward bias?


A Connecting the p-type to the positive termial and n-type to negative terminal of the external battery
is forward bias. Here, a large current flows across the barrier. Typical current is in units of mA.
8. What is reverse bias? Explain the current flow in the reverse bias?
A The p-type is connected to the negative termial and n-type to the positive termial. This expands
the depletion layer hence preventing the movment of charge carriers from crossing the boundary.
Very
little current flows through the junction now - µ A(micro Ampere). Diodes are typically
typically in used as rectifiers when in reverse bias.

9. What is breakdown voltage?


A Diodes in reverse bias make the junction resistance become very high, thus making practically
no current to flow across. However, at a particular reverse bias voltage, the external voltage
across the barrier is so large that it breaks the covalent bonds and suddenly, there are plenty
of free charge carriers. At this stage, there is a sudden and huge rise in current that is flowing
in the circuit. The voltage at which this breakdown happens is called breakdown voltage. At
this stage, the diode is almost certainly destroyed.

10. What is the purpose of having resistance R in the circuit?


A Resistance R is present in the circuit to control the current flow in the circuit.

11. What are fermi energy and fermi levels?


A In case of a metal the highest filled energy state at 00k is called fermi energy and the energy
level corresponding to this energy is called fermi level.

- In case of semi conductors fermi level represents the average energy level. In case of
intrinsic semi conductor fermi level lies exactly in between th e bottom of the C.B. and top
of the V.B. In n-type fermi level will be just below the C.B. and in p-type it is just above the
V.B.
9. DETERMINATION OF PLANCK’S CONSTANT USING PHOTO-CELL

1. How is a photocell different from a photovoltaic cell?


A A photovoltaic cell is a p-n junction where current flows in the circuit due to light incident on a p-n
junction, thus creating electrons and holes that serve as charge carriers. A photocell operates on
the principle of photoelectric effect. Here, light is incident on a metal and this causes a valency
electron to be emitted from the atom. This electron serves as charge carrier.

2. What is the value and the units of Planck's constant? & define plank's constant.
A The energy associated with a photon is proportional to its frequency and the proportionality
constant
is called plank's constant ,

3. What are the wavelengths of green and blue filters?


A g  5645X10 10 m, b  5265 X 1010 m

4. What is the value of electron charge?


A e = 1.602 x 10-19 coulomb.

5. What is meant by threshold frequency?


A Threshold frequency v0 is the lowest frequency or the longest wavelength that permits electrons to
be ejected from the metal surface of the photo detector. At this frequency, ejected electrons have no
extra kinetic energy. The threshold frequency is closely related to the function of the metal.

6. What is meant by the work function?


A Work function is defined as the minimum energy required to initiate the photoelectric process in
metal. 0  hv0 .

7. What is stopping potential?


A Electrons emitted in the photoelectric process are accelerated towards the collector plate C, which
is connected to the positive terminal of a battery. The negative potential needed to be supplied to
this plate that can just stop the photoelectric current is called stopping potential. It is actually the
negative retarding potential between the electrode plates that can stop the most energetic electron
from reaching the collector plate C.

8. What are wavelengths of blue, green, red and yellow light?


A Red has frequency (430 - 480)Hz; and wavelength (625 - 700) nm. Blue frequency is (610 - 670)
Hz and wavelength (450 - 490) nm. Green frequency is (540 - 610) Hz and frequency is (490 -
560) nm. Yellow frequency is (510 - 540) Hz and wavelength is (560 - 590) nm.

9. What is photo electric effect?


A When light or electromagnetic radiation is incident on the surface of a metal, if the frequency of the
light is sufficiently high (greater than the work function of the metal) electrons are ejected from the
metal surface. This is called photoelectric effect.
10. Explain the principal of photo cell?
A If a +ve voltage is applied to the anode w.r.t. the cathode, when light is incident on the photo cell
the ejected electrons i.e. photo-electrons are collected by the anode and as a result a current
(photo current) flows.

11. What is photo electric equation? or Einstein's Equation ?


1 2
A hv  mv  
2
m - mass of the electron 9.10 X10 31
kg 
 - work function, v - frequency
V - Velocity of electron, h - plank's constant.

½ mv2 - is the K.E. associate with the ejected electrons.

12. What are the laws of photoelectric emission?


A 1. For every metal, there is a particular minimum frequency of the incident light, below which
there is no photo electric emission.
2. The strength of the photo electric current is directly proportional to the intensity of light
3. The velocity and hence the energy of the emitted photo electrons is independent of the intensity
of light and depends only on the frequency of the light and the nature of the metal.
13. For which material photo emission occurs in visible light?
A In case of alkalimetals, photo electric emission occurs under the action of visible light where
as Zn , cadmium, etc are sensitive to only U.V.light

10. STUDY OF TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF
DIELECTRIC CONSTANT OF A FERROELECTRIC

1. What is the difference b/w dielectric & insulator?


(or)
What is dielectric material give example?
A Dielectrics (or) ferroelectrics are specific electrical insulators which show spontaneous
polarisation

2. What is dielectric capacitor?


A It is a device to store electrical energy in the form of charges.

3. How capacitance can be increased?


A By using a dielectric material b/w the capacitor plates.

4. Give applications of dielectric?


A In capacitors to increase the capacitance, in insulation of wires & cables due to high electrical
resistivity and used in sensor devices (Strain guage) due to low dielectric losses.

5. What is dielectric loss?


A The dielectric loss may be defined as the loss of energy in the form of heat by a dielectric medium
due to internal friction developed in switching of di poles to their normal state under the action of
charging and discharging (or) under a.c. conditions

6. What is the unit capacitance? A


farad (F)

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11. DETERMINATION OF ENERGY GAP OF A SEMICONDUCTOR

1. What is p-n junction ?


A A p-type semiconductor is in contact with a n-type semiconductor, constitutes a junction known as
a p-n junction.
2. What are the positions of holes and electrons in the two semiconductors before contact?
A Each one is in equilibrium, i.e., the holes and electrons concentrations are constant and uniform
throughout the material.
3. What happens just after contact?
A Just after contact, majority holes from p-type diffuse into the n-type and majority electrons from n-
type diffuse into p-type material and depletion layer.
4. What is depletion layer?
A It is thin layer in which electron-hole recombination occurs.
5. What is the function of potential barrier?
A The function of potential barrier is to prevent flow of carriers.
6. What do you mean by energy band gap?
A It is the energy gap between the valence and conduction bands of the crystal.
7. Is the value of energy gap too large in semiconductors? A
No, it is not too large in semiconductors.
8. What is the position of this energy gap in insulators and conductors?
A In insulators, there is a large energy gap between valence and conduction bands, while in
conductors the valence and conduction bands overlap each other.
9. What is an intrinsic semiconductor?
A It is a pure semiconductor, like germanium and silicon.
10. What is an extrinsic semiconductor?
A Actually an intrinsic semiconductor has small electrical conductivity. To increase this conductivity,
some impurity is added in it, and then it becomes an extrinsic semiconductor.
11. Why the reverse saturation current (Is) arise?
A It is due to the diffusion of minority charge carriers.
12. Is the reverse saturation current depends on temperature
why? A Yes. Diffusion is temperature dependent.
13. Why the reverse bias be kept well below the break down voltage?
A Only below the break down voltage. Is is constant.
14. What is the value of band gap energy for Si & for Ge?
A For silicon it is 1.12V & for Germanium, it is 0.72V.

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12. STUDY OF THERMISTOR CHARACTERISTICS

1. What is the nature of material of thermistor ?


It is a temperature sensing element composed of sintered semiconductor material which exhibits a
large change in resistance proportional to a small change in temperature.

2. What are the different types of thermistor?


They are classified as NTC & PTC
NTC : Negative temp. coef. Thermistors show decrease in R (Resistance) with increase in T (Tem-
perature)
PTC : Positive temp. coeff. thermistors show increase in Resistance with increase in Temperature.

3. List out the applications of thermistors?


They are used as heating elements in small temperature controlled ovens, resistance thermometers,
inrush-current limiting devices, modern digital thermostats.

4. Why observe 'R' during cooling only?


Because change in temperature takes place gradually.

5. What is the use of oil bath?


To increase the response time of thermistor.

6. What are the constants of the thermistor?


Resistance of thermistor at a given temperature is given by R(T) = A.e.B/T
A, B constants of Thermistor
when T is infinity, R (T) = A.e0 = A1 = A
B /T R
'A' is the resistance of the thermistor at a very high temperature. Qe 
A

B is the temperature at which resistance of the thermistor is e times A (and is maximum)

7. What is the principle of Wheatstone's bridge ?


In  network consisting of four resistances, a galvanometer and power supply as shown in the
figure.

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13.CRO VIVA-VOCE

Q1: What are the uses of CRO?


A: Calibrate an oscillator, Comp are two frequency generators, Phase shift determination b/w V and I
in any CRT circuit, study Beats phenomenon, study Lisajjous figures.
Q2: For what electron gun assembly is provided in a CRT?
A: To provide a narrow& sharply focused electron beam
Q3: What is meant by deflection sensitivity of a CRO?
A: Vertical deflection of the beam on the screen per unit deflecting voltage
Q4: What is the deflection factor of a CRO?
A: Reciprocal of deflection sensitivity.
Q5: What is a CRO?
A: CRO is an electronic device with a CRT as its main component & other associated circuits
consisting of a power supply unit, a saw-tooth wave generator, horizontal & vertical amplifiers.
Q6: What is a function generator?
A: It is a signal source that has capability of producing different types of waveforms & frequencies
Q7: How the frequency of a function generator is controlled?
A: By varying the magnitude of current that drives the integrator
Q8: What is a regulated power supply?
A: An electronic circuit. Which provide constant DC voltage of predetermined value across load
terminals, which is independent of variations in load current.
Q9: What are the basic components of a regulated power
supply? A: A transformer, rectifier circuit, filter, voltage
regulator
Q10: What is the need of voltage regulators?
A: To keep output voltage constant against variations in load current & in AC mains voltage.
Q11. Define amplitude?
A: The maximum displacement of a particle (vibration) from its mean position is called amplitude.
Q12. Define frequency?
A: The number of vibrations/oscillations per unit time is called frequency. f=1/T hertz.
Q13. Define time period?
A: Time taken for one complete cycle/vibration is called time period. T=1/f second.

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