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# Circuits 2

TOPIC TITLE: TRANSIENTS

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES:

At the end of the topic session, the students should be able to:

1. understand the objectives and significance of Circuits 2 course,
2. recall the behavior of transient systems,
3. recall the concept of first order transient response,
4. analyze RC transient responses circuit problems,
5. analyze RL transient responses,
6. explain the concept of second order transient response,
7. analyze other types of network responses, and
8. solve illustrative problems.

MATERIALS/EQUIPMENT:

o OHP
o File/s (Transients)
· 01 Presentation.pdf
· 01 Quiz1.pdf
· 01 Homework.pdf

TOPIC PREPARATION:

o Prepare the slides (23 slides) to be presented in the class.
o Prepare the OHP for showing the slide acetates to the class
o Prepare the corrected preliminary exam papers to be returned to
the students

PRESENTATION OVERVIEW:

A. Introduction 10 min
B. Instructional Input
Transient Response 160 min
a. Explain objectives and significance of Circuits 2
course.
b. Demonstrate the behavior of transient systems
c. Discuss the concepts of first order transient
response
d. Discuss the concepts of second order transient
response
e. Discuss and solve problems regarding RC transient
responses
f. Discuss problems for RL transient responses
g. Explain the concepts of second order transient
response
h. Explain how to analyze different types of network
responses
i. Enhance student's understanding by asking them to
solve problems
C. Generalization 10 min
D. Application 180 min
Total duration 360 min

Transients *Property of STI
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Show Slide 1 of 23 01 Presentation. B. Start the session by asking the students about their knowledge on capacitors and inductors. Transients * Property of STI Page 1 of 23 Figure 1. 2. Circuits 2 TOPIC PRESENTATION: A. Introduction 1. c Any voltage or current in such a circuit is order differential equation the solution to a 1st order differential equation.pdf. This will serve as a sort of review for the students on the last part of circuits 1. Instructional Input First-Order Circuits Slide 1 1. The energy stored in the capacitor can be computed as Transients *Property of STI Page 2 of 17 . Note: Always check the attendance of the class before the start of each session. c Any circuit with a single energy storage element. Ideal Linear Capacitor dq dv i(t ) = =c dt dt Energy stored 1 w = ò pdt = ò cvdv = cv 2 2 A capacitor is an energy storage device ® memory device. an arbitrary number of sources and an arbitrary number of resistors is a First-Order RC Circuits circuit of order 1. Circuits 2 First Order Transients Any circuit with a single energy storage element. A capacitor is an energy storage device and may also be classified as a memory device because it can store and maintain voltage levels. an arbitrary number of sources and an arbitrary number of resistors is a Any voltage or current in such a circuit is the solution to a 1st circuit of order 1. Ask the students about the differences between AC and DC systems. Ask them about the time constants and system responses. Have a review first on the first order transient response systems. This is the same as the capacitance multiplied by the change in voltage over change in time.1 Capacitor Characteristics The capacitance is equal to the product of the charge (q) and the voltage (v) across it dq dv i(t ) = =c dt dt The current in the circuit is the change in charge over change in time.

They are considered analog signals or continuous-time signals.vc ic = R Switch is thrown to 1 KVL around the loop: - ic R + vC = E + . The source and resistor may be equivalent to a circuit with many resistors and sources. Using KVL. Circuits 2 ͳ ‫ ݓ‬ൌ න ‫ ݐ݀݌‬ൌ න ܿ‫ ݒ݀ݒ‬ൌ ܿ‫ʹ ݒ‬ ʹ Slide 2 2. one resistor R and the voltage source E and a switch K. Discuss briefly first order RC circuit. The voltages vs(t).)= 0 t t . Circuits 2 Transient Response of RC Circuits E .2 First order RC circuit The circuit shows a first order RC circuit. This is considered a first order RC circuit because it has one capacitor and one resistor. Slide 3 3. R R 5W 5W R C dvc · o 2 C R + vc = E dt K t o - vC = Ae +E  1 RC E Initial condition vC (0+ ) =v C (0. - vC = E (1 .e RC ) = E (1 . Circuits 2 First-Order RC Circuits vr(t) + - R + + vc(t) vs(t) C - - c One capacitor and one resistor c The source and resistor may be equivalent to a circuit with many resistors and sources. Show Slide 2. Transients * Property of STI Page 2 of 23 Figure 1. The switch connects the voltage source to the RC circuit.e t ) dvc E -tt t = RC ic = C = e Called time constant dt R Transients * Property of STI Figure 1.3 First order RC circuit with switch K Page 3 of 23 Consider the circuit shown above having one capacitor C. the voltage equation on the loop is given by ic R + vC = E Transients *Property of STI Page 3 of 17 . vr(t) and vc(t) varies with time.. Show Slide 3. Explain the time response of a first order RC circuit.

.3 we have: + - t = RC . Circuits 2 Thus.1mF 5V SEL>> RC0V 0s 1ms 2ms 3ms Transients * Property of STI V(2) Page 4 of 23 Figure 1.e t ) t dv E - ic = C c = et dt R t is called the time constant of the circuit t = RC Slide 4 4.4 First order RC circuit with switch K Transients *Property of STI Page 4 of 17 .e t ) 2 · o K o  1 R=2k E C=0. the current can be solved as E .vc ic = The voltage equation becomes R dvc C R + vc = E dt Assume that there is no initial charge across the capacitor vC (0+ ) =vC (0.)= 0 Solving for Vc gives us t - vC = Ae RC +E Simplifying Vc and Ic gives t t . Continue discussion on first order RC circuit regarding time constants. Show Slide 4. Circuits 2 Time Constant Given the same circuit as with Figure 1.e RC ) = E (1 . R R 5W 5W R C t - vC = E (1 . - vC = E (1 .

Show Slide 5. This can be seen as the intersection of the black curve and the blue dashed line in the figure.5 Transient response of an RC circuit The blue line shows the time constant of an RC circuit. Explain to the class first order RL circuits. Circuits 2 Thus the time constant formula t = RC The charge of the capacitor at any time t can be computed as t - vC = E (1 . This is the time it takes for the capacitor to charge up to 63.2% of its final value. The source and resistor may be equivalent to a circuit with many resistors and sources.6 Circuit with an Inductor A first order RL circuit is described by having one inductor and one resistor. Transients *Property of STI Page 5 of 17 . Transients * Property of STI Page 5 of 23 Figure 1.6: Ideal Linear Inductor dy di (t ) v (t ) = =L i(t) + dt dt t The 1 L -ò¥ rest L v(t) i (t ) = v( x)dx of the circuit - di P = iv = Li dt Energy stored: 1 wL (t ) = Li2 (t ) 2 c One inductor and one resistor c The source and resistor may be equivalent to a circuit with many resistors and sources. The full charge of the capacitor will be equal to the source voltage E. Circuits 2 Consider the circuit with an inductor shown in Figure 1.e ) t Assuming R = 2kΩ and C = 0.1mF Figure 1. Slide 5 5.

Circuits 2 The voltage across the inductor is given by dy di(t ) v(t ) = =L dt dt And the current through an inductor is given by t 1 L -ò¥ i (t ) = v( x)dx So the power consumed by the inductor is given by di P = iv = Li dt The energy stored in the inductor can be computed as 1 wL (t ) = Li 2 (t ) 2 Slide 6 6. Continue discussion on first order RL circuit regarding transient response. i(o+ ) = i(o.7 RL circuit The voltage across the inductor is given by di vL = L dt Using KVL.e -t /t ) L R R ® vR = iR = E (1 . the loop voltage equation is now given by iR + vL = E Transients *Property of STI Page 6 of 17 .t ®i = (1 .R R 5W 5W R iR + vL = E L di 2 E=L + iR · o dt K Initial condition o  1 t = 0.e -t /t ) t = L/ R time constant di vL = L = Ee -t /t dt Transients * Property of STI Page 6 of 23 Figure 1. Show Slide 6.e ) = (1 . Circuits 2 Transient Response of RL Consider the RL circuit shown in Figure 1.) = 0 E R E E .7: Circuits di vL = L dt Switch to 1 KVL around the loop: + - -.

The voltage equation on the circuit becomes di L + iR = 0 dt di R = .) = 0 R E . i0 = R E . i(o+ ) = i(o.dt i L 2 R · o . t = L/R is the time constant for an RL circuit Slide 7 7. Circuits 2 Considering the RL circuit shown Transient Response of RL Circuits Switch to 2 di + - -.R R 5W 5W L + iR = 0 dt R L di R = .t ®i = Ae L Transients *Property of STI Page 7 of 17 . Circuits 2 or di E=L + iR dt Assuming there is no initial charge on the inductor t = 0.e L ) = (1 .e -t /t ) di vL = L = Ee -t /t dt The voltage across the inductor at any time t can be computed using the equations above.RL t E -t /t i= e = e R R Transients * Property of STI Page 7 of 23 Figure 1.t ® i = Ae L K o  1 Initial condition E E t = 0. this is done by connecting the switch to 2 instead of 1. Show Slide 7.e -t /t ) R R ® vR = iR = E (1 .dt i L R .t E ® i = (1 .8 RL circuit When the voltage source E is disconnected from the circuit. Derive the equation for first order transient response.

i0 = R Then the current in the circuit at any time t can be computed as E .R R 5W 5W R L 2 2.0mA 2.0mA charging response of the RL circuit as shown below + - -.0mA SEL>> 0A 0s 1ms 2ms 3ms 4ms Transients * Property of STI Page 8 of 23 2.RL t E -t /t i= e = e R R Slide 8 8. Continue discussion on first order RL circuit regarding transient response. Circuits 2 Transient Response of RL Altering the connection of the switch to 1 and 2 will give a Circuits charging and discharging response of the RL circuit the 4.0mA · o K o 0A 0s 1ms 2ms 3ms 4ms  1 E 4.0mA 0A 0s 1ms 2ms 3ms 4ms Transients *Property of STI Page 8 of 17 . Show Slide 8. Circuits 2 Using the initial condition E t = 0.0mA 4.

Circuits 2 Summary Time Constants: • For an RC circuit.0mA SEL>> 0A 0s 1ms 2ms 3ms 4ms Slide 9 9.7% of its initial value Transients * Property of STI Page 9 of 23 Transients *Property of STI Page 9 of 17 . t = RC The Time Constant • For an RL circuit. Show Slide 9.0mA 2. the discharge response of the RL circuit is shown below 4. Show to the class a short summary of the first order RC and RL circuits. t is the amount of time necessary for an exponential to decay to 36. Circuits 2 Likewise. t is the amount of time necessary • for an exponential to decay to 36. t = L/R • -1/t is the initial slope of an exponential with an initial value of 1 • -1/t is the initial slope of an exponential with an initial Also. t = L/R • For an RC circuit.7% of its value of 1 initial value • Also. t = RC • For an RL circuit.

inductor current – IL(t). an arbitrary number of sources. Transients * Property of STI Figure 1. an arbitrary number of sources. Transients * Property of STI Page 11 of 23 Slide 12 Consider the RLC circuit shown below Circuits 2 A 2nd Order RLC Circuit i (t) R + vs(t) C - L Application: Filters q A bandpass filter such as the IF amp for the AM radio. and an arbitrary number of resistors is a circuit of order 2. Show Slides 11-12. Circuits 2 10. IL(t). only two types of quantities will remain the same as before the change. Show Slide 10. Circuits 2 2nd Order Circuits Any circuit with a single capacitor. inductor. Transients * Property of STI Page 10 of 23 Second-Order Circuits Slide 11 1. Circuits 2 How to determine initial conditions for a transient circuit? Summary When a sudden change occurs. Start now the discussion on second order RLC circuits. q A lowpass filter with a sharper cutoff than can be obtained with an RC circuit. a single inductor. order differential equation. only two types of quantities will remain the same as before the change.9 RLC circuit Page 12 of 23 Transients *Property of STI Page 10 of 17 . a single resistors is a circuit of order 2. inductor current – Vc(t). and an arbitrary number of c Any circuit with a single capacitor. capacitor voltage conditions of the circuit after change. c Any voltage or current in such a circuit is Any voltage or current in such a circuit is the solution to a 2nd the solution to a 2nd order differential equation. Find these two types of the values before the change and use them as the initial conditions of the circuit after change. • How to determine initial conditions for a transient circuit. When a sudden change occurs. Continue with the summary of the first order RC and Slide 10 RL circuits. capacitor voltage • Find these two types of the values before the change and use them as the initial Vc(t).

inductor and capacitor has voltage drops represented as V r. the loop voltage equation becomes t 1 di(t ) Ri(t ) + ò i ( x)dx + L = vs (t ) C -¥ dt Eliminate the integral operation by differentiating all the elements of the equation will yield R di(t ) 1 d 2i(t ) 1 dvs (t ) + i(t ) + = L dt LC dt 2 L dt Transients *Property of STI Page 11 of 17 . a capacitor. +i (t) vr(t) - R + + vs(t) C vc(t) - vl(t) - . Some applications of a second order RLC circuit are as follows: q A bandpass filter such as the IF amp for the AM radio. a resistor and a voltage source. Explain to the class the derivation of the equation for the RLC circuit. inductor and capacitor. vr(t) + vc(t) + vl(t) = vs(t) Substituting the formulas for the individual voltage drops. q A lowpass filter with a sharper cutoff than can be obtained with an RC circuit. When you get the differential equation of the circuit. you will have a second order differential equation. Each electronic component. Slide 13 2. resistor. Vl and Vc. that’s why it’s considered as second order RLC circuit.10 RLC circuit A series RLC circuit is shown. The loop voltage equation of the circuit is given as the sum of the voltage drops on the resistor. The current flowing through the circuit is i(t). + L KVL around the loop: vr(t) + vc(t) + vl(t) = vs(t) t 1 di (t ) Ri (t ) + ò i( x)dx + L dt = vs (t ) C -¥ R di (t ) 1 d 2i (t ) 1 dvs (t ) + i (t ) + = L dt LC dt 2 L dt Transients * Property of STI Page 13 of 23 Figure 1. Show Slides 13-14. Circuits 2 This is a second order RLC circuit because it contains an inductor. Circuits 2 The Differential Equation Given the second order RLC circuit as shown below.

then xp(t) is sinusoidal. This is the reason why RLC circuits are called second order systems. c The particular solution xp(t) is usually a weighted sum of f(t) and its first and If f(t) is constant. then xp(t) is sinusoidal. Show Slides 16-17. then xp(t) is constant. dt dt x(t ) = x p (t ) + xc (t ) x(t ) = x p (t ) + xc (t ) Xp(t) is the particular solution (forced response) and Xc(t) is Transients * Property of STI Page 14 of 23 the complementary solution (natural response). then xp(t) is constant. Explain to the class the particular solution of the second order differential equation. s is a constant determined by the coefficients of the xc (t ) = Kest differential equation. second derivatives. Circuits 2 The differential equation shown above is a second order Slide 14 differential equation. c If f(t) is constant. Slide 15 3. Transients * Property of STI Page 15 of 23 Slide 16 4. Circuits 2 The Particular Solution The particular solution xp(t) is usually a weighted sum of f(t) and its first and second derivatives. Circuits 2 The Differential Equation The voltage and current in a second order circuit is the solution to a differential equation of the following form: The voltage and current in a second order circuit is the solution to a differential equation of the following form: d 2 x(t ) + 2a dx(t ) + w02 x(t ) = f (t ) d 2 x(t ) dx(t ) dt 2 dt 2 + 2a + w02 x(t ) = f (t ) Xp(t) is the particular solution (forced response) and Xc(t) is the complementary solution (natural response). d 2 Ke st dKe st + 2a + w02 Ke st = 0 dt 2 dt s 2 Kest + 2a sKest + w02 Kest = 0 d 2 Ke st dKe st s 2 + 2a s + w02 = 0 2 + 2a + w02 Kest = 0 dt dt Transients * Property of STI Page 16 of 23 s 2 Kest + 2a sKest + w02 Kest = 0 s 2 + 2a s + w02 = 0 Transients *Property of STI Page 12 of 17 . s is a constant determined by the coefficients of the differential equation. Circuits 2 The Complementary The complementary solution has the following form: Solution The complementary solution has the following form: xc (t ) = Kest K is a constant determined by initial conditions. K is a constant determined by initial conditions. Explain to the class the complementary solution of second order differential equation. Show Slide 15. If f(t) is sinusoidal. c If f(t) is sinusoidal.

Show Slide 18. s 2 + 2zw0 s + w02 = 0 xc (t ) = K1es1t + K2es2t a = zw0 xc (t ) = K1es1t + K2es2t s1 = -zw0 + w0 z 2 . Transients *Property of STI Page 13 of 17 .w0 z 2 .w0 z 2 . The damping ratio determines what type of solution we will get: q Exponentially decreasing (z >1) q Exponentially decreasing sinusoid (z < 1) The natural frequency is w0. Circuits 2 Damping Ratio and From the characteristics equations Natural Frequency a z = w0 s1 = -zw0 + w0 z 2 .1 s1 = -zw0 + w0 z 2 .1 Damping ratio s2 = -zw0 .1 c The damping ratio determines what type of s2 = -zw0 .w0 z 2 .1 solution we will get: Exponentially decreasing (z >1) q Exponentially decreasing sinusoid (z < q 1) Where c The natural frequency is w0 a q It determines how fast sinusoids wiggle. Explain to the class natural frequency and the damping ratio. z = w0 Transients * Property of STI Page 18 of 23 This is called the damping ratio.w0 z 2 . we a = zw0 need to solve the characteristic equation: c The characteristic equation has two roots- call them s1 and s2.1 s2 = -zw0 . It determines how fast sinusoids wiggle.1 s2 = -zw0 .1 s1 = -zw0 + w0 z 2 . Circuits 2 To find the complementary solution. we need to solve the Slide 17 characteristic equation: Circuits 2 The characteristic equation has two roots-call them s1 and Characteristic Equation s2.1 Transients * Property of STI Page 17 of 23 Slide 18 5. s 2 + 2zw0 s + w02 = 0 c To find the complementary solution.

5 0. Circuits 2 Overdamped : Real Unequal Roots Overdamped : Real Unequal Roots c If z > 1.6 0.00E-06 -0.5 0.8 0.8 0.1 -1.3 0.2 1 t t 0. Explain to the class the characteristics of Slide 19 overdamping.2 0.7 0.1 0 -0.6 i(t) 0. æç -Vw +w V 2 -1 ö÷ t æç -Vw -w V 2 -1 ö÷ t æç -Vw +w V 2 -1 ö÷ t æç -Vw -w V 2 -1 ö÷ t ic (t ) = K1e è + K 2eè 0 0 0 0 ø ø ic (t ) = K1e + K 2e 0 0 0 0 è ø è ø 1 0.2 0.6 0. s1 and s2 are real and not equal.9 0.00E-06 -1.7 0.3 0.8 Transients * Property of STI Page 19 of 23 0. Circuits 2 6.2 i(t) 0 0 -1.4 0. s1 and s2 are real and not equal.6 0.00E-06 t i(t) 0.1 0 -1. Show Slide 19.8 0.00E-06 -0.4 0.4 0.4 i(t) 0.2 0.2 t Transients *Property of STI Page 14 of 17 . c If z > 1.

8 0.6 -0.4 -0.8 -1 t Transients * Property of STI Page 20 of 23 xc (t ) = e-a t ( A1 cos wd t + A2 sin wd t ) 1 0. A setpoint is any value that the system response must go.8 0.2 i(t) 0 -0. Circuits 2 The system is overdamped because instead of going to s set point or a steady value.6 0.2 1. c Define the following constants: a = zw0 wd = w0 1 . c If z < 1.00E-05 -0. An overdamped system the system does not oscillate and returns to its equilibrium position without oscillating but at a slower rate than critically damped system.4 wd = w0 1 .4 -0. Transients *Property of STI Page 15 of 17 . Explain to the class the characteristics of underdamping systems.00E-05 3. Show Slide 20. s1 and s2 are complex.00E-05 -0.6 a = zw0 0.2 -0.8 -1 t This is a typical response of underdamp systems the system response oscillates from the positive system response to the negative system response. s1 and s2 are complex. the graph goes to zero.z 2 0.6 -0. Circuits 2 Underdamped: Complex Underdamped: Complex Roots Roots c If z < 1. meaning the damping goes to 100%.2 i(t) 0 -1. Normally it is not zero.4 0. Slide 20 7.z 2 c Define the following constants: xc (t ) = e -a t ( A1 cos wd t + A2 sin wd t ) 1 0.

Circuits 2 8. under damped. Show Slide 22. what are z and w0? d 2i(t ) R di(t ) 1 1 dvs (t ) 2 + + i(t ) = dt L dt LC L dt d 2 xc (t ) dx (t ) 2 + 2zw0 c + w02 xc (t ) = 0 dt dt 1 R R C w02 = . z = LC L 2 L Transients * Property of STI Page 22 of 23 For the example. Circuits 2 Example For the example. xc (t ) = K1e-Vw0t + K2te-Vw0t xc (t ) = K1e-Vw0t + K2te-Vw0t A critically damped system is one in which the system does not oscillate and returns to its equilibrium position without oscillating. 2zw0 = . After that. Show Slide 21. or critically damped? Transients *Property of STI Page 16 of 17 . what are z and w0? i (t) 10W d 2i(t ) R di(t ) 1 1 dvs (t ) + + + i(t ) = dt 2 L dt LC L dt 769p F .011 w0 = 2p455000 Is this system over damped. Transients * Property of STI Page 21 of 23 Slide 22 9. d 2 xc (t ) dx (t ) + 2zw0 c + w02 xc (t ) = 0 dt 2 dt 159m H 1 R R C w02 = . Explain to the class the characteristics of critically Slide 21 damped systems. s1 and s2 are real and equal. Explain the sample problem on system responses. z = LC L 2 L z = 0. n If z = 1. Circuits 2 Critically damped: Real Equal Roots Critically damped: Real Equal Roots n If z = 1. s1 and s2 are real and equal. 2zw0 = . discuss the solution.

D. (2007). Ask the students to show and discuss their solutions to their homeworks. W. Johnson. McGraw- Hill Johnson. McGraw Hill Irwin.6 c z = 0. Hayt.J.2 0. J. International Student Version. Electric circuit analysis. GENERALIZATION 1. REFERENCES: Siskind. D.00E-05 3.4 -0. C. Manila: AdU Zbar. (1974).pdf. John. Engineering Circuit Analysis.2 i(t) -1. Circuits 2 What will the current look like? Slide 23 Circuits 2 1 Example 0.H. Basic electricity. ask the students to perform the laboratory experiment. Ask them to gather all the materials and equipment that will be used in the experiment. direct and alternating current.4 0.6 -0. Using 01 Laboratory Exercise 1. Prentice-Hall Laboratory Manual & Workbook for EE Theory 2 Lab. Electrical Circuits. (2007). A text-lab manual (4th ed.6 0. D. & Wu. J.00E-05 -0.. P. C.8 -1 -1 t Transients * Property of STI Page 23 of 23 t C.011 c w0 = 2p455000 c Is this system over damped. 10th Edition. under 0. Engineering circuit analysis..8 -0. APPLICATION 1.2 1.8 0. Hilburn. Tell them to write their observations on the worksheet E. & Kemmerly. or critically damped? 0. (2011).4 damped.).. (2011).4 -0.00E-05 0 -0.2 i(t) c What will the current look like? 0 1 0.8 -0. Transients *Property of STI Page 17 of 17 .6 -0.