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Precast concrete segmental liners

Jon Hurt

Introduction to Segmental Linings

 Immediate support
 One-pass system
 High speed
 Factory quality
 Essentially watertight

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Grouted annulus Circumferential Radial joint joint Segment Bolt pocket Key .

Rectangular Lining 6 .

Rectangular Lining 7 .

Rectangular Lining 8 .

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Trapezoidal Lining 10 .

Rhomboidal Lining 11 .

Rhomboidal Lining 12 .

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Expanded Lining 14 .

Expanded (Wedgeblock) Lining 15 .

Hexagonal (Honeycomb) Lining 16 .

Hexagonal (Honeycomb) Lining 17 .

Tapered Linings  Taper can be applied to any lining geometry that allows rotation of rings  Limits need for packing between segments on curves 18 .

Joint Geometries 19 .

Materials  Reinforced Concrete  SFRC  Polypropylene Fibers (Fire resistance)  Resistance to Hydrogen Sulphide attack  Steel/SGI 20 .

durable mix . impermeable.high early strength 21 .Concrete Typically require: .dense.

Reinforced Concrete  Typically prefabricated welded cages  Durability 22 .

simpler manufacturing and cost savings  Surface Finish – Smooth. Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete  SFRC provides increased durability. no exposed fibers  Repairs – no corrosion protection required 23 .

Polypropylene Fibers

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Fire Damage
Channel Tunnel

Storebelt

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‘Normal’ Concrete With Polypropylene Fibers

1. Moisture moves away from heat
front

2. Vapour pressure increases as 2. Fibres melt at 160°C form
heat front advances interconnecting passages for
3. Vapour pressure > tensile vapour pressure to escape
strength of concrete and
explosive spalling occurs
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Resistance to Hydrogen Sulphide attack  Polymer Concrete  Integral GRP liners 28 .

 Steel – fabricated. Steel/SGI Linings  Suitable for high load locations – eg openings. Spheroidal Graphite Iron - cast 29 .

Fixings and Appurtenances EPDM/ Hydrophilic Gaskets Bolts and Bolt Inserts Alignment Dowels Alignment Balls Guide Rods Lifting Sockets 30 .

EPDM Gasket  Gaskets compressed against each other when lining is erected and provide sealing against water ingress  Design for range of segment offsets and gaps 31 .

EPDM Gasket Testing 32 .

Ring Design  Continuum Analysis Models  Bedded beam-spring  Distortion Ratio  Numerical Analysis 33 .

Segment Design – Manufacture and Handling  Consider all load cases from initial stripping of the concrete form to erection in the tunnel 34 .

and 2. Segment stripped from left in the form until the mold – design condition specified stripping depends on strength and strength is reached lifting device 35 . Segment is cast. Segment Design – Manufacture and Handling 1.

Segment Design – Manufacture and Handling 3. 36 . Segments are rotated 180 degrees transported out to the stockpile yard using a forklift or gantry crane. Segments are then 4.

Segments are 6. The erector on stacked are lifted onto the the TBM picks up train and the segment & transported into the rotates it into tunnel place. The segments 7. Segment Design – Manufacture and Handling 5. 37 .

Joint Design  Consider the impacts of poor build – not all joint surface may be in contact  Design for bursting stresses (arrangement similar to a tensioned anchorage)  Consider hoop loads and thrust loads from the shove rams 38 .

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Manufacture  Plant Types .Vertical .Stationary .Jobsite .Horizontal .Precast factory  Molds .Carousel  Plant Location .

Stationary Plant 41 .

Carousel Plant 42 .

Carousel Plant 43 .

Segment Molds 44 .

Concrete 45 .

Concrete  Vibration .Cloth 46 .Insulation .External pneumatic/electric  Curing .Internal pneumatic .Steam .

Special lifting equipment 47 .

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Demonstration Ring 67 .

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need to support segments – but more difficult to grout  If shunt flows are present. and support segments  In rock. Annular Grouting  As TBM is advanced.  Secondary grouting to ensure all voids are full 79 . essential to fill void quickly and completely to minimize settlement. need to pay attention to avoid wash out. void behind segment needs to be filled (overcut plus TBM skin thickness)  In soft ground.

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Grouted annulus Circumferential Radial joint joint Segment Bolt pocket Key .

Grouted annulus .

Segment Damage 83 .

Segment Damage 84 .

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Damage Repair 86 .

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