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Part 6.

3G Mobile Communication Systems


―WCDMA and cdma2000

p. 1 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Introduction ― Objectives to develop 3G
‰ Achieving significantly higher transmission speed capability, encompassing
circuit- and packet-switched networks as well as support of multimedia services.

Data Networks
2G: low rate 2G: low rate

3G: high rate


3G: high rate

2G: voice

3G: voice, image, video

‰ Higher spectral efficiency and overall cost improvement by utilizing advanced


technologies.
‰ Maximizing the commonality by radio interfaces for multiple operating
environments.
‰ Compatibility of services within IMT-2000 and fixed networks.

p. 2 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Introduction ― Key Properties Emphasized in 3G
‰ Improved performance over 2G, including:
– Improved capacity;
– Improved coverage, enabling migration from a 2G deployment.

‰ A high degree of service flexibility, including:


– Support of a wide range of services with maximum bit rates above 2 Mb/s and the
possibility for multiple parallel services on one connection;
– A fast and efficient packet-access scheme.

‰ A high degree of operator flexibility, including:


– Support of asynchronous inter-base-station operation;
– Efficient support of different deployment scenarios, including hierarchical cell
structure and hot-spot scenarios;
– Support of evolutionary technologies such as adaptive antenna arrays and multi-user
detection.

p. 3 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Introduction ― Differences Between 2G and 3G Systems
‰ Flexible offer of mobile multimedia services
– Voice/fax/data
– Wideband data services (high speed Internet/high quality images)

‰ Slow bit pipe provided by 2G


Voice <64kbps
Low rate data (25-64kHz)

‰ Faster bit pipe by 3G

Images
2Mbps
Multi-media
Internet (5MHz)
Voice

p. 4 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Introduction ― Spectrum allocation of 3G (1)
‰ 1992, ITU, World Administrative Radio Conference
– the frequencies around 2GHz were available for use by 3G mobile systems
– called International Mobile Telephony 2000 (IMT-2000)
– defined several different air interfaces based on CDMA or TDMA
– target: a single common global IMT-2000 air interface for 3G

‰ Target: a single common global IMT-2000 air interface for 3G


– Europe and Asia: same air interface WCDMA, frequencies around 2GHz
– North America: spectrum around 2GHz has been auctioned for 2G and no new
spectrum is available for IMT-2000, 3G must be implemented within the
existing bands by replacing part of the spectrum with 2G

p. 5 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Introduction ― Spectrum allocation of 3G (2)

WRC-2000 IMT-2000 Frequencies source:


http://www.umtsworld.com/
technology/frequencies.htm
p. 6 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU
Introduction ― 3G Standards

‰ The nature of communications has been changing …


– People to People → People to Things → Things to Things

‰ Family of ITU standards consisting of two main systems


– Direct Spread Option (Wideband CDMA) with chip rate of 3.84
Mcps and BW of 5 MHz.
– Multi-Carrier Option (Cdma2000).

‰ Key 3G Requirements:
– High Speed Packet Data: 144 kbps -- Vehicular; 384 kbps --
Pedestrian, 2 Mbps -- Indoor
– Global Roaming

p. 7 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Introduction ― Standardization Efforts (1)
Japan Universal Wireless Consortium (UWC)

China

North America

Korea

Japan

Europe source: Willie W. Lu,


"Broadband wireless mobile"
Standard Partnership Radio
Development Project Interfaces
Organization

SDO working for radio interfaces standardization


p. 8 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU
Introduction ― Standardization Efforts (2)
‰ 3GPP (3G Partnership Project)
– Spearheaded by ETSI (European Telecommunication Standards Institute)
– Memberships as in December 1998: ARIB (Japan), ETSI (Europe), T1 (USA), TTA
(Korea) and TTC (Japan); May 1999: CWTS (China)
– Aim: to prepare, approve, and maintain globally applicable technical specifications
and technical reports for a 3G mobile system (called Universal Mobile
Telecommunication System UMTS) based on the evolved GSM core network and
Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) (UTRA TDD+FDD=> WCDMA)
‰ 3GPP2
– Spearheaded by ANSI (American National Standards Institute)
– Memberships as in January 1999: ARIB, TIA (USA), TTA and TTC.
– Aim: to cooperate in the preparation of globally applicable technical specifications
for a 3G mobile system based on the evolved ANSI/TIA/EIA-41 core networks and
cdma2000.
‰ OHG (Operators’ Harmonization Group)
– To prevent a multiple standard problem.

p. 9 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Introduction ― Standardization Efforts (3)
IMT-Direct Spread
IMT-Multi Carrier
IMT-Time Code
IMT-Single Carrier
IMT-Frequency Time

IMT Radio
Technologies

Access
Technologies

Radio interfaces defined for IMT-2000


source: Willie W. Lu,
"Broadband wireless mobile"
p. 10 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU
Introduction ─ IMT2000 Capability (1)
‰ Planned to deploy in May 2001
‰ Frequency band:2GHz band
‰ Information rates: up to 2Mbps

IMT2000
Network

Vehicular
Indoor 144kbps
2Mbps Pedestrian
384kbps 11
p. 11 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU
Introduction ― IMT2000 Capacity (2)
‰ Variable bit rates to offer bandwidth on demand
‰ Multiplexing of services with different quality requirements on a single
connection, e.g., speech video and packet data
‰ Delay requirements from delay-sensitive real-time traffic to flexible best-effort
packet data
‰ Quality requirements from 10% frame error rate to 10-6 bit error rate
‰ Coexistence of second and third generation systems and inter-system handovers
for coverage enhancements and load balancing
‰ Support of asymmetric uplink and downlink traffic, e.g., web browsing causes
more loading to downlink than to uplink
‰ High spectrum efficiency
‰ Coexistence of FDD and TDD modes

source: H. Holma and A. Toskala,


"WCDMA for UMTS"
p. 12 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU
Introduction ― Commercial 3G Services (1)
‰ Start with crazy spectrum auctions in Europe
– Huge success of 2G
– Telecommunication companies in Europe spent more than 120 billion$ on
3G licenses
– Great Britain: 34 billion$
– Germany: 46 billion$
– Vodafone: 9.4 billion$ for one license in Great Britain

“We spent €10 billion


too much”
Sir Peter Bonfield, CEO, BT
Sunday Times, London,
18th February 2001

p. 13 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Introduction ― Commercial 3G Services (2)
‰A successful example of 3G
– The world first 3G network was launched by NTT DoCoMo, Japan, in 2001
– Big success of its 3G services “i-mode”: internet services are added to voice
communications
– Creation of mobile multimedia era

Transactions Daily information


„ Banking
Web

„ Weather
„ Reservations for flights
„ News
and accommodations
E-mailing

„ Stock prices, etc.


„ Stock trading, etc
browsing

Data base Entertainment


„ Restaurant guide
„ Karaoke
„ Town page
„ Network game
„ Dictionary
„ Movie listings
„ Train transfer info.
„ Fortune-telling etc.
„ Cooking recipes, etc.

Voice
p. 14 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU
Introduction ― Commercial 3G Services (3)

‰ 3G in Hong Kong all mobile


– Mainland China: no 3G services subscribers:
10.98million
– Hong Kong: only WCDMA is employed

four 3G 3G
licenses; valid subscribers:
for 15 years; 2.38million
each with a 3G
spectrum of subscribers:
2x14.8MHz 1million
+1x5MHz

Oct. 2001 Jan. 2004 Dec. 2004 Jun. 2005 Jul. 2006 Jun. 2008
Spectrum Hutchison Smartone Sunday
Auction H.K. CSL

p. 15 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Introduction ― Commercial 3G Services (4)

p. 16 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Introduction ― Commercial 3G Services (5)

CDMA20001x

WCDMA

CDMA2000
1xEV-DO

p. 17 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Summary: What Is 3G?

‰ Why necessary?
– Explosive expansion of markets
– Mobile multimedia communications
– Global standard terminals
– Big business chances
– Lower cost due to mass markets

‰ Which services?
– Unknown, but services indicated by the success of “i-mode”
– Point-to-point, point-multi points, broadcasting services

p. 18 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


WCDMA

p. 19 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Introduction (1)
‰ Wideband CDMA
– a predominant wireless access technology for the 3G systems
– designed to offer wideband services
wireless internet services: download information from the Web, video transmission,...
– data rate: indoor: 2Mbps, pedestrian: 384kbps, vehicular: 144kbps
– wide bandwidth (5MHz) is needed for high data rate
physical limitations and impairments on radio uplink
channels presents a fundamental technical challenge
to reliable high data rate communications downlink
BS
‰ Two Modes: FDD and TDD MS
– Frequency division duplex: optimized for wide-
area coverage, i.e., public macro and micro cells
– Time division duplex: optimized for public micro
and pico cells and unlicensed cordless applications
BS
MS
p. 20 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU
Introduction (2)
5MHz 5MHz
FDD: paired
spectrum; ideal
Uplink Downlink
for symmetric Freq.
services (voice); 190MHz
inefficient for
asymmetric
Downlink
services (e.g. mp3
downloading) Uplink
Time

5MHz

TDD: no need for


paired spectrum; Downlink
flexible, efficient Uplink
for asymmetric Freq.
services
Uplink Downlink Downlink Downlink
Time

p. 21 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Introduction (3)
‰ Main features of WCDMA
‰ Asynchronous inter-base-station operation
– no requirement on any external system such as GPS
– new challenges like cell acquisition and soft handoff

p. 22 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Introduction (4)
‰ Main features of WCDMA
‰ Variable rate transmission
– to provide multimedia services
– multi-code transmission is employed in downlink to achieve higher bit rates
‰ Adaptive antenna array
– null out interference and maximize the signal to interference ratio
– particularly useful for multimedia communications
a small number of high rate users give Desired
significant interference to low rate users. user
with
Without adaptive antenna array, the link
low rate
capacity would be significantly reduced. services with high
– dedicated pilot symbols in both up- and rate
down-link facilitate user-unique antenna services
like online
patterns game
‰ Turbo coding
– large coding gain
p. 23 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU
System Architecture (1)
New protocols for WCDMA

UMTS R99 Architecture source:


http://www.mobileguru.co.uk/Mo
bile_Technology_globe.html
p. 24 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU
System Architecture (2)
‰ UTRA Terminologies
‰ UE: User Equipment
– interfaces the user and the radio interface
– consists of Mobile Equipment (ME) and UMTS Subscriber Identity Module (USIM)
‰ UTRAN: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
– handles all radio related functionality
– consists of Node B (Base Station) and Radio Network Controller (RNC)
‰ Core Network
– evolved GSM core network
– switching and touting calls and data connection to external networks
– consists of Home Location Register (HLR), Mobile Services Switching Center
(MSC), Visitor Location Register (VLR), Gateway MSC, Service GPRS Support
Node (SGSN), Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN)
‰ External Network
– consists of Circuit Switching (CS) network and Packet Switching (PS) network

p. 25 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


System Architecture (3)
Compare GSM and UMTS Terminologies

Note: the
functionality
of each pair is
not necessary
the same

p. 26 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Radio Interface - Channel Concepts
‰ Three separate channel concepts in UTRA: logical channel, transport channel and
physical channel
‰ Logical channels define what type of data is transferred
‰ Transport channels define how and with which type of characteristics the data is
transferred by the physical layer
‰ Physical channels define the exact physical characteristics of the radio channel

p. 27 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Radio Interface - Transport Channels (1)
‰ Transport Channels: Data generated at higher layers is carried over the air with
transport channels, which are mapped in the physical layer to different physical
channels

Higher
Layers

Physical
Layer

p. 28 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Radio Interface - Transport Channels (2)
‰ CCTrCh (Coded Composite Transport Channel): a technology in the UMTS
physical layer, is the connection between Transport Channel and Physical Channel
which results a data stream from encoding and multiplexing of one or several
transport channels

‰ One physical control channel + one or more physical data channel => one CCTrCh

‰ Two types of Transport Channels


– dedicated channel (DCH): identified by a certain code on a certain frequency,
reserved for a single user only; carries all the information intended for the given user
from layers above the physical layer, including data for the actual services and
higher layer control information
Features: fast power control, fast data rate change on a frame-by-frame basis,
support adaptive antenna, support soft handover (illustrated in later sections)
– common channel: a resource divided between all or a group of users in a cell

p. 29 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Radio Interface - Transport Channels (3)
‰ Six types of Common Transport Channels
– Broadcast Channel (BCH): downlink, transmit network information, e.g., available
random access codes and access slots, important for register
– Forward Access Channel (FACH): downlink, carry control information or packet
data
– Paging Channel (PCH): downlink, carry data relevant to the paging process when the
network wants to initiate communication with the terminal
– Random Access Channel (RACH): uplink, carry control information from the
terminal, e.g., requests to set up a connection, or packet data
– Uplink Common Packet Channel (CPCH): uplink, carry packet-based user data
– Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH): downlink, carry dedicated user data and/or
control information, shared by several users, associated with a downlink DCH
‰ Basic network operation needs BCH, RACH, FACH and PCH; DSCH and CPCH is
optional

p. 30 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Radio Interface - Transport Channels (4)
‰ Mapping of Transport Channels onto the physical channels

Transport Channels Physical Channels


DCH Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH)
Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH)
BCH Primary Common Control Physical Channel (PCCPCH)
FACH Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (SCCPCH)
PCH
RACH Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)
DSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH)
CPCH Physical Common Packet Channel (PCPCH)
Synchronization Channel (SCH)
Common Pilot Channel (CPICH)
Not directly visible to
higher layers, carry only Acquisition Indication Channel (AICH)
information relevant to Paging Indication Channel (PICH)
physical layer procedures CPCH Status Indication Channel (CSICH)
Collision Detection/ Channel Assignment Indicator
Channel (CD/CA-ICH)

p. 31 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Physical Layer (FDD)
‰ Multiple access method: DS-CDMA
‰ System bandwidth 5M
– allocated spectrum: 1920-1980MHz and 2110-2170MHz
– chip rate: 3.84Mcps
‰ Radio frame structure
– 10ms/frame, 15slots, 2560chips/slot

Tslot=2560 chips

Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i Slot #14

One radio frame: Tf=10ms

p. 32 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Uplink - Introduction

‰ Spreading factors: 4- 256


‰ modulation scheme: BPSK
‰ Two type of uplink dedicated physical channels
– uplink dedicated physical data channel (uplink DPDCH)
carry the DCH transport channel
can be zero, one, or several DPDCH on each radio link
– uplink dedicated physical control (or pilot) channel (uplink DPCCH)
carry control information: known pilot bits to support channel estimation for
coherent detection, transmit power control (TPC) commands, feedback information
(FBI), and an optional transport-format combination indicator (TFCI)
one and only one uplink DPCCH on each radio link
– DPDCH and DPCCH are I/Q code multiplexed within each radio frame
‰ Variable data rate: change the spreading factor on DPDCH on a frame-by-frame
basis

p. 33 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Uplink - Frame Structure

Frame structure for uplink DPDCH/DPCCH


Source: Jiangzhou Wang, Broadband
Wireless Communications, 3G, 4G
and Wireless LAN
p. 34 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU
Uplink - Spreading

Complex Scrambling

Source: Jiangzhou Wang,


Broadband Wireless
Communications, 3G, 4G and
Spreading for uplink DPCCH and DPDCHs Wireless LAN
p. 35 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU
Uplink - Design Criteria (1)
‰ Two terminal oriented design criteria
– maximize the terminal amplifier efficiency
– minimize the audible interference from the terminal transmission

‰ Uplink DPDCH and DPCCH: Why I/Q code multiplexed (Dual channel QPSK
modulation)?
– Time multiplexed: audible interference due to discontinuous transmission

p. 36 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Uplink - Design Criteria (2)
‰ uplink DPDCH and DPCCH: Why I/Q code multiplexed? (Con't)
– Pure code multiplexed: multicode transmission, increases transmitted signal
envelope variations => Higher PAPR (Peak-to-Average Power Ratio)

– I/Q code multiplexed: DPCCH is maintained on a separate continuous channel, no


pulse transmission, minimize audible interference

p. 37 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Uplink - Design Criteria (3)
‰ uplink DPDCH and DPCCH: Why complex scrambled?
– power levels of the DPDCH and DPCCH are typically different; lead to extreme
cases to BPSK-type transmission if transmitting the branches independently
– the I and Q branches are mixed using complex scrambling

p. 38 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Uplink Multiplexing
CRC attachment

Transport block DPDCH #1 DPDCH #2 DPDCH #N


concatenation/Code
block segmentation
Physical channel mapping
Source: Harri Homa and
Antti Toskala, WCDMA
Channel coding for UMTS
Second interleaving
(10ms)
Radio frame equalization
Other Transport Physical channel
First Interleaving Channels segmentation
(20, 40, or 80ms)

Transport Channel
Radio frame segmentation Rate Matching Multiplexing

p. 39 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Downlink (1)
‰ Spreading factors: 4-512
‰ modulation scheme: QPSK
‰ One type of downlink dedicated physical channel
– downlink dedicated physical channel (downlink DPCH)
– dedicated data (downlink DPDCH) and control information (downlink DPCCH)
(pilot bits, TPC, TFCI) are transmitted on DPCH in time multiplex mode

p. 40 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Downlink (2)
‰ Common downlink pilot channels (CPICH)
– fixed rate, SF=256, 30kbps
– carry predefined symbol/bit sequence
– Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH): a phase reference for the downlink
channels
– Secondly Common Pilot Channel (S-CPICH): a phase reference for a secondary
CCPCH carrying downlink access channels only and /or a downlink DPCH

p. 41 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Downlink (3)
‰ downlink DPDCH and DPCCH: Why time-multiplexed?
– Time multiplexed: the common channels have continuous transmission, no audible
interference
– I/Q code multiplexed: downlink multicode transmission: no need for optimization of
PAPR as with single code (pair) transmission
– Code multiplexed: reserving a code for DPCCH results in worse code resource
utilization

p. 42 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Downlink (4)
‰ downlink spreading: one scrambling code (one code tree) per sector in the base
station
– Variable data rate: rate matching operation or discontinuous transmission
– Why cannot the spreading factor on DPDCH vary on a frame-by-frame basis?
scramble
code #1 scramble scramble
scramble
code #0 code #0 code #1
scramble scramble
code #4 code #2
scramble
code #3
scramble scramble
code #5 code #7
scramble
code #6
scramble
code #8

‰ downlink scrambling: long codes


– number of scrambling codes: limited to 512 codes, otherwise the cell search
procedure would become too excessive

p. 43 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Downlink Multiplexing
CRC attachment DPDCH #1 DPDCH #2 DPDCH #N

Transport block Physical channel mapping


concatenation/Code
block segmentation
Second interleaving
Source: Harri Homa and (10ms)
Channel coding Antti Toskala, WCDMA
for UMTS

Rate matching Physical channel segmentation

Insertion of DTX indication Other Transport Insertion of DTX indication


(with fixed bit positions only) Channels (with flexible positions only)

First Interleaving Radio frame Transport Channel


(20,40 or 80ms) segmentation Multiplexing

p. 44 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Scrambling Codes (1)
‰ Scrambling in WCDMA is used on top of spreading
– does not change the signal bandwidth and symbol rate
– to separate terminals or base stations from each other; use pseudo-noise (PN) codes
‰ Spreading in WCDMA
– increase signal bandwidth
– to separate channels from each other (channelisation); use orthogonal codes
(channelisation codes)

p. 45 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Scrambling Codes (2)
‰ Two types of scrambling codes: long and short scrambling codes

p. 46 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Scrambling Codes (3)
‰ Uplink physical channels: complex-valued scrambling code, either long or short
– Long scrambling codes: used if the base station uses a Rake receiver
– Short scrambling codes: used if the base station uses advanced multiuser detectors or
interference cancellation receivers

long GPS
scrambling
code #1 long scrambling
code, shift #1
long
scrambling
code #0 long scrambling
code, shift #0

long: BS has a Rake


receiver
short: BS uses multiuser
detection
WCDMA IS-95 or CDMA2000

p. 47 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Scrambling Codes (4)
‰ Signal detection at BS

Terminal #0
long scrambling code: one frame: 10ms, 38400 chips
(Scrambling code #0)
Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #15
Time
Terminal #1
(Scrambling code #1)
Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #15

Terminal #2 Time
(Scrambling code #2)
Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #15

Time

Received signal at BS

p. 48 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Scrambling Codes (5)
‰ Multiuser detectors or interference cancellation receivers

Descrambling using Signal detection Recovered data


scrambling code #0 for user #0 symbols for user #0
Received Descrambling using Signal detection Recovered data
scrambling code #1 for user #1 symbols for user #1
signal at BS
Descrambling using Signal detection Recovered data
scrambling code #2 for user #2 symbols for user #2

Delay
Interference
Regenerator for user #0

Descrambling using Signal detection Recovered data


scrambling code #0 for user #0 symbols for user #0

‰ Advantage of short scrambling codes: reduce of processing delay

p. 49 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU


Channelisation Codes (1)
‰ Transmissions from a single source are separated by channelisation codes
– downlink connection within one sector
– dedicated channels in the uplink from one terminal
‰ WCDMA uses Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes
(c,c)
c4,1=(1,1,1,1)
c
(c,-c) c2,1=(1,1)

c4,2=(1,1,-1,-1)
c1,1=(1)
c4,3=(1,-1,1,-1)
c2,2=(1,-1)

c4,4=(1,-1,-1,1)

‰ OVSF allows the spreading factor to be changed and orthogonality between


different spreading codes of different lengths to be maintained

p. 50 ELEC6040, Mobile Radio Communications, Dept. of E.E.E., HKU