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Designation: C1696 − 15

Standard Guide for
Industrial Thermal Insulation Systems1
This standard is issued under the fixed designation C1696; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A
superscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.

1. Scope 2. Referenced Documents
1.1 This guide covers information on selection of insulation 2.1 ASTM Standards:2
materials, systems design, application methods, protective A167 Specification for Stainless and Heat-Resisting
coverings, guarantees, inspection, testing, and maintenance of Chromium-Nickel Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip (With-
thermal insulation primarily for industrial applications in a drawn 2014)3
temperature range of -320 to 1200°F (-195.5 to 648.8°C). A240/A240M Specification for Chromium and Chromium-
Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip for Pressure
1.2 This guide is intended to provide practical guidelines, Vessels and for General Applications
by applying acceptable current practice while indicating the A653/A653M Specification for Steel Sheet, Zinc-Coated
basic principles by which new materials can be assessed and (Galvanized) or Zinc-Iron Alloy-Coated (Galvannealed)
adapted for use under widely differing conditions. Design by the Hot-Dip Process
engineers, the general contractors, the fabricators, and the A792/A792M Specification for Steel Sheet, 55 %
insulation contractors will find this guide helpful. Aluminum-Zinc Alloy-Coated by the Hot-Dip Process
B209 Specification for Aluminum and Aluminum-Alloy
1.3 Although some insulation system designs can serve as Sheet and Plate
fire protection, this guide does not address the criteria specific C165 Test Method for Measuring Compressive Properties of
to that need. API 521 Guide for Pressure-Relieving and Thermal Insulations
Depressuring Systems is recommended as a reference for fire C167 Test Methods for Thickness and Density of Blanket or
protection. This guide will however address the fire properties Batt Thermal Insulations
of insulation materials. C168 Terminology Relating to Thermal Insulation
C177 Test Method for Steady-State Heat Flux Measure-
1.4 This guide is not intended for commercial, architectural, ments and Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of
acoustical, marine, vehicle transport, or military use. the Guarded-Hot-Plate Apparatus
1.5 This guide does not address insulation system design for C195 Specification for Mineral Fiber Thermal Insulating
refractory linings or cold boxes whereby these are typically Cement
package units and of a proprietary insulation design. C203 Test Methods for Breaking Load and Flexural Proper-
ties of Block-Type Thermal Insulation
1.6 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded C209 Test Methods for Cellulosic Fiber Insulating Board
as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical C240 Test Methods of Testing Cellular Glass Insulation
conversions to SI units that are provided for information only Block
and are not considered standard. C272/C272M Test Method for Water Absorption of Core
Materials for Sandwich Constructions
1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the
C302 Test Method for Density and Dimensions of Pre-
safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the
formed Pipe-Covering-Type Thermal Insulation
responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appro- C303 Test Method for Dimensions and Density of Pre-
priate safety and health practices and determine the applica- formed Block and Board–Type Thermal Insulation
bility of regulatory limitations prior to use. C335/C335M Test Method for Steady-State Heat Transfer

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This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C16 on Thermal For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or
Insulation and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee C16.40 on Insulation contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM
Systems. Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on
Current edition approved Sept. 1, 2015. Published October 2015. Originally the ASTM website.
approved in 2012. Last previous edition approved in 2014 as C1696–14aɛ1. DOI: 3
The last approved version of this historical standard is referenced on
10.1520/C1696–15. www.astm.org.

Copyright © ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. United States

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C1696 − 15
Properties of Pipe Insulation C1104/C1104M Test Method for Determining the Water
C351 Test Method for Mean Specific Heat of Thermal Vapor Sorption of Unfaced Mineral Fiber Insulation
Insulation (Withdrawn 2008)3 C1126 Specification for Faced or Unfaced Rigid Cellular
C356 Test Method for Linear Shrinkage of Preformed High- Phenolic Thermal Insulation
Temperature Thermal Insulation Subjected to Soaking C1139 Specification for Fibrous Glass Thermal Insulation
Heat and Sound Absorbing Blanket and Board for Military
C411 Test Method for Hot-Surface Performance of High- Applications
Temperature Thermal Insulation C1289 Specification for Faced Rigid Cellular Polyisocyanu-
C446 Test Method for Breaking Load and Calculated Modu- rate Thermal Insulation Board
lus of Rupture of Preformed Insulation for Pipes (With- C1393 Specification for Perpendicularly Oriented Mineral
drawn 2002)3 Fiber Roll and Sheet Thermal Insulation for Pipes and
C447 Practice for Estimating the Maximum Use Tempera- Tanks
ture of Thermal Insulations C1427 Specification for Extruded Preformed Flexible Cel-
C449 Specification for Mineral Fiber Hydraulic-Setting lular Polyolefin Thermal Insulation in Sheet and Tubular
Thermal Insulating and Finishing Cement Form
C450 Practice for Fabrication of Thermal Insulating Fitting C1511 Test Method for Determining the Water Retention
Covers for NPS Piping, and Vessel Lagging (Repellency) Characteristics of Fibrous Glass Insulation
(Aircraft Type)
C518 Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Transmission
C1559 Test Method for Determining Wicking of Fibrous
Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus
Glass Blanket Insulation (Aircraft Type)
C533 Specification for Calcium Silicate Block and Pipe
C1617 Practice for Quantitative Accelerated Laboratory
Thermal Insulation
Evaluation of Extraction Solutions Containing Ions
C534/C534M Specification for Preformed Flexible Elasto-
Leached from Thermal Insulation on Aqueous Corrosion
meric Cellular Thermal Insulation in Sheet and Tubular
of Metals
Form D1621 Test Method for Compressive Properties of Rigid
C547 Specification for Mineral Fiber Pipe Insulation Cellular Plastics
C552 Specification for Cellular Glass Thermal Insulation D1622/D1622M Test Method for Apparent Density of Rigid
C553 Specification for Mineral Fiber Blanket Thermal Insu- Cellular Plastics
lation for Commercial and Industrial Applications D2126 Test Method for Response of Rigid Cellular Plastics
C578 Specification for Rigid, Cellular Polystyrene Thermal to Thermal and Humid Aging
Insulation D2842 Test Method for Water Absorption of Rigid Cellular
C591 Specification for Unfaced Preformed Rigid Cellular Plastics
Polyisocyanurate Thermal Insulation D3574 Test Methods for Flexible Cellular Materials—Slab,
C592 Specification for Mineral Fiber Blanket Insulation and Bonded, and Molded Urethane Foams
Blanket-Type Pipe Insulation (Metal-Mesh Covered) (In- E84 Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of
dustrial Type) Building Materials
C610 Specification for Molded Expanded Perlite Block and E96/E96M Test Methods for Water Vapor Transmission of
Pipe Thermal Insulation Materials
C612 Specification for Mineral Fiber Block and Board E136 Test Method for Behavior of Materials in a Vertical
Thermal Insulation Tube Furnace at 750°C
C665 Specification for Mineral-Fiber Blanket Thermal Insu- E176 Terminology of Fire Standards
lation for Light Frame Construction and Manufactured E659 Test Method for Autoignition Temperature of Chemi-
Housing cals
C680 Practice for Estimate of the Heat Gain or Loss and the E2652 Test Method for Behavior of Materials in a Tube
Surface Temperatures of Insulated Flat, Cylindrical, and Furnace with a Cone-shaped Airflow Stabilizer, at 750°C
Spherical Systems by Use of Computer Programs 2.2 API Standard:
C692 Test Method for Evaluating the Influence of Thermal API 521 Guide for Pressure-Relieving and Depressuring
Insulations on External Stress Corrosion Cracking Ten- Systems4
dency of Austenitic Stainless Steel
2.3 NACE Standard:
C795 Specification for Thermal Insulation for Use in Con-
SP0198 Standard Practice—The Control of Corrosion Under
tact with Austenitic Stainless Steel
Thermal Insulation and Fireproofing Materials—A Sys-
C871 Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Thermal Insu- tem Approach5
lation Materials for Leachable Chloride, Fluoride, Silicate,
and Sodium Ions
C1029 Specification for Spray-Applied Rigid Cellular Poly-
4
urethane Thermal Insulation Available from American Petroleum Institute (API), 1220 L. St., NW,
Washington, DC 20005-4070, http://www.api.org.
C1055 Guide for Heated System Surface Conditions that 5
Available from NACE International (NACE), 1440 South Creek Dr., Houston,
Produce Contact Burn Injuries TX 77084-4906, http://www.nace.org.

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C1696 − 15
2.4 NFPA Standards:6 4.2 Design of thermal insulation systems requires the un-
NFPA 49 Hazardous Chemicals Data derstanding of process requirements, temperature control, heat
NFPA 90A Standard for the Installation of Air Conditioning loss criteria, control of thermal shock, and mechanical forces
and Ventilating Systems on insulation generated by thermal gradients and wind envi-
NFPA 259 Standard Test Method for Potential Heat of ronmental conditions. Sometimes, the mechanical design of
Building Materials piping and equipment needs to be modified to support insula-
2.5 Federal Standard: tion adequately and provide for insulation weatherproofing.
40 CFR 60 Protection of Environment—Standards of Per- Process requirements may dictate the control of critical tem-
formance for New Stationary Sources7 perature to prevent freezing, maintain viscosity, or minimize
internal corrosion. When handling heat transfer fluids such as
3. Terminology ethylene oxide or hot oils, the selection of insulation materials
3.1 Definitions—Terminology C168 is recommended to pro- and the insulation system design becomes critical. whereby If
vide definitions and information on symbols, units, and abbre- these fluids are absorb in insulation materials, the fluid flash
viations of terms used in ASTM standards pertaining to thermal point could be below the fluid operating temperature. Specified
insulation materials and materials associated with them. Ter- heat gain or heat loss and acceptable surface temperatures
minology E176 is recommended to provide terms and standard could also dictate thermal design of insulation systems. Envi-
definitions for fire standards. Any term used in this guide that ronmental corrosivity, high wind, and extreme ambient tem-
is not defined in Terminology C168 or E176 will be defined in peratures affect the selection of weatherproofing and methods
the section in which the term is used. of its securement. A combination of these factors plays a
3.2 Acronyms: significant role in the selection of insulation materials and
application methods to provide long-lasting trouble-free ser-
ACM = asbestos-containing materials vice.
ACT = autoignition temperature 4.3 Application methods are generally defined by the pur-
ASJ = all service jacket chaser’s specifications. However, some specialty insulation
CPVC = chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
systems, such as prefabricated insulation panels for ductwork,
DFT = dry film thickness
EPA = Environmental Protection Agency precipitators, and tanks, will also have supplemental installa-
FRP = fiberglass-reinforced plastic tion requirements specified by the insulation system manufac-
FSI/SDI = flame spread index/smoke developed index turer. defined by the specification of the manufacturer.
MSDS = material safety data sheet 4.4 In any application of thermal insulation, the insulation
NAIMA = North American Insulation Manufacturers Asso- requires protection of some type, be it protection from the
ciation elements such as rain, snow, sleet, wind, ultraviolet solar
NDT = nondestructive testing radiation, protection from external forces that can cause
NFPA = National Fire Protection Association mechanical damage, vapor passage, fire, chemical attack, or
OSHA = Occupational Safety and Health Administration any combination of these. This protection can be provided in
PVC = polyvinyl chloride
by metal, plastic, coated or laminated composites or both,
QA/QC = quality assurance/quality control
SS = stainless steel mastic coatings, or a combination of the above depending upon
UV = ultraviolet the application, service, and economic requirements. Consid-
WVT = water vapor transmission ering the enormous overall cost of a new facility, and compar-
ing the initial cost of the insulated portion as a small percentage
4. Significance and Use of that overall cost with the substantially increased operating
4.1 When choosing a thermal insulation product or combi- cost as a result of inefficient insulation protection, it is common
nation of products, physical, chemical and mechanical proper- sense to provide only the best insulation system available and
ties and the significance of those properties should be consid- the best protection for that long-term investment consistent
ered. ASTM test methods are usually performed under with the appropriate design and economic requirements. Usu-
laboratory conditions and may not accurately represent field ally a new facility is very expensive and the initial cost of the
conditions depending on process temperature, environment, insulation portion is a small percentage of that overall cost.
and operating conditions. Performance results obtained using However, increased operating costs can result from inefficient
ASTM test methods can be used to determine compliance of protection.
materials to specifications but do not necessarily predict 4.5 Bid invitations should contain information necessary to
installed performance. Values stated in the ASTM material determine how guarantees of materials and application will be
standards are those that apply to the majority of materials and resolved.
not to any specific product; other tested values may exist for 4.6 It is recommended that the purchaser provide a quality
specific material applications. assurance program that defines the inspection of all materials,
material safety data sheets (MSDS), and specific application
6
Available from National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 1 Batterymarch procedures before and during progress of the insulation work.
Park, Quincy, MA 02169-7471, http://www.nfpa.org.
7
Available from the U.S. Government Printing Office, Superintendent of 4.7 During contract negotiations, the contractor and pur-
Documents, 732 N. Capital St., NW, Washington, DC 20402-0001. chaser should discuss and agree to the procedures to be adopted

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or between the insulation and the vessel.2 A material is reported as passing Test Method E136 combustible mixture should be raised so that the rate of heat if at least three of the four test specimens tested meet the evolved by the exothermic oxidation reaction is greater than individual test specimen criteria detailed below. determining the required insulation thickness for a process 5. or hazardous chemicals and consider the Mean temperature 5 ~ inner surface temp1outer surface temp! /2 (1) need to eliminate leakage sources. their temperature returns to where it was before being heated or 5. The three test the rate of heat loss to the surroundings and causes ignition.2 Autoignition: be noncombustible it usually must pass the requirements of 5. The autoignition release flammable vapors when subjected to fire or heat.7) are reversible in recommended that computer programs designed to account for some materials and will return to their original dimension when this be used. for adopted in case damage occurs during service or overhaul. insulation segments.4. No specified amount of time for a unit temperature difference. When a chemical has access to an insulated assembly from an external or internal leak. meter. It also (1) If the weight loss of the test specimen is 50 % or less. one-solid-piece the expansion/contraction joints spacing. Test 5. this property is expressed in configuration. the heat loss.1 In general. required to be noncombustible. sional changes: dimensional stability and linear shrinkage.1. petroleum oils. will expand or contract at a this is difficult to accomplish using hand calculations.1. protective insulation coverings. or ignition source such as a spark or flame. Thermal conductivity of insulation changes with design insulated systems for materials such as heat transfer mean temperature: oils.2 Coefficients of expansion need to be considered when Method C335/C335M is used for horizontal pipe insulation. this property (which is also known as the “k” factor of “k” The autoignition temperature for such a situation is most likely value) is expressed as the amount of heat that passes through a to be lower than published data. and the selection of an insu- creases with an increase in mean temperature.3 Coeffıcient of Thermal Expansion/Contraction: temperature. in joints and seams between the hot and cold surfaces of the insulation.1 In some industrial applications insulation materials are insulation.1. When a material is required to 5. is needed when determining or higher than different from that for a flat. will affect the surface coefficient of the 5. This reversibility distinguishes coefficient of expansion determining the thermal conductivity of materials depending (contraction) from the other two properties relating to dimen- on the temperature range and the geometry.3. method and apparatus used for its determination. designing insulation system expansion and contraction joints. Significant Physical Properties of Thermal Insulation different configurations. vertical 5.2 There are several different ASTM tests available for cooled.2. temperature. quantitative change can be predicted without testing the Btu-in/ft2-hr-F (In SI units. along with the differential movement between apparent thermal conductivity of the pipe insulation to be 20 % the insulation and the substrate. Therefore. The engineer or designer should know how to W/m-K).1 The apparent thermal conductivity of an insulation chemical may be between the outer covering and the material is the measure of its ability to conduct heat between insulation. lation systems to ensure that the initial performance of the the insulation material.1. Not all insulation materials hot plate and Test Method C518 referred to as the heat flow exhibit this reversibility property. of the sample.1 The coefficient of thermal expansion (contraction) is must be considered. Since cooled. C1696 − 15 for suitable periodic inspection and maintenance of the insu. thermal conductivity of insulation in. they of the mixture and the surroundings. Both of these tests are for block or flat insulations. in the insulation. where applicable. support combustion.2. will not ignite. burn.4 Combustion Characteristics: versus horizontal. Also the orientation of the insulation.4. In Test Method E136 materials are exposed fluids when absorbed in insulation could lower the autoignition to very high temperatures (1382°F or 750°C). It is improper to state that an insula- Materials tion material has the property to "suppress an autoignition 5. The cylindrical shape of pipe insulation and the presence of a The amount of movement that can be accommodated by an longitudinal joint in the pipe insulation can may cause the expansion joint.1. specimens do not need to meet the same individual test Autoignition depends on specific mixtures of chemicals and the specimen criteria. These changes (see 7. Autoignition is the initiation of combustion of a 5.1 Apparent Thermal Conductivity: temperature" of a chemical. in the form in which it is used and under the conditions exothermic oxidation reaction in the absence of an external anticipated. change relative to a change in its temperature. it is constant rate. when lating material. such as steel. In inch pound units.4. example) are specific to the method of determination (Test Method E659) and may not be interpolated or extrapolated for 5. materials. thermal conductivity at the process temperature 5. configuration. installation details of 5.1. When heated or perature to the jacket temperature must be considered. temperature (ACT) is the lowest temperature to which a 5. and the initial temperature and pressure material will be maintained.4. This is best determined by a computer the material property that measures the material’s dimensional program such as ASTM C680. should agree to the methods of repair and replacement to be 5. and hence. but that difference may not be unit area of a unit thickness of a homogeneous substance in a attributed to the composition of an insulation material. the 4 . the 5. Some of these are Test Method C177 referred to as the guarded neither of which is reversible.1 Some fluids such as oxygen and some heat transfer Test Method E136. curve from that process tem. And.2.3.1 A noncombustible material is defined as a material material in air as the result of heat liberation caused by an that.2 Published autoignition temperatures (NFPA 49. depends on the volume and geometry of the containing vessel.

005 0. NOTE 10—The water vapor permeability of mineral fiber insulation is so large that it can not be measured using standard methods.44 × 10-10) (Desiccant Method) Water vapor sorption (by weight) N/A N/A N/A N/A 25 10 to 5 Based on Maximum (%) Type and Grade (ASTM C1104/C1104M) Water Absorption (ASTM C209) % Note 3 Self-heating (exothermic) No No N/A No No No Physical properties Mineral Fiber Mineral Fiber Mineral Fiber Mineral Fiber Mineral Fiber Mineral Fiber (Note 1) (See Section 3. NOTE 5—Value varies with type and density. NOTE 4—Contact the material manufacturer for Test Method C411 test results when using above 250°F (121°C). °F (C) 80 (27) Minus 450 (-268) Minus 297 (-183) 80 (27) Minus 40 (-40) 176 (80) Density (ASTM C302 and C303) 15 6. NOTE 7—Consult the manufacturer for specific recommendation and properties at temperatures less than -40°F (4.5 10 to 14 0.6) @ 65% (7. II C553 C553 C553 Type IV A&B and III Type VII Type V and VI Type IV Maximum temperature.62 3 to 6.3 – 20. Contact the manufacturer for product data.007) (1. per D3574 deformation D3574 Method B) psi (kPa) Flexural strength (minimum) psi 50 (344) 41 (283) Block per Not Stated 45 (310) Not Stated Not Stated (kPa) (ASTM C446) ASTM C203 (Block per C203) Procedure A.3) @ 10% cept where noted (ASTM C165. NOTE 3—See Specification C610 for water absorption test and limits. °F (C) 1200 (649) 800 (427) 220 – 350 1200 (649) 350 (177) 2102 (1150) (Note 4) (104 to 175) Minimum temperature. Maximum 4 %.6) 2 inch (50 mm) cept where noted (ASTM C165) 10% deformation deformation at 10% deformation psi (kPa) Flexural strength (minimum) psi Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated (kPa) (ASTM C446) Dimensional change at max. °F (C) 1800 (982) 1200 (649) 450 to 1000 1200 (649) 1000 850 (454) (Note 5) Minimum temperature. C240 Capped 160 (72.10 Not Stated lb/ft3 (kg ⁄ m3) (240) (98 to 138) (48 to 104) (160 to 224) (11. NOTE 8—Response to thermal aging per Test Method D2126. Method I or II Dimensional change at max.10 N/A Not Stated E96/E96M) Perm-inch (g/Pa-s-m) (0.70 ± 0. All values should be verified with the material manufacturer before use. 4% 2% 2% Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated temperature (%) (ASTM C356) (See Table 4) 5 .12 to 8. °F (C)) 0 (-18) 0 (-18) 0 (-18) 0 (-18) 0 (-18) 0 (-18) Density (ASTM C302 and C303) Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated 12 (192) Max per 10 (160) Max per 8 (128) Max per lb/ft3 (kg ⁄ m3) ASTM C167 ASTM C167 ASTM C167 Block compressive strength 1000 PSF (48) 2 50 PSF (2. NOTE 2—Verify value with the material manufacturer. NOTE 6—Value is at ambient temperature. Contact the manufacturer. IB.4) 2 inch 25 to 12 PSF (1.3) @ 25% / 50 – 140 (minimum) at 5% deformation ex. Heat rise or fall (change) should be in a linear progression not to exceed a rate of 200°F (111°C) per hour. Block Board Board Blanket Blanket Blanket ogy) Applicable ASTM Standard C612 Type V C612 C612 Type IA.2 to N/A N/A N/A (minimum) at 5% deformation ex. inch (50 mm) at (50 mm) at 10% 0. 2% Not Stated 7% Length 2% Not Stated Length 2% temperature (%) (ASTM C356) (per ASTM C534/ Width 2% Width 2% (See Table 4) C534M) Thick 10% Thick 10% Surface burning characteristics 0/0 (Note 2) 5/0 Not Stated 0/0 (Note 2) 25/50 @ 1 inch 0 / 10 (ASTM E84) Flame Spread Index (25 mm) / Smoke Developed Index Non combustibility characteristics Pass (Note 2) Pass Not Stated Pass Not Stated Not Stated (ASTM E136) Water Vapor permeability (ASTM N/A 0. NOTE 9—Response to thermal aging per Test Method D2126. C1696 − 15 TABLE 1 Typical ASTM Specifications for Min/Max Values of Some Insulation Materials Used for Industrial Applications NOTE 1—Values represent a majority of known materials. Physical Properties (Note 1) Calcium Silicate Cellular Glass Pipe Elastomeric Sheet Expanded Perlite Melamine Pipe (See Definitions) Microporous Pipe and Block and Block and Tubular Pipe and Block and Block Applicable ASTM Standard C533 Type 1 C552 C534/C534M C610 C1410 C1676 Maximum temperature.6) per ASTM D 3574 Method A Block compressive strength 100 (688) 60 (415) per ASTM N/A 70 (483) 80 (36. Not all materials of the same classification may have the same values. Terminol. NOTE 11—N/A = Not applicable.2 ± 1.4°C). This permeability should be considered when selecting this type of material. Contact the manufacturer for temperatures above ambient.

°F (C) 1000 (538) 257 (125) 300 (149) 165 (73.3) 4–2 1.9) 1 inch (25) (Desiccant Method) 6 . °F (C) 0 (-18) Minus 290 (-180) Minus -297 (-183) Minus -297 (-183) (Note 7) Density (ASTM C302 and C303) Up to 8 (128) Max 2 (32) per ASTM D1622/ 2 – 6 (32 – 96) per ASTM 1.6 (26) per ASTM lb/ft3 (kg ⁄ m3) per ASTM C303 D1622M D1622/D1622M or C303 D1622/D1622M or C303 Block compressive strength 25 to 125 (1. °F (C)) 0 (-18) 0 (-18) Not Stated Not Stated 250 (121) Density (ASTM C302 and C303) 6 (96) to 12 (192) 8 (128) to 12 Max 2 to 18 Not Stated Not Stated lb/ft3 (kg ⁄ m3) Max per C167 (160 to 192) per C167 Block compressive strength N/A N/A N/A Not Stated Not Stated (minimum) at 5% deformation ex- cept where noted (ASTM C165) psi (kPa) Flexural strength (minimum) psi Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated (kPa) (ASTM C446) Dimensional change at max.90 (1.7) 2 inch 18 (124) per ASTM D1621 22 – 125 20 (138) (minimum) at 5% deformation ex. °F (C) 450 (232) 850 or 1200 850 to 1400 1200 (649) 1900 (1038) 1200 (649) (454 or 649) (454 to 760) Minimum Temperature. (50 mm) at 10% deformation (150 – 862) at 10% deformation cept where noted (ASTM C165) at 450F (232C) at 10% deformation psi (kPa) Flexural strength (minimum) psi Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated 45 (31) per C203 (kPa) (ASTM C446) Dimensional change at max. Not Stated Not Stated 2 % Max Volume 10% Max Volume 35% Max temperature (%) (ASTM C356) per ASTM C 166 per ASTM C 166 (See Table 4) Linear Shrinkage 5% Linear Shrinkage 5% per C356 per C356 Surface burning characteristics Less Than 25/50 Less Than 25/50 Less Than 25/50 0/0 0/0 (ASTM E84) Flame Index / Smoke Developed Index Combustion characteristics Pass (Note 2) Pass (Note 2) Pass (Note 2) Not Stated Pass (ASTM E136) Water Vapor permeability (ASTM Note 10 Note 10 Note 10 N/A N/A E96/E96M) Perm-inch (g/Pa-s-m) (Desiccant Method) Water vapor sorption (by weight) 5% 5% 5% N/A Not Stated Maximum (%) (ASTM C1104/C1104M) Water Absorption (ASTM C209) % Self-heating (exothermic) No (Note 5) No (Note 5) No (Note 5) No No (Note 5) Rigid Cellular Physical Properties (Note 1) Perpendicular Oriented Rigid Cellular Phenolic Polyisocyanurate (See Definitions) Polystyrene Mineral Fiber Grade 1 Type III Block and Board Type IV thru VI Applicable ASTM Standard C1393 C1126 C591 (Note 9) C578 Type XIII Maximum temperature. Not Stated 2 (per D2126) 4 to 2% 2% at 158F / 97% RH temperature (%) (ASTM C356) per ASTM D2126 per D2126 (See Table 4) Surface burning characteristics Less Than 25/50 Less Than 25/50 (Note 2) (Note 2) (ASTM E84) Flame Index / Smoke Developed Index Combustion characteristics N/A Not Stated (Note 2) (ASTM E136) Water Vapor permeability (ASTM 0.2 to 5.9) Minimum Temperature.5 (86) at E96/E96M) Perm-inch (g/Pa-s-m) (5.8 – 2. C1696 − 15 TABLE 1 Continued Physical Properties (Note 1) Calcium Silicate Cellular Glass Pipe Elastomeric Sheet Expanded Perlite Melamine Pipe (See Definitions) Microporous Pipe and Block and Block and Tubular Pipe and Block and Block Surface burning characteristics Less Than 25/50 Less Than 25/50 Less Than 25/50 Less Than 25/50 Less Than 25/50 Less Than 25/50 (ASTM E84) Flame Index / Smoke Developed Index Combustion characteristics Fail (Note 2) Pass (Note 2) Pass (Note 2) Pass (Note 2) Pass (Note 2) Pass (Note 2) (ASTM E136) Water Vapor permeability (ASTM Note 10 Note 10 Note 10 Note 10 Note 10 Note 10 E96/E96M) Perm-inch (g/Pa-s-m) (Desiccant Method) Water vapor sorption (by weight) 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% Maximum (%) (ASTM C1104/C1104M) Water Absorption (ASTM C209) % Self-heating (exothermic) No No (Note 5) No (Note 5) No (Note 5) No (Note 5) No (Note 5) Mineral Fiber Hydraulic- Physical Properties (Note 1) Mineral Fiber Metal Mesh Miner Fiber Mineral Fiber Blanket Miner Fiber Pipe Setting Insulating and (See Definitions) Blanket Insulating Cement Finishing Cement Applicable ASTM Standard C553 Type I thru VII C592 Type I thru IV C547 Type I thru V C449 C195 Maximum temperature.

melt. s. at any time during the test. in the form in which it is used.1. but in practice it is usually used with Test Method E84.1. material passes the test when the criteria in both (a) and (b) (b) The material.1. 7 . to evaluate core insulation component materials only. neither exhibit a flame spread index greater 5.2.2. 5. the noncombustible material in accordance with 5.0 to 1. and thickness used.5 2 hours per ASTM C272/C272M Self-heating (exothermic) No (Note 5) N/A N/A N/A Physical Properties (Note 1) Polyolefin Sheet and Spray Applied Rigid Cellular Polyisocyanu- (See Definitions) Tubular Grade 1 Cellular Polyurethane rate Faced Board Applicable ASTM Standard C1427 C1029 C1289 Type 1 and 2 Maximum temperature.3 – 8.5 Test Method E136 can be used to evaluate any a flame spread index greater than 25 nor exhibit evidence of insulation material (with the limitations indicated in 5. cutting through the material on any plane would neither exhibit 5. and are of that soften.4. flow.2 Insulation materials that typically comply with this rarely used to evaluate facings or adhesives individually.1 A material is considered a limited-combustible ma- sured prior to the test. C1696 − 15 TABLE 1 Continued Rigid Cellular Physical Properties (Note 1) Perpendicular Oriented Rigid Cellular Phenolic Polyisocyanurate (See Definitions) Polystyrene Mineral Fiber Grade 1 Type III Block and Board Type IV thru VI Water vapor sorption (by weight) 5 Not Stated N/A N/A Maximum (%) (ASTM C1104/C1104M) Water Absorption (ASTM C209) % 3 2 – 0. procedure of Test Method E2652.2 In some industrial applications insulation materials are met: required to be limited combustible materials. but the criteria necessary to (d) The material is composed of materials that. terial where all the conditions of (a) and (b) and the conditions (b) There is no flaming from the test specimen after the first 30 of either (c) or (d) are met.0 (4. rise above Method for Potential Heat of Building Materials. in. or as requirement are products that have a noncombustible core but a full composite.2.1.2 Not Stated 1. also have a facing and an adhesive.4. intumesce or otherwise separate from such composition that all surfaces that would be exposed by the measuring thermocouple. Standard Test thermocouples do not.8 0.3 Test Method E136 includes two different appara- tuses and procedures to assess whether a material is noncom. °F (C) 200 (93) -22 (-30) 200 (93) Minimum Temperature.4. temperature (%) (ASTM C356) 7 per C1427 Not Stated 4. (3. 54°F (30°C) above the stabilized furnace temperature mea.4 Test Method E136 does not apply to laminated or than 25 nor evidence of continued progressive combustion coated materials and is not suitable or satisfactory for materials when tested in accordance with Test Method E84. (c) The material has the structural base of a noncombus- (b) No flaming from the test specimen is observed at any time tible material with a surfacing not exceeding a thickness of 1⁄8 during the test. When a material (a) The recorded temperatures of the surface and interior is required to be a limited combustible material it must pass the thermocouples do not at any time during the test rise more than requirements of NFPA 259. continued progressive combustion when tested in accordance including composite systems.4. (8141 kJ/kg) (a) The recorded temperature of the surface and interior where tested in accordance with NFPA 259. in the form pass the test are the same and they are as described in 5.4. the stabilized furnace temperature measured prior to the test.2 mm) where the surfacing exhibits a flame spread index 5.4.4).0 – 2.0 Self-heating (exothermic) N/A N/A material passes the test when the criteria in both (a) and (b) are 5. One of the alternatives uses the apparatus and Method E84. not greater than 50 when tested in accordance with Test bustible.29 × 10-9) 3.0 (117-458) Pa-s-m) (Desiccant Method) Water vapor sorption (by weight) Maximum (%) Not Stated 5 N/A (ASTM C1104/C1104M) Water Absorption (ASTM C209) % 0. (a) The material does not comply with the requirements for (2) If the weight loss of the specimen exceeds 50%. It is 5.2. exhibits a below are met: potential heat value not exceeding 3500 Btu/lb.1.4. °F (C)) Minus 150 (-101) 225 (107) -40 (-40) Density (ASTM C302and C303) lb/ft3 (kg ⁄ m3) Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated Block compressive strength (minimum) at 5% Not Stated Not Stated 16-25 (110 – 172) deformation except where noted (ASTM C165) psi (kPa) per D1621 Flexural strength (minimum) psi (kPa) Not Stated Not Stated 40 (275) (ASTM C446) per C203 Dimensional change at max.4.4) 0.4.05 (7.1.5% (See Table 4) per D2126 Surface burning characteristics (ASTM E84) Flame Index / Not Stated Not Stated (Note 2) Smoke Developed Index Combustion characteristics (ASTM E136) Not Stated Not Stated Not Stated Water Vapor permeability (ASTM E96/E96M) Perm-inch (g/ 0.

support index it usually must be tested in accordance with Test Method forces. results in low flame spread indices between the two nozzles. testing of materials that melt. the contrac- drip. For flat surfaces. or secured from the back side. However. assess the response of materials. if the material does not spring insulation thickness. developed index (SDI).4. 5.3.4 The tests described in 5. When cold insulation is restrained between two 5. The weight of a person can be source. or assembly being tested needs distributed over an area as small as 2 to 3 in. or other specified assessed by means of a flame spread index (FSI) and a smoke deformation.2 The most common compressive forces that insulation certain values of flame spread index and smoke developed should endure in the field are caused by foot traffic. will result in compression of the that do not relate directly to indices obtained by testing insulation. some materials. so out-of-the-box testing could assessment for a particular end use or application.3 In some industrial applications insulation materials are resilience. thus the reduction of the distance flame front is destroyed.3 The use of supporting materials on the underside of necessary compressive strength. removed.2.4. the force test.2 Support Forces—The weight of the pipe and the relative burning behavior of the material by observing the content should be transmitted through the insulation to the flame spread along the specimen. products or assemblies to heat Many insulation materials behave inelastically when loaded at and flame under laboratory conditions. if any. the results of any of these tests deformation. products or assemblies under tion. product. Thus. and differential thermal contraction or expansion be- E84 (see Table 1). Many insulation materials exhibit no elasticity or 5.5. bending moments should be the flame spread index from those which might be obtained if added. properties are produced by forces that tend to compact the Typically.5. or bands. Flame spread and smoke insulation support rings. these tests purport to address all of the safety concerns.5 Compressive Properties: 5. depending on the pipe size.3. The material.4. bars. material failure.4. The test insulation. the specimen could be tested without such support.1 Test Method E84 assesses the comparative surface operating practices will minimize these forces.5.1 Foot Traffıc—Many times personnel must gain ac- surface to be evaluated exposed face down to the ignition cess to areas for maintenance. When a material is required to meet 5.4. Proper selection burning behavior of building materials and is typically appli.4.6 Corrosivity: 8 . This may be a result of thermal limitations prior to use.4. It is the responsibility of the user of with temperature. decomposition of the binder or another organic constituent. 5. contraction. tween the insulation and insulated steel. 10 %. such as 5 %. The load produces a deformation and porate all the factors required for fire hazard or fire risk the material does not "spring back" to the original configura- assessment of the materials. If the weight of by its own structural quality.1 Compressive property is the value of the compressive orientation. so the in-service property can be greatly the corresponding standard to establish appropriate safety and different than the strength measured at room temperature and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory reported on the data sheet.5. dynamic. for example C1393 material may load required to compress or deform a material. Compressive exhibit different compressive properties on the axis of loading.3. however. insulation Test Method E84 and they provide help in the preparation of may be compressed against the outer jacketing. decreasing the test specimens and mounting methods.1-5. When the length and diameter of a large item 5.4 Because of directional cell structure or fiber 5. These test 5. per Test Method C165.2 The purpose of Test Method E84 is to determine the 5. However. Test Method C165 test specimens Excessive/unacceptable deformation is usually considered if are prepared so that the direction of loading will compress the permanent or. A permanent deformation may have previously can be used as elements of a fire hazard or of a fire risk been induced by packaging. insulation thickness.3 Thermal Strain—Dimensional changes in the insu- results do not necessarily relate to indices obtained by testing lation or steel are generally a result of thermal expansion or materials without such support.2. damage will occur. axis of minimum strength. The same load applied again will produce a different actual fire conditions.5. back and recover from the deformation when the load is may be acting perpendicular to this axis.4 In Test Method E84. Test measurements of compressive 5. usually load that produces yields. Proper design and 5. compressive strength of the material.5.2 (130 to 190 to be capable of being mounted in the test position during the mm2). but they do not incor.3 The compressive strength of most materials changes associated with their use. so compressive “resistance” is defined instead as the required to meet certain surface burning characteristics. None of give erroneous test results. C1696 − 15 5.4. Excessive deformation that is inelastic will yield a materials that remain in place. Note that contraction forces.3. of insulation material will minimize the resulting damage to the cable to exposed surfaces such as walls and ceilings.5 Several mounting practices have been developed for increases as the operating temperature increases. the test specimen needs to either be self-supporting is more evenly distributed over a larger area.3 can all be used to strength differ from in{service performance for many reasons. piping or equipment insulation should be selected with the 5.5. elevated temperatures.4. there is not (1) When insulation is required to support cold insulated necessarily a relationship between these two measurements. nozzles of a steel vessel and the vessel is cooled. the axis of maximum strength is perpendicular to the material rather than pull the material’s internal structure apart. developed index values are reported. 5.3. in other words. An appropriate safety factor the test specimen in Test Method E84 has the ability to lower that considers static. is conducted with the specimen in the ceiling position with the 5. held in place by added supports the person divided by the area of distribution exceeds the along the test surface. or delaminate to such a degree that the continuity of the tion of the vessel and.2.

2 Test Method C692 for Evaluating the Influence of prevented. some new ideas. In addition to meeting C665 for Mineral Fiber Blanket provides a qualitative measure the requirements of this specification. if the formulation of the materials has not cal currents from external sources affect the rate and type of changed and the material passed Test Method C692. ambient air containing salts and wash-down water or maintenance cost in refineries. In addition. When plotted on the graph in Specification C795. or surface coatings at the interface. almost all water contains chloride ions. to illustrate a range of acceptable chloride plus fluoride 5.6. When practice covers procedures for a quantitative accelerated labo- applying the results from these tests. consideration must be ratory evaluation of the influence of extraction solutions given to other insulation system factors including the pipe containing ions leached from thermal insulation on the aqueous operating temperature.6. 5.6. to provide a means of calibration and comparison.4. Sources of increased. systems. it gives dissimilar metals.4. Specification C795 re- 5.2 Corrosion of piping and equipment under insulation is quires a pH of water leached from the insulation in accordance a serious concern and cost could cost companies millions of with Test Methods C871 to be no greater than 12. and other types of around this subject. replacement. temperature. In an effort to minimize this problem.6. pollution.3 Test Methods C871 for Chemical Analysis of Ther- structure. and lost production. Testing can also be done with cement. This currently available and may provide useful information. As more leached out of the insulation and can exacerbate oxidation problems have been experienced. openings in the insulation with chloride-free sealant and to use When comparing the various approaches. will significantly contribute to stress corrosion cracking of (1) Standard Practice C1617 for Evaluating the Influence austenitic stainless steel. the nature of the corrosive medium (electrolyte).6. C1696 − 15 5.4 If an evaluation needs to be made as to whether the 5. fluoride. the use of pipe coatings.6.1 The corrosion process of metal is very complex and determining if a material could contribute to stress corrosion takes many forms depending on the nature of the metal or cracking.6 Factors Impacting Corrosion: concentrations in conjunction with sodium plus silicate con. In addition to Thermal Insulations on External Stress Corrosion Cracking being an excellent electrolyte. some indication that. it is evident that properly designed and installed jacketing and vapor retarder to there are many similarities. ducts.3 The following ASTM testing is available to assist in insulation and accessory materials in a particular application determining the effect of insulation material on metal surfaces. incidental environmental factors such as the presence of Silicate. an evaluation needs to be 5. When water referred to as the preproduction test or 28-day test. it should corrosion. The increased activity was driven largely by many leachable chlorides and halides in addition to the insulation occurrences of severe corrosion under insulation resulting in system are possibly leaking process liquid from within the major equipment outages. gas plants. alloy. then CUI will be kept to a minimum. companies have developed the pipe or equipment with an appropriate coating and seal all their own criteria and approaches to the prevention of CUI. and sodium ions that inhibit the stress corrosion of stainless oxide scales. without which corrosion could Tendency of Austenitic Stainless Steel—This test method.6.5.5. Many articles and symposia papers have insulated surfaces.1 Water is the biggest enemy of thermal insulation centrations.3 Chlorides or halides contained in insulation may be not referenced in the literature until the 1950s.5.6. or process stabilization. The most practical way to reduce corrosion is to protect 5. If moisture migration into the insulation system is 5. and unexpected piping. The way to limit corrosion under insulation. and other factors such as stress. conservation. and the occasional presence of stray electri. ions that accelerate and silicate the electrolyte movement. the homogeneity of its 5. not cause stress corrosion cracking. and some old ideas that have stood the test of performance. deposits on surfaces. minimize water entry into the insulation system. and so forth. is used in is allowed to enter the insulation system and get to the hot 9 .6. such as the presence of inclusions adhesives. incorporates the experience of C795 puts the results of Test Methods C871 in graphical form many companies and shows some solutions to CUI. and Sodium Ions—This analysis tells how to test for oxygen or salt-laden air.1 Specification C795 for Thermal Insulation for Use in controls.5. and the corrosion of metals other than stainless steel. the materials should pass of the corrosiveness of insulation material by comparison to a the preproduction test requirements of Test Method C692 for control. A number of factors.4. destructive results and nature of the corrosion mechanism are 5.2 To avoid these problems.5 Control of Corrosion under Thermal Insulation: made as to whether the insulation and accessory materials in a 5. they may exacerbate stress been published since 1983 as interest and activity in CUI have corrosion cracking on austenitic stainless steel. for as long as hot or cold equipment has been insulated for Painting or coating surfaces to be insulated may be the best thermal protection. the following ASTM test methods are of Thermal Insulation on Aqueous Corrosion of Metals. and chemical plants.6.6. Fluoride.6. coatings. often not occur.6.6. Contact with Austenitic Stainless Steel—This specification (2) Imbedded test method in ASTM Material Specification covers nonmetallic thermal insulation. (25°C). 5. The Control of confirming quality control and chemical requirements when Corrosion under Thermal Insulation and Fireproofing tested in accordance with the Test Methods C871. stress corrosion effects on austenitic stainless steel and the 5. the mal Insulation Materials for Leachable Chloride.1 Corrosion under insulation (CUI) has been occurring particular application will significantly contribute to corrosion. Prepared labora- likelihood of water entering the insulation system. tory standard solutions are used as reference solutions and 5. the velocity of the leachable chloride. galvanic effects between steel. some differences. concern and interest has built corrosion to steel and iron pipes.5 at 77°F dollars every year in repairs. production losses. Specification Materials—A System Approach.6.4 NACE Standard Practice SP0198. rain.

11. One rate of corrosion of steel.2 During the design process.8 Dimensional Stability: Water will freeze if allowed to migrate to a point in the 5. numbers less than 7 increasing acidity. for example. bore coatings. bedding compounds.3 The total insulation system design should take into safe and tolerable limits. tions are exothermic during thermal decomposition when the trations after time can reach thousands of parts per million. C1696 − 15 metal surface.1 Dimensional stability is the material property that insulating system at or below 32°F (0°C). The insulation itself can be used in constructing a corrosion.6.5 Test Method C871 requires that the pH of an surface and increases with increasing relative humidity. joint sealants. rainwater. depends on the physicochemical nature of the material’s 5.6. from entering the insulating system is the installation and and numbers greater than 7 increasing alkalinity.6.9. material weight mass is required for design. Ice can quickly destroy the insulating envelope through freeze- thaw cycling caused by ambient air temperature changes.11. 5. The selection of all materials is dependent on operating the density to calculate loadings and the heating rate when conditions and the estimated equipment service life.10 Hygroscopicity—Hygroscopicity is the tendency of a sources containing these species.6. The ingress of water from external 5. 5.11 Liquid Water Properties: tivity in gram equivalents per liter in expressing both acidity 5.2. The effect ous for corrosion. control of acetylene torches and welding operations around spheric species such as nitrates and sulfates are also known to such insulated systems should be instituted. this during shutdowns. Dimensional 100°C)—Water will stay in the liquid phase if allowed to changes may also produce adverse effects in the installed migrate within the insulating system. Processes operating at internal temperature in insulation can exceed the temperature very high temperatures are subject to stress corrosion cracking of the hot surface on which it is installed.4 The presence of chloride ions (potentially from insulation material is exceeded.9. In most cases.7 Density—The weight of a unit volume of insulation is protection depending on their liquid water transmittance prop- normally expressed as lb/ft3 (kg ⁄ m3).2 Per NACE SP0198. power is lost. the effective hydrogen-ion concentration or hydrogen-ion ac- 5. and water used for hosing down equipment may especially pertinent for materials whose physical characteris- contain sufficient aggressive species to be potentially danger. or Test Method lating system. Ingress of other atmo. there is a fire salt-laden air) is known to have a very significant effect on the exposure.8. Stress corrosion cracking usually occurs at the insulation is elevated.6. or any other unusual service condition occurs. It is necessary to know the thermal consideration not only the primary insulation material. cutting. pH is the negative logarithm of also 5. transient internal temperature rise should be controlled within 5. caulking. and so forth.12.6. These tests methods may require the material conditions that establish the thermal gradient and the materials to be preconditioned before testing. Density should be determined per 5. but the chloride ion specifically attacks the from any exothermic reaction can be safely dissipated. of water on a metal pipe surface can also lead to corrosion. impact the k-value of those insulations susceptible of retaining 5. stress corrosion cracking of heat from thermal decomposition is released faster than it can austenitic stainless steel takes place at temperatures above be transferred to the surroundings. This is because not only do the control measures include heat-up schedules that raise the sodium and chloride ions add to the electrical conductivity of operating temperature slowly so that the rate of heat release the electrolyte. this property is spillages. Test Method C303. A second line of should be used to help determine the possible effect of the defense can be constructed through the proper design and insulation material on corrosion of the metal surface or any installation of the additional materials forming the insulating coating that may have been used to protect the surface from system. 5.1 Chemical reaction that release heat are classified as magnitude greater than most insulation materials. but also stability of the system and each of its components. tics are appreciably altered by effects of water vapor.1 In temperature ranges of 32°F (0°C) or less— 5. The formation of ice indicates an ability to retain an object’s size or shape after provides an internal destructive force on the insulating system. the internal temperature of 120°F (50°C).2. second line of defense. add to the corrosion risk. The following is a summary of the impact of materials that contain water such as calcium silicate or perlite water present within an insulating system for pipes and that the “as-manufactured density” be requested and used when equipment operating over different temperature ranges. See insulation material be tested. Many organic materials used in thermal insula. In some instances.2 Dimensional changes can affect the ease of installation 5. organic material is exposed to elevated temperatures.2 In temperature ranges of 32 to 212°F (0 to and may render the material unsuitable for use. It is necessary to know erties. Insulations offer varying degrees of 5. The impact will vary depending on the operating D1622/D1622M.9 Exothermic Reaction: water as the k-value of water is well more than an order of 5.6. what can occur if the maximum use temperature of the 5. It is the possible corrosive contributions of fabricating adhesives. designers should anticipate facing materials. It is recommended for of construction. These values maintenance of a protective weather barrier.6. Careful protective film on the metal surface.8. important to know how much and how fast heat is released.1 It is important to prevent liquid water from entering and alkalinity on a scale whose values run from 0 to 14 with 7 the insulating system.11. the transient temperatures just below 350°F (175°C). reducing its useful service life. If the 5. the water evaporates and the chloride concen. The primary method of preventing water representing neutrality. plant material to absorb water vapor from the air.11. or being subjected to temperature or moisture. The presence exothermic. Water can adversely system. mass is one of the functions. aging. 10 .2 The presence of water negatively impacts the insu- Test Method C302.

C1696 − 15 Corrosion can occur if the combinations of water/metal/oxygen hours. Two specimens are area. the water until all have been weighed. areas within the material will be at or below 212°F (100°C). After submerging it for 2 600°F (316°C) for a minimum of 24 hours.2. Measure the thickness of the specimen with balance with a wire sling such that the top horizontal surface of reasonable accuracy and calculate the volume from there.1 Test Methods C209 Procedure—Condition the low-permeance plastic film. Weigh the specimen to the nearest 0. After the 10 minutes.1 g). (50 mm) below the surface of the water. as removing specimens 5. condition them in a forced-air circulating oven for of conditions. then submerge it horizontally under 1 in. Weigh the under 1 in. soft bristle brush.4°F (23 5. preferably 2 by 12 by 18 in. remove the excess surface water by without removing the specimen from the water. The heat treated specimen is removed and along with the control specimen placed in a controlled environment of 73 6 1. period. Adjust the water level to maintain a 2-in. 24 specimen and quickly wipe off excess surface moisture with a rials for Structural Sandwich Constructions C610 Specification for Molded Expanded Perlite Block and 48 damp cloth.004 oz (0.1 g).5 evaluates the water absorptivity of the insulation material after by 460 mm) and calculate the volume and exposed surface being exposed to an elevated temperature. D2842 Test Method for Water Absorption of Rigid Cellular 96 The calculation should be as follows: Plastics Weight absorption 5 100 3 ~ W AI 2 W AHS! /W AHS (2) 11 . 15 min pellency) Characteristics of Fibrous Glass Insulation (Aircraft (3) Calculate the percent of water absorption by weight.1 g).1 g). The oven is operated at are required to keep it submerged.004 oz (0. Do not remove any specimens from weigh the specimen.12. distilled water maintained at a temperature of 73 6 5.4 6 several methods that are different for the various types of 3.004 oz (0. specimens with a suitable weighted rack in an open top 5. After 2 hours of test specimen into the submerged underwater weighing jig submersion. Liquid water absorption test methods measure the 5. water.12 Liquid Water Absorption: 6 3°C).11. wipe off all surface water with a dry cloth. Be sure carefully weigh the specimen and submerge it horizontally that the submerged jig is free of trapped air bubbles. Immerse the in the weather barrier. Immediately weigh each specimen to the nearest Pipe Thermal Insulation 0. (150 by 150 mm) faces in the horizontal position.12.4 6 temperature of 73.2.4 Test Method D2842 Procedure—After cutting amount of water absorbed into the insulation under a given set specimens. (25 mm) of fresh tap water maintained at a empty submerged jig to the nearest 0.004 oz (0.004 oz (0.5 Specification C610 Procedure—This test procedure of a cellular glass block.8°F (23 6 1°C) TABLE 2 ASTM Test Methods that Measure Liquid Water and 50 6 5 % relative humidity. amount of water absorbed by a material when in contact with and weigh immediately. (25 mm) of distilled water at ambient temperature is C240 Test Methods of Testing Cellular Glass Insulation Block 2 maintained for a minimum of 48 hours. hours (2) Completely immerse each specimen so that a head of 1 C209 Test Methods for Cellulosic Fiber Insulating Board 2 in.2. Wring out the sponge 212°F (100°C)—The total thickness of the insulation material before and once in between for each face and pass it at least should be evaluated to determine if it is possible that some two times on each surface. (25 mm) of water (1) One specimen is placed in an electric oven and the maintained at 70 6 5°F (21 6 3°C). surface water by hand with a damp sponge for 1 minute on the 5.1 g). Insert the temperature of 73. remove the specimens from the 5. After the specimens have Absorption Properties cooled for at least 12 hours in the control environment. and required for this test procedure.04 in. in a container of decreasing the thermal performance of the material. Attach the underwater weighing jig to of 50 6 5 %.3 In temperature ranges equal to or greater than large face and 1 minute on the four sides. Inert top surface weights second is used as a control sample.3 Test Method C272/C272M Procedure—Completely thus allowing the insulation to remain wet during operation and immerse the specimens. 24 hours or more at 122 + 5°F (50 6 3°C). and length to the nearest 0.2. 5.2 Test Methods C240 Procedure—Carefully measure reduces the 2-in.6°F (23 6 2°C). Table 2 is a list of ASTM test methods along with the Remove obvious air bubbles clinging to the specimen with a specified submersion period. insulation. At the end of 24 hours. at the end of this time.2. place the specimen on end to drain for 10 minutes.12. Cover the entire surface of the water with 5. (50 mm) head of water at 73. ASTM Test Method Period. resting on edge. C1511Test Method for Determining the Water Retention (Re. Type) using the weights obtained after heat soaking as the dry weight. remove the excess lating system.2. Insulation water absorption data gives an indi. the thickness. drain for 10 minutes.4 6 4°F (23 62°C) and a relative humidity 3. (1 mm) 5. Withdraw each C272/C272M Test Method for Water Absorption of Core Mate. set the specimen on end on a damp cotton bath towel to or water/stainless steel/chlorides are present within the insu. All the methods are based on measuring the weight (50-mm) head of water over the top of the specimens with 6- gain of a sample immersed in water following a drain or drip by 6-in.6°F (23 6 2°C). (50 mm) head. Then the jig is 2 in. (5 by 30. weigh Submersion each of the specimens to the nearest 0.12.1 Liquid water absorption is the property defined as the water one at a time. Weigh to the hand with a blotting paper or paper towel and immediately nearest 0.12. width.12. Place the cation of how the insulation might resist water given a breach underwater weighing jig in an immersion tank.4 6 4°F (23 6 2°C).2 Liquid water absorption properties are measured by immersion tank filled with freshly distilled water at 73.12. Leave specimens immersed for 96 specimen until the practical constant weight is obtained at a h while maintaining a 2-in.

Fairbanks.15. and so forth.13. tanks. in addition to 5. and weather.2. cracking. The temperature is then brought up at a rate per applicable to every system.13 Maximum/Minimum Temperatures for Continuous Op.13.2 Long service life denotes that the designed thermal visual examination and report made per Test Method C411. In mum temperature until equilibrium is reached and then held the industrial sector. equipment.13.1 One of the major concerns of a designer is to provide recommended temperature range based on thermal properties the owner with some assurances that insulated systems will at the rate per the recommendations of the manufacturer or perform as intended for an extended period of time There is no with little regard to other physical properties. solids. and pipes in residential buildings is 5. such as in an (minimum/maximum) and the proper insulation material(s) expansion (contraction) joint. within 96 hours. which air and water are the principal fluids being contained.1 Test Method C411 stipulates that the insulation months to as much as 20 or more years. saturated until all the major changes occur within the product. decrease in thickness.4 When the temperature of the system to be insulated is or contraction and excessive heat flows through parallel paths. protect the insulated system from mechanical abuse or ates with combinations of maximum and minimum weather-related damage in normal service. material for an inner layer and another type for the outer 5. It relies on the proper design details and proper installa- peratures for cold-service pipe insulation materials. done for ducts. warpage. vibration. one major concern is system-operating temperature(s) tion is used to take up dimensional change.13.13. It needs the proper selection of the appro- results. performance is maintained to some high percentage of the material properties are tested and reported. Next. hot surfaces. The product is maintained at this maxi. It depends on the temperatures. Determination of material accept. it may be necessary for the specifier to look at proper selection of maintenance procedures to inspect and 12 . flexural strength. Anecdotal information tells us that what should be glowing. or any other visible changes. pated conditions of weather. thermal conductivity. eration: 5. humidity. Note that the properties and values obtained after heat exchangers. a low-compressive strength may designed for use within those operating parameters.3 There is no existing ASTM standard for testing. and so the engineer or designer to have good knowledge of the forth in addition to any damage resulting from excessive materials in the pipes. priate insulation materials to meet the specific thermal design 5. Insulation be needed. ice. temperature of test. wind.15 Service Life: 5. and It demands the proper selection of surfacing treatments to then regenerates at temperatures well above ambient or oper. Even the definition Method C411 or Practice C447 should be considered. After exposure on the hot surface for 96 hours the product is then cooled and.14 Resilience—Resilience is the ability of a material to 5. The same holds true for commercial construction in by the manufacturer. and ability should be made by the specifier after review of the test seismic exposure. original design. towers. shock. test results obtained from Test systems in the industrial market segments. time. fire. number are not the same for Philadelphia. There are too many material be applied on a test plate or pipe while at ambient extremes and too many variables to make specific comments temperature. smoldering. When insula- service. C1696 − 15 where: the combinations of maximum and minimum tests results plus WAI = after immersion specimen weight. ultimate/irreversible damage. A rapid heat up within the insulation may and chemicals that may be corrosive. smoking. The percentage of recovery to original size upon the materials’ intended operating temperature ranges for insulation relief of stress is important. or reporting results for minimum operating tem.2. usually steam. combustible. delamination. or cause an undesirable exothermic change resulting with toxic also should be handled in the industrial sector. number of segments tested. and exotherming. this report should define any evidence of flaming. Anecdotal information tells us that what should be sagging. Anecdotal information report is written to specify the kind of insulation material tells us that design conditions in Houston for outdoor systems tested. this recommended range should be the estimate the duration or “service life” periods for insulated first consideration. Los Alamos. layer(s).15. or and extent of cracks. that is. operates at temperatures below ambient. of the term extended period of time can range from several 5. 5. unstable. done for cold surfaces is different from what should be done for Also. Chicago.13. liquids.2 Practice C447 requires that the pipe or plate be simple because the major fluids in the insulated systems are heated to the maximum temperature before the material is usually air and water at temperatures usually below 250°F applied unless a specific heat up temperature limit is specified (121.2 Insulation manufacturers will normally publish a 5. requirements of the system in service and over a long period of specifying. When selecting accepted handbook containing recipes for establishing how to an insulation material. tion to reduce or eliminate the deleterious effects of expansion 5. It demands the proper selection of construc- testing at maximum temperature may eliminate that insulation tion materials to contain these materials safely under antici- material from consideration. tanks. vessels.1°C).1 When choosing an insulation material for any given recover dimensionally upon release from stress. and superheated steam. water is handled as a liquid. cyclic in nature. and ambient conditions intended service. a of temperatures. materials are normally specified by the insulation material manufacturers. Other gasses. After the product has been heated to the range from mild indoor conditions to severe outdoor exposures maximum temperature and held for approximately 96 h. Long service life of insulated systems requires compression. Service temperatures range from the recommendations of the manufacturer or the rate of the cryogenics up to 2300°F (1260°C). and all associated properties to determine the need for one type of WAHS = after heat soak specimen weight.

3 Long-term service life demands that the insulated property in selection of materials for intermittent or transient system be well designed. The units of permeability are g/(Pa·s·m) thermal efficiency. the time. which is an indication that the exposed temperature ability to resist physical damage.16 Shrinkage: 5.48°C) mean temperature. the reciprocal of thermal transmission transmittance {U- 5. It is essential to know this 5. both of which are undesirable.22 Water Vapor Permeability: thermally efficient and possibly more hazardous.1 Water vapor permeability is defined in Test Methods limit of permissible shrinkage in service. from each manufacturer of a generic material type. C1696 − 15 repair the system regularly and quickly. However. Almost any insulation used in an 5. since each Note that permeance is not a material property but a perfor- may have different rates. any gaps that open at more resistance it is to the diffusion of moisture vapor through joints in an individual layer result in less significant losses in a given thickness of it.22. This property is 5.21 Vibration Resistance: temperature will be reached at which the shrinkage becomes 5. and the the hot and cold surfaces of the individual layers. Sufficient fibrous materials with densities less than or equal to 3 lb/ft3 (48 warpage can be disruptive to insulation securement systems. 5. well built. rendering the installed system less 5. it will be necessary construction induced by unit vapor pressure difference between to obtain the linear shrinkage rates at different temperatures two specific surfaces. A Perm is 1 grain/(ft2·h·in. kg/m3) and is performed at ambient temperatures. The units of permeance are g/(Pa·s·m2) or Perm. in some cases. Usually the amount of shrinkage fast heat ups or fire protection systems.7 Linear shrinkage may also need to be considered 5. It is limit of the material.2 Fibrous materials tend to resist vibration. the degree of linear E96/E96M as the time rate of water vapor transmission through shrinkage to be tolerated by specimens of an insulating unit area of flat material of unit thickness induced by unit vapor material when subjected to soaking heat should be determined pressure differential between the two specific surfaces under from experience. 5.18 Thermal Diffusivity—This property may be important 5.21. settling. ’bulk’.16. The permeabil- 5.16. 5. In cyclic services rapid dissipation of tempera- is the material property that indicates the dimensional or ture may be desired or a high rate of thermal transference is volumetric changes that occur when exposed to cryogenic or important. per pound per degree Fahrenheit Btu/lb°F (Joules per kilogram installation.17 Specific Heat/Specific Entropy—Specific heat is the should be accommodated within the cost constraints superim. ASTM to warp. tion applications such as insulation in building envelopes. Linear adjust their temperature to that of their surroundings. additional information. surfaces often introduces strains and may cause the insulation 5.15. That is to say. such surface.6 One method of controlling warpage and stress. It is the ratio of material 13 .3 Most insulating materials will begin to shrink at important when an insulation material is installed on cyclic. or maintenance will shorten the service degree Celsius or Kelvin (J/kg. The layering reduces the differential shrinkage between divided by the vapor pressure differential. lished after the material has been subjected to a soaking heat 5. the lower the permeability.5 High shrinkage may also open gaps at the insulation joints to an excessive extent.16.16. layers. Substances with high thermal diffusivity rapidly elevated temperatures. material that indicates its ability to be subjected to rapid tures.1 Shrinkage.2 The linear shrinkage under soaking heat listed within value}. Weaknesses in any area of design. The R-value is normally used for nonindustrial insula- various ASTM material specifications is a maximum rate. usually at the maximum temperature usually determined at 75°F (23. quantity of heat required to change the temperature of a unit posed by the owner. The as compressor vibration. mass of a substance one degree.19 Thermal Resistance—Thermal resistance {R-value} is for a period of 24 hours. the shrinkage will be greatest on the hot face. some definite temperature. the the insulation joints between layers. or Perm inch. or dusting off. increases as the exposure temperature increases.21. a material may experi. ity of a material is expressed in terms of the weight of the water induced cracks is to install the insulation system in multiple vapor transmitted through a unit thickness of the material. mance evaluation of the test specimen. operate as designed. has exceeded the materials maximum temperature limit. otherwise referred to as linear shrinkage. operation. temperature changes without physical failure. Eventually a 5. All of these things 5. These rates should be obtained ity conditions.2 Water vapor permeance is the time rate of water when designing insulation expansion joints in high.16. or vibrations caused by differential shrinkage that results between the hot and cold the fluids or gases passing through the line or vessels. See Test Method C351 for life of an insulated system. because shrinkage is determined in accordance with the test method they conduct heat quickly in comparison to their thermal specified in the material standard.1 This is a property of a material that indicates its excessive. High shrinkage can produce excessive warpage and testing such as Specification C1139 is applicable to only some induce cracking. and operations. By offsetting area of the material. These changes are irreversible. Hence. 5. under specified temperature and humid- from the material manufacturer. vapor transmission through unit area of flat material or temperature insulation systems.K). HG). However. Linear shrinkage is estab. the rate of shrinkage is nonlinear across the material- use temperature range. without wearing away.16.22.20 Thermal Shock Resistance—This is a property of a ence very little or no shrinkage at low or moderate tempera. To predict the 5.4 When an insulating material is applied to a hot industrial application will be subjected to some vibration.16. The unit of measurement in inch pounds is one Btu well maintained. fan pulsations. specified temperature and humidity conditions.

one face of the sample is sealed to a test dish 6. The units for WVT are g/(h·m2) or grains/(h·ft2 ). such as meeting technical conditions for the test are listed by ASTM. This gives you the measures the insulation’s capillary action given a set of permeability of the product.22.2 While the initial cost of the insulation system is sample. to other problems such as corrosion. actual field of the insulation.1. the materials being compared should be tested example: using identical conditions. and 50 % or 50 and 100 % on either side of the sample. it is equally depen. (3) Minimization of temperature gradients or prevention of tank. but there may be other reasons. Add to this the fact that the moisture present can lead systems operating at below ambient. layout should provide adequate clearance for insulation so that 14 . The wicking test method by the dry film thickness that was tested.22. and then periodically weighed to deter.3 Energy conservation is often the primary reason for on the same material. with the lowest portion under water.1. wicking. mold and mildew growth.3 If you wish to calculate the permeance of a thickness or translate liquid water via capillary action. 5. and proper flashings and sealing different methods. These are listed in requirements.6 Water vapor can penetrate all but a few materials. and so forth.1 System Design Consideration—Insulation system design measurement of permeance. In the 6.1. 6. Procedure B). conditions.23. 5. for the 6. Design Considerations ods the desiccant method and the water method. hence. Insulation desiccant. flanges. Be aware that no two also be considered. ambient systems that are periodically shut down. in addition to choosing ating at below ambient temperatures.4 Water vapor transmission is the quantity of water C1559. the insulation is higher than the vapor pressure next to the pipe. weatherproofing.1. This pressure difference causes water sudden temperature changes as a result of weather changes.1 Preplanning for thermal insulation should be carried containing a desiccant. extent of insulation. The relative permeability of these (9) Fire protection.2 Piping and Equipment Design—Piping and equipment ing the system. availability. an insulation with low permeability for below-ambient service. The height to which vapor transmitted through a unit area per unit time under water rises over a certain period of time is the amount of specified conditions of humidity. different test conditions are likely to yield the same test results 6. the sample is exposed to a hanger-type pipe supports should be designed to carry the extra controlled atmosphere. A set of six standard important. a strip of the material is suspended mostly in air. and equipment. other factors. vapor to migrate into the insulation and eventually reach a (4) Maintenance of the internal temperature of a fluid point where condensation and. (6) Limitation or control of heat gain to the system oper- and sweating or dripping. temperature. accessory materials should be taken into account when design.22.1. 6. insulating properties of the insulation assembly begin to (5) Prevention or minimization of surface condensation on degrade.23 Wicking: dent on both thickness and permeability.22. Agreement should not be expected between results obtained by vapor stops (cold service). you simply multiply the permeance teristic or treatment do not wick.1. through the 6. thickness. if conditions are right. The sample is exposed to a set of out when laying out piping and equipment during the early controlled conditions. For comparisons. and thickness. In this test. and/or sealants will be (8) Noise control. (1) Process control and stabilization by maintaining a fluid 5. the need for expansion/contraction joints. and two variations including requires fulfilling process. should Appendix X1 Test Methods E96/E96M. vapor-retardant jackets. C1696 − 15 permeability to sample thickness. and desired length of service. 5. Insulation wicking data indicates how the insula- inches) and divide by the thickness you wish to evaluate. that is. and then periodically weighed to deter. resting-type and spring- to a dish containing water. and needed as part of the system. ice above a specified minimum temperature to avoid corrosive formation occurs. You then take this figure (perm. In the water method. and mechanical require- service conditions with one side wetted and service conditions ments. mine the rate of vapor movement from the dish. the thermal attack from condensing acids. Therefore. This tion will or will not transport water given a breach in the will give you the approximate permanence (in perm) at that weather barrier. Along with careful selection of insulation materials and with low humidity on one side and high humidity on the other. therefore.1. Nonporous other than that at which the coating was tested (Test Methods materials and some of those with a non-hydrophobic charac- E96/E96M. thermal.5 Test Methods E96/E96M describes two basic meth. 5. While WVT results from using conditions should be addressed in the system design. coatings. to make accurate specifying insulation.1 Wicking is the ability of a porous material to elevate 5. Again. items to be insulated are all part of decision making under tions of 73°F on both sides of the sample and humidities of 0 insulation system design. Once this condensation begins. (7) Protection against freezing or hydrate formation.1 General: desiccant method. one face of the sample is sealed adds weight to piping.23. phase of the design of new construction to allow for clearance mine the rate of vapor movement through the sample into the of insulation around pipes. Most often. the vapor pressure outside temperatures. vessel. In temperature within specific limits or to ensure that a fluid insulated systems that operate below ambient or in the above retains specific physical properties at the point of delivery. into the controlled atmosphere. limits of insulation. most WVT data is provided at condi. the vapor (2) Protection of personnel from hot and cold surface drive is often into the system.2 Wicking is measured in accordance to Test Method 5. The specific purpose that most closely approximate field exposure. and exposure are preferred. load.1.

essential that the wind velocity design values are established 6. For carried onto the protrusion a sufficient distance to limit heat scenarios requiring a maximum or minimum jacket surface loss.1. The near an industrial complex where potentially corrosive chemi- equipment designer should consider insulation thickness when cals are present or near coastal areas can affect the selection of designing attachments to vessels such as nozzles. impact on the insulation thickness necessary to control jacket 6. Wind 6.2. freeze protection. insulation thickness to keep this temperature above the dew 15 .S. For insulation design scenarios lated for economic reasons.3 Design Temperatures—The ambient temperatures se- supported on load bearing design insulated supports with a lected for insulation design in hot service. humidity and perature in below-ambient application. and insulation and weatherproofing materials as well as application platforms where sufficient clearance is needed to provide for procedures. It is not advisable to install such primarily for process control.2 Environmental Corrosivity—The location of a plant rain or moisture from entering into the insulated system. When insulating 60. this effect is minor and the impact on insulation thickness (1) Wind. cold service.4. Wind velocity for calculation of heat losses shown in Table 3. or 99. it is installed over insulated flanged connections in hot service to appropriate to use the year-round average temperature. supports or other agreed upon between the owner and the designer.3.4th half of their column height to keep the packing gland close to percentile) selected depending on the mission criticalness of ambient temperature. the selection of ambient design devices over flanged connections in cold service. effect on the amount of time it takes for the content of a pipe (3) Extreme temperatures.3 Insulation of Valves and Flanges: of hot or cold ambient temperature. C1696 − 15 the weather or vapor retarders will be continuous to prevent 6. and ing temperature of an insulation item thus requiring less (7) Seismic readings.2. or equipment to freeze but since this is a heat flux (4) Relative humidity.1 Geographical Location: for pipe and equipment that are shielded by other major plant 6. support assemblies should move with the pipe to condensate control an extreme of ambient temperature should prevent the opening of the insulation joints. U.4th percentile 6. the pipe should be mixed with moisture can promote corrosion of substrate steel.2. the insulation system and the consequences to the process and 6.1 Unless required to maintain critical temperature.1.3. maxi. The tem- protrusions through cold insulation the insulation shall be perature selected will depend on the design scenario. It is joint. Pipes in below-ambient applications (cold service) should be 6.2. Site Data or similar service provides local weather heat flux. Wind also has an (2) Snowfall. in above-ambient application and raises jacket surface tem- mum and average daily temperatures.1.1.2.2 Maintenance requirements may dictate whether the to safety of exceeding the desired process temperature for short insulation system is permanent or removable. Valves in temperature will be based on yearly extremes of temperature cryogenic service should have extended bonnets insulated up to with the degree of extreme (for example 95th. 99th or even 99.1 Effects of Wind on Insulation Thicknesses: different parameters than plants located in a dry cooler climate.1.3 Insulation at flanges should allow enough clearance 6.2 Review of the following parameters should give the surface temperature.4 Design guidelines for various insulation services are early in the project. this impact is fairly small. Wind significantly lowers jacket surface temperature data which can be used in determining the minimum.2. This could be a 95th. is different from the wind velocity for mechanical design. Corrosives pipes are supported on structural steel. location. This has dramatic rainfall. 99th.4 Design Wind Velocity—Wind velocity has a direct for bolt or stud removal when possible on both sides of the impact on mechanical and thermal design of insulation.1. heat gain or prevent condensation. A leak detection device may be targeted at energy savings including “economic thickness”. (2) In below-ambient applications. This is allow for testing of fugitive emissions to comply with 40 CFR the case for both cold and hot temperatures. In both temperature such as personnel protection in hot service or applications. Appendix A. wind.1 Geographical design considerations depend on plant equipment or closed structures or for items located indoors. Plants located in hot and humid climates will have 6. valves and flanges should not be insu. necessary to achieve a heat flux limit is small. wind raises the jacket- (6) Water table. elevated enough to allow for the full thickness of the insulation Equipment located in such corrosive areas may require a to clear the steel in above-ambient applications (hot service). periods of time. protection and steam or electric tracing an extreme ambient minimize heat gain. must also be considered. freeze continuous vapor retarder and with specified protective / protection. (5) Rainfall. While wind does increase heat loss or necessary design data: gain. When environment than will the other plant equipment. and steam or electric tracing service should be weather barrier covering. or ash-handling equipment will be exposed to a more corrosive Pipes should rest on pipe supports in the pipe racks.2 General Design Considerations: velocity should not be considered when designing insulation 6. or temperature must be selected and the prevailing wind condition personnel protection. 6. be selected.2. On trunnions. phenomenon. ladders. Method 21. condensation control.3. Meteorological perature of an insulated item but has only a small effect on the services. (1) Wind has a huge effect on the jacketing surface tem- The National Weather Bureau. In below ambient service protrusions shall also be vapor sealed. ASHRAE.1. heavy-duty protective coating. Likewise for freeze 6. Insulated equipment located near a cooling tower bolt removal without damaging the equipment’s insulation.

Expansion and rotation joints and similar types of mechanical equipment are not insulated. Fire Protection Insulation is used to limit heat buildup in piping or equipment during a fire. PP applications on internally insulated piping or equipment. 2. Valves. floors. Personnel Protection (PP) Insulation or shields are to be provided where the normal operating temperature exceeds 140°F (60°C). and blowers are not to be insulated unless the prevention of heat loss is critical to the system. (Hot Service. When specified on the piping and instrument diagrams. other than maintenance. unless the prevention of heat loss is critical to the system. sweating.) Cold Conservation or Control of Insulate when normal operating temperature is below ambient and it is desirable to minimize heat gain. Shields should be ventilated metal guards or screens. heat transfer equipment and steam turbines. Valves. 2. 16 . 8. The cold surface is within 7 ft (2 m) above or within 2 ft (0. Energy Conservation Insulate when normal operating temperature exceeds 140°F (60°C).4°C) are not insulated. Credit may be taken in relief sizing if proper insulation and weatherproofing are used. floors. PP applications where heat gain is desired. Equipment flanges and manholes are to be insulated. Insulate piping to limit the loss of heat. Exchanger channel section and body flange are not insulated. (API 521 may be used as a guide for this requirement). other than maintenance. Insulate equipment in steam service and/or if the prevention of heat loss is critical to the system.6 m) or both beyond accessways.8°C) and for the following conditions: 1. ladders. during plant operation. 3.4°C). PP applications where heat loss is desired. or paving. they should be used rather than insulation for the following conditions: 1. or lead to wet poorly performing insulation.4°C).6 m) or both beyond accessways. The hot surface is in an area in which personnel are regularly performing duties. External insulation should not be used on internally insulated piping or equipment. condensation and ice formation are acceptable.6°C) to prevent. Steam piping requires insulation. Fans. 2. Insulate process equipment. peratures) Personnel Protection (Cold Services) Insulation or shields are to be provided where the normal operating temperature is below 0°F (-18°C). 2. they should be used rather than insulation for temperatures up to 300°F (148. 7. Above 500°F (260°C) these items are normally not insulated so as to prevent possible leaks at bolted connections caused by differential expansion between the pipe and bolts. 5. compressors. (Note: ASTM C1055 may be used as a guide for determining the temperature at which personnel protection should be used. Anti-sweat or Prevention of Surface Insulate when the normal operating temperature is below 80°F (26. valve bonnets. Insulate process lines in which the prevention of heat loss is critical to the system. Uninsu- Heat Gain lated items could have surface condensation with dripping which could cause an unsafe condition (see Anti-sweat). 3. grade. during the plant operation. compressors. C1696 − 15 TABLE 3 Example of General Design Guidelines for Various Insulation Services (These Should be Verified on Each Project Based on Project Requirements) Service Process Control or Product Stabilization Insulate when normal operating temperature exceeds ambient and the prevention of the loss of heat is critical to (Hot Service) the operation or control of the equipment or piping. Steam or Electric Heat Tracing The operating temperature of the product or tracer temperature required to be maintained should be considered when determining the thickness and material of insulation. unless loss of heat is desirable. External insulation should not be used on internally insulated equipment. but only those portions of piping or equipment to which the following apply: 1. 2. 3. and blowers are not insulated. Exchanger channel sections and body flanges require insulation. ladders. platforms. or ice Condensation formation which could cause an unsafe condition. PP applications on internally insulated piping or equipment. 2. valves bonnets. 6. platforms. Personnel protection may be required when the fluid temperature is 140 to 400°F (60 to 204. Pumps under 400°F (204. Normally pumps under 400°F are not to be insulated. or to the quality of the process steam. Equipment flanges and manholes are to be insulated. 6. 4. EQUIPMENT 1. 3. corrosion. In the rare case where heat gain into the system is desirable a decision must be made whether sweating. Fans. 4. traced piping systems or as otherwise specified by the Owner EQUIPMENT 1. 2. The cold surface is in an area where personnel are regularly performing duties. Personnel protection may be required when the fluid temperature is 140 to 400°F (60 to 204. and flanges should be insulated up to a temperature of 500°F (260°C). Insulate expansion joints and similar types of mechanical equipment unless loss of heat is critical to the system. When specified on the piping and instrument diagrams. Thermal requirements of the insulation are the same as for process control or cold conservation depending on the temperature. but only (Hot Service) those portions of piping or equipment to which the following apply: 1. and flanges may not be insulated except in steam service. unless required for personnel protection. PIPING 1. 3. Sound Control (Below Ambient Tem. grade. excluding Sound Control) PIPING 1. equipment damage. Insulation is required for sound attenuation. Sound Control (Above Ambient) Insulation is required for sound attenuation. or paving. Shields should be ventilated metal guards or screens. The hot surface is within 7 ft (2 m) above or within 2 ft (0. condensation. 5. 2.

2 Mechanical Abuse Potential—Mechanical abuse materials and hydraulic setting insulating cements can be should be considered on a case-by-case basis.2. insulation 6. It may be necessary 6. In a 6. the closer the dew point temperature is to the ambient 6. environments there is a particular risk of condensation on the whereas compressible insulation is required for filling voids insulation system jacketing if the system is operated during and closing gaps in insulation that allows expansion.1 Rigid Versus Compressible—Rigid insulation with a and summer mornings. Compressible insulation does not offer the same in the design of the insulation system and the facility. If permeance vapor retarders.2 Insulation systems required to reduce fire loading to design to an extreme of velocity (either very high or zero) in will need insulation materials and accessories rated to with- order to achieve the desired performance of the insulation stand a hydrocarbon fire for a specific duration. the tion system. kPa) deformation. The insulation thickness required to prevent required for toxic services in which trapping of a toxic condensation (maintain the insulation jacket above the dew substance in the insulation can pose a health hazard. before is has been commissioned. this might lead to a safety 6.4.2. and they tend to retain Therefore.6 Safety: hot personnel protection situation. ing materials in this case will be stainless steel or coated steel 6. jacket surface temperature will reach more of an extreme.6. weatherproofing materials. It is recommended that insulation with equipment or pipe locations should be investigated before a compressive strength greater than about 30 psi at 5 % (206 selecting the relative humidity design value for a given project. riggings hung from pipes. point) will be thicker for high-humid areas. periods when the climate control is either malfunctioning or contraction.2.6. hydrophobic materials should be considered absorbent with a of rain or periods when the relative humidity is very high (such toxic substance. with appropriate attention to the the only way the desired surface temperature is achieved is by sealing of joints with low vapor permeance tapes and / or assuming the presence of wind. atmospheric relative humidity can cause surface condensation ambient application.2.6. as determined per C165. On tall towers and large storage tanks.2.4 Nonabsorbent-type insulation materials may also be temperature. In this case. NOTE 2—Hydrophobic insulation materials may or may not be nonab- cation or in other non-climate controlled environments. extremes of velocity should be considered. In these environments. found in the appropriate ASME standard. In climate controlled horizontal surfaces subject to vibration/loads are examples. The use of low before any surface temperature calculations are considered. be used for areas In applications in climate controlled environments. Shelf life of insulation 6. The used in such service. used as ladders/walkways. minimally affected by high humidity. Insulated items affected by high humidity. Until determined by tests to be impossible to prevent condensation 100 % or the time because otherwise. and applica- (3) When selecting the design wind velocity the impact of tion methods. as early morning) or both. condensa.3 Physical Design Considerations: relative humidity of near 100 % is common on many spring 6. and tered in the climate controlled area. condensation on the jacketing of subjected to foot traffic or excessive tightening of securement the insulation system is almost certain and must be considered (bands).3 Insulation materials that can absorb liquids and is vulnerable to wind damage because of lifting (negative) cause the flash point of the liquid to be reduced should not be forces generated by high wind on the trailing wind side. wind lowers the jacketing temperature of and accelerate corrosion of unprotected metal pipe and jacket- an insulated item thus requiring less insulation thickness to ing. In cold control situation. In above. Various resistance to such loads. These materials require special located in high-traffic areas should have a structure such as a protection during transportation and jobsite storage. Weatherproof- system. the wind load. High platform or similar protection to avoid stepping directly on 17 . In outdoor appli.1 The design of insulation for pipe and equipment issue. 6. C1696 − 15 point and decreasing the likelihood of condensation.3. 6.2. hydrophobic materials should be considered absorbent with a liquid other than water.3. it is sorbent to the toxic substance in question. consideration must be given to mastics. or movement of rigid insulation. subjected to foot traffic and / or other external loads that might tion on the jacketing can be prevented by selecting a design otherwise damage a compressible insulation material. insulation materials.2. this might lead to increase risk handling hazardous chemicals such as flammable or toxic of condensation especially if the low wind is coincident with a materials requires special consideration in the selection of period of high humidity. leading to heavy dew and even morning high compressive strength is resistant to deformation when fog. In some hot and humid climates.5 Relative Humidity—The higher the relative humidity.6.2 Effects of Wind on Metal Jacketing and jacketing since aluminum jacketing and mastic weatherproof- Securement—High wind can damage insulation and jacketing ing cannot withstand the intensity of the fire and still be unless the insulation designer designs securement to withstand functional. Non-wicking types and close-cell insulation materials are keep this temperature below the personnel protection limit. Nonabsorbent-type insulation materials wind load design data for various geographical areas can be should be used in these services. Until determined by tests to be otherwise. It may be necessary NOTE 1—Hydrophobic insulation materials may or may not be nonab- to choose an insulation of higher compressive resistance to sorbent to the liquid in question. support thin-gauge jacketing. minimizes the migration of moisture into the insula- the scenario where the wind is not blowing. Areas that experience loads or sources of weather data such as the National Weather Bureau repetitive personnel access/use will require a firmer system data for nearest to the plant site and any influencing factors at than inaccessible areas. it is essential tot establish the design wind velocity their insulation value in these conditions. Piping relative humidity greater than that which will ever be encoun.

ness for payback calculations (usually zero).2) will give a financial variables.1 Insulation Thickness Hot Surfaces: values for the proposed thermal insulation material. pipe size and orientation (or. significantly higher surface temperature than a high emittance The typical financial variables include: (that is. This means that three tables of insulation thickness(es) for economic thickness. It is also recommended that the designer make a know the process temperature. While a minimum allowable temperature drop from one point to it is impossible to predict the fuel inflation rate. should be cut back to allow access to packing glands. While default values are already may be necessary: one for maximum allowable energy loss. This heat loss can then be divided by the product of the the process temperature. same time. or similar designer can select the type of insulation with at least three program. free movement of the valve handle. where the units “feet” (“meter”) refer to unit pipe mean temperatures—thermal conductivity values for this length. the designer needs to client. it is recommended that the designer make a These calculations are both project and system specific. it is recom- another.3.1. and at least three mean temperature thermal con. Everything these calculations depend on a large number of design and else being equal.3 Clearances between Piping—Space limitations may (i) cost of either pipe insulation or board insulation.1 The three factors that influence the selection of hot (h) proposed insulation jacketing type with a value for insulation thicknesses are thermal energy loss. and worst case ambient conditions determine the expected temperature drop over that pipe length. reference insulation thick- 6. items. and the calculations run again till the with aluminum or stainless steel) and therefore have a very low expected temperature drop is within an acceptable value. Calculations surface emittance. To design such an insulation system. Or. temperature. economics. highest expected wind speed. This is (j) local labor rate. for the purpose of protecting workers from getting burned by In these cases. allowable energy loss and/or economic insulation thickness Some computer programs have the capability to accept criteria do not consider insulated surface temperature as an each of these input variables and to perform these calculations input. Items requiring frequent (g) percent of new insulation cost for maintenance. The best choice may be to relocate (a) fuel heating value. and specific heat to equipment. Insulation on lines should (c) annual hours of operation. its orientation). and personnel protection from surface temperatures. To concerted effort to get an approximate value for these three: maintain the process in a particular system. if fluid’s volumetric flow rate. 6. it is impossible for the design engineer to obtain some of these (1) Calculations for Maximum Allowable Energy Loss— financial variables. effective income tax rate. 6. At the (d) physical plant depreciation period. the insulation with the 18 . (f) system operating temperature.4 Chemical Design Considerations: (e) average annual wind speed.3. Consequently.5. C1696 − 15 insulation. thermal insulation is frequently specified ductivity values for the proposed thermal insulation material. it may be painted generally which (2) Calculations for Economic Thickness—These results of usually gives it a higher surface emittance value. if concerted effort to get accurate values for all the above equipment. lowest expected ambient engineering variables. and the type and thickness of the length to determine the maximum allowable heat loss in Btu / insulation jacketing with a known emittance. To determine the mended that the designer use a value that is acceptable to the minimum required insulation thickness. and unit labor cost. never be grouped with interfering structural steel. He must know hr (W).1 Hot Oils/Heat Transfer Fluids—See 5. An inspection (h) percent of annual fuel bill for physical plant window cut into the insulation should have inspection plugs. be cut back far enough to allow bolt removal without damaging (b) inflation rate for that type of energy. require pipe "bundling" to accommodate insulation. Care should be taken not to insulate pipe lots of fittings and supports versus few fittings and supports). the insulation should be cut back and sealed to allow (f) incremental cost of plant capacity. < 0.6. if valve handles are too close to other insulated (e) new insulation depreciation period. then hot summer day with little or no wind but without the effects the insulation thickness should be increased. this is generally considered a very If the calculated temperature drop is unacceptably large. Metal jacketing may be bare and shiny (as inch (13 mm) increment. over the length of a particular pipe.5 Insulation Design Thickness: (g) at least three mean temperature – thermal conductivity 6. density. a continuous vapor and weather seal. the sealed ends of termination. its orientation). the lines or insulate them with less insulation but still maintain (b) heating / cooling equipment efficiency. insulation jacketing (3) Personnel Protection from Hot Surfaces—On high emittance. maintenance should have removable insulation. and insulation boards. temperature systems. surface emittance. and heat loss should then be multiplied by the pipe material. and usually accomplished with a combination of pipe insulation (k) complexity factor for the insulation system (that is.8) surface. 6. and for the determination of insulation thickness using maximum (i) proposed insulation thickness.. unit material cost. (d) average annual ambient temperature. the calculated in units of Btu / hr-ft (W/m) using C680. 6.2 and 6. maintenance. > 0. and one for personnel protection. a low emittance (that is.2. together when they run at significantly different temperatures The engineering variables are: as it may affect the process. usually by a 1/2 of solar radiation).5.4. the maximum allowable heat loss should be the hot surfaces. a fluid may require unit energy cost. included in the program for all the variables and at many times one for economic thickness. Insulation termination at bolted connections should (a) unit cost of energy. (for outdoor applications. Insulation on valve handles (c) discount rate. pipe size and orientation (or. its thickness.

average dry bulb temperature jacketing. and therefore. condensation control is necessary to avoid water damage to 7. 7. Rigid insulation needs to be increased one modified for specific use based on the plant’s local economics size to allow for the heat tracer.5. Also. Further.2.1. the maximum safe calculations for minimum insulation thickness on hot surfaces surface temperature may be much higher than 140°F (60°C). For insulation systems with and dripping condensate on buildings or electrical equipment.org. Hence.5. When using the 3E Plus8 program the user should rials may not require over sizing to allow for the heat tracing. 6. and fire protec. whereas compressible mate- and location.2 to 31. annular space. thicknesses required to 6. insulation on the other hand forms annular space. when calculating the insulation thickness. Insulation System Application Methods 6.5 W/m2) heat gain. these systems may require an 6. for these systems with minimum insulation thickness to prevent surface condensation a fabric jacket. Department 6. This will keep condensation from forming on the thickness metal will have a higher burn potential than a thinner outer surface of the insulation and. Heat-tracing manufacturers have guidelines for the sulation.5. relative humidity at that dry bulb allowable insulation surface temperature for personnel temperature.1. 19 . environments and during rain. prevention of corrosion. have very high values of thermal system should be designed so that the surface temperature of diffusivity and therefore transfer heat quickly to other solids the insulation system is kept above the dew point of the which come in contact with it.3.5. C1696 − 15 low emittance jacketing will need to be thicker than the same Therefore.4 should be used protection. in designing the perhaps as high 180° F (82°C). and temperature. the heat gain in cold processes should be minimized.1 On-Site Material Storage: 7. insulated. it is virtually impossible to tion may be different than those calculated for economic prevent condensation 100 % of the time. surface emittance. when determining the insulation thickness.2.1. where personnel protection is the design goal.1.4 Freeze Protection/Winterization—Most applications of Energy (DOE) or the North American Insulation Manufac. heated by the tracer and so the heat is transferred from tracer The typical rule of thumb is to provide sufficient insulation to to pipe or equipment by a combination of convection. ambient air. This computer program has default values to amount and type of insulation required versus how much heat represent typically used values. at www. 140°F (60°C) is frequently specified for metal process temperature. this will be sufficient personnel protection such as ASTM Practice C680 or the to prevent condensation the majority of the time.1 On-site storage of insulation and accessory materials should provide adequate protection from damage caused by 8 A registered trademark of NAIMA (North American Insulation Manufacturers water. hence. While there is no universally agreed upon maximum during cooling conditions. These defaults may need to be tracing is required. result in surface condensation that the same with a high surface burn potential. needing freeze protection are heat traced and insulated or just turers Association (NAIMA).3 and 6. and lowest expected wind speed) along with the protection. the insulation material. free of charge. and mold growth.2 In hot. a multi-laminate jacketing materials fall somewhere in between jacketing with a low surface emittance will be more likely to conventional metal and fabric in terms of personnel protection. and area ventilation jacketed systems. avoid safety hazards metal. and/or Btu/hr-ft2 (25. The important variable. Hence. For a given set of design conditions.5. It should be noted that as with insulation blankets with fabric jacketing. Worst-case ambient conditions ft2 (m2) units refer to outside insulation surface area) heat gain should be used for determining the sizing of the tracer and to the cold process. outdoor.3 There are several computer software programs that insulation thickness is designed to allow for an 8 to 10 can be used to calculate heat loss. contact the insulation manufacturer to verify the appropriate Compressible insulation fits snugly around the pipe without an thermal conductivity values to be used. such as conventional insu.2 Insulation thickness required for a long run of pipe values. and carbon steel. moisture. economic thickness.5.1 General: equipment. It is essential to agree on what percentage (%) of time lation covered with fabric and mastics or such as removable condensation is acceptable. which usually has a very low and may require special calculation of allowable temperature value of surface emittance). maintain an 8 to 10 Btu /h-ft2 (27 to 34 W/m2K) (where the radiation. low diffusivity jacketing materials. mastics. the jacketing surface emittance is a very personnel protection than if they had a metal jacket.5. both of which typically have high surface emittance 6.pipein.3. such as to human skin. on the same system. less insulation thickness would be required for on a cold service line.3 Condensation Prevention: 7. drop in a worst-case situation. If the 6. Most metals. stainless determine the required thickness of insulation. (that is.2 Cold Surfaces—Usually the cost of removing Btus aluminum tape or heat transfer cement to transfer heat by (heat gain) by refrigeration is greater than the cost of producing conduction from tracer to pipe or equipment.1 For most indoor and a few outdoor applications. The design ambient temperature and wind calculating the insulation thickness for winterization or freeze conditions as mentioned in 6.1. Rigid type of process Btus (heat loss) by heat-generating equipment. The insulation steel. It is generally the insulation Association) 11 Canal Center Plaza. lation thickness would be required to achieve this. VA 22314. such as aluminum. with a high emittance ambient conditions (that is. and minimum required insulation thickness to emittance. and conduction. contractor’s responsibility to furnish these storage facilities. noise control. Uneconomical insu- thickness. Suite 103 Alexandria. the use painted jacketing or fabric with provide personnel protection. will not require as great insulation thickness as the use may be different than those required for economic thickness of shiny metal jacketing (that is. everything else being equal.S. NAIMA 3E Plus8 program available from the U. unconditioned) humid maintain critical temperatures. which is therefore.

(c) Shipping trailers. and MSDS sheets.1.3 Protection of Adjacent Surfaces and Components— local laws and regulations. particularly mastic coatings. applica- allowed to air dry before installation and there is no physical tion procedures. Temporary protection this guide to define the nature and extent of such special should be provided during the workday when exposed insula. equipment. such as expanded perlite and some by the material manufacturers should be observed. This in- mineral wool.1 Housekeeping and material disposal requirements application of permanent weather protection. as well as applicable federal.2 Storage temperatures for mastics. Short-term storage should keep materials off the owner.2 Insulation materials that become wet because of with hazardous compounds. special precautions should take into consideration clusion of each day of work. 7. temperature range should be removed from the site and replaced with new material. service.6 General Housekeeping and Disposal: be replaced provided they are allowed to air dry before 7.1. Cellular glass and of the insulation system is maintained. Adequate weather protection should be 7.1. and Environmental: should be protected from ground and dripping water. deterioration.1. plant-specific practices.2. precautions. valve stored away from ignition sources such as welding operations.1 The insulation application should not be allowed to (1) Long-term storage facilities are required for large proceed until after the following steps have been completed: quantities of material that are required for the overall project.1. weather protection should be provided for any insulation left and other extraordinary conditions. removal. Safety. so as not to splatter or plant owner.1. provide adequate drainage.2 When required by the general contractor or plant workday. paving. and local laws and regulations. 7.3 Authorization to proceed with insulation work should be in writing from the responsible authority. All flammable materials should be piping. structural steel.1 Installed insulation materials should have the re. high pressures. C1696 − 15 although they may also be provided by the general contractor materials.1. threaded connections are left exposed until testing and inspec- tion is complete.1. It is beyond the scope of exposed at the end of the workday. (2) Application of required substrate protective coating (b) Permanent warehouses.1. in addition to safety finishing cements. or near the installation work areas. instruments.4. state. On-site storage can be broken down into two broad categories: 7. (a) Temporary warehouses.3 Insulation and accessory materials that are suscep- tible to water damage and may become wet during storage 7. since it adds considerable the material manufacturer. wet. Such work is generally limited to missing or inadequate weather protection.2 It is recommended that insulation work activities be 7. should be removed and replaced with dry insula. either temporary or existing facilities that are being upgraded in which tie-ins are permanent. and (2) Short-term storage is required for materials located at (3) Installation and testing of tracing systems. and 7. The following are some common Care should be exercised in the handling and application of practices: 20 . Wet insulation should be discarded and not reused.1. (1) All required hydrostatic and pneumatic pressure test- These facilities can be provided by: ing. and provided at all insulation terminations. insulation work may proceed before completion of ground and provide adequate protection against moisture system pressure testing. When work must be performed on systems that are in quired permanent weather protection applied before the con.1. machined surfaces. service. All materials that are improperly cost to the installation and increases the probability that stored or exposed to temperatures outside the recommended insulation will be damaged. Storage facilities should be located in areas that concrete foundations. provided that all welds.1. 7. If not possible.5.1 All work activities associated with insulation work.3 It is also beyond the scope of this guide to define the atmospheric moisture.5. and packing. will vary from facility to facility based on general contractor or retardant systems. and contamination. this practice sealers should be within the temperature ranges specified by should be avoided if at all possible. hazardous processes.1. repair. This practice applies to hygroscopic materials such as should be performed in accordance with applicable federal. stems. materials that are treated for water repellency may not need to 7.5 Health. This ation should be given to how the removal is done so that when applies to hygroscopic insulation as well as fibrous materials new materials are joined with existing materials.2.1. gage glasses. Consider- tion. dry mix materials such as insulating and state. Short-term storage is generally limited to material that will be used during a single 7.1.1. or systems. they should replaced with dry material should they become including new installations. the integrity that are not treated for water repellency.5. Cellular glass and materials that are treated tor. may not need to be replaced provided they are cludes information contained in product data sheets.2 Protection of Installed Materials: performed when piping and equipment systems are not in 7.6. 7. containing materials or materials that have been contaminated 7.4 Release for Insulation System Application: long term and short term. flanges. then temporary exposure temperatures. including touch-up of previously applied coatings. and there is no physical degradation. calcium silicate. being made or facilities that are being demolished. and fibrous materials that are not treated for regulations established by the plant owner and general contrac- water repellency. However. Health and safety precautions and procedures established for water repellency.4.4. Adequacy of temporary protection special requirements associated with work involving asbestos- should be the responsibility of the insulation contractor. adhesives. including vapor. otherwise 7.1. and retrofit.1. tion could be damaged as a result of rain or other forms of 7.

state. scaffolding. one stud bolt length plus 1 in. (3) Insulation system design to limit heat loss or heat gain (3) Piping branch connections. Supports should be located to damage protective coatings on the surfaces to be insulated. support spacing should (2) Insulation system design involving two or more mate.1. piping. regardless those surfaces have been cleaned and dried. (5 mm) minimum.6. (25 mm) from the back of the 7. pleted.1.2 Application of Insulation Materials: vertical and diagonal piping located at an angle of 45° or 7.6 m).2. and (2) Layering requirements for cold-service applications (4) All material.4 Insulation Expansion/Contraction Joints: layer at operating temperature. ent rates of movement. or contraction joints are provided to compensate for these differ- equipment.3. specific requirements regarding the handling and disposal of 7.1 The number of insulation material layers required (2) Insulation supports are required above all elbows and for a system is determined by one or more of several factors: tees when the uninterrupted piping run length is equal to or (1) Commercial availability of material in a single layer. 7.1 Insulation materials should be applied as specified to generally provided by the equipment fabricator. (13 mm) for hot application and thickness minus 1 in. Insulation supports for equipment are 7. also function as insulation support points. icing will occur. scraps. insulation with damaged ends may be sider the following: used if the ends are cut square. (3) Insulation for personnel protection or where insulation borne mastics. When thermal bridging occurs or vapor-retardant sys.3 Location of piping insulation support should con- be allowed. and sudden swings in ambient temperature are generally applied as local laws and regulations.2. change of the material at maximum/minimum temperature).2 While hot insulation systems can be somewhat more the piping fabricator or as bolt-on rings field installed by the forgiving of errors or shortcomings in installation methods and insulation contractor. 21 . followed by additional 7. it may be necessary procedures.2. or pilot plant (2) Plate thickness should be 3⁄16 in.2. support rings in the field.2. and occurring in the insulation system.2.3. Insulation achieve the desired system performance.6 Care should be taken in applying materials so as not connections. approval of the purchaser.1. tems fail to perform.2. even though the piping is furnished tures. and 7.1.1 Insulation supports are required for vertical and horizontal equipment.3.3 Insulation Supports: these waste materials. adhesives. and through joints resulting from material or substrate shrinkage or piping supports.5 The use of broken or damaged insulation should not 7.2 Used or spent containers and waste from solvent. (1) Insulation supports are required above all flanged 7. (25 mm) for cold application.1 General: greater from horizontal. (4) Insulation system design to limit stresses in a material 7. 7.1. with shop-welded supports. Requirements for temporary. especially when operating at subfreezing tempera.2 Bolt-on support rings. should be defined by the specific insulation design. demonstration.2. However.1. Insulation supports are also required for 7. 7. the following may be used as a ignition sources. boxes. and sealers may need to be handled is provided to protect the process from upsets resulting from as hazardous waste as required by applicable federal. which are subject to the insulation system degradation. (19 mm). 7. such as trunnions in vertical and diagonal expansion at operating temperature. piping. and so forth will vary with the material selection (based on the dimensional should be removed from the site when work has been com.2. 7.1 Consideration needs to be given to rates of expan- (5) Insulation system design for electric tracing to maintain sion and contraction between insulation materials and the interface temperature within limits of the tracer when operating insulated substrates to avoid direct heat flow paths from temperatures would otherwise exceed tracer limits.2. contraction joints. the same cannot be said for cold insulation for the insulation contractor to provide additional bolt-on systems. removed from the work area on a regular basis.2. C1696 − 15 (1) All mastic overspray and splatter should be cleaned up 7.2. should satisfy the following criteria: 7. and facilities will be generally less demanding than those for (3) Support ring width should not be greater than insulation permanent facilities. the surfaces in which there is visible evidence of oil or grease until plate width should not be less than 3⁄4 in. In some instances. However.2. thickness minus 1⁄2 in. However.2. supports for piping may be provided either as rings or clips by 7.1. Insulation expansion and (6) Size of the external stiffeners on the flue.4 Insulation should not be applied to wet surfaces or when connections are large enough to support insulation.4. When such (2) All flammable materials should be stored away from requirements are not defined.2 Layering Requirements: flange. duct.2 The requirements for multiple insulation layers as soon as it occurs. Individual facilities may also have a single layer within the constraints of material availability.3 The life expectancy of the facility needs to be (1) Material of construction should be compatible with the considered when specifying materials and installation methods.2. such as welding operations. of insulation thickness.2.2. greater than 15 ft (4.2. instrument connections. never be greater than that required for insulation expansion and rials not furnished as a composite. guideline: (3) Construction debris resulting from the insulation work (1) Insulation for heat conservation is provided as multiple should be container stored at the end of the workday and layers when operating temperatures exceed 600°F (315°C). regardless of spacing.

5.6.1 Sectional insulation should be installed using stag- spacing is not provided.5) and circumferential in successive layers do not coincide with 900 (482. such as 7. 700 (371) 12 (3. should have the contraction joint material installed with 7.2.3) 18 (5. may be Insulation used as a guideline for services operating above ambient.6) insulation. while cellular glass will fold. However.3) 75 (22. the spacing in Table Stainless Steel 10 Polyisocyanurate 32 4.2. contract less. (15-mm) movement in the contraction application technique allows the insulation system.6) with staggered joints but with end joints in compression. installed in compression.4. segmental insulation should also be installed using Operating Maximum Expansion Joint Spacing.1 Insulation at flanged components should be termi- polyisocyanurate insulation.2. It is also recommended that expansion joints in 22 . one piece or hinged joint pipe 200 (93. packed tightly.3) -200 (-129) N/A N/A 30 (9. and supports directly above -50 (-46) 118 (36) 22 (6. Insulation contraction joint spacing should be finished to maintain system integrity even when the should be specified for the specific insulation design. such as -300 (-184.2. typically molded fibrous materials or those hinged 300 (149) 41 (12.8) those in the preceding layers.1) vertical or diagonal piping runs.7) 7. Insulation materials. Aluminum 13 Polystyrene foam 35 Copper 8. (13 to 19 mm) Maximum Contraction Joint Spacing.6.2. either glass fibers or mineral wool.2 Unlike 7. (20-mm) expansion joint movement. This based on allowing 1⁄2-in.9) 12 (3. based on 3⁄4-in.4. cellular glass. Whether contraction selection of both insulation and vapor-retardant materials over joint material is packed loose or in compression depends on the the joints. which is compressed during installation.4 Insulation system expansion joints should be pro.2. Contraction tion joints in services operating below ambient is maintaining joints typically consist of low density < 2 pcf (32 kg/m3) continuity of the vapor-retardant system over the joint during fibrous materials. that have coefficients of contraction lower than steel 1 in. Spacing is section is at the midpoint of the opposite half section.6) 10 (3.4) 27 (8. that have higher coefficients of nated a sufficient distance back from the flanges to allow contraction than steel should have the contraction joint material removal of bolting without disturbing the adjacent insulation.7 The following coefficients of expansion may be used used only as recommended by the manufacturer.6 Pipe Insulation Systems—Services Above Ambient: insulation material and the insulated substrate.3 Cellular Glass Insulation 5 tures.2.4. When such 7. relative rates of contraction between the insulation materials 7. except where they intersect at right angles.4. the spacing in Table 5 may be used as gered joint construction in which the end joint of one half a guideline for services operating below ambient.5) calcium silicate. supports at the bottom of 0 (-18) 200 (61) 37 (11.2.2. Coefficients of Expansion mined for the specific insulation design. Joint mat without binders.1) 6 (1.2 Insulation expansion and contraction joints should TABLE 5 Maximum Contraction Joint Spacing be designed and spaced to allow 1⁄2 to 3⁄4 in.2.2.5) 7. When such spacing is not provided.5. silica fiber mat. Expan- sion joints typically consist of fibrous insulation.5 Insulation expansion joint spacing should be deter.7) 8 (2. Operating Linear feet (Meters) 7.9) 8 (2.1) 7 (2. Insulation may be glass fiber joint for both polyisocyanurate foam and cellular glass. to calculate expansion and contraction joint spacing: 7.5 Insulation Terminations at Flanged Components: and the insulated substrate. and expanded perlite.2.3) 19 (5. C1696 − 15 7.5) above ambient when insulated using rigid materials. Ferritic Steel Austenitic Steel °F (C) Cellular PIR Cellular PIR provided beneath all insulation support points except supports Glass Foam Glass Foam at the bottom of vertical equipment.5) 28 (8.2 Insulation terminations at flanged components minimum compression. movement in each joint.1.8 An additional concern regarding insulation contrac- materials in services operating below ambient.3 Insulation expansion/contraction joints should be Temperature. Similarly.7) 10 (3.7) 66 (20. -100 (-73. Insulation materials. TABLE 4 Maximum Expansion Joint Spacing which allows expansion joints to function as intended. °F (C) Ferritic Steel Austenitic Steel 7.1) 11 (3.2) 1000 (538) 10 (3. 500 (260) 20 (6. such as glass fiber blanket or loose mineral both contraction and expansion.3) N/A N/A 47 (14. to function as a single section of insulation. or ceramic fiber blanket design should consider that polyisocyanurate will contract folded in a U-shape and wired in place at the bottom of the more than the insulated substrate. (25 mm). such as cellular The minimum distance should be equal to the bolt length plus glass.6.3) vided for horizontal equipment and piping in services operating -250 (-156.2. This should be defined by the fibers. Insulation may also be loose mineral wool.7) N/A N/A 26 (7.6) by a factory applied vapor retarder.2.5) N/A N/A 23 (7) 8 (2.1) 15 (4. 10-6 in/in°F 10-6 in/in°F Carbon Steel 8. when secured in place.4.6) 600 (315) 16 (9. including consider- ations of insulation material shrinkage at elevated tempera.3) 113 (34.4.1) each layer needs to be installed such that joints longitudinal 800 (427) 12 (3. -150 (-101) N/A N/A 36 (11) 14 (4. Linear Feet (Meters) staggered joint construction.6) flanged components. Temperature. resin bonded fiber glass and mineral wool should be 7.4 Polyurethane (PUR) 32 7.9) 51 (15. including flanged components are scheduled to be insulated. should be are not installed 400 (204.4.2. considerations of differential rates of contraction between 7.4) 43 (13.3 When multiple layers of insulation are required.1) 25 (7.6 Insulation system contraction joints should be pro- vided for horizontal equipment and piping insulated with rigid 7.6.

excellent adhesion.4 All pipe fittings.5 Vapor stops. abrasion. used as bedding compounds under the insulation to prevent less steel is the recommended wire material.7. and used to secure glass fiber and mineral wool insulation. Ends of wire valves allow insulation to be terminated at a location where the loops should be tightly twisted together and embedded flush occurrence of condensation is minimized. or These include. wire. used on adjoining pipe. Securement selection is based on the type 7. as well as size and location (1) Sealants in insulation work function primarily as water within the system. Normal band size is 1⁄2 in. even as possible while maintaining good adhesion and the 7. the longest dimension of the sealant. although 3⁄4-in.32 mm) to avoid cutting into the condensation to the outer surfaces of the insulation jacketing insulation. For services below with the insulation surface. Extended bonnet itself 6 in. (1) Tape—Generally used on insulation that could be cut by masonry. the use of extended bonnet valves are and sealed in place while in tension. however. banding material.052 in. Tape should be applied long enough to overlap packing gland to allow packing adjustment. and mineral wool. the high times the thickness required for the protruding part. (150 mm) or 25 %. Insulated valves should together and are secured in place using the specified secure. (2) Sealants used in the joints of cold insulation should be expanded perlite.2. (0. a 6 by 4 angle is equivalent to NPS 6 pipe). when wire is limited to only enough sealant to seal the joint. caps.7.7. Some sealants are virtually 100 % non- is also normally limited to pipe sizes NPS 6 and smaller. wire is commonly used to secure damage or improperly fitting insulation. These insulation thickness for protruding parts should be based on the factors can adversely affect the fit of shop-fabricated metal fluid temperature of the component to which the part is gore covers as well as die-formed and molded covers. which seal the insulation to the pipe or should be insulated with the same material and thickness as equipment. Stainless steel is the recommended minimum at the cover. It may also be type of product include low shrinkage. From a Extended bonnet valves allow insulation to be terminated at a performance standpoint.3 mm). method and should be used wherever practical.6. such as cellular glass and foam plastic.0 in.2.2. temperature limitations of the particular material. such as calcium silicate. Abutting minimum of two securement devices per section of insulation. or bands.2. The following are some guidelines for and vapor seals. remaining soft and flexible is usually furnished 1⁄2-in (13-mm) inch wide and reinforced under the skin. tees. However. in varying amounts of volatile solvents. direct heat paths from the insulated surface to the outside of the Thickness of joint sealant after installation should as thin and insulation system.2. ends that will allow the insulation to stagger 1. but are not limited to. Sealants can also be inner layers of this insulation within reasonable limits.5-mm) thickness. glass fiber.2. including the fabrication and support hangers. pipe supports. surfaces of inner layers do not need to be sealed unless required Securement may be by means of tape.7°C). Bands should be machine tightened -100°F (-73. (3) Stainless Steel Bands—Used to secure insulation not secured by either tape or wire.2. Stain. insulation for elbows and tees should be provided with ship lap (19-mm) wide bands should be used for large-diameter insu. recommended. molded fitting covers are the preferred location in which the occurrence of condensation is minimized. whichever is less. should be insulated from the outer surface adjunct.4 Pipe insulation should be secured in place with a thickness should not exceed 1/8 in. avoiding excess used to secure expanded perlite.6 Metal parts (except valve stems) that protrude insulation is fabricated. and reducers. It is recommended that the insulation material supplier nominal section size corresponding to a given pipe size should be contacted to obtain recommendations as to if the joints of all be used (that is. Particular attention should be paid to the number of of the piping insulation for a distance of approximately three segments used to fabricate elbow covers. 7.020-in. fitting mm) wide by 0. Others contain polymers dissolved or dispersed with glass or polyester fibers.7. cellular glass. attached and the equivalent pipe size determined as follows: 7. (13 7. have insulation terminated a sufficient distance below the ment material. The points along the outside radius should be rasped down.6. corrosion. Sealants should not be used to fill voids caused by sizes NPS 12 and smaller. flanges.2. uninsulated vents. 7. is less susceptible to being cut by wire. While the use of wire is normally limited to pipe system. 7.7 Pipe Insulation Systems—Services Below Ambient: (1) For cylindrical attachments. When fitting 7. Its use permanent flexibility.5 Insulation should be applied so that joints tightly fit components should be fully insulated. such as elbows. the wire diameter should be thickness that could create a thermal-short causing unnecessary greater than 0. These exhibit some- (2) Stainless Steel Wire—Generally used on insulation that what greater shrinkage and dry by evaporation of the solvent.6. or some by the insulation material manufacturer. should be installed at all insulation terminations.2 Insulation Joints Sealants: of insulation material involved. (25 mm) lation over NPS 30. flanges. C1696 − 15 one layer be offset from those in the adjacent layer to eliminate inner layer(s) insulation may require joints to be sealed. The requirements for this wire. In many applications. the nearest given pipe size 7.6 Fittings. combination thereof.2. and relief valves. Tape volatile and skin over by oxidation.7.3 When multiple-layer insulation is required.2. mineral wool insulation for fittings may also be used within the instrument connections. they may also selecting securement devices: function as adhesives and expansion joints with metal.7.1 All abutting surfaces of each segment in single-layer corresponding to the diameter of the attachment should be used insulation and at a minimum the outer layer in multiple-layer and insulation should be fully coated with butyl rubber joint (2) For structural shapes. Molded expanded perlite. Additionally. it should be in accordance with the through the insulation. and other system 7. 23 . and/or stop moisture movement. (1. valves. such as uninsulated branch connections general guidelines of Practice C450. and so forth. (0.

2.9. The traced piping system can rupturing the weave. Spacers should be approximately 9 in. then be insulated with oversized insulation and stabilized using lapped 3 in.8. While the first tape 1/4 in. joints using contact adhesive on all butt joint surfaces.7 Voids in insulation covers for flanges and valves (4) Acoustical mastic should be terminated approximately should be filled with loose mineral fiber insulation (that is. with tolerated. recommended that the insulation be one size larger than the 7. Visible (230 mm) space between spacer blocks along the pipe. including insulation terminated on the hanger rod. (75 mm) minimum. consideration should cal Service: be given to the distribution (transfer) of heat from the tracer to 7. (2) All jacketing should be secured with stainless steel 7.2. Spacers 7.2. valves. Horizontal 24 .1 Horizontal equipment with shell diameters of 30 in.8.9. C1696 − 15 7. temperature permitting.4 Oversized insulation on vertical insulation requires 7.9. 7.3 All insulation should be installed with tightly butted should be centered at the circumferential joints. temperature range established by the material manufacturer.7 The use of screws for jacket securement should not (1) Substrate temperatures should be within the application be allowed on any electric-traced systems. and support trun. voids may be filled used to seal the system between acoustical mastic and the with field-frothed polyurethane foam. Flue 7. the acoustical mastic provided with a double layer of reinforc. Actual over sizing requirements will depend on the nions need to be fully insulated. Insulating cement or hydraulic setting sizing the insulation is not practical.8. over to fit.2 All pipe. (230 mm) long by 1 in. (6 mm) short of all metallic protrusions through the either mineral wool or fibrous glass. care should be protrusion.3 When soft. fiberglass tape spiral wound onto the tubing. personnel protection or when heat losses from uninsulated (4) All jacketing should be installed without evidence of surfaces are not allowed. (25 mm) wide with the depth as required. Insulation should be refitted. The second coat of mastic block insulation spacers. However.2. be installed the same as required for applications in other 7.7. glass fiber or elastomeric foam should the entire pipe surface.2. completely filling the void between (1) All projections through the jacketing should be caulked the pipe and insulation. (6 mm) by applying 1/8 in.5 All tracing connections should be located outside the bands. A sufficient application of sealant should be Maximum Use Temperature).2. following: 7.9.8 Where potential process hot spots cannot be (2) Acoustical mastic should be applied in two layers. (25 mm) wide. Secure the foil in place using adhesive-backed foil 7.8. (3) A heavy bead of suitable sealer should be applied 7. (13 on compound surfaces or complex shapes where the use of mm) by applying either with a 50 % overlap or in multiple metal jacketing is not practical.7 Membrane-reinforced acoustical mastic may be used should be applied to a thickness of approximately 1/2 in. Alternately.6 Acoustical jacketing should be installed in accor. Fiberglass tape should be accordance with the mastic manufacturer’s instructions and the finished with a coat of weather barrier mastic.10 Equipment Insulation Systems—Services Above Am- completely cover the membrane. 7.2. Services: 7.9.2.8.9. The heat transfer cement should be with a heavy bead of suitable sealer. The tracer should be cement should never be used to fill voids or point up insulation covered with foil tape or equivalent before installing the in acoustical service. or replaced. Tape and wire should not be used for insulation from the tracer into the pipe rather then the air space. Pipe support clamps that number of tracers and the use of tracer channels. spacers. with a 9 in. Application should be in layers or a combination of both. exercised in providing adequate venting to avoid damaging the 7.2.1 When insulating traced pipe. stops should consist of heat transfer cement.8 Pipe Insulation Systems—Considerations for Acousti.2.175 mm) thick tape mastic coat is still tacky. Flue stops either acoustical jacketing or acoustical mastic. trimmed 7.6 Steam tracer loops and tubing located outside the between all overlapping jacket surfaces to provide a continuous insulation system should be insulated when required for seal between all laps.2.4 All acoustical insulation should be secured with tape.2. the reinforcing membrane should be with a 50 % overlap. suitable for the operating temperatures of the pipe and tracer. All membrane seams should be over. gaps are not acceptable.2. 1/4 in. selected based on its insulation system. pipe size. insulation.2. The exception is flat electric tracing tapes. with the exceptions and plications. (760 mm) and less may have shell insulation extended to cover ing membrane.1 Mineral wool.2. insulation system.2. fittings.5 All acoustical insulation should be finished with the use of flue stops to prevent a chimney effect. should be applied before the first coat dries and should 7.2.2. The insulated tubing can then be secured stretched taut and thoroughly embedded without warping or to the pipe with wire or bands. Oversized extend outside the pipe insulation should also be insulated insulation may be stabilized on the pipe using block insulation fully.2. the heads and blocked in with an insulation disk.8. blanket-type insulation is used.9.2. This foil will help direct the heat bands.9 Pipe Insulation Systems—Considerations for Traced insulation cover.2 Insulation should be oversized for most traced ap- services operating above ambient. (3. 7.10. Screws should not be used for any jacket securement. the steam tracers should be insulated with fiberglass a reinforcing membrane applied in between. It is clarifications described in the following.9. bient: (3) All outside corners of insulation should be rounded and 7. securement. Fiberglass tape 7. need to be provided on approximate four foot centers. Tubing should be insulated with wrinkling in the overlaps. flanges. applied a mini- dance with the relevant portions of Section 8 and the following: mum 1 in.8.

2. sheet metal enclosures. For panded metal guards. For high-caustic areas.10. uniformly embedded midway through the (3) Insulating cement. skirts. of insulation. when required.6 Other requirements defined for piping insulation (1) Insulating cement should be applied by trowel filling all systems are also applicable to equipment insulation systems. it is recommended that tracer and pump casing. and weatherproofed.2. the tracing should be protected.11.12. support trunnions. such as by covering block insulation cut to fit the head curvature.12.2.1 Machinery. and handholes. instructions by the manu- include. such as calcium silicate. should be fully insulated. the following guidelines should be fol- the structural steel. and allow easy access for inspection and reinsula- systems are also applicable to equipment insulation systems. To ensure a tight with foil tape. operating in services above ambient.2.11. it may also be provided by one of these methods. equipment supported by short lugs from structural steel 7. and piping are fabricated from silicone rubber- with block insulation cut to fit the head curvature.3 Other requirements defined for piping insulation protection. require less labor than standard rigid insulation. 9 Tedlar is a registered trademark of DuPont.11. and instrument connections. using one or a combination of the can be made as required to achieve the specified thickness. and (4) Sheet metal enclosures lined with fibrous insulation. Heads inside impregnated glass fabric over an insulation material and held in vessel skirts may be insulated with metal-mesh mineral wool place with either stainless hog ring staples or sewing thread. (300-mm) centers. with hydraulic setting cement and weatherproofed with either reinforced mastic or lagging cloth. it may be necessary to extend the insulation onto lated with cement. finished thickness of the cement. conservation. (760 mm) cement.4 Small steam turbines are generally purchased with 7. brackets. C1696 − 15 equipment with shell diameters greater than 30 in. (38 mm). manways. such as restricting access or providing ex- should be insulated the same as required for piping. are usually insu- (760 mm) and less may have shell insulation extended to cover lated with flexible.2. lowed: 7. give both thermal and acoustical protection.2 All equipment nozzles. Hypalon10 and TFE-fluorocarbon. or part thereof.2. which includes pumps.2. protection.2 Removable/Reusable Insulation Covers: 10 Hypalon is a registered trademark of DuPont. (760 mm) (1) The covers used to insulate and protect valves.1 All abutting surfaces of each segment in single. facturer should be followed.2. as thin and even as possible while maintaining good adhesion. 7. 7.11. to prevent the cement from coming between the fit between head insulation segments.3 Vapor stops sealing the insulation to the substrate insulation covers furnished by the equipment manufacturer.2. should be installed at all insulation terminations. (13 (2) Advantages—Flexible pads are easy to install on irregu- mm) or larger diameters.2. reinforced with wire mesh. compressors cracking when dry. following methods: (3) Final application of insulating cement should have wire (1) Flexible. and turbines. (0. or 7. of 12-in.12. fin. When pumps require personnel the segments be shop fabricated.2.12 Machinery Insulation Systems: that which will set on vertical surfaces without excessive 7. removable blanket insulation covers. mesh embedded in the surface. offer fire 7. removable covers. saddles. On most 7. additional applications insulated. mm). the heads and blocked in with an insulation disk.12.6 When pumps or other rotating equipment are insu- framework. equipment performance warranty voided. layer insulation and the outer layer in multiple-layer insulation (4) Laminates of aluminum or stainless foil or both to should be fully coated with butyl rubber an approved joint fabrics are used in the design of removable covers for special sealant.2. When specified thickness (2) Rigid insulation blocks. finished with hydraulic setting equipment with shell diameters greater than 30 in. Band spacing should be a minimum lar surfaces.12. Abutting lated in accordance with the specifications and drawings of the surfaces of inner layers do not need to be sealed unless required equipment manufacturer. depressions for the entire depth to eliminate voids. including heat-traced services.2. but are not limited to. and all exposed heads on vertical equipment should be covered equipment.10. may be (2) When the preceding layer is dry.5 Metal parts that protrude through the insulation by other means. should be avoided.11. Deviations from these requirements by the insulation material manufacturer. lugs. When cement is used on traced and all heads on vertical equipment should be covered with pumps. 7.3 mm). coated glass fabric is used. 7.) (3) Application—Removable/reusable covers can be fabri- 7. 25 . The thickness of each application should not be any greater than 7.11.12. with straps sewn to the cover itself. since the manufacturer may consider the 7. clips. cement should also be reinforced ished with hydraulic setting cement and weatherproofed with with one layer of wire mesh for each additional 1 1⁄2 in. blanket. tion (Such as Tedlar9. Thickness of joint sealant after installation should be situations. These When field installation is required.5 Pumps that require insulation for heat 7.11 Equipment Insulation Systems—Services Below Am- cated off-site to reduce the labor cost or fabricated on-site. bient: They are usually attached with tie wire through lacing hooks or 7.4 Horizontal equipment with shell diameters of 30 in. exceeds 1 1⁄2 in. stainless steel or monel knit mesh wire is placed over place with a minimum of two stainless steel bands per section the cover for extra protection. including covers.2.2.2 All equipment insulation should be secured in designs. Horizontal or reinforced insulating cement. (38 either reinforced mastic or a lagging cloth.3 Large steam and gas turbines are generally insu- Thickness should not exceed 1/8 in. Stainless steel band sizes should be 1/2 in.2.

2. it may be practical to install an inner layer of 7. Ductwork. (25 mm) minimum width and thickness equal system manufacturer’s design and erection drawings.2. weather barrier mastic coating. the insulation system. using low-temperature elastomeric adhesive. 7. 7. for equipment shells. It may to the tracer height from the equipment surface.7 Where potential hot spots cannot be tolerated. (3) Polyisocyanurate foam insulation field applied directly 7.15. 7. or elastomeric adhesives and finished with built-up 7. banding.2.2 When engineered and prefabricated insulation sys- support for the insulation. horizontal aluminum sheeting. need for spacer blocks between the tracing to provide adequate 7. curved Traced Services: to match the tank radius.2 When equipment is traced with spirally wrapped roofing. and secured in place using wide 7. Spacers should be fabricated from tems are used. as required to (3. insulated. 7. a 7. pins.2. are generally insulated using one of the following methods: This will allow for continuity of the insulation outer surface (1) Cellular glass insulation bonded directly to surface and weather barrier finish. (6 and 13 mm).3 Other requirements defined for piping insulation layers or a combination of both.12.14. elastomeric tracers. The traced insulate over stiffeners.16 Storage Tank and Sphere Insulation Systems— 7.14. When Insulation is finished with a separate application of metallic recommended by the coating manufacturer.1 The physical location of tracers and type of tracing banding.14. or by fastening to a subgirt system attached to the cation of the mastic.2.2. surfaces are not allowed.2. anchored to an independent cable system around the tank. Fiberglass tape should be applied to a (1) Insulation applied directly against the surface to be thickness of approximately 1⁄4 in. nished in unit lengths to match the sidewall heights. 7.2. finished with a coat of weather barrier mastic. and Related Equipment: 7. or other flexible coating compounds.1 Storage tanks and spheres operating below ambient insulation on the untraced area to provide a uniform diameter. tank. 26 . spacer blocks limited to services above -50°F (-45. NOTE 3—This method is proprietary to certain tank fabricators.14. the same as required generally preferred for spheres. the spacing (pitch) of the tracers will determine the compounds. studs.13 Equipment Insulation Systems—Considerations for (3) Insulation boards adhered to metallic jacketing.2. application) is generally secured to a separate subgirt system.1 Storage tanks operating above ambient are gener- finish coat of hydraulic setting finishing cement should be ally insulated using one or a combination of the following applied to a thickness between 1⁄4 and 1⁄2 in.7 Pumps or other rotating equipment operating below (2) Insulation and jacketing preassembled as a unit and ambient that are insulated require additional considerations. equipment surface. adhesive or wire. Metal jacketing (sometimes referred to equipment can then be insulated using insulation spacers as as lagging) jacketing (often referred to as lagging for this required.14. 1 in.17 Precipitators. Fiberglass tape should be systems are also applicable to equipment insulation systems.2.2.2.3 When only the lower portion of the equipment is Services Below Ambient: insulated.16.2. membrane-reinforced.2. the installation should be in accordance with the rigid block. (5) Insulation boards or blocks secured to the tank roof by and applications requirements for insulating traced equipment. secured to the tank sidewall by studs. Fiberglass tape 7. fur- Acoustical Service—Requirements defined for piping insula. the hydraulic jacketing. The blocks can be secured with a suitable tant finish.15 Storage Tank Insulation Systems—Services Above This allows the jacketing jacketing / lagging to be applied in a Ambient: flat plane rather than follow the contours created by stiffeners.16.1 There are several different methods of insulating steam tracers should be insulated with fiberglass tape spiral large flat surfaces such as precipitators and ductwork: wound onto the tubing. which may be secured by using the same studs. (13 should be insulated the same as required for piping. studs. 7. (6 mm) by applying 3⁄8 in.2. with additional insulation added. Spacer blocks should always be provided (2) Spray-applied polyisocyanurate foam insulation fin- on horizontal heads located near grade or working elevations ished with vapor retardant mastic and separate weather resis- and on all top heads.2. C1696 − 15 (4) When the insulating cement has thoroughly dried.6 Steam tracer loops and tubing located outside the (4) Cellular glass insulation or polyisocyanurate foam insulation system should be insulated when required for insulation boards banded in place and covered with vapor- personnel protection because heat losses from uninsulated retardant system and separate weather-resistant finish. membrane-reinforced mastics.2.2.16.175 mm) thick tape with a 50 % overlap.14.17.4 When equipment heads are traced. Tubing should be insulated with fiberglass tape spiral wound onto the tubing. or banding.2 Metal parts that protrude through the insulation should be applied to a thickness of approximately 1⁄2 in. methods: (5) The hydraulic setting cement should be finished with a (1) Insulation boards are secured by pins. mm) by applying either with a 50 % overlap or in multiple 7.15. provided will determine the type of insulation. the 7. This system is 7. and tion systems are also applicable for equipment insulation secured in place with standing seams field formed around clips systems. rigid or flexible.5°C) -70°F (-57°C) and is should be provided between the tracers.5 All tracing connections should be located outside behind continuous.2.14 Equipment Insulation Systems—Considerations for (4) Insulation boards adhered to metallic jacketing. by cement should be coated with a suitable primer before appli. Length of also be necessary to use an installation contractor approved by spacer blocks will be determined by the curvature of the the system manufacturer. incorporating compression tensioning devices. 7.14.

horizontal applica. availability in a multitude of colors. pitch.2. insulation more protection at a higher cost.2 In the following sections are the components avail.6 Aluminum that has been chemically cleaned. with a factory applied moisture barrier and usually installed by 8.17. painted aluminum of the film being twice the thickness of the mastic coatings.5 Clad aluminum (Alclad) is the result of a mechanical 7. and depth may be specified for interchange- duct work. 8. of polyvinyl fluoride offers the additional advantage over tion can be metal. Insulation thickness) is metal such as aluminum or stainless steel. is still subjected to abrasion.2. 5010 conforming to Specification B209 and tempers H14 (half 7.17.6 The use of 400 series stainless steel. eting lagging system. and easy 7. before fasteners for attaching insulation panels directly to subgirts rolling.3 All penetrations should be flashed. The dimensions of the exposed to elevated process temperature and/or vibration of corrugation. Metal lagging materials are acceptance. or have a film laminate finish. sleet. In some instances for example. Carbon steel with a japanned finish or mer may ultimately result in failure. particularly with large flat areas.1. use 300 series stainless slightly better surface chemical resistance compared to unclad steel fasteners and separately drilled holes. and /or with vibration.2 All topjacketing / jacketing lagging surfaces should hard) through H19 (full hard). The to break up the reflecting surface by the use of corrugated sheet insulation material is fitted in the H sections with the metal or material with a stucco embossed finish or both.4 The advantages of painted aluminum are the coating insulation. C1696 − 15 (2) Insulation panel systems that are applied to a separate normally heavier gauge materials that do not require a moisture subgirt system so as to form a flat plane outside the stiffeners.2. It is advisable. The prime benefit of clad aluminum is its (260°C). and the surface laminated with a film fire. 3105.6°C).4 When insulation is not applied directly to the systems or a lower surface temperature causing possible surface. 8. embossed. Flashing on top surfaces low fire resistivity. service. 5005. painted. by the American Association of Aluminum Manufacturers. Thermal barriers should be installed at the top and can be selected to suit the environment offering improved bottom of all vertical surfaces.17. separate standoffs when required to form a flat plane.2. 8. aluminum. These jacketing materials are prime grade stainless 27 . it is more expensive. and low should extend to the high point of the surface to avoid water emittance values which may lead to higher surface tempera- ponding on the uphill side of the penetration. substantially higher emittance values. chemical attack. Smooth aluminum and stainless (3) H-bar systems consist of a separate subgirt system steel through the reflection of light tend to emphasize areas of comprised of H-sections attached to existing stiffeners or minor damage. and/or laminated composites. In alloys 1100. The insulation box or ribbed corrugations will have greater resistance to material should be self supporting between the H-Bars when deformation than will flat sheet.2.2. The protec. parting virtually a totally chemically resistant surface to the 8.3 The advantages of aluminum jacketing are low initial 7. coated. barrier and is normally installed by Sheet Metal Union. or any combination of these. a specific application. Protective Coverings and Methods of Application with a corrosion inhibitor. Its disadvantages are low chemical allow for differential movements between the penetration and resistance in the alkaline. those Insulation panels consist of insulation material mechanically whose Primary material (usually the component of greatest fastened to the metal jacketing / jacketing lagging. and then mill coated with a polyester 8.2 Metal Protective Jacketing or Lagging Systems: the ultimate chemical resistance the film can offer.1 General: or acrylic resin offers greater use flexibility and somewhat 8. The panel systems are generally engineered and prefabricated to fit metal may be smooth. primed 8. ably constant rigidity and control of sizes. mechanical damage.2. with aluminum anodic for its electrolytic protection should be limited to operating temperatures less than 500°F against corrosion.1. wind. Sheets with jacketing / jacketing lagging applied separately. 3004. with a corrosion inhibitor. the jacketing / lagging jacketing. Flashing should cost and easy workability.8 Stainless steel in types 304 and 316 has met with wide the Asbestos Union (insulators).2. primed ultraviolet solar radiation. Intermediate thermal barriers corrosion resistance.2 Aluminum was one of the first metals to be used as a H-Bars to minimize insulation sag at elevated temperature and jacketing material.2. and economic requirements. moderate cost. it is still the single most widely be sloped to allow for water drainage. For temperatures above this.2. snow.2. corrugated. tures that could cause a personnel hazard in high temperature 7. coated. Its disadvantage is that the thin paint film can be systems should not be used for operating temperatures above abraded relatively easily and degradation of the surface poly- 350°F (176. metal. requires protection of some type from rain. 3003.5 Galvanized facings on the hot sides of insulation workability. stainless steel should be used for these operating temperatures. substantially higher emittance values. vapor passage. tions may require supporting type stiff welded mesh between 8. and im- upon the application.2. The disadvantages of this type of system are that the film able. top surfaces should also be designed to withstand walking Thickness tolerances should conform to the standards adopted loads without permanent deformation of the jacketing / jack.2. 8.17.1 In any application of thermal insulation. thermal barriers (flue stops) should be provided surface condensation on cold operating systems. self-drilling process wherein an aluminum alloy core is coated.7 Aluminum that has been chemically cleaned. a melt point of 1200°F (660°C). plastic. the metal 8. relatively low mechanical strength.17. between the surface being insulated and the hot face of the 8. Insulation systems on used product for general purpose industrial installations. and are on 10-ft (3-m) maximum centers. and to obtain 8.1 Metal jacketing materials are normally thin gauge edges must be treated or hemmed. or a combination of all of these depending paint coating.

1 Lapped joints of metal jacketing should be ar- These steels are of a special soft annealed temper for ease in ranged to shed water with the lap facing down at the 2 or 10 field fabrication and conform to Specifications A167 and o’clock position on horizontal piping.2. (75 mm). 8. tion or scaling. Screws without adversely affecting the surface. metal be pre-rolled to fit the circumference snugly of the cellent fire retardance (having a melt point of 2600°F insulation to prevent fish-mouthing along the longitudinal lap. The Specification A792/A792M or a steel with a G-90 hot-dipped side laps of most corrugated sheets should be overlapped at galvanized coating conforming to Specification A653/A653M. (1. type of insulation. or water runoff from a copper source. If banding is amounts of moisture or chemicals contained in insulation may used to help secure the metal sheets. and up to 1250°F (677°C) without heavy oxida. ex. (230-mm) centers and arranged so there is nel. installation and while in and out of service. fasteners. Where penetration of 8. (1427°C)). With the metal pipe and the metal 6-in.11.2.11.2. the are a low-carbon cold-rolled steel that has a hot-dipped joints should be weatherproofed with appropriate sealant. it provides superior fire resistance and protec. This banding on hot application to maintain tension on banding at jacketing is not recommended for harsh acidic environments all times. expansion.2 Corrugated sheets should be considered as being resistance to corrosion (the coating is composed of 55 % particularly advantageous on tanks and vessels with diameters aluminum. (300. Two S-clips per sheet between the lower is heat laminated to 100 % of the metal surface. 1.9 m) behind the sheets is against the underside of the jacketing. (31. spilled on the jacketing can be easily and effectively removed (50 mm). It is recommended the A240/A240M. This moisture and upper sheets on vertical tanks and vessels will help support retarder is especially suited for service in which excessive and keep an even line on each course of sheets. (100 mm) centers. Aluminum-zinc alloy-coated steel devices will vary.9 Other steel jacketing materials that may be considered water may occur such as tees.6 Two items that also need to be mentioned are with 1 or 3 mils (0. be used at temperatures up to 600°F (315°C) without 8.2. Horizontal vessels with corrugated sheets need to the absence of any soluble salts or other chemicals originating be sealed at all circumferential laps. (12 to 25 mm) hem along the longitudinal lap may Another advantage of stainless steel jacketing is its reusability be added to the jacketing to prevent further fish-mouthing and for line inspection and relocation. 75 mm) on larger diameters. The 11⁄4 in.75 mm) corrugated The aluminum-zinc alloy-coated steel significantly outlasts sheets will require a minimum of two corrugations overlap. able for the circumferential laps of the sheets to be stitched 8.11. Stainless flat sheets should have a 1⁄2 in. This can occur even in a possibility. a low-voltage galvanic 18-in.45 m) and on large flat surfaces.0025 or 0. For no-weld situations.2. adequate provisions the use of either a 3 mil (0. layer of 40{lb (65 g/m2) virgin Kraft paper coated on one side 8. To around a tank with the metal sheets attached to it by special prevent these attacks on the inside surface of metal jacketing.11.4 % zinc) conforming to greater than 4 ft 6 in.5 As the metal jacketing may be exposed to wide retarder is highly recommended. and excellent corrosion and weather resistance.6 % silicon. and 4 in. If additional securement is needed a relatively low emittance value are the disadvantages to be because of probable high winds or the jacketing is on cold considered. flat or curved surface. the mechanical strength and fire resistance than that offered by use of compression or expansion springs in conjunction with aluminum but at a cost that is less than stainless steel.2. Some examples are: maximum usage of is an alternative when the design considerations require greater banding and minimal usage of screws on cold applications. Where exposure to high winds is a industrial insulations function as a weak electrolyte when the possible factor. (100 to 150 mm) wide crevice or pitting type corrosion can arise from water trapped located circumferentially every 3 ft (0.to 460-mm) centers. Since it can The ends of sheets should overlap a minimum of 3 in. C1696 − 15 steels with a standard 2B mill finish for reduced glare.to jacketing functioning as opposite poles. This may be accomplished by variations of atmospheric temperature. and so forth. to secure the longitudinal lap on hot piping should be spaced on more difficulty in handling and working with the material. (150-mm) centers commonly used). In addition. then banding should minimum hem formed at the laps to prevent injury to person. and the use of studs or a subgirt system on large flat and should not be used if it comes in contact with lead. using a combination of screws on the side laps insulation becomes moist. (13 mm) piping or just preferred in lieu of screws. be applied on 9-in.008 mm) thick composite film of should be made to accommodate thermal movement and polyethylene and ethylene/methacrylic acid co{polymer. the incorporation of a factory applied laminated moisture 8. banding on 12. and 43. discoloration. stitching strip approximately 4 to 6 in. contraction. All overlaps should be a minimum of 2 in. Most products inadvertently give it a safety edge. least one corrugation.008 mm) of polyethylene film that S-clips and J-clips. and so forth). one band at each circumferential overlap. preferably 3 in. diameter.3 Depending on the design conditions (hot and cold. it may not be desir- be painted for additional protection and enhanced appearance.2. the selection of fastening tion compared to aluminum. J-clips are advantageous come in contact with the moisture retarder inside of the metal as they prevent the banding from slipping down during jacketing for extended periods of time. Clip length may be 28 . pipe bends. or one restrict through-metal contact with the hot surface. A 1⁄2 to 1 in. and heavy-gage continuous cell is formed that is detrimental to both poles.2. from the insulation and even in the presence of a vapor retarder there can be cable systems that are applied circumferentially which isolates the metal jacketing from the insulation. aluminum-zinc alloy coating applied to the outer surfaces for 8. copper. height.11. These products can also 8.10 Moisture Retarder—Soluble salts present in some together with screws.11 Application of Metal Jacketing: (Polished finishes can be obtained for special applications).2.4 Because of lineal expansion. regular galvanized steel in industrial atmospheres.11. Higher initial cost. surfaces. 8. Stainless offers high mechanical strength.

Flat Surfaces Thickness. fabric scrims. inch (mm) 8. over 24 thru 36 0.3 Limitations—Plastic jackets have low softening 8.12 Preformed fitting covers of aluminum and stainless fastener capable of puncturing the under laying vapor retarder shall not be steel are available from manufacturers in the most common used. The joints should be sealed with an adhesive as recommended by the jacketing manufacturer to make it more entry of liquid water but consideration must also be given to difficult for the entry of liquid water but consideration should the possible need for slip joints in the jacketing to account for also be given to the possible need for slip joints in the jacketing expansion / contraction of the system PVC solvent welded to account for expansion / contraction of the system.2. or zinc-plated self-drilling or 8.60 mm) metal gore covers as well as die-formed metal covers. including the fabrica- Up to 8 0. bitumen. bevels.3 Application—FRP ell covers are opened and placed or PVC solvent welded cement to make it more difficult for the over the insulation.1 Nonmetallic protective jacketing materials are used Fastening Devices: when mechanical abuse resistance is not a prime requirement.3.3.2.1 Advantages—It is tough.3.3. thicknesses and Deep corrugated or profiled sheets fastening devices are shown in Tables 6-8. Particular attention should be paid to the number over 8 thru 11 0.11. The throat is sealed with silicone caulking 29 . 4 inch.4 Molded ell and tee covers can be formed from PVC pipe because it is difficult to bend the material sufficiently to and CPVC for quick application.032 over 36 0.2.2.3. Vessels. 0. end caps. metallic (See Note 2) Compression or expansion foils.5 Application—PVC and CPVC jackets should be cut the field.) Curved surfaces 0. slotted screws (See flanges.024 (0.3. etc. both metallic shapes such as 90° ell covers and tees.S.3. 90° ells are made in one piece in all sizes to allow and curled when applying to pipe diameters of 8 in. In most cement should be used only on thicknesses of 20 mils (0. (200 mm). chemically resistant.2°C) for weather resistant. and available in colors. These fitting covers are meet the radius of curvature.020 (0. FRP can be made in preformed intended to compliment all jacketing systems. reinforced plastic (FRP).024 in (0.0) 8. pan or hex head. cut. consider insulation system com- avoided on large diameters not only because of reduced pressive strength when determining jacketing thickness. or zinc-plated self drilling or self-tapping stitch- hard and rigid.3.032 (0. Curved surfaces 3⁄4 × 0. In separate from the jacketing in is needed. 8. C1696 − 15 critical where excessive expansion on very hot and tall TABLE 6 Commonly Used Metal Jacketing. The jacket can be made in colors (for indoor use 8.3. #8 × 1⁄2 inch (13 mm) S.3. (200 mm) quick installation and a moisture-proof cover. Cutouts can be or smaller.S. fabricate.2 Plastic Sheet: To subgirt Minimum 1-inch (25). desired. When insulation Minimum Allowable Aluminum Thickness (in.020-inch (19 × 0. but also because of the unsightly wavy appearance.8°C) for PVC and +225°F (107. pan or hex head slotted screws factured from combinations of plastic films.7 Smooth flat metal that is very thin should be NOTE 1—Where abuse is a concern. most applications for cold pipe or equipment.3.) Insulation Insulation the general guidelines of Practice C450. and separate from the jacketing is needed.2.016 0. use contact adhesive. a vapor retarder mm) or heavier.2 Advantages—Plastic jacket is easy to form.60) 8. Additionally. Above 8 in.020-inch (13 × 0. the over 11 thru 24 0. points +165°F (73. or a jacket-type vapor retarder is Side laps #8 × 1⁄2-inch (13).040 (1.3. With special shapes for and nonmetallic. (1-1⁄4-.S. give good resistance to water and caustics. can be sealed with adhesive recommended by the manufacturer 8. Thicknesses and equipment is considered.50).3 Nonmetallic Protective Jacketing Materials: Flat surfaces 0. CPVC. Plastic jacketing materials are Flat surfaces Side laps 3⁄4 inch (19) long. a vapor retarder 8.020 of segments used to fabricate elbow covers. as a sheet material used for a protective jacketing. Type manufactured in forms ranging from very soft and flexible to A Bortek point S. valves. S.024 0.020 0.S. it can be cut on-site. and cloths selected to obtain the required springs performance characteristics.3 Reinforced Plastics—This group includes glass fiber- only) for color coding.024 high points along the outside radius should be rasped down. long #14 S.05 application for cold pipe or equipment.2.S. Fastening Devices 8.50) S. 8.80). Tanks.) fitting covers are fabricated. box. The laps made in the field and sealed with resin or caulk.2.13 Commonly used metal jacketing.1 Extruded plastics of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and self-tapping screws chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC). banding chemical resistance is needed. sizes.2 Limitations—It is difficult to use on small diameter 8.3. and gored heads can be Note 1) obtained from metals supplier’s individual data sheets. they should be in accordance with Outer Insulation Rigid Non-Rigid Diameter (in. rain shields. For thinner plastic. staples or any other 8. NOTE 2—In cold service application screws.016 0.2.3. 2-1⁄2-.040 These factors can adversely affect the fit of shop-fabricated Preformed fittings 0.50 mm) 12 are obtained when molded insulation fitting covers are used. Shop fabricated Gored fittings are commonly used when Minimum Thickness for Pipe Jacketing preformed fitting covers are not available. head covers can be prefabricated to reduce labor in 8. The preferred method of attachment is bands. ing screws (See Note 2) 8. Laminated composite jacketing materials are manu. banding Application procedures for applying metal covers on fittings.016 0.016 tion adjunct. S. 0.S. strength. Best fits Fastening Devices: ⁄ × 0.

drilling or self-tapping 8.S. suitable as a protective jacket for indoor scenarios subject to 30 .4. The preferred method of attachment is bands.25). 8. the overlaps should be sealed with adhesive and minimums.0. and larger 0.00035 (0. or zinc.2 These laminated jackets are cut to size on-site or in Combination metal and neoprene a shop and.050 (1.030 (0. and a band is placed around the cover.020 (0.020 (0.3. and acids and has Vessels.50) Flat surfaces 0.15 (3.S.53 mm).020-inch (13 × 0.S. 0.3. staples or any other Weather Barriers Thickness.3. Deep corrugated or profiled good abrasion resistance. 8.0.S. caustics.762) banding ABS-UV resistant 0. They do (1-1⁄4-. 0. insulation 0. FRP raw material 8. advantages.010 (0. Flat Surfaces Thickness. etc.0. A common feature of nonmetallic jackets is the plated self-drilling or self-tapping reduction of personal injury cuts to insulators and other trades.0.0.020 (0. For vapor re- Screw sizes and lengths are tarder jackets. it is It is mostly applied using a self-adhering surface system.050 (1.50) .25) PVC-UV resistant Reg.40)A (1-1⁄4-. O.40) applications.5 Laminated Composites: fastener capable of puncturing the under laying vapor retarder shall not be used. 0. Flat Surfaces Thickness.30 (7. etc. box. inch (mm) Film laminates fastener capable of puncturing the under laying vapor retarder shall not be PVF/glass scrim/synthetic rubber 0.016 (0. 8. S. Thicknesses insulation) and Fastening Devices and Accessories NOTE 1—In cold service application screws.5.020-inch (19 × 0.62) 26 in.40). (See Note 1) sensitive tape made from fluoropolymer film. in. Laminated jackets can be preapplied to insula- TABLE 8 Commonly Used Metal Jacketing.40) CPVC-UV resistant 0. box. Smoke inhibited 0. Compression or expansion springs Flat surfaces Side laps 3⁄4 inch long. 0.016 (0. pan or hex ASJ (Kraft/scrim/alum.0. Thicknesses (rigid TABLE 9 Commonly Used Nonmetallic Jacketing.762) Curved surfaces 3⁄4 × 0. 4 to 6 mils (1. These laminations allow the insula- sheets tion to breathe and at the same time keep moisture out. complete vapor seal.4 Vapor Retarders: components can be field applied.0127)A Vessels.0089) .020 (0.3.6 Commonly used nonmetallic protective jacketing and thicknesses are shown in Table 9.0127)B sheets PVF/scrim/aluminized polyester/ 0.1. 4-in.50 (13) Fastening Devices: 1⁄2 × 0. inch (mm) banding Film laminates #8 × 1⁄2 inch (13) S.1 Polymer Film: 8.4.4.27) .D.4.020 (0. It is also used as a vapor retardant on above 0.40) Smoke inhibited 0.4 On large tanks. PVC/aluminum foil 0.30 (7. 8. slotted screws (See Note 1) (0.010 (0. 4-in.175) Piping Thickness. 8.3.2 This type of jacketing is either shop or field applied. it is difficult to keep wrinkles out of this jacketing.016 (0. Tanks. 8.3.125 (3.4. 0.3.50) Rubberized bitumen/polyethylene 0.× 1⁄2 inch (19) S. 2-1⁄2-. 0.125 (3.) synthetic rubber Curved surfaces 0.60) .1 This type of material can be used for the protection vapor retarders in cold applications down to cryogenic tem- of both hot and cold insulated piping on above and below peratures. taped with a vapor retarder pressure-sensitive tape to create a A Coatings can be aluzinc.5. hex head slotted screws B Thickness shown is for aluminized polyester only.4.016 (0.60) .25) .762) Side laps #8.3. in. A Thickness shown is for aluminum foil only. Curved and flat surfaces 0.81) used. Vapor Retardants: Thickness. in.60) Stainless Steel Jacketing Rubberized bitumen/polyethylene 0.030 (0.030 (0.0005 head. C1696 − 15 TABLE 7 Commonly Used Metal Jacketing.2°C)) All 0. Type A point S.020 (0.011 (0.00035 (0.27) . 0. (Kraft/scrim/aluminized polyester) 0.0. Thicknesses (rigid insulation) and Fastening Devices tion by the manufacturer or in a shop requiring only that the lap be closed in the field to reduce labor. 2-1⁄2-. aluminized steel or galvanized.62) Preformed fittings 0.1.016 (0. on hot applications.50) .016 (0. These materials will have a permeance of less than ambient systems.S.50) .020 (0. 0.40) PVC/aluminum foil 0. The preferred method of attachment is bands. NOTE 1—In cold service application screws. screws especially versus stainless.010 (0.020 (0.1 Plastic films of polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) Jacketing: extruded alone or coextruded with other polymers are used as 8.0005 Deep corrugated or profiled (0.0089) .60) .4 Rubberized Bitumen or Butyl Rubber/Polyethylene 8. inch (mm) glass fabric for high surface temperature (450°F (232.28) .020 (0. This material is recommended because it has very Fastening Devices: Same as stainless steel good resistance to ultraviolet (UV).175) Fastening Devices: PVC-UV resistant Reg.) not crack and dent like metal and mastics. are attached with outward washers on any of the screws clinching SS staples and the joints sealed with pressure- may be desirable for better seal. Tanks.50). staples or any other 8.40) Fastening Devices: Same as stainless steel 8.0.3.02 to 1.02 perms and will typically be flexible film with thickness of and below ground cold systems.2 In addition to its vapor retarding performance.50) S.1 Laminations using fluoropolymer film laminated to a Coated Steel JacketingA chlorosulfonated polyethylene-based synthetic rubber-coated Piping Thickness.3 Speed of application and no cleanup are major stitching screws To subgirt 1 inch (25) long #14 S.4.016 (0. foil) 0. Silicone-impregnated glass fabric Up through 24-in.S.

1 Laminations such as those in 8. size.7 Many solvent-based products contain highly flam- covering to irregular surfaces. aluminum foil and fire retardant adhesive. brush. and fire solvents. and salts either airborne or as a result of intermittent retardant adhesive.3 Laminated Composites: 8.4.1 above are very general.4. When used in hot plastic foams. and dual temperature service. This procedure will adversely affect (75 or 10 mm) centers. It is designed to prevent water (rain.3. Insulation manufacturers or shop fabricators apply moisture entrapped in the insulation.3.5. These system. This material does not have 8. or equipment surface. site. 8. the lap and butt joints may be stapled closed mesh like 10 by 10 should never be applied directly over the with stainless steel (SS) outward clinching staples on 3 or 4-in. chemical attack. wash water. sealed and spillage. and insulation on fittings and elbows. Materials that cling to applied directly from heated storage. mesh without a tack coat.3. 8. cold. and location withstand freezing but. abrasion. which have no ready means of mable solvents. may also result from internal forces caused by thermal expan- tions of various different materials. it must be protected by an outer.6 Water-based materials should be protected from lamination a consistent factory controlled vapor retarder. 8. alkalis. give a 0.4 and 8. and material. or adhesive or adhesive tapes will be ally used as reinforcements for weather barriers. 31 .3 For vapor retarder jackets. core spillage as well as from the effects of oxidation. differential movement. the overlaps should be freezing conditions are expected within 24 h of application. occur when a sharp object is dropped. aluminum foil. directional fiberglass yarn (scrim). 5 by 5.5 Coating and Sealant Systems: you cannot apply them properly. (threads/inch). 8. Condensation on the work 8. Solvent-based coatings can tion will be governed by the service.3.2. Follow manufacturer’s or owner’s rec- 8. C1696 − 15 low to moderate physical abuse. shape. Although breather coatings are used both out- is employed when it is not desirable to have a paper on the doors and indoors in hot.2 Laminations: walked on. or vibration. and so forth which the coating will come into direct contact with the piping since they lend themselves to easy application in these areas.5. or cellular glass insulation as a vapor retarder service.5. exposed surface.2 Metalized polyester films are added to the inside to a solvent-based coating should be used. tri. temperatures below 40°F (4.5.3 Plastic films vapor retarder are installed. they should be used in cold and dual temperature installations 8.1 The choice of the material used to protect the insula.2 Mechanical damage can result from external forces 8. Damage 8.5. infrared. impact.1 A weather barrier coating trowel. sealed with adhesive and taped with a vapor retarder pressure.3.5 Water-based materials should not be used on flat 8.4 These products are usually supplied with a self. the insulation from the chemical attack of acids. your heavier cloths like 5 by 5 or stainless ferential butt strip is applied at the job site. when the surface is 8. a breather coating allows the escape of a minimal and finish for interior use or covered with another jacket for amount of water vapor resulting from heat applied to the exterior use.1. usually the primary purpose of protecting the insulation from the metal jacketing. Design should be altered to prevent ponding water or 8.4°C) as they become so viscous 8. MSDS should be referred They may be used in conjunction with metal jacketing in to for proper information and precautions. the surface by adhesion facilitate the installation of a protective 8. or trowel applied therefore.2.3. securement. Solvent vapors in fairly low concentrations can cause narcosis. and other fabric membranes are gener- sealing lap system. or spray sufficient UV resistance for use as the outer layer in outdoor grade is applied to the outer surface of thermal insulation for use.1. or compression that may application guidelines by the manufacturer for more detail.5.4. should be taken and of the insulated surface to be protected. weather.3 The use of an appropriate weather barrier can protect lamination and is constructed of (a) white kraft paper.3.8 Special attention should be given to any area in around irregular shapes such as fittings. or even from extreme weather conditions. The tough flexible films provided by breather coatings PVDC films also are available in self-adhesive tape form for (a breather coating is one through which vapors under pressure use in sealing butt joints and for spiral wrapping around will pass) also afford protection from mechanical damage.3.4 Glass or synthetic fiber cloth such as 10 by 10 8.4.2 All-service jacket (ASJ) is the most commonly used 8. for best results. or (b) white polymer film.4.5.5. valves. 8.2.4.3.5.3. situations such as flashing between two adjacent surfaces or 8. subjected to abuse. 8. 8. sleet. freezing during storage and should not be applied when 8. The reader should refer to in the form of shear. palm.3. and so forth) from entering the insulation handled in the same way that laminated materials are.02 perm rating for cold applications making the 8. If a vapor retarder steel hex mesh may be used. In areas manually applied to the longitudinal lap in the field. For outdoor use. snow.3. surface may also hinder adhesion. Water-based or solvent-based coatings should not be applied at sensitive tape to create a complete vapor seal.4 The applications descriptions in 8.1 Laminated vapor retarders can consist of lamina.4. solvent-based materials are applied. and appropriate precautions should be taken.3.3. while still preventing the this type of jacketing to the insulation before it gets to the job passage of liquid to the insulation.3 Vapor retarders are generally applied to fiberglass. Coatings used with the smaller is not required. Circum. 8.3.5 are sometimes horizontal surfaces where ponding water might deteriorate the used in cold temperature applications coating.3.4. adequate ventilation should be ensured whenever to surfaces that will not easily accommodate metal jacketing. the adhesion of the coating to the insulation.3 Weather Barrier Coatings: ommendations or both for finishing these areas.2.4.4.5.5. only in conjunction with vapor retarders. brush.2 Mastics may be spray.4.4. The latter UV radiation. scrim. sion and contraction.

exhibit low are applied with the correct number of coats and the total dried shrinkage during cure. The 5-by-5 wrap & weave mesh is used where additional of an impact on the performance of the insulation material.0. jacketing would remain primarily in the space between the reinforcing membrane such as 10-by-10.0. Epoxies These specifications include consideration of: Vapor Retardants Thickness. the insulation material. designers prohibit the use of sealant on the metal jacketing 8.125 (3. It should 8.063 (1. or sprayed.125 (3. the equipment is possible so liquid water will inevitably enter and the metal operating below ambient temperature at least part of the time.45) DFT it is applied.4. especially insulating and finishing the use of sealant at these locations as an added barrier to keep cements.5. As with hot applications. Thicknesses the metal and the moisture barrier which may be on the interior Weather Barriers Thickness.4 It is essential that the vapor-retardant coating not be should be used on the metal jacketing joints in cold insulation used as the exposed finish if it is likely to be damaged during systems.0.058 (1.5) .6. are normally applied with a fabric.10 All coatings should be applied only on thoroughly practice which is controversial. moisture and water resistant. In cold applications.6) DFT industry specifications dealing with specific requirements. designer should give credence to the metal jacketing manufac- sives (especially asphalt) used under it.4 Vapor-Retardant Coatings: under the reasoning that a perfect seal of metal jacketing is not 8. 8. the liquid may freeze and destroy the value of the tions when deciding whether sealant should be used on the insulation.76) .5. to 121°C).1 Hot Applications—The use of sealants (sometimes may be specified when particular chemical resistance or other called flashing sealant or flashing adhesive) at the longitudinal properties are necessary. could lead to a greater propensity for corrosion of the interior 8. or 5-by-5 vapor retarder and the metal jacketing. 10-by-20. it shall be be a high priority of those involved to assure that these coatings vapor retarder type.1 There are presently many governmental and private Synthetic rubbers 0.4.1758) DFT taken so that the system will not attack the substrate to which Synthetic rubbers 0.4.2 Solvent. whether brushed. In dual temperature service.175) DFT Asphalt cutbacks 0.5) . metal jacketing joint sealants at the longitudinal and butt joints 8. at least.6 Requirements of the Coating and Sealant System: Asphalt emulsions 0. the presence of a vapor retarder cal attack.5. These products.5 Metal Jacketing Joint Sealants: sealant shall be applied before closing and banding of the jacketing.0.3. C1696 − 15 8.0625 (1.0.5.5. It should dry in the time required and under the conditions to which it will be exposed.5. be non-hardening.4.038 (0. minimize the intrusion of water into vapor to the insulation. 8. the closer it comes to the been studied so there remains at this time no definitive design low-temperature equipment or piping the colder it becomes. definitive design advice that can be given on the use of metal Caution should be exercised in making sure the vapor-retardant jacketing joint sealants for cold applications. The system coating is compatible with joint sealants and insulation adhe.5.5.125 (3. service. The system designer should give able insulation.5.1 In cold or dual temperature service. Polyvinyl acetates emulsions 0.030 (0.0.5. alternate freezing and metal jacketing joints in hot insulation systems.90) . chemi. jacketing joints must be left unsealed to best allow for Water vapor in the air moves from the area of high vapor evaporation of this water.057 (1.4.6) dry film thickness (DFT) 8. the water vapor reaches its dew point temperature and condenses to liquid reducing the efficiency of the perme. Any water which penetrates the metal palmed.5. 8. turer’s recommendations when deciding whether sealant 8.080 (2.5. it mechanical strength is needed.175) DFT 8.5. such as epoxies or urethanes.or water-based system—Care should be Asphalt cutbacks 0. thawing of the moisture in the insulation may actually physi. While this will have less mesh. These two competing system designs pressure (ambient temperature) to the area of low pressure (the and their associated theories have not been studied nor has the low-temperature equipment). no used on surfaces that will remain wet for long periods of time. At advice that can be given on the use of metal jacketing joint some point.3.5.0.5.3 When metal jacketing joint sealant is used. if the temperature is credence to the metal jacketing manufacturer’s recommenda- low enough. The number one contributor to coatings failure to date has been application of improper coating thickness.47) . sealants in hot applications.0) .0625 (1. 32 . Other system manufacturers’ recommendations for maximum adhesion.6) DFT Copolymer emulsion 0.2 Cold Applications—The impact of using or not using cally destroy the insulation. while at the same time preventing the passage of should prevent or.5. As the vapor passes through or lifespan of insulation systems using these competing designs around (at joints) the insulation. Butyl elastomer based sealants are one type that has been used in this application and which adheres well to both TABLE 10 Commonly Used Coatings. Closer to the cold surface. and remain flexible film thickness as specified from the specification or the data with a service temperature range from -40°F to 250°F (-40°C sheet from the manufacturer. in. Jacketing sealant shall be applied in the jacketing 8. Dusty insulation surfaces need to be primed per liquid water out of the insulation system.063 (1.3 Water-based vapor-retardant coatings should not be surface of the metal jacketing.76) . studied.5. Some system designers specify dry insulation materials.063 (1.5. of caulk on the exterior lip of the jacketing joint. and butt joints of metal jacketing on hot applications is a 8.030 (0.5 Commonly used coatings and thicknesses are shown joint between the overlapping pieces of metal and not as a bead in Table 10.2 Good vapor-retardant coatings are formulated to of metal jacketing on cold applications has also not been afford maximum protection from mechanical damage.9 Solvent-free materials. inch (mm) surface of the metal jacketing. Jacketing 8.6.

1. procedures.2. his inspection authority. and solvents? purchaser.9 What are the chemical resistance factors of the 10. materials.6 Has the material been tested for flame spread index for this inspection to be carried out. insulation at his own expense. cleaned. state) and will it create an undesirable hazard? or a waiver of inspection should not relieve the contractor of 8.6 Until final acceptance of the installation by system to acids. shear.5. not after. alkalis.4. 10. brush.1 Bid invitations should contain information necessary ensure design requirements are satisfied. and Maintenance 10. Testing.12 As good as any product or combination of products 10. The pur.2 Document acceptable inspection results on the “In- quality assurance program that defines the inspection of all sulation Inspection Checklist” (Appendix X1). and service temperature that there is a regular and systematic supervision of the work requirements need to be considered? by experienced competent staff. inspection authority adequate notice of stage of completion to abrasion.3 Toxicity—What is the threshold limit of each any materials or workmanship that does not conform to the ingredient.1.5.2 Work performed should be monitored as necessary to 9.1 Insulation inspection should include the following: reasonable times to those parts of the sites carrying out the 10.1 Perform in-process inspections of work performed to 10.11 What is the recommended dry film thickness of the handed over in a perfect condition.5.6.5. coverage can dramatically affect considered.3. 10. specified product? Test data on the physical properties of any 10.6.5.1 Underground granular pourable insulation should be inspected to the extent necessary to ensure the entire pipeline 9. and drawings. the contractor should make good any damage to 8.3.2 Ensure surfaces to be insulated are prepared.1. be resolved. and what steps should be taken to prevent exceed. as well as too little. 10. tor at the contractor’s expense.5 In-Process Inspection: chaser or his inspection authority should have free access at all 10. removable section insulation or inspection port should be Too much.3 Insulation Supervisor Responsibilities: 9. a product are generated based upon a specific dry film thickness. and compression? avoid disruption and maintain continuity of work. Specific instructions for special applications should problems and questions regarding application and installation.6.7 For the purpose of inspecting insulated surfaces.5. The contractor should give the purchaser or his factors such as expansion and contraction. palm. to select samples from the materials to be applied and reject 10.1 Verify that specified insulation material is used and work for the specific contract.5.1. the performance of a product.7 What is the resistance of the various mechanical started. and smoke developed index in accordance with Test Method 10.1. project records.6.4 What is the flammability of the system (in the wet 10. the system is of little value if the application is incorrect or instruction covers the minimum quality assurance/quality con- is improperly installed.5. The purchaser should be allowed application procedures are followed. 9.1.2 Approval by the purchaser. with any dependent upon the particular type of finish used.10 Is the material best applied by trowel. Personnel should to determine how guarantees of materials and application will meet site requirements to be qualified as inspectors. materials.2 Payment—The inquiry from the purchaser should state and insulated per owner specifications.6. or workmanship. C1696 − 15 8.1. applicable adhesive and facing at the recommended and 10. 8.5. 10.6. with specification. 8. 10.5 What is the fire performance of the dry film and will his responsibilities for the design. materials)? Make sure the material was tested. 33 .3. 8. relevant specification and contract documents. The purchaser ing the level? may perform acceptance tests to his satisfaction.6.1.4.3 Finishing materials should also be inspected for E84 (which assesses surface burning characteristics of building quality and thickness either before or during application.2.2 Insulation Quality Assurance Procedure—This general is. MSDS sheets. Guarantees has been insulated per site specification requirements.6.1 General: 10. 10.1. Inspection.4 QA Inspector Responsibilities: 10.5.1 General: ensure applicable specifications are followed.1.6.5.5. The manufacturer is the best source of trol (QA/QC) procedures to be used for thermal insulation accurate product information.1. impact. vibration.8 What thermal factors such as application tempera. To eliminate the major portion of practices. 8.5 The site organization of the contractor should be such ture limits. be followed. freeze thaw stability. any intention to retain an agreed percentage of the total value 10.5.1 It is recommended that the purchaser provide a 10. as each stage of work is completed and before the next stage is 8. so that installation is 8.2 Check the surface condition before insulating.1 Ensure that correct material is used and complies specification requirements should be corrected by the contrac. unless predetermined extraneous or spray? conditions are contractually identified. 9. and specific application procedures before and during progress of the insulation work.4 It is preferable that inspection should be carried out installed total thickness. it meet all the necessary requirements? The contractor should cooperate and provide the opportunity 8.2 Any failure of the finished system to comply with the 10.3 Ensure all deviations from specifications are autho- of the work for an agreed period after the work has been rized by controlling design engineer and documented in the completed.6. 10. questions should be asked before a problem arises.

Where there is risk of abrasion or physical list. identified.6. or 10. the contractor and pur. distortion. personnel are employed for the dismantling of existing insula- 10. assist routine inspection of insulation in service. hot spots on high-temperature systems. Keywords methods of repair and replacement to be adopted should 12.1. 11.6 Documentation: radiography. from loose fiber. (This checklist will be given to the Inspector Supervisor damage.1 During contract negotiations. and Sealing of Insulation 10.5.1. The Occupational Safety and 11.2 Pipe fabrications to be insulated in the shop will be tion and the re-insulating process when repairs or modifications inspected and documented on the Insulation Inspection Check.1. This program should take into consideration the three tation. and free inspected and documented on the Insulation Inspection Check. and local requirements.2 When establishing an asbestos control program.6. state. 11. ther- damage occur during service or overhaul.1 It is essential that all asbestos-containing materials list. evidence of 10.1 industrial thermal insulation.5.1. a program of preventative action should be estab- and will be retained in the applicable project QA file documen.7 Mastic finish is holiday and pin hold free on mastic out to avoid further deterioration of the insulation system. signs of cracking.3 Installed piping to be insulated in the field will be Containing Asbestos: inspected and documented on the Insulation Inspection Check. To finishes.3 Inspect insulation materials for proper type. lished. encapsulate.6.2. and attachments. 11.2 Inspection. corrosion. lation systems to ensure that the initial performance of the material will be maintained and.5.2. and condition. 10. C1696 − 15 10.5.1 General: Health Administration (OSHA). removal. qualified and certified to perform their assigned function. list.1 In-process inspections will be documented on the 11.4 Inspect for dryness. nondestructive testing (NDT) methods. mal insulation 34 . undamaged. 11.6. agree to the 12. external protection.1. damage. Maintenance Recommendations procedures should satisfy the requirements of the Environmen- tal Protection Agency (EPA). are to be made.1. Maintenance.5 Visually inspect insulated surfaces for corrosion buildup on low-temperature systems. 11. and maintained to ensure that 10. (ACM) be inspected.7 Insulation Inspection Checklist—See Appendix X1.1. the 11. insulation system.) main types of asbestos abatement: enclose. or condensation or ice 10. may be considered.3 The purchaser should ensure that only qualified Insulation Inspection Checklist. It is the responsibility of the owner of the ACM to insure that chaser should discuss and agree to the procedures to be adopted personnel responsible for the maintenance of the ACM be for suitable periodic inspection and maintenance of the insu. where applicable.5.6 Inspect joints for tight fits and seals. finish should be removed to enable inspection of the insulation 10. Suitable remedial treatment should be carried 10.4 Equipment to be insulated in the field will be the surface condition remains sound.2 Inspection of the external surface should include thickness. such as thermal imaging or flash 10. When necessary.1.

watershed. etc. Other: Remarks: Signature (Inspector Acceptance): Date: 35 . Corrosion protection (when required by specification) 4. thickness. Steam tracer connections are on outside of the insulation 6. properly finished. Insulation fittings correct size. C1696 − 15 APPENDIX (Nonmandatory Information) X1. Correct insulation material and thickness 3. Substrate painted (when required by specification) 5. Insulation properly fitted 9. Insulation stored properly 2. sealed. Insulation properly secured 10. Pipe and equip. INSULATION INSPECTION CHECKLIST Contractor: Contact: Project: Area: Location: Date: Dwg with Rev #: Line/Sketch #: Scope: Insp. Acceptable Date Initials: 1. caulked. Insulation joints staggered correctly 8. type 7.

Y. 222 Rosewood Drive. C. Permission rights to photocopy the standard may also be secured from the Copyright Clearance Center. which you may attend. (6) INIH 1000 Hot Insulation Installation Details McGraw-Hill. This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International. F. or through the ASTM website (www. and the risk of infringement of such rights. University of Texas at Austin. Turner and J.astm. Inc. C1696 − 15 BIBLIOGRAPHY (1) National Commercial and Industrial Insulation Standards published (7) INSH 1000 Hot Service Insulation Materials and Installation by Midwest Insulation Contractors Associations (MICA) are refer. 1980 (5) INIC 1000 Cold Insulation Installation Details (12) W. PO Box C700. http://www..copyright. 100 Barr Harbor Drive. N. F. Malloy. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards. http:// Requirements www. Thermal Insulation Handbook.org). This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every five years and if not revised. Malloy. Danvers. Tel: (978) 646-2600. Krieger (4) INEG 2000 Guidelines for Use of Insulation Practices Publishing Company. are entirely their own responsibility. either reapproved or withdrawn. (9) INTG 1000 Insulation Inspection Check List properties. NY. Turner and J. C. and system design parameters (10) INSA 1000 Acoustical Insulation System-Material and Installation (2) Process Industry Practices. Huntington. West Conshohocken. MA 01923.org (e-mail). Handbook of Thermal Insulation (3) INEG 1000 Insulation Design Guide Design Economics for Pipes and Equipment.pipdocs. Robert E. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. 610-832-9555 (fax). Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at 610-832-9585 (phone). United States. or service@astm.. PA 19428-2959. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee.org (11) W. at the address shown below. (8) INSH 2000 Installation of Hot Service Insulation Systems ences containing pertinent information on insulation materials.com/ 36 . 1981 ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. New York. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights.