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Volume 10 · Number 1 · May 1998

Where research and practice meet 3
Françoise Blin and June Thompson

Address by the Minister for Education and Science 5
M. Martin T.D.

Where do research and practice meet? Developing a discipline 7
N. Garrett

Technology and universities: context, cost and culture 13
C. Curran

Puissance du binaire, créativité du synaptique 21
M. P. Perrin

The language learner and the software designer 38
S. Myles

Does computer-mediated conferencing really have a reduced social dimension? 46
T. Coverdale-Jones

Virtual language learning: potential and practice 53
U. Felix

Breaking down the distance barriers: perceptions and practice in
technology-mediated distance language acquisition 59
M. Fox

Learning to learn a language – at home and on the Web 68
R. Goodfellow and M.-N.Lamy

Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 1


Les outils de TALN dans SAFRAN 79
M.-J. Hamel

Two conceptions of learning and their implications for CALL at the tertiary level 86
M. Levy

Designing, implementing and evaluating a project in tandem language learning
via e-mail 95
D. Little and E.Ushioda

Wintegrate? Reactions to Télé-Textes Author 2, a CALL multimedia package 102
L. Murray

Using the Internet to teach English for academic purposes 109
H. Nesi

The ‘third place’ – virtual reality applications for second language learning 118
K. Schwienhorst

Seminar on research in CALL 127
D. Little

President’s Report 129
G. Davies

CILT Research Forum 133
A. Jamieson

Software Review
PROF (Practical Revision Of French) 136

Diary 142


CTI Centre for Modern

Professor Graham Chesters
Centre Manager:
June Thompson
Information Officer:
Jenny Parsons

CTI Centre for Modern
Languages, The Language
Where Research
Institute, The University of Hull,
Hull HU6 7RX, UK.
Tel:+44 (01)482 466373/465872
and Practice Meet
Fax: +44 (01)482 473816. Selected papers from EUROCALL 97
Internet: Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland, 11-13
September 1997
Subscription rates for 1998
Individual: £ 30.00 Edited by
Corporate: £ 80.00
Commercial: £300.00 Françoise Blin and June Thompson
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Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 3

Dublin City University staff who helped us with the logistics. especially Jane Fahy. and at last but not least.Editorial Martin. Presi- dent of Dublin City University. T. and the President’s Report to the AGM. Minister for Education and Science at the mag- nificent state reception which he hosted for the conference par- ticipants at Dublin Castle on 11 September 1997. Michael O’Sullivan and his team of student helpers.. Dr Daniel O’Hare. Finally. Françoise Blin and June Thompson 4 ReCALL . Mr John Hayden. Chief Execu- tive/ Secretary of the Higher Education Authority.. the organis- ing committee.D.D. Minister for Education and Science. T. followed by selected papers in alphabetical order. David Little’s report on a seminar on Research in CALL held on the last day of the con- ference. Dwain Kelly and Eileen Colgan. The keynotes are then presented in the order they were given. we would like to thank all those who contributed to the success of EUROCALL 97: Mr Micheal Martin.

The study of languages is increasingly is English. Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 5 . One of my aims is to learning.ReCALL 10:1 (1998) 52–54 Address by the Minister for Education and Science Mr. importance for our young people. In I was very interested to read details of your recognition of this I have recently announced conference programme and I would like to a tele-services initiative which has put in place stress how I believe that the issues which you for the current school year a major expansion are discussing are very important. were once solidly placed in the domain of lib. DCU is one of the tele-services industry which provides our most innovative and dynamic institutions employment for large numbers of linguisti- and I think it is very fitting that they should be cally competent school-leavers. I intend that the new Two of the aspects of education that I have technologies will be employed in this project. In particular I am very pleased to be whom deal on a daily basis with people who able to acknowledge the role of Dublin City do not speak English. door to the philosophy and literature of other Like most countries whose principal language nations. increase the development of oral skills in lan- The main aims of EUROCALL very much guage learning in schools. many of CALL. This industry involved in an endeavour such as this. Micheál Martin T. At Dublin Castle. up to 40% of marks in our terminal this government. for the coincide with the educational objectives of first time. and treated mainly as a tise in languages will continue to improve. been trying strongly to promote during my very short period as Minister are language- It gives me pleasure to welcome this evening learning and technology. I am determined that our record of exper- eral arts education. will continue to grow rapidly in the future. At present. This year. These include the promotion school exam were awarded for oral and aural of the use of foreign languages at all stages of competency. An example of this is University in this conference. I am initiating a pilot the education system and increasing the use of project for the teaching of modern languages technology in the learning environment. we have suffered in the past from a approached as a tool of communication and degree of insularity. 11 September 1997 Ladies and Gentlemen. so many distinguished international scholars I consider that language-learning is of vital to this state reception in honour of EURO. D. at Primary School level. Languages in courses available throughout the country.

I note that this is one tion in computer learning aids. eral and vocational education. become a leader in this area wish you success in your programme and the and it is my intention to ensure that support is sharing of your research with your colleagues available to encourage and promote innova. I believe that Ireland can. It and have the opportunity to become skilled in is a source of great satisfaction to me as Min- their many uses. has not been to the forefront sented in EUROCALL and on its executive in the use of technology in our schools. 6 ReCALL . of the largest EUROCALL conferences to Your programme over the next few days is date. is in the vanguard of innovation in contribution to the classroom learning envi. your host development have already started to make a institution. Not only will research and strength to strength. but you will be bridging the gap engage easily in transnational communication. from other institutions. the periphery of Europe and we need all the tion. in order to enable pupils to practice meet. with seri. of technology for the teaching of languages. We are a small country which is on government is determined to tackle this situa.Address by the Minister for Education and Science where appropriate. although the home of many international com. We intend to ensure that all pupils in our contacts possible with our fellow Europeans schools will shortly have access to computers and with the greater world beyond Europe. language-teaching approaches and in the use ronment. Ireland. Major advances in software ister that Dublin City University. This committee. I ous commitment. between the formerly polarised worlds of lib- In the area of computer expertise. I hope that your work will go from fascinating to read. I am delighted that Ireland is so well repre- puter companies.

and even more so. Nor yet using computers is good for language learning in most of the technology-based materials we – because there are so many uncontrollable use. most provocative and complex one in all of almost none of whom are able to introspect or higher education. for us and and for many of us in our daily professional for language teaching generally. our program – the variety of presentations on My hope today is to argue that we as practice. research and practice part of our work. ment of a serious research agenda for CALL. extremely urgent. indeed critical. CALLers. We are by now aware that it is of research and practice is not yet common in extremely difficult to do sound large-scale our language technology centers.e. research and practice meet’. need to develop a substantive research – makes that clear. studies of the questions we would probably have to give. and that that need is also meet in the organization of EUROCALL. The integration teaching. yes. and on the research done on practice. It would be interesting to ask questions about (i. a negative answer. we as language and on theoretical research and the nature of professionals. very few of which are set up to collect any variables in methods studies. research that springs to people’s minds when guage center? In our materials? In cyberspace? they connect ‘research’ with ‘computer- in the mind of the learner? To most of those assisted’ is efficacy research. But we could push the question further that there are several barriers to the develop- and ask: do research and practice meet regu. CT. at this conference: of those questions. about how to develop positive answers to any tice meet? Unarguably. where research and practice meet as a more We might talk at length. But it is not only at research agenda as an integral and constant this yearly gathering. is perhaps the Certainly not in the minds of our learners. probing question: Where do research and prac. do research on) their recast the assertion that EUROCALL ’97 is own learning. larly and inherently in the profession of The first problem is that the first kind of CALL? In the multimedia classroom or lan. USA The topic of EUROCALL ’97. But we know lives. which exist efficacy studies that attempt to ask whether almost entirely to deliver instruction. ‘Where data on what students do with the materials. another time. efficacy of using technology in language reluctantly.ReCALL 10:1 (1998) 7–12 Where do research and practice meet? Developing a discipline Nina Garrett CTW Mellon Project for Language Learning and Technology. because the use Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 7 .

we’ve been hearing that since the first because the efficacy of the outcome depends uses of computers in language education. whether for good rea. of money because technology use will allow sons or bad. when they are appropri. Without the ately constrained. but it much more on the content of the pedagogy hasn’t happened. because it’s seen as merely pedagogi. I’m arguing little solid evidence as the bad ones – and something much more presumptuous and many of both the good reasons and the bad grandiose.Where do research and practice meet?: N Garrett of technology is not itself a method. that technology can fit into already hope that you won’t either. setting out to demonstrate convincingly that and very soon. part of one’s teaching. and research on learning with cially in language education making language technology is barely understood. research that only we can undertake. “Sure. the effect ing presentations on our program. and I happen. students (or their parents ) demand it as very seriously.” But I’m not making a claim than on its delivery platform. Even in small elite liberal arts col. and we don’t want to look old-fashioned or leges. for technology use are by now almost irrele- 8 ReCALL . language professionals will take it as a threat. I note several very interest. materials. there are good reasons and (again based on the equation of ‘research’with bad arguments for the rapid expansion of tech- ‘efficacy studies’) that it doesn’t matter nology use in education generally and in lan- whether or not we can show that ‘it works’ guage education in particular. teaching counts less than proof that the education we offer is up-to-date. as indi. making students more responsible vidual professionals and collectively as a pro. this dents really can learn this way just as well as isn’t another bit of hyperbole about the in the conventional classroom setting. research. learning more dynamic and interactive.” CALL promise. ticity and individually tailored experience. many of us know to our cost – research in I won’t waste your time by refuting that CALL ‘doesn’t count’ towards promotion or argument. I believe that technology is going to ones are predicated on limited traditional define language teaching. do we urgently need to develop ing more opportunities for communication. This is a warning. The strongest because the expansion of technology into our bad argument is that institutions will save lots curricula is inevitable. There are others: we have to use technology cal research. not real because all the other institutions are doing it research. and I’m arguing that a substan- students learn differently. Many non-CALL studies often collect data to confirm that learn. where the quality of teaching is taken cheap. tenure. the good of the profession. This is of course not tive CALL research agenda is the only factor to say that efficacy studies are not possible or that will allow us to shape that domination for valid or worthwhile. not the other way notions of how adult classroom second lan- around – and by this I mean not just that the guage acquisition takes place and thus of what technology will inform language learning and technology can do to support it. creat- Why. for their own learning. ing (as we have traditionally defined it) does though I don’t see it that way myself. research agenda is the growing sentiment As we all know. etc. Parenthetically. But my point teaching but that it will actively shape it. Some of the argu- fession. of technology on language teaching and learn- A second barrier to development of a solid ing is all too likely to be disastrous. a research agenda for CALL? It’s not only allowing more access to culturally authentic because we need to get more respect. and sure. I believe that tech- accepted pedagogical paradigms – rather than nology is likely to dominate language teaching. and because doing more research is the ments that we think of as good are based on as surest way to get that respect. espe- counted much. you know its falsity as well as I do. that stu. I here for the wonderfully transformative poten- worry that much of our efficacy research has tial of technology to lift language study into been rather defensive in tone: “Let us show dynamic life and compelling cultural authen- you that technology really does work. then. teaching with technology is seldom There are plenty of good reasons too. And the third barrier is that – as them to cut faculty lines. I is that the goodness or badness of the reasons know that some of you will be thinking.

both valid and acceptable to teachers. but they are seldom able to correlate their swept out to sea in the undertow. It’s growing. with non-CALL language teachers seldom have to research a relatively peripheral concern for the do consciously. the interactive poten- technology starts wagging the dog of conven. If we want to prevent administrators mentation – to drive the redefinition of lan. As technol . tial of multimedia and of the Web rouses the tional language pedagogy it will be to our stu. conversely. fear that the technology can do too much. our under. replace teachers.. though world. resisted computers because they were so lim- We are the only ones who can control and ited that their pedagogical capabilities seemed shape technology use. cannot. we’re least. we’ve had to work out how we relate prepared to make a living in this brave new materials design to pedagogical goals. teacher. for example. we have to do guage teaching as a whole in ways that are the research on which we base our objections.. field of CALL as a whole. only justify our current practice but will also In the early days of CALL many teachers open up new approaches to language teaching. tice we have been building? I think that would requires that we make conscious structured be dangerous. and we’ll drown and be well. ated administrators to replace teachers is in We have to use our practice – our day-to. cuts in class contact unless we move rapidly to pre-empt that criti. how students actually understand data on what students do with technology- and misunderstand what and how we teach. Can we happily ride the rising wave assess learner behaviors to gauge whether of increasing demand for our expertise and our those goals have been met. the face of. which most practice as we have done up till now. to the extent that we’ve used technol- to be good for us as CALL specialists. If we continue to pursue our decisions about all of these issues. standing of the necessary design links between though it can certainly change the role of the pedagogical goals and technological imple. Where do research and practice meet?: N Garrett vant. students’ successful or unsuccessful learning ogy is forced onto those who don’t understand with those ad hoc decisions except in anecdo- it and don’t welcome it. fact a real one. and it work out exactly what we tell the computer to will inevitably continue to grow exponentially. We’ve had to our field or in any other. in what we want them to learn. To design soft- materials. and learning make it difficult for them to learn there’s not much point in arguing against it. software design and imple.. so that when the tail of trivial. hours. Our non-technology-using colleagues only CALL practice. ware. The computer’s ability to collect activities. The pressures for the use of technology how students’ misconceptions about language in education are quite simply irresistible. continuing to expand on the prac. This means that few rience a backlash: we may be increasingly teachers who do not use technology have much resented and our work will be increasingly research basis for defending their practice in attacked as lacking in pedagogical validity. and that of language educa. so dents’ advantage. from using technology wrongly. do in order to get the students to do what we On the face of it. we are likely to expe. We’re ogy not to replicate conventional pedagogy. CALL practitioners know that day integration of technology. sound defensive when they try to argue against mentation in pedagogy. Now. how differences in learning kind of research agenda depends is tracking styles affect the ways students approach these software. that the threat of its being used by budget-fix- tion as a field. translate teaching or tutoring behaviours into The basic research capability on which this learning activities. pressures to increase class size – or the cism by developing the research that will not threat of distance learning replacing them. tal or experiential ways. that growth might seem intend. based language learning materials while they Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 9 . and to show those not yet involved how we haven’t made much progress in how to it works. technology does not. at the ones who are already in the know. has taught us how to technological incursions into their practice. good may push that wave so high and so fast that it teachers make such judgments intuitively and will crash down on us. economic pressures In conventional classroom practice. or computer use of on-line materials.

But in fact we could insist on a rational language learning. ing of reading text. the development of quite new areas of second ences in design options? (2) They allow us to language acquisition theory. What does way can be used in a wide variety of different multimedia do for the learning of language? efforts. multimedia – the fusion of text.D. exploring the relative effect on language learn- gogical research or second language acquisi. based communication) gives us for the first even though we don’t have very good ways of time an instrument that will track the learning testing that assertion. ing. in ing environments and materials. Does the way students carry out their flow of wisdom is not unidirectional: it is not homework assignments show that they have always theory that informs practice. videoconferencing with no actual contact vinced that multimedia enormously enriches hours.. In this way audio. and video – offers the possibility of research on learning – whether that is peda. for how ‘computerizing’ a conventional teaching the personal specifics of body language and activity or pedagogical technique doesn’t nec. including body language. and new. for full interactivity at the essarily change it but it does give us a way to speed of real conversation. but we still define and combination of classroom and distance teach- assess that learning (if at all) with old para. It’s one thing to claim that multimedia pedagogical software. to do straightforward pedagogical theorists and practitioners understand that the research. who did her Ph. etc. extends and enhances the learning of culture. outcome of that process in a test.Where do research and practice meet?: N Garrett are in the act of working with them (be they digms. The data we can gather this context.) From this perspective we can see tact with real live speakers of the language. After all. and viewing language in its full social the practice itself. used the data. (1) They will allow us to do formative We have never before been able to investigate evaluations on the structure of our software: how these abilities support each other. I would agree with all those objections environments that technology offers them. By tracking what stu- Do our methodological assumptions hold dents do in the whole range of language learn- water? (Amanda Brooks.” We stress the need for personal con- directions. we can leap out in front of current collection built into Systeme-D to show that practice to do what I spoke of earlier – take students who were strongly encouraged and charge of the ways in which technology taught to ‘think in French’ did little if any bet. it process rather than assigning a score to the seems to me. but the design of the reaction: “That’s not appropriate for language research opens up great possibilities in many learning. we’ve operated for years with a 10 ReCALL . absorbed what we intended them to in class? We must go further. listening to the speech tion research – is fused with. most lan- translate into French. We as CALL enthusiasts are con. More significantly. facial expression. web use. if we were faced with a flat either-or decision: data on how sophisticated technology use conventional classroom-based teaching with a changes pedagogical practice and changes teacher. inseparable from. Don’t get me what students do in the new kinds of learning wrong. shapes language education. Charles Ferguson investigate our non-technology-based teaching once emphasized how important it is that both as well. in which distance learning diminishes these But (3). and the ways do research on it.’ You might be taken guage teachers display a kind of knee-jerk aback at her conclusions. or network. stream. or language pedagogy delivered via learning. This means that novel learning styles use our materials differently. When distance ter in compositions than those who were learning is brought up as a way to ‘extend’ explicitly encouraged to ‘think in English and language learning opportunities. we also need to collect data on make it unacceptable to us. traditional French at Vanderbilt University. unprecedented teaching practice can lead to and if so do we need to recognize those differ. we have never before had the capability of vide? Do they seem to be learning what we selectively manipulating our materials to intend them to learn from this activity? Do emphasize one or the other source of input and students of different ability levels or different measure the effect. because do students make use of the options we pro.

and text. the notions of language (how it gives formal nents of the communicative approach insist structure to the semantics of time. space. that virtually all language learning happens in causality. approaches to grasping the relationship That’s the research agenda that we need to between meaning and form? What about cog- undertake now. as from the dorm room to our hensive or systematic study of what kinds of office.) are best lars of language use are shaped by the particu. grounding of information. with other learners or native It’s out of fashion now. doing home. dents work alone. However. kind of practice? What kind of feedback on (b) what kind of language learning happens in the practice? Score-keeping? Forced review of spontaneous real-time meaningful personal missed items? Explanations? What role does communication that’s network-based instead memorization play? of face-to-face. even when the distance is less more. doing homework or even What about problem-solving or cognitive working in self-instructional situations. in lars of the discourse situation and of the par. In recent decades we have been able to who teach a truly communicative syllabus enhance some of the working-alone time with wouldn’t have much use for it at all. though. perhaps guage acquisition theory. though. and what role might they suggested to us in our particular institutions. Highly analytic Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 11 . we don’t yet know much side-of-class communicative opportunities about what kind of language use results with e-mail. audio. Still. where the particu. The reason we object to the idea of language learning can happen when learners these forms of communication replacing any are not actively communicating. we’ll strongest methodologists of this school. it seems practice. the personal and sit- classroom practice. but some of us still speakers instead of teachers. we accept sociolinguistic and discourse argu- ferent kinds of pedagogical input. listserves. Bill VanPatten. etc. To com- ticipants in it. and surely those constitute uational particulars of the participants and the ‘distance learning’just as much as does video. is that we really have no idea (a) what internalization and automatization of material kind of language learning actually happens in learned in class or in communication? What face-to-face communication with a teacher. Further- conferencing. port for it. – could even be replaced by it – but that those work. reflection and problem-solving mode. in e-mail and chat. Now we can not only enhance the others who espouse communicative teaching working-alone time with video as well. said also have to explore these distinctions in terms in a teleconference last year that those who of different kinds of learners. communicative act are not known. case roles. play in relation to distance learning? Even if This is not just a question of regulating dif. and chat. one of the plicate this issue still further. foregrounding and back- the act of communication. Where do research and practice meet?: N Garrett combination of two environments: students teach by the grammar-translation method spend some time in class with teachers and could probably make good use of technology some time working on their own. What about part of our classroom contact hours. learned outside of the communicative act. so as to have solid evidence on nitive and metacognitive strategies and learn- which to base principled arguments for and ing? What role do those play in relation to against whatever form of distance learning is classroom learning. We don’t (among native speakers or among learners) object to those as additions to our on-campus when. audio. we have never undertaken a compre- than a mile. we can also offer out. and just as strongly have seen network-based com- with fully integrated pedagogically glossed munication as an enormously powerful sup- video. and (d) what examples of language use that can be used as kind of language learning happens when stu. it ments that the functions of language are best includes some very basic issues in second lan. Some strong propo. which we generally assume leads to to me. (c) what kind of believe that memorization can be not only a language learning happens in meaningful very useful shortcut to retention but can also interpersonal communication that’s not in real furnish a wealth of immediately accessible time (as in e-mail and listserves). learned in the act of communicating. reference points in spontaneous language use.

networked communication.Where do research and practice meet?: N Garrett and introspective learners may well want to cance of the results. Such research possible position to make it happen. but technology supports collabora. gers of doing such research. and Wesleyan) we are plan. we’ll include collective agenda and for the discipline as a research on that capability. and in necticut. but the rhetoric ambitious projects are time-consuming to often seems idealistic. Portuguese. Obviously. now. that it is not only possible but urgently neces- tion amongst researchers just as well as sary – and that we in CALL are in the best amongst students and teachers. education is full of rhetoric about integrating ported and classroom-based. We need to accept. and inductive learners may prefer to pressures on higher education. I cannot help but be opti- learn a lot not only about grammar but even mistic about the availability of funding. A Undertaking research may not be necessary researcher working with the teacher would col. multimedia). power to us! 12 ReCALL . carry out. and to explore in depth what kind only to find our research quoted as recom- of learning happens for what kinds of students mending something far more radical than we’d in each of these environments. much broader range of research. the students to use in working on their own. who wanted to explore the potential of nuclear guages which these three small schools cannot energy for peaceful purposes only to see their regularly staff (perhaps Korean. The from doing this research because we fear that teacher would spend one day per week at each the results will be used against us. This is an issue that we uled network interactions both with the teacher need to talk about very seriously indeed. such research and teaching practice. We might find that the best tech- would be to establish experimental language nology-based materials really could be used education projects that combine face-to-face responsibly to deliver a significant part of lan- teaching. the teacher can teach distance classes or so that But it is necessary for the advancement of our students can meet that way. Given the budget verted. whereas context-sensitive. More is expensive too. both technology-sup. both peda- lection of other research designs that could gogical and theoretically motivated. for career advancement of all language teach- lect a wide variety of data from students in the ers – nor is it an endeavor that attracts us all classes to track all the variables that could be personally – and it’s not absolutely necessary controlled for. Trinity. But we are on Swahili. and guage instruction for carefully limited pur- homework (preferably homework using good poses under carefully constrained conditions. I don’t want to gloss over the potential dan- munication. whole. on days when s/he is at another campus and In my more hopeful moments I see our with the other students in the class from the work leading to a splendid integration of other campuses. that will yield important data to feed into the future of open up a new paradigm for our field. intended. administrators extract even grammatical form and notions out will face increasing temptation to cut faculty of communicative input. our practice as the basis for developing a bled here we could come up with a good col. Higher language education. work used to create weapons. my more melodramatic moments I think of the ning a project that will provide a structure for plight of those physicists before World War II offering several less commonly taught lan. I worry about this a great deal. how functions work before engaging in com. At CTW (Con. should be used for us. we will have campus giving a long class and meeting with no data on which to build the case for how it students. To accomplish that goal we need to use I’m sure that amongst the CALLers assem. lines in the hope that technology can substitute One way to develop such a research agenda for teachers. If it is possible for CTW to for the development of excellent materials and acquire videoconferencing equipment so that excellent technology-based teaching practice. students would have regularly sched. extro. Hindi or Arabic) by hiring one teacher the horns of a dilemma here: if we hold back per language for the three campuses. but considering the signifi. The teacher would also spend research and practice not only for CALL but considerable time in materials development for for language education across the board.

the ‘cyber university’ pro.ReCALL 10:1 (1998) 13–20 Technology and universities: context. Indeed. many. Are we at a watershed in the expansion has been achieved against a back- historical evolution of universities? Are we ground of severe constraints on public funding witnessing the inception of a seminal change for higher education. governments for a greater measure of public perhaps most. of itself. has seen the number of post-sec- paragingly perhaps. Introduction have been subject to a gradual but fairly con- tinuous process of change over the last two or Radical change in higher education. countries. is hardly or imagined). change have been diverse. is pre. with a consequent in the traditional process of teaching and decline in the resource input per student. The author is currently engaged in a study of the successful application of the new technologies in university distance teaching. True. More and them has been the substantive increase in stu- more one hears such terms as ‘electronic uni. ondary students quadruple in thirty years posed as paradigms of higher education in the (Gellert. ‘virtual university’ or. in many European versity’. contrary to popular myth. context and culture. 1993: 10). not Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 13 . in North America and countries of the European Union. the factors inducing by the advent of the new technologies. and to the insistent demand by news. universities in EU countries accountability on the part of universities. induced three decades. Dublin City University This paper relates to the projected role of the new technologies in university teaching in the light of con- siderations of cost. National Distance Education Centre. The former perception of the university as an ivory tower. somewhat dis. has given way to the imperative to respond to industry’s needs (real Change in universities. Change in Universities if indeed ever true. cost and culture Chris Curran Director. learning in higher education? What credence The increasing contact between the univer- should we give to these harbingers of change? sity and the wider world outside the walls is a second factor inducing change. In some countries this new millenium. Dominant among dicted with increasing frequency. dent enrolment which.

The required invest- another. their students and staff (Cox. both on and off cam- tivity. ing for teaching students. and perhaps most significantly. ranging from about 150K ECU 14 ReCALL . number of universities using video conferenc- cant and generally positive effect on produc. Even the role of university as significant change. developments in telematics have stimulated ing and research. To take one example. in the nor. This is largely true also of library ser. At a minimum they pro- technology of teaching and learning. The ties and so bring about the paradigm shift so speed with which computers can process data. In most cases the capital investment was vices. of course. 1995: 1). independent learning. however. all have The potential cost is one cause for concern. even academic These and similar changes. is an essential input to teaching and ment in computers. Within the academic sphere too the considerable. widely heralded? the facility to convert audio. What makes the predictions relating to the effects of technology Potential different. in the basic teaching and learning. for example) and in the process of knowledge-generation outside the traditional research and academic administration. They addi- Predictions of this kind would. 1995: 5–7). especially where a exploitation of these new technologies. is one thing.Technology and universities: C Curran least with respect to the quality of their teach. in curricula (computer sci- generator of new knowledge is under attack ence. greatly enhanced our capacity to process infor. what of the impact painful as they are. learning. profound and often administration. pus. and its implications for the tra. as funda. can be considerable. 1993: 45) abundant evidence to show that the new tech- and in particular for teaching and learning. electronic engineering. A nologies can provide a powerful resource for change. classroom teaching. pale into insignificance of these technologies on university teaching? beside that predicated as a consequence of the new information technologies. Most locus of the university. central servers and data net- is widely seen as a sector well suited to the works. The potential is clear. video production facilities. is the fundamental character of the change forecast. and simulation) and telematic networks (for easier information New Information Technologies access and communication with peers). tend to be viewed by educators as tate communication. to software to enhance the printing press (Massy and Zemsky. administration. it is hardly surprising that education virtual libraries. they at technologies radically change the traditional least give cause for reflection. to digitalised data for and one with significant implications for univer. analysis. tionally. simulation. depending laborative problem solving. researchers now routinely use computers as tools (for writing. are already widely across a total system. But will these new recent advances in telematics. Indeed there is now ditional modes of education (Ravitch. in one form or nologies can be costly. to compress it for compact stor- age and high speed transmission. group discussion and col- overly optimistic (or pessimistic. I used in the administration of universities have recently had an opportunity of visiting a where they would seem to have had a signifi. Seen in the context of and generally accepted. the application of the new tech- mation. and indeed. together with tools for sities. Certainly the approach to teaching and learning in universi- advances in technology are impressive. analysis and synthesis. communications from powerful and often affluent centres of and design. the growth Cost of wide-band tele-communication networks and high-capacity satellite systems. some observers predict. Nonetheless. This much is clear on one’s point of view). Since information. vide easy access to bibliographic and other mental as that arising from the development of reference materials. facili- mal course. common access standard has to be supported Computers. video and text to digital format.

Staff costs in uni- few cases. or even pro. It is hardly encing related to factors such as the need to surprising then that the potential for increased make the most of scarce teaching skills. ried out in circumstances difficult to replicate the essential argument that the approach to in day-to-day operational teaching. how. although it is questionable as to versities are a high proportion of teaching whether even extensive use of the networks costs (typically some sixty to eighty percent) for this purpose justified the capital outlay. and that justifi. that the positive staff (at a lower unit cost). recruiting a higher proportion of part-time ever. observers to argue that examples of successful port. maintenance and tele-communications application do not. initially in and Gilbert. An increase in student administration and meetings of university staff numbers. one finds. address the charges. There was in addition Experience of such cases has led some a significant annual cost for technician sup.. as yet. had such a limited while maintaining the quality of learning. faster than) the rate of inflation. enhancing increasing student/teacher ratios (Bache. one takes account of the cation is based on a partial analysis of costs. with would be possible through more traditional no research responsibilities (Stronhölm. The use of the network for relatively narrow band. 10). 1993: II). correct.. effectively triggers a con- was an important source of cost saving in a comitant increase in staff. all too often. by and large. convincing. additional factors which need to be carefully Productivity in conventional education. to disadvantaged or remote communities. capital cost of providing more student places. therefore. to substitute technology for teachers. the quality of courses previously taught exclu. campus-based instructional activities of cost hardly seemed justified by the level of most faculty at most institutions (ibid). additionally. or to productivity in traditional teaching is gener- fulfil the university’s mission of reaching out ally viewed as rather low. ture theatres. Even in such cases. 1996: modes of teaching. teaching delivered over the systems – a significant factor in achieving cost efficiency (Bacsich et al. to name just a few. of course. being Of course the investment could be justified based on a student-teacher ratio fixed within a on other grounds. terms) has hardly changed is broadly correct. This assumption. The often short and Productivity unpredictable life of these facilities.” (Green impact in that sector. Nonetheless. has been used for Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 15 . and tend to rise in tandem with (if not actually Other reasons for investing in video confer. ideal of teaching by active researchers” by viding programmes at a lower unit cost than employing staff exclusively for teaching. and the need to provide on-going technical support for The general argument in favour of using tech- their effective operation and maintenance. argument goes. 1995) the form of printed texts. Technology and universities: C Curran to more than 1M ECU.. the core. so the considered. In practice. ginal to mainstream teaching.the Humboldtian sively in the traditional manner. many stratagems are nology is used to good effect: meeting needs adopted to get around this apparent rigidity: which could not otherwise be met. is effectively static. building larger lec- results relate to pilot programmes often car. abandoning “. As Green and Gilbert note and the relative decline in the cost of technol- ogy (compared to staff salaries) the argument “We have yet to hear of an instance where the appears all the more convincing. a key issue is the reluctance capital investments and development expenses. indeed plus reasonable estimates for faculty and sup. total costs (including all realistically amortized Nevertheless. Technology. When. is only partly Indeed there are many cases where tech. Or that the teaching (the production process in economic technology is used to support activities mar. 1993: 176). by and large. are nology is clear and. In a number of the centres visited. the difficulty of displacing teachers in conven- port staff time) associated with teaching some tional education is arguably one major reason unit to some group of students actually decline why technology has.

however. 1987: 43). and “. which coupled with changes in pedagogy. observers to call for a radical change in the dents enrol on the programme. are among the more common. are from a teaching-centred approach based on a much more difficult to achieve in relation to pre-determined number of time slots. rather than decreases.nobody knows at present how much time research seminars and masters degrees to engi. the demands disseminate lectures. Almost all require some. government agencies hours they actually spent on the course. and most sub- stantial. investment in development prior to the delivery of courses to students and so are Independent Learning subject to economies of scale to a greater or lesser degree. While uncertainty with regard to the produc- tivity of the new technologies is not confined to applications in higher education (Landauer.” and other universities in North America and in (Rumble. seem to offer scope for economies courses to students in distance teaching pro. which of course can take many forms ing the most appropriate ways in which to (from printed texts to computer networks) are apply technology – the car as horse-less car- at the heart of most distance education sys. grammes. a former Chancellor of the State promising advantages of the new technologies University of New York. technology can teaching. to literally thou. computer mediated communications into an The National Technological University in the existing course at the UK Open University. the countries of the Pacific Rim (Curran. These dissemination or broadcast technolo. on tutor time. seems to suggest that unrestricted stu- media. sites for the NTU programmes are located in or whether tutors were grossly underpaid for the high-tech companies. United States is an example of one such insti. mediated mentation it is claimed could reduce the time group discussion. independent.” Few of these interactive technologies. can take ‘mastery learning’. approach to teaching and learning. student support dent-centred.. discourse in traditional (and even distance) self-paced mastery learning. but often essential. the additional costs incurred in introducing sands of students dispersed across continents..Technology and universities: C Curran more than a century to deliver the content of however. and at a level. interactive discussion and collaborative pro. in an early study of mics and research scientists. (Johnstone. time lag involved in find- gies. Satellite television is an interesting dent access to interactive technologies example of the current use of technology to increases. economies was previously largely restricted to contiguous of scale. perhaps inevitable. 1992 :8). The 1000 or so reception sages. albeit still somewhat tenta- audio and video tapes and of course broadcast tive. and a paradigm shift to individualized. noted tution. 1997: 341). often by leading acade. the uncertain outcome may reflect the still early phase of such initiatives and the. of scale in the provision of student support. 16 ReCALL . To move Similar economies of scale. whether value for money was achieved. Such support. to a stu- ancillary. as indeed have later technologies – Initial evidence. provided sufficient stu. tutors spent off-line preparing and reading mes- neers and managers. and assignment monitoring required to master curricula (Fisher. notes is their potential to support communication. Such changes in imple- many forms: contiguous tutorials. Rumble. Considerations of this kind have led some effective operation. of course. “Technology does not guarantee productivity: but ject work in a manner. This poses no problem for cost. 1989: 158). workshops. One of the most As Johnstone. make greater learning productivity possible. riage syndrome! tems. which for more than a decade has been delivering short courses. self-paced mode of activities. Economies of Scale 1995).

The attitude of edu- cators. training. perhaps well founded. Requirements tions infrastructure from one country to vary from one case to another. A recent study by CRE (the Association of European Universities) sponsored by the No doubt much of this resistance is based on European Commission under the Socrates real. Indeed the imposition of tion for an academic to get involved in a independence on students who have neither process for which there is little reward. such concerns may seriously constraints in particular relating to intellectual underestimate the potential of the new tech- property rights and internal brake on their efforts to bring about change through using the new technolo- “The measurement of educational quality is. best and ancient traditions of university teach- nologies (CRE. Culture of Universities sities. not least on stu.. identifies a number of constraints ceived negative impact of technology on the on universities trying to implement new tech. the long time required to develop expected. high cost of multimedia course development resourced learning. and technological constraints. Technology and universities: C Curran Independent learning. for quiet upgrading and the related investment in soft- study space.” the bottom of all controversies over university productivity. Context the traditions and systems of governance of uni- versities create serious resistance to change. particular the variations in telecommunica- dents and on their teachers. at gies: resistance from people. linguistic con. The independent learning can mean under.. but the demands on academic staff teaching materials and the need for regular time in designing and developing courses and updating). consid- mind. These include legal ing. report concludes that 1989: 23–40). and the skills nor ability to take advantage of it is note that the negative attitudes of university perceived by some educators as a gross distor. and especially teachers.” (Blaug. Under this aspect they highlight teachers’ atti- tudes as a major obstacle to the introduction of Moreover. the report having identified external site of the objective the advocates have in pressures on universities to change. they note that there is little motiva- are equipped to meet. The tion of the educational process (Garrison. All too often ware. in campus-based programmes. As Blaug noted some three decades ago “. 1997).. as might be another. concern at the per - Programme. “While the external pressures on universities to change appear to be an almost irresistible force. where unit costs are con. nologies to provide for the effective delivery straints relating to the problem of minority of course content and for the essential con- languages. Finally. Similarly. Nonetheless. comitant communication and interaction Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 17 . This of course is yet another example of ered an aspect singled out by the universities the intrinsic difficulty of balancing quality and at the seminars (conducted by CRE) productivity in higher education. however. was noted. which not all students packages. the study related to economic aspects. 1969: 317). With respect to designing course demands on students. imposes its (This last is many sided and the report notes in own demands on the system. can be significant. A fourth constraint identified in the supporting students can be high. as was the potential for economies tained but at a price in terms of the quality of of scale with attendant low marginal cost. supplies and personnel. the learning environment – clearly the oppo. independent learning can impose change.” Such views are important. administrators were also mentioned. Issues con- demands on the system for effective and well sidered embraced the cost of the necessary resourced library and other support services physical infrastructure and its continuing and.. can be critical in influencing the use of technology in univer.

audio and computer..” And went on to note cism. few academics who are familiar with good quality distance teaching would question “It is particularly important to notice that the term its capacity to deliver pedagogically efficient was generally in the Middle Ages used distinctly and academically sound teaching. who positing the choice between a ‘so. on fellow faculty members” (Nyiri.. but studium generale” (ibid). by attending conferences. 1996: 349) is particularly interesting.. if it tion that the University had to be a place ever existed. had no hesitation in giving preference “to that University which did nothing.. skills.The video “. the acquisition of social tutors. The key issue would seem to be one of com- 1976: 129). Kelly. anything I have ever learnt I have learnt this dynamic of the campus” (Kelly. when self-confidence. 1936: 5). work for protracted personal communication when they really began to formulate original between teachers and students thoughts and ideas. would now seem all too rare. of the role of technology. suffers from being compared. 1996: 264– and summer schools. week-end education” (McMackin Garland. Indeed.merely a number. very much in the tradition of New.Technology and universities: C Curran between students on the one hand. it some. aggregate of persons. not been invariably unsuccessful. are education necessarily presuppose some form remembered as times when their intellectual of traditional university setting as the frame- curiosity and academic creativity was aroused. their concern more often relates to schools” (Rashdall. states the case well The appropriate term he notes “.is not univer - sitas. munity. or with lecturers outside class times. but I am per- called’ university which dispensed with resi.. or even of its collective however.. a plurality. is still a 18 ReCALL . and the teaching of students. (Landow. rejects the view that proper forms of higher dors.. a former university registrar. related interests.. The traditional view of the university as a community of scholars dedicated to the Newman’s views were influenced by his expe. As a university teacher I have man. Newman’s assump- tional universities. the generation of knowl- rience at Oxford where. fectly aware of the fact that. Nyiri “For most students. pursuit of research. only a fraction of my professional ener- which merely brought young men (sic) together gies was spent on students.the essential point of an undergraduate university distance teaching tutorials.. informal network of colleagues having similar or of course.opened the mediated tutoring and the like.. was established. or indeed. higher echelons of British society more rapidly times seems that technology-based teaching than professional or useful knowledge” (Turner. 1996: 296–297)... rather than intellectual improvement. an universities were regarded with some own student years had no formative effect screen of the cyberuniversity will never replace on me. learning rather than teaching per se. during the first half of edge. In marked contrast to the early nineteen Rashdall notes that word university in medieval seventies. but to some ideal which. Viewed from the perspective tional teaching as routinely practised in tradi. This capacity has long been demonstrated in was “. and practically none for three or four years and then sent them away. To be fair to traditional educators. by reading books of my own choice. when the recently established open usage meant “. informal discussions in corri. not to conven. over that Community which exacted of its members an acquaintance with every science under the sun” (Newman. to of the scholastic body whether of teachers or support it effectively given adequate scholars. mentors and peers on the other hand. 1997: 8). during all these dence and tutorial superintendence and one decades. began to grow. and their the nineteenth century. 1997). not of the place in which such a body resources. 268) and non-utilitarian learning “. and generally by belonging to an This perception of the university as a place is. both academic and social.

(1987) ‘Higher Education Circa 2005: essential core facility. Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 19 . (1993) Telematic Networks for Open and Distance Learning in the Tertiary versity programmes in Europe are primarily Sector.. Technology and universities: C Curran powerful ideal. and the need to respond to demands for lifelong learn- Are we witnessing the inception of a seminal ing. It is hardly surprising therefore that the still too early to say. as is Penguin. On-line: the Internet both as a source of course and learning in higher education? It is.). Moreover. seems quite modest. Many institutions are using Tertiary Education Institutions . 1998). consequences for higher education as a whole. (1997) ‘ODL and Traditional Universi- have developed to an operational phase their ties: Dichotomy or Convergence?’ European use is often marginal. Telematic media are Blaug M. More Higher Learning. which students could take exclusively at a distance. Bacsich P. efficient substitute for traditional forms of stu- munities.000 students.htm als and as a means of communication. used in university teaching. Higher Education in Europe. But Less College’. uation is changing. Curran C. Heerlen: European Association of text based with some provision for face-to. Mason R. Vol 1. but with less relative to the cost of academic time will no exclusivity than in the past. and Rawlings A. rather than an Fisher F. even still. but to provide an effective and cost ing could support the emergence of real com. mental nature and even where the applications Curran C. In (Conference paper). this Jessica Kingsley 9–20. course materials and for their dissemination to cation. tance teaching programmes. for more than 750. peer discourse and collaborative work. R. D. In Gellert When compared to the numbers graduating G. rather than as courses offered by higher education institu. albeit often in a ing. Middlesex: of video conferencing is well established. Economics of Education 2. so allowing the university to dent support.). will inevitably reinforce demands for a change in the traditional process of teaching more flexible approach to course delivery. central to the teaching process. and rapidly so in some mated 25. the jury is still out on the long term 1994/95. The growth in non-traditional stu- dent populations. Hogg V. in post-graduate and contin- Conclusions uing professional education students. I think. while there were some 690 degrees References offered. Some 57% of the institutions offering the courses used two way interactive video. Distance Teaching Universities.. Clearly. distance taught uni. The declining cost of technology maintain the best of its traditions. Fox S. the new tech.760 courses were offered in countries. London: from some of the larger open universities. A key challenge for technology-based Change. students. (1969) ‘The Productivity of Universities’ increasingly used in some member states. (ed. to become involved in technology-based teaching. Much CRE (Association of European Universities) (1997) of the use however is still of a pilot or experi. The appropriate application of teaching is not just to provide the necessary the new technologies by facilitating communi. for example. only an estimated 3430 students Bache P. 335–346. Danish System of Higher Education’. computer conferencing in Norway and the Cox K. newer technologies are increasingly being nologies are widening access to higher educa.. Reprinted in Blaug M. (1993) ‘Reform and Differentiation in the received degrees (Greene and Meek. the use (ed. This surely is a doubt encourage more and more universities challenge appropriate to a new millennium. especially in dis- tion. in many cases providing Journal of Education 32(4). A recent survey of distance education supportive or enhancing role. face tutorial support. Spain and Scandinavia. especially in the form of distance teach. Universities and the Challenge of the New Technologies. Geneva: CRE. While this sit- tions in the United States showed that an esti.cityu. (1995) Technology and the Structure of United Kingdom. How- ever.. optional additional support.

Turner F. CT: Yale University Press 339–361. London: Jessica Kingsley CT: Yale University Press 265–281. Studies in Public Higher Distance Education. (1995) Using Informa - Green K. (1996) ‘Newman’s University and Cambridge: MIT Press. (ed. In Turner F. In Mason R.html Higher Education’. (eds.).educom. (1993) ‘When School Comes to You: The Johnstone D. Oxford: Clarendon Press. (1996) ‘Newman in His Gellert C. Newman. Greene B. National Learning Infrastructure Initia . W. (1976) The Idea of a University. P. Keynote address. (1995) ‘Great Expec. The Idea of a Uni - Landow G. and Gilbert S. New Haven. Rumble G. (1936) The Universities of Europe in http://nces. May and Purposes of Higher Education in the 21st 13. In Turner F.Technology and universities: C Curran Garrison D. Communications. Higher University: John Henry Newman. and Zemsky R. Budapest. McMackin Garland M. (Edited version of a monograph originally Price’. Irish Times: Education and Living.html Stronhölm S. 1. (Monograph).) On-line: http://www. On-line: http://www. H. tion. and Plans to Expand. M. Productiv. In Turner 146–165.). 20 ReCALL . (1992) Learning Productivity: A Coming Transformation of Education and its New Imperative for American Higher Educa . March–April. (1993) ‘Changing Patterns of European Own Day’. (1998) Distance Education Nyiri J. Massy M. R. Landauer T. C. K. Change. Computers and as part of its series.). (1989) Understanding Distance University: John Henry Newman. (1997) ‘Open and Distance Learning in in Higher Education Institutions: Incidence. tion Technology to Enhance Academic Produc - tations: Content. tivity. National Cen. and the Role of Information Technology in gram/nlii/keydocs/ B. don: Routledge. published by the State University of New York Mindweave: Communication. Lon. (1997) ‘Cyber campus can’t beat the real Where are We Now?’In Burgen A. The Economist 328(7828). London: Jessica Kingsley 3–12. (ed. M. Education in Europe. The Idea of a Higher Education’. CT: University’. the Information Society’.edu/pro- ity. and Kaye A. Eden Conference.educom. In Gellert G. New Haven. 231. Oxford: Pergamon Press Education. M. M. The Idea of a Yale University Press 282–301. (1989) ‘On-line Costs: Interactivity at a tive. Oxford: Clarendon Press.ed. On-line: Rashdall H. Goals thing’. Century. Audiences. (1996) ‘From Humboldt to 1984 – Kelly J. (ed.html Ravitch. (1996) ‘Newman and an Electronic versity: John Henry. F.). ter for Education Statistics. 221– Newman J.). (1995) The Trouble with Computers. and Meek A. Education: A Framework for the Future. 45–46. (ed. program/nlii/articles/johnstone.). Ours’. C. (ed. New Haven. 9–20. the Middle Ages. Underside’.

fatigué sans Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 21 . article. vu et au su du village planétaire tout entier. our species might maintain its identity. sur la créativité du synaptique. cette fois. Et la machine gagna le match: d’une Avant le match. mais au que nous le connaissons depuis la Renais. bonne et due forme. acceptable. l’autre déclaraient en substance: si la machine puisque ce n’était pas. it will be an emphatic www. ô combien c’est un peu mortifiant pour le genre humain. je dirais qu’il n’y a rien là que Pour dire les choses schématiquement. à l’adresse sans bavures ni déguisement: “If Deep Blue triumphs.” (id. pour ou contre l’humain. Rien que cela! Le ton était donné. même si puissance du binaire l’ c’est le début d’une ère inconnue.ReCALL 10:1 (1998) 21–37 Puissance du binaire. let alone C’est ainsi que Kasparov.” (Levy. publiquement. quelques lignes plus bas dans le même on pouvait suivre le match en direct sur Inter- net. la presse spécialisée. de manière peut-être encore plus parlante. On en arrivait au point indicator that artificial intelligence need not de non retour. où le meilleur de notre attempt to emulate the brain in order to surpass biologique se voyait mis en infériorité par le it.chess. dans le secret gagne c’en est fini du monde «moderne» tel de quelque laboratoire universitaire. car sance. le 13 mai 1997. rationnel. in the years and centuries to come.:45) Au dix-neuvième coup du 6ème jeu de son match contre Deep(er) Blue. la de familier. et nous le monde du pur quantitatif se mettait à créer franchissons déjà une frontière: du qualitatif: c’était la première abolie des nombreuses frontières dont nous allons voir “How well Kasparov does in outwitting IBM’s que les nouvelles technologies les abolissent monster might be an early indication of how well en effet. créativité du synaptique Michel P Perrin Université Victor-Segalen Bordeaux 2 Donc la machine a gagné! its superiority. Jusqu’à présent. L’enjeu le grand maître Garry Kasparov déclare forfait était bien celui de la technique et de l’humain: pour éviter le déshonneur d’un échec et mat en avec. 1997a: 44) meilleur du technologique – pourtant inventé par nous. Mais. et manière qui frappait l’imagination populaire. voici ce qu’écrit le même Levy.

voire le battre à son would achieve. le monstre en exhaustive. En face de chaque coup. quel rapport de L’extraordinaire disproportion de 1 à 100 forces? D’un côté le champion d’échecs. une semaine après son premier article reconnecter tout seul au circuit électrique? Ou déjà cité: si ce n’est lui c’est donc son frère. humain trop humain. passer l’on préfère) la machine. frêle millions ne s’explique que d’une seule façon: «roseau pensant» comme disait le grand alors que le cerveau humain procède sélective- Blaise. lui. sans prétendre conclure à quoi que ce La machine n’avait pas tant joué comme un soit: nous sommes sur un terrain extra- dieu que comme un homme. terme. dans une autre histoire de science fiction. la sci- 36. et très rapidement conformer à l’évidence de l’avantage à court évolutif. elle. me semble me souvenir qu’il est capable de se pliquer.Puissance du binaire..» Et le même Stephen Levy d’ex. mode de calcul des fêtes religieuses dans l’an. searches guided by insight. un super assemblage de seule la vitesse incroyable de ses couplages de puces de silicium RS/6000/SP pesant 1. avec à sa tête le fit de débrancher la machine pour que tout grand maître Joel Benjamin. cielle. if at all.. “What really shook Garry Kasparov. Intelligence artificielle? Plutôt incom- rence qu’ordinateur: «compute» existe en mensurable stupidité! comme l’exprime l’au- français depuis 1584. il lui faut être linéairement ses 75 kilos bien vivants. blement séquentiel. créativité du synaptique: M P Perrin doute. where exhaustive and fois plus performante que le cerveau humain undiscriminating searches produce results we pour égaler ce dernier. refusant de se ordinairement mouvant. On Move que nous manions quotidiennement. com. d’examiner et comparer sivement parallèle. ne peut. meilleur ici en l’occur. de plus en plus. L’ordinateur est formida- 200 millions de positions à la seconde (cer. C’est au prix exorbitant Cette stupidité incroyablement rapide. rassurant. Instead it took a subtler but superior tack connu qu’on «n’explique que ce qu’on ne that wound up to be near decisive in defeating comprend pas» (Barbey d’Aurevilly) je me Kasparov. tains disent même 400 millions par moments): Du point de vue humain cette exhaustivité 200 millions contre 2. vexé aussi.. au nom prédes. il y avait donc derrière Deep par trop vexatoire. 1997b: 4) contenterai de questions.” (Levy. Pour ensuite déclarer: Pour que tout s’arrête? N’y a-t-il pas dans «Suddenly [Deep Blue] played like a god for Odyssée 2000 un robot nommé HAL dont il one moment. s’arrête. peut dans le meilleur des cas. et de prises de posi- tion. Pour son coup «divin» répétée à chaque coup est un gaspillage inouï: Deep Blue a «computé» pendant deux minutes et c’est cela qu’on nomme l’intelligence artifi- (c’est le terme propre. et désigne entre autres le teur de Mind. Brain and the Quantum. Mal. qui comme tout un chacun d’entre ment et synthétiquement (synaptiquement si nous. n’oublions pas qu’il lui suf- Blue une équipe humaine. que le quantitatif produit du qual- mença par accuser l’équipe des programmeurs itatif. de d’un ratio 1/108 seulement. a devastating position – clearly the smart Mais restons sur terre: et comme il est bien choice. Mais pour en arriver là. only by highly selective propre jeu. tiné?) de tricherie.. Blue had an opportunity to shift its queen to ence. donc quelque part plus en plus rapide. à simultanément en revue dans sa tête deux états chaque fois que calculer séquentiellement: à de positions sur l’échiquier: 2 états. si l’homme trouve la situation d’IBM (tiens. “not so much artificial intelligence as incredibly Il faut donc une machine 100 millions de rapid artificial stupidity.. On serait tenté de dire CQFD. Le cerveau est mas- tonne et capable. soit 24 milliards d’analyses de position. à travers les nouvelles technologies move that the computer didn’t make. la balance reste à peu près égale. rencontre la fiction. Michael Lockwood: née liturgique.).. contre 240 pour l’homme. épuiser toutes les possibilités: principe inerte d’IBM.4 processeurs le lui permet. Et puis. c’est elle nonobstant qui 22 ReCALL . was a Eh oui. (1997:14) gré l’énormité de l’écart quantitatif.

Atitre d’exemple. C’était le moyen naturel de faire l’activité du sujet: il nomme cela le concept lire une bonne dose d’anglais de sa spé.S. que ce soit (et rend compte du) fonctionnement incroy- en français ou en anglais. Il ne simple comme bonjour. d’acte instrumental pour caractériser la recom- cialité par tout futur médecin francophone. pour chaque question du nexions. image. en quelques pour vérifier les connaissances médicales années. essai de vraie partir de là. entre «drills» existants. Huit ans plus tard. image et son. de véritablement construire sa compé- les ordinateurs de l’époque commençaient tence de compréhension de l’écrit comme de à numériser le son. la structure tant de surface que profonde: ce isateur ne fait qu’entendre les questions – faisant. MEDICAN commence par oraliser texte. autrement. son et texte. Pour L. jamais allé chercher en biblio. les nombreux polysyllabiques anglais sont autant de pièges pour le locu. du document complet mul- ces QCM. tout le reste n’est que saurait être question. le prototype technologies. A 1. la matière pre. parce que dans la terminologie conséquence. C’est simple. tout devient pédagogiquement valeur ajoutée. Piaget. on se donne le moyen d’ensuite la séquencer et segmenter ad libitum. prévus l’évolution de la technique. “effet structurant de l’utilisation d’artefacts sur thèque. dès 1989. il existe un un texte de référence qu’il ne serait. mais cela rencontre le créer un questionnaire médical. on procure à l’u. position d’ensemble de l’activité qui en est la • enfin. c’est le traitement par DECON- du futurs internes en médecine britan. mis au point avec Super- jamais si bien servi que par soi-même. avant de permet le changement de paradigme péda- donner l’occasion à l’utilisateur d’enreg. On passe de istrer et réécouter sa propre voix: l’ordina. maniement de la langue en production. MEDICAN fournissait entre traitement quantitatif des données et un dispositif de prévision et vérification de exploitation qualitative de ce traitement qui la place des accents toniques. pour l’essentiel. Les possibilités ainsi ouvertes par le QCM. niques. et de pouvoir vérifier à son gré s’il a ou démarche multimédia. Et c’est bien l’effacement de la frontière teur francophone. et sans doute celles de numérisé pour l’occasion. démontre la nouvelle valeur ajoutée courts aperçus de réalisations produites dans que procurent les cartes d’acquisition notre Département à huit ans d’intervalle. en un temps où l’EAO se possible: on peut créer tous les écarts pos- contentait le plus souvent de numériser des sibles. Puissance du binaire. gogique auquel nous assistons. qui conduit à la con- Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 23 . pour vidéo: en numérisant une séquence de souligner l’évolution en tendance: télévision. MEDICAN. afin de mieux permettre à l’apprenant l’apprentissage de l’anglais médical par d’en RECONSTRUIRE lui-même et le sens et des étudiants français de médecine . avec l’article correspondant d’un numérique corroborent les intuitions remar- traité complet de médecine qu’on a quables de Vygotsky.” (Schneuwly. deux card. l’ère de l’enseignement conçu comme trans- teur devenait un laboratoire audio-actif mission directe et univoque du savoir-connais- comparatif ad hoc. C’était un début de l’oral. C’est mière doit venir des spécialistes. et bien sûr tous les liens. ces deux grands psychologues de la tilisateur la possibilité d’appeler à l’écran cognition. créativité du synaptique: M P Perrin permet le progrès pédagogique dû aux nouvelles 2. Vygotsky. ablement complexe de nos 1300 grammes de • ensuite le recours à l’hypertexte: en matière grise organisée en myriades de con- créant des liens. STRUCTION de chacune des composantes. mettait en oeuvre trois principes: • d’abord le détournement pédagogique On voit que. afin de les rendre efficaces pour timédia. ce qu’a permis d’un ensemble de QCM imprimés. de technique. pour un linguiste. Le didacticiel MEDICAN. L’util. en 1997. sance à une médiation. 1985: 67) médicale. la règle d’or étant non compris – préalable logique à tout qu’en langue de spécialité. puisqu’on n’est HYPERLINKS.

celle de la frontière (Nouvel Observateur. homme-machine. L’esprit a besoin nel. La machine comme le plus souvent encore) permettent la ne «sait» pas que le son est du son et l’image vidéo en direct sur écrans d’ordinateurs. Plus courant passe ou non. TV. fondent leur publicité sur des slogans du genre donc pas traitée (pas vraiment traitable) pour «Faites appel à tous vos sens pour apprendre l’instant tant s’y mêlent le savoir et l’irra. d’abolir cette frontière-là. voire le millénarisme. ce moratoire. de tirer un trait croissante des composants. le son frontière-là. Mais les progrès fulgurants des modes sation même. créativité du synaptique: M P Perrin struction des compétences fondée sur la décou. véhicule de l’information numérisée. jusqu’à plus ample informé. 62ème tous les greniers de Chine se trouvèrent qui fait certes partie depuis les temps immé. Sur le plan modestement. le réaliste et l’imaginaire. dès aujourd’hui. entre ment beaucoup: il faudrait un très gros fil de quantité et qualité: elle découle de la numéri. y aura-t-il. on l’a vu pour commencer. pense jamais sans images». d’autre qu’un super interrupteur. c’est du pareil au même dès plus grosse qu’un cheveu. plus vite». déjà effacées. qui tard: elle est en fait à la fois cruciale et futile. lors qu’il s’agit de les convertir en une succes. En termes simples des sens pour fonctionner: donc le multimédia et concrets. grain de riz à chaque case du jeu d’échecs: à la ons dans l’ordre d’un clonage non biologique. A partir de ce fait avéré. voyons quelles quera la remarque pertinente de Patrick Loriot: autres frontières conceptuelles ou matérielles la «L’image a aidé l’homme à vivre. Déjà Aristote disait qu’on «ne tionnel. cuivre. ne saurait qu’être brouillage elle n’est pas sans rappeler l’histoire de cet de notre identité.000 bps ou bauds par seconde. ou encore d’ouvert-fermé: le sion en simultané: autant dire l’infini. D’abord la distinction qui déjà et la vidéo 45 millions – ce qui est évidem- s’estompe. dont elle est le parfait anagramme» La question centrale. 100 milliards d’impulsions par seconde. 31/8/97). Nicolas Negroponte de s’en servir au mieux. le son. sion de 0 et de 1. et moyens de compression ramènent ce Puis la frontière entre canaux/véhicules de dernier chiffre à 1. en tout cas sante de 64. suppl. mais aussi équation entre le En corollaire se trouve également abolie la mode opératoire de la machine et celui de relation taille/puissance: la miniaturisation l’homme? Nous choisirons. Pour un ordinateur. l’émotion. comme la puissance du binaire aujourd’hui efface.Puissance du binaire. donc de l’image. Nous y sommes: le fil important que cela reste un fantasme. le texte. elle. ici. de cuivre téléphonique banal a une bande pas- Nous ferons donc abstraction. autrement dit 1 million de chaînes de télévi- binary digits. si elle nous en rappelle la croissance exponentielle – n’est pas chimère. on évo- saire. S’il nous fallait ne plus empereur chinois qui avait eu l’imprudence de apprendre les langues que pour converser avec promettre de doubler sa mise initiale d’un une machine. est l’apanage temps et à l’espace. pas plus que l’oiseau ne «sait» la didactisation «en ligne» du document multi- sans doute qu’il vole. point final. vidés. Il reste que d’autres sont d’ores et stéréo haute fidélité exige 1. au couple espace-temps.. un ordinateur n’est rien Ethernet en base 100 mégabits (et non plus 10. qui deviennent «transparents».. C’est la nature même du multimédia que verte – démarche heuristique – du savoir néces. L’équation. de l’homme. à la 64ème moriaux des fantasmes de l’humanité: il est ceux du monde entier. magie. nouveau ou identiques. nous en dirons un mot plus Certains commerciaux l’ont bien compris. caractérisent souhaitable et d’ailleurs inéluctable: il s’agira l’industrie informatique. A partir de là l’information. – la conscience de ce qu’il est et de ce qu’il Considérons encore notre relation au fait. y a-t-il non seulement permet à l’esprit de mieux fonctionner! adéquation. fait circuler. de l’abolition possible de cette qui convient pour transmettre la voix. suite en base 2 de «bits».2 millions de bps. n’est pas l’image. l’accélération con- de partition net: l’adéquation est fortement stante de leur fonctionnement. où serait le progrès? Nous seri.2 millions. Une autre révolution copernicienne s’est 24 ReCALL . ou le poisson qu’il nage média. A ce propos. tout est possible car la fibre optique. à la 63ème tous ceux d’Asie. nos réseaux électrico-mécanique.

lui permettent de reconstituer. en se nateur à suivre un parcours donné. sérieux: apprendre redevient un acte-plaisir de Bien entendu. Il aura gence et l’utilisation. j’ai fureté sur la unique de 49 minutes. afin de ME déplaçant dans la salle. Occultée encore la frontière entre directif sions. qui génère de la nique. un portrait plau- opportun de l’apprendre». Et si l’on veut abattre encore une frontière. du travail intellectuel: bien utilisée parcours d’apprentissage: à charge pour le pour les parcours de découverte. L’hypernavigation. les données statis- l’espace-structure du livre. tiques les plus complètes sur le parcours de la recherche booléenne ont véritablement chacun. d’un auteur à l’autre. visibles sans lunettes spéciales. Et JE peux obliger l’ordi- arbre au premier plan de l’image. bâtisseur de son propre parcours Gommée encore la frontière ludique/ d’apprentissage. un temps record sans bouger de mon bureau. Puissance du binaire. à l’hypermédia. créativité du synaptique: M P Perrin opérée: c’est Negroponte. l’activité est jeu. Au final. mais certainement les iaire pour tout ce qui est mesurable dans un modalités. Cela va bouleverser donner plus de liberté et de richesse de choix: Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 25 . De ce fait. du point de archéologiques. pour 2 millions de Toile et rassemblé en sautant par hyperlien francs. mode cognitif: pour qualité. tombe la frontière entre Mans. on apprend en s’amusant. vous m’attendriez encore! Nous computer en secret et livrer toutes crues. celui qui permet les sible. La meilleure illustration en est la bascule en Cette fois-ci. Une image de guerrier sur une cruche en «pauses structurantes» (H. la frontière réel/virtuel faire. historien spécialiste de tempus de nos jeunesses latinisées) sans l’époque. soit 41 habituelle au séquentiel: ici nous sommes heures de «travail-machine» pour 10 secondes dans le passage du multimédia. fait de chacun de nous les données. S’il m’avait fallu faire la même chose à la considérons l’évaluation: il n’a plus de cloison façon d’il y a vingt ou trente ans. ensemble un projet d’images en trois dimen. le temps objectif qui fuit (ah! le fugit Michel Rouche. fallu pour cela huit mois de travail sur trois Se trouve par là annulée notre soumission ordinateurs Macintosh haut de gamme. qui fait notre regard. palette graphique une armée complète. toujours. une ments réels permettent de donner vie à l’His- masse impressionnante de documentation en toire. de résoudre: les NTE nous tombe elle aussi de ce fait. qui ignorent maintenant torique disparue en partant de bribes les fuseaux horaires. de faire sens avec. Le site WEB de la redonnent la maîtrise du faire. lorsque nous étanche entre formation et évaluation. encore. dans un «film sans caméra» sur temps réel et permanent du fonctionnement Clovis. à celle du bit virtuel. L’écran d’arcade permettrait à un permettre l’un et l’autre: le parcours obligé et spectateur de voir ce qui se trouve derrière un la libre exploration. et Kairos le temps subjectif. «le temps tir d’une ivoire de Barbarini. Jacques Barsac recrée la réalité his- des places boursières. Ces images virtuelles à partir de docu- d’un site à un autre. 1 Autre exemple frappant récent: état du passage de la société de l’atome on se souvient du retentissement qu’avait physique. si l’ap- exemple ceci: Thomson multimédia et la prentissage est actif. ni préparions encore nos thèses sur des fiches de entre évaluations formative et sommative: papier A4 plié en quatre avec intercalaires de puisqu’en tâche de fond l’ordinateur peut carbone. la machine conducteur des apprentissages d’interpréter décuple notre potentiel. cuites comme on préfère. de film – la quantité. Observons les revue Regards de juillet 1997 signale par enfants: par essence. de découvrir. (Télérama 2473 du 4 juin 1997). un chercheur. dispositif tech. mais précieux auxil - changé non la nature. nous héritons d’un document préparer cette conférence. Espion peut-être. images de synthèse de l’abbaye de Cluny. société américaine Infinity Media développent on s’amuse en apprenant. à par- relâche. Trocmé-Fabre) or du 4ème siècle donne par «clonage» à la dont l’hypermédia maîtrisé permet l’émer. notamment remparts du vue pédagogique. tributaire des moyens de connu il y a deux ans la reconstitution en mécaniques de transport. ni et non directif: un même programme peut casque. ou avons compressé le temps de bibliothèque. Quelques rares documents dénichés par Chronos.

princi- égarements structuralistes dans l’école énon. Bordeaux ment. nos «deux SMARTALEX Tony STENTON cerveaux pour apprendre». et commercial- collègue J. évidemment). d’intéresser vraiment. tous peuvent trouver de quoi satisfaire oeuvre à des fins pédagogiques de l’outil leur mode de fonctionnement cognitif. s’estompe la frontière leurs auteurs à l’utilisation directe par l’ap- linguistique/pragmatique: quoi de mieux en prenant. voire TELL (Technol- automatiquement la revue thématique de ogy-Enhanced Language Learning. Université Paris 9 ment réunis par le corps calleux. la mise à contribution de la logique Université Toulouse 3 booléenne. souvent nos collègues enseignants-chercheurs. l’enseigne.-Claude BERTIN encore trop souvent traduite dans nos systèmes Université du Havre et programmes. d’autres inutiles. traverse notre siècle et culmine après bien des certains excellents. dans leur programma. tous les prolongements. informatique. P. Rien de chauvin ou d’ex- d’A. la richesse de la LAVAC Tony TOMA troncature. principes essentiels d’une véritable mise en istes. Je citerai simplement le nom de cer- effet que le multimédia pour fournir la contex. clusif à cela bien sûr. Il n’est pas possible ici d’entrer dans le scientifiques en ligne. du point de vue de la auteurs pour les langues récemment mis au dichotomie saussurienne langue-parole qui point. Ils autorisent. Les nouvelles technologies sont donc bien la didactisation du document authentique. l’outil informatique permet tous les HYPERLAB Pascal JABLONKA rapprochements. mais disso. entre cerveau droit sensoriel EMATECH Lynton HERBERT et synthétique d’une part et cerveau gauche Ecole des Mines d’Alès rationnel et analytique d’autre part (en sché. palement sur CDRom. permettre les mises en fabrication de supports de travail multi. l’un facteur de progrès pédagogique. Le «poids du contexte élèves. LEARNING SPACE J. relèvent du secteur LANSAD (Langues pour 26 ReCALL . créativité du synaptique: M P Perrin des moteurs «customisés» de recherche liront grès technique!) à CALL (Computer-Assisted bientôt toute la presse pour moi. détail descriptif d’aucun des systèmes – Bien sûr par les professeurs pour leurs nement de la langue. a very for- presse que j’aurai commandée: la chose est tunate tell-tale acronym) – en tout cas Learn - déjà en cours à partir de certaines publications ing. On supprime ainsi les cloisons et les hiérarchies entre styles d’apprentissage: Tous ces systèmes permettent de respecter les visuels. Université Grenoble 3 ciés par deux cents ans de mise en pratique PROGLOSS J. et feront Language Learning). mais tout simplement la Toujours dans l’ordre du linguistique. qui sont destinés par ciative la plus féconde. con. holistes ou sérial. IUFM de Paris D’où résulte l’effacement de la frontière. qu’on passe vraiment de l’EAO. ce qui stimule et renforce ce fonction. en toutefois que les concepteurs de didacticiels et lien avec le concept de langue de spécialité: tutoriels privilégient. destinés à faciliter la tualisation la plus large.-Claude BARBARON d’une pédagogie du verbal/graphique unique. Physique. Je ne dirai strictement rien des produits. mieux incitent à.et situation. HELPYOURSELF Alain CAZADE matisant beaucoup. Il s’agit de systèmes conçus par des dans la gestion du sens». certes. tains systèmes-auteurs. A la condition de mes chevaux de bataille préférés. auditifs. susciter la réflexion sur le fonction. comme dit notre collègues linguistes en France. Narcy dans le dernier livre isés pour certains. hyper. je crois fermement que le seul moyen tion. Ginet (1997). ment assisté par ordinateur d’il y a dix ans ceux dont nous disons maintenant qu’ils (mille ans à l’échelle de l’accélération du pro. graphiques. mention de ce que je connais le mieux dans le statons qu’il y a affranchissement par rapport genre: aux formes fermées du texte imprimé: par ses possibilités de lemmatisation. CRIFEL. donc de faire progresser nement cognitif de l’apprenant: autrement dit des apprenants non spécialistes de langues.Puissance du binaire.

Web. parfois fournis par eux et didac. spécialité: à ces conditions nous restons Bref. le téléchargement à partir d’Internet du vol en triangle des grands oiseaux migra- ouvre des brèches nouvelles. que mais fondée sur la multiplication et le paral- nous mettons en marche un magnétoscope. mais qui les amène à un point de sera une reconnaissance efficace de la parole.2 sujet. On tisés par nous. créativité du synaptique: M P Perrin spécialistes d’autres disciplines) c’est de les Mais fermons cette parenthèse. Autrement avancées techniques. A l’évidence. Sinon nous sommes. Classe CM2 D’un verrou plutôt. bien trop confidentiel.. évolutifs. vous l’au. ouverts. d’un ensemble très sensible de dont on nous rebat les oreilles. pour possible. vue «sociétal» sur leur discipline.. d’une «harmonie sans certains aspects de cette «mondialisation» conducteur. représente. bien présente encore. en se tenant informé des maîtres. pour ainsi dire. top down et bottom dans le style de ce que permet pour l’écrit le up. sur ce nal. du terrain. en fait souhaiter émettre des réserves par rapport à il n’en est rien. le Groupe. lequel ouvre au contraire grand la porte C’est la seule solution. l’outil pour rendre l’apprenant le plus actif pour aller au langagier et au culturel. qu’il faudra bien rendre de Villard de Lans (74) réseau de 150 classes plus souple. on trouve de petites mer- en fait: enfreinte constamment de manière veilles de ce point de vue de l’exploration. mais efficaces: enthousiasme elle est en décalage absurde et obsolète par de jeunes enfants de CM1 sur le site de Classe rapport aux nouveaux modes de travail que de CM1 de Piquecos (46): enfants en liaison rend possible la technique. il s’agit. plus ou moins flagrante par tout un chacun. qui permet aux prof. entre parenthèses. déduction. de la frontière du copyright. actuels. tâches cognitives de reconstruc- système de dédouanement a priori par forfait. celle-là formant en instrument du psittacisme passif. apprenants. on s’en sert. totalitaire légitimes. Même si on peut teurs: l’oie de tête semble tout mener . «idiot-visuelle» qui tua les remarquables pos- Ceci implique. univoque. il s’agit. autorise le tout- esseurs (et aux élèves!) de faire leur métier choisir. tion. même «pendant la récré». que sibilités du laboratoire de langue en le trans- finisse par tomber une autre frontière. l’outil multimédia nous donne le moyen tous les chemins d’exploration. seul conviendrait un lacunaires. ont pour caractéristique commune de rester renouvelés. Il s’agit. Or lélisme des mises en relation: Michel Resnick si l’outil existe. sans léser les auteurs dans leurs droits non pas centralisée. et. avec observatoires et auteurs: journal sur le rez compris. sinon faire sauter ! Il y a là une dans le Vercors: forum de discussion et jour- mine pour les juristes: on se reportera. induction. sans répéter les erreurs de l’ère intégrer le pragmatique. se complexifier: pas trop – langue devienne le lieu d’une réflexion fondée il importe qu’ils restent utilisables par des sur la spécialité disciplinaire de nos semi-profanes. Bref de faire que le cours de les voit se bonifier. on s’en servira. du moins en droit sinon Au fil de la Toile. Le meilleur du pédagogique multimédia est ment pour les Enseignements sur Mesure tout en résolution de problèmes. exercices Médiatisés. de se servir de de dépasser largement le strict linguistique. à l’apprentissage tout actif. interaction: du danger de passivité accrue CFC (Centre français du Droit de Copie. on vient à l’hypermédia/hyper- et splendidement ignoré par l’institution. Professeurs encore au stade expérimental (voir IBM de culture générale à partir de la langue de VoiceType sous OS2Warp). sans prétention. L’étape suivante. texte. Les sys- faire travailler sur des documents riches et tèmes-auteurs dont il était plus haut question fortement marqués culturellement. A donne quelque part à ce propos la métaphore cet égard. il faudra bien processeurs hautement interactifs». de suivre sans crainte dit. légitimement. pour les meilleurs. On con- que les législations nationales prennent en state le même phénomène dans la synchroni- compte l’évolution des pratiques mondiales! sation spontanée des applaudissements d’une Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 27 . au document de GEMME. Puissance du binaire. rue que la télévision a représenté et toujours d’Hautefeuille à Paris). par exemple. C’est cela l’intelligence d’Internet. (comme le serait on ne sait quel Big Brother) en infraction dès l’instant. ridiculement.

On se reportera. Il faut savoir polices et services de sécurité de part et aller au delà de l’objection commune: ça d’autre de la Manche. aux dires de Jesse Kornbluth. Sa métaphore filée du manteau rythme. on citera la réflexion: «Tout dre à concevoir des ensembles de tâches qui apprentissage consiste en un métissage» permettent à chacun d’apprendre. univer. pour eux. dans les centres de langues devient par jour. avec le multi- et la pertinence des tâches: cf. et du collectif: le travail l’autre: de 2 ou 3 coups de téléphone pénibles d’équipe. selon ses propres stratégies: on rap- d’Arlequin s’applique à merveille à l’hyper. de appelle l’exploit cognitif. représente pour lui une communauté de CREPCO. L’ordinateur multimédia est l’outil sée libre. Séminaire de recherche star de Vanity Fair. pour nommer à la fois l’ac- elle est aussi outil d’échange et de partage: tivation concomitante et équilibrée des deux certes le danger d’isolement pathologique hémisphères cérébraux et la synergie entre existe. 170. pellera la lapalissade de Pit Corder (en 1974 navigation. et André Tricot. La machine est capable nous dit-il en substance. policiers tiennent à écrire dans la langue de mais c’est du Kairos. à une interpellation plus large des VIFAX. il faut rendre possible heuristique par excellence. alors la pluri-sen. mais c’est l’individu qui apprend. il contenu et règles: on n’apprend jamais rien s’améliore du même coup en tant que lecteur qu’on ne découvre un tant soit peu par soi. tives. mais les chances sont plus grandes de l’individuel et le planétaire.. on messages électroniques. université de Provence. fonctionne tionnelle): si déjà la perception monosen. comme naturellement. à son (1991: 86). du sens l’entraide». Des études sont en teur en chef d’AOL. diffusé par l’université de Bordeaux capacités cérébrales individuelles et collec- 2) à la forme/règle (sémasiologie plus tradi. que les professeurs acceptent par exemple à travers le système TANDEM. individuelle. voir l’outil servir à la mise en relation.» A au sein du programme européen LINGUANET. Il favorise la l’expression directe l’échange. le dispositif média. De Michel impérative. 1997: 43). c/o Eric nous dit-il. America on Line. on peut l’espérer. «Chaque fois que votre réponse? Chacun est amené à découvrir quelqu’un se connecte à un service en ligne.Puissance du binaire. à ce variera les angles d’approche en associant les sujet. on va vers la mutualisation des 28 ReCALL . notamment avec traduction automatique partielle entre celui d’Alain Ginet à Grenoble. autour d’un même événement. alors. dans un article sur ESP): «on enseigne à un Et l’outil multimédia est incitatif. A condition. on est passé à plusieurs dizaines de une nécessité. d’en tirer tout le parti possible: il y a nécessité qui a ses promoteurs ici à Dublin. lishment du Media-Marketing pour laisser. la solidarité et démarche inductive. (Michel Serres). s’épanouir la pensée critique: AOL Bruillard. qui cours quant au mode d’activation du cerveau compte 8. CIRCUMMEDIA? Si la machine est instrument de découverte. Surtout. onomasiologique. de se former. D’appren- Serres encore. voie d’abêtissement rapide aux USA sous l’ef- nalement et d’interrogation: êtes-vous sûr de fet des médias de masse. sorielle du multimédia équivaut à de la Nous entrons peut-être dans l’ère d’une nou- cognition au carré: ce que Rudolf Arnheim velle «synapsie». contre une culture en d’analyse de certaines erreurs. créativité du synaptique: M P Perrin salle. le rédac- médias (Ginet. et de la méthode aussi. un peu comme à égalité car «le savoir va à l’apprenant» les lecteurs du jury du Livre Inter: pour lutter.. à un peu plus que les 2 à 10 % habituellement sorielle est construction. les NTE mettent tout le monde parlent des livres qu’ils aiment.5 millions d’abonnés: ex-journaliste par l’hypermédia: cf.000 critiques amateurs volontaires qui Aussi bien. éducation et formation. Voudra-t-on parler. cet égard. (compris par la richesse de la contextualisation Nous voici donc confrontés. sollicités! On assiste à des symbioses inédites. sité Paris 6. Le cerveau. on pourra mentionner les utiles qui développe un système de communication DESS de formation de formateurs. motivant: groupe. et que rédacteur. donc de sig. il a été observé que les prend du temps! Oui. Oui sans doute. Kornbluth a quitté l’Estab- Hypermédias. il pratique une pen- même. bruillard@citi2. IUFM de Créteil et INRP.

antipodes un mouvement quelconque d’ampli- caine). Les moratoires du biologiste 97. 24): en harmonie et en analogie avec les Jacques Testard. Plutôt donc conscientiser: nous tude semblable ou bien supérieure. culturelle en sous-estimant le risque de la Après ce tableau très schématique. est peut-être un peu moins en educational models of the future. De cela Jean-Baptiste de Foucauld fait d’arrêter le progrès scientifique et tech. contre sprit humain par l’ordinateur. balance: entre l’enrichissement culturel de toire. si l’homme maîtrise tion. qui en exclu. tous. il croit que Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 29 . L’administration n’est pas près de sortir de sa culture «béton-bunker-secret». son plaidoyer pour le théories les plus avancées de la physique non-clonage de l’humain. Seraient-ils indifférents Globalement. on le sait. 1997). c’est la société tout entière qui n’est qu’un détail insignifiant de l’his. mais interdire ne ment d’ailes de papillon ici. Puissance du binaire. comme le pré- doté de sens moral. C’est le même outil qui permet rendront payante la visite virtuelle. d’autre part de l’intégration des NTIC: la petite ville-labo- aux animateurs du réseau pédophile Toro ratoire de Parthenay. comme exemple d’hésita- Potentiellement oui. nistes de répandre l’idée que la Shoah Malgré cela. son invention. 1. d’après tout ce qu’on vient envers ce vecteur numérique. and give excuses to ourselves ment intitulé «De l’élève au citoyen ».” “Dans le tintamarre médiatique. certes. il n’est jamais possible uns. est un bon Bravo d’exploiter et avilir des enfants du exemple d’appropriation sociale de la tech- même âge en Colombie. ou aux révision. tout va-t-il donc pour le modernes de la communication’? (Sérus- mieux dans le meilleur des mondes? Tout clat. ces timidités à grande échelle. n’est-il dans les NTE qu’espace de liberté de l’esprit. que pour autant. qu’à un batte- louables fort louables.. sur ce point. Mais le pire n’est pas numériseurs de fonds patrimoniaux. corresponde aux fait qu’inciter (voir la Prohibition améri. un and others for our own inadequacies and fail. shy away from the unknown. Il ne sert qu’à ce à quoi conise l’UNESCO avec son projet «Mémoires on le fait servir – nous disions pour le du Monde» de prendre de vitesse les meilleur. hésitent: dans un rapport noble- and the creative. les chiffres de la TGB de Paris-Tolbiac. A avons besoin d’une éthique forte de toute ce prix. Mais face aux prodigieuses la Très Grande Bibliothèque de France: 5 mil- possibilités d’extension des capacités de l’e. qui veut. sont sans doute quantique. 15 mai nique. 1993: 638) guère que les responsables politiques qui ne s’expriment pas. sénateur chargé de mission écrit en 1997: ures in accepting responsibility for paving the way and setting the pace for those to come. et voir supplanter par les ‘maîtres des formes quelque peu idyllique. que le progrès technique n’est pas en soi Il serait pourtant important. A côté de d’une part aux enfants du Vercors de colla. Même si les politiques. que la France. the imaginative souvent. comme d’esquisser. nologie. les NTE devraient nous permettre d’autres le furent avec l’imprimerie? Ou de cesser d’assassiner Mozart dans nos sys. croient-ils pouvoir protéger leur supériorité tèmes clos. et l’enrichissement matériel de quelques- 2. il n’en est pas 100 millions seulement pour la numérisation moins urgent de rappeler: de son fonds. profession de foi (Nouvel Observateur. liards de francs pour la construction. les obstacles inhérents à la peur du la communauté: peut-être me sera-t-il per- changement s’estomperont: mis d’avancer. en Vendée. sans anarchie ni autoritarisme? Philippe Quéau cite. créativité du synaptique: M P Perrin ressources et des productions didactiques. on trouve de borer avec des écrivains connus pour remarquables réussites citoyennes dans l’ordre écrire leur journal de classe. but we often retard que d’autres. il n’y a (O’Donoghue. notamment avec sa Commission Nationale “Already we have the technology to develop the d’Ethique..

Liz Sterling. 26/8/97). et rela- Nationale vient d’ajouter «Technologie» à son tion humaine par une communication qui est. ministre de la culture. Entre-temps. à partir d’un dictionnaire incor- logues du film intitulé justement The poré. australienne de 36 ans: son roy- cans-Maubuisson. Tout un fatras plus ou moins gravement. Afin de ne pas risquer d’en oublier la Au plan des applications linguistiques. Or c’est la situation d’énonciation qui Program. en marche. Ou. ravages de la confusion entre réel et facile à générer automatiquement: avoir un virtuel: plusieurs adolescents américains se sens mais pas du sens. Il tient un journal secret. le tout lié à l’apparition de la mort» que dénoncent certaines voix. la propagande. intitulé. C’est ainsi que le l’adéquation fondamentale «rei et intellectus» rédacteur en chef du Monde Diplomatique dans la fabrication d’exercices coupés de toute Ignace Ramonet rappelle. un aveu d’impuissance» (France Inter. avec ses 400 est dans l’air du temps. 25 août 97). Il faut le nourrir. (Double Income No Kids). lesquels se couchaient par jeu (et fait la signification. le Lizbekistan. Il mentalité magique: pensons à un événement permet aussi le refuge dans cette forme de récent. Mais le virtuel n’est pas à condamner en mai 1997). mais tellement plus bien réels. disparaîtra le 9 septem- munication. NTIC et la façon dont peut se répandre. dora. Car. Et le Premier ministre Jospin de elle. sans entre l’effroi et l’extase. ni d’ami. Certes le virtuel permet à un Dell Hymes. Université d’été de la com. se réfugier dans forêt secrète – là-bas. on en arrive vite au laminage loter. 28 mars 97). mal de maternage? Culture du refuge dans le lui. tion. soumet un fois l’enfant parfois. renchérir: «diaboliser la technique traduirait Ainsi du pays virtuel inventé par “Queen Liz”. car cela confinerait au l’animal de compagnie virtuel? «fascisme mental» (Le Monde Diplomatique. conçu par Kazuhiko elles. à un infantilisme quelque moins New Age. professeur de sociologie au MIT. égalité.com). président du CSA. Et recherche de profit matériel pour quiconque: il pourtant! s’agit bien du seul plaisir de la construction Et pourtant. réelle. et parade. Bref. ours. connu un gros succès. Si on perd le apprenti-pilote de prendre en mains sans «sens du sens» on a vite fait de faire retour à risques un Airbus dans un simulateur de vol. que servent à merveille les peu débile: le tamagotchi fait des émules. de raison garder. dans son numéro mise en situation «vraie»: cette déviance est d’août 95. Au point que pour Sherry Hachiya. à l’hégémonie d’une 30 ReCALL . il faudra alors en acheter un autre. dans les couples DINKs projet de loi pour éviter la mainmise des com. avec animations. il s’agit de voir en face les virtuelle (www. et malheureusement possible aussi par le livre. Bien difficile. Moins que jamais. il aura. «Most of language begins sans dommage) sur le bitume au milieu de la where abstract universals leave off» disait déjà circulation. un peu dans le style citoyens/sujets. voire tortue ou lapin. aume. se dit. la secte Heaven’s Gate et ses 39 «sui- solipsisme que peut symboliser la vogue des cides» de jeunes gens. Libéra - porter à son destinataire: les fonctions d’Eu. peut fuguer si des cultures minoritaires. partagé entre «extase et effroi ». créativité du synaptique: M P Perrin mon progrès ici a forcément un retentissement on le maltraite. du courriel de son maître. les poussins virtuels japonais – respectable de l’entreprise informatique tout cela pouvant ressortir à la «culture de Higher Source. quid. de merciaux sur Internet. on voit des avantages certains. C’est un facteur virtuel qui s’occupe Turkell. On le voit. il ne faut se par analogie: on voit bien l’oubli facile de tromper d’ennemi. alors. derrière la façade Tamagotchis. virtualité». prendre la lettre en mains et la Dieu en personne» (Patrick Sabatier. La moulinette des sont fait écraser à l’automne 1993 sur des applications automatiques est facile à mettre autoroutes pour avoir agi comme leurs homo. A cette aune. de la devise «Liberté. comète Hale-Bopp. avec SONY a sorti le Post Pet. dangers.Puissance du binaire. Société en devant Internet (France Inter. contre Chomsky. les possibles. «Internet est une métaphore de Dieu. Hervé Bourges. marqué «passez devant et suivez-moi». l’interrogation bre 1999.lizbekistan. le dor. Catherine cocooning? Déjà les vrais pets remplacent par- Trautman. Le ministère de l’Education soi: s’il existe distanciation par le jeu.

qui. ils lions d’ordinateurs personnels redonne «respi- rapprochent les individus et les peuples au sein ration» aux particularismes. une avancée récente du cerveau communication multimédia: le contenu. réside la position médiane et vérité (Timisoara) avec la toute-puissance de inconfortable de la raison pratique: celle qui chaînes de télévision qui tiennent dans le accepte les découvertes de la science et les monde entier. la pluralité. les Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 31 . des rapports entre l’homme et la D’un côté. qui prédit et redoute comme libre lien social sous toutes ses formes. la culture et la envisage un monde de robots tellement lisses sagesse. passés bien d’être homme. et parfaits que l’homme n’aura plus besoin Car nous sommes. créativité du synaptique: M P Perrin langue unique. permet le choix et du ‘village-planète’mais tendent aussi. comme tou- Golfe) et de la falsification systématique de la jours sans doute.” réflexion. comprenons commerciaux – on ment en nous du synaptique holistique. la confronta- prend garde à banaliser la culture. qui pour autant ne des transmissions par satellite. au détriment du droit. plus il favorise le développe - échange. qui prônent le topie pessimiste. il est vrai. C’est la à Jacques Delors (1994): numérisation. objectif de lutter contre la mercantilisation du Dans la question. de on l’a dit plus haut «la perte d’identité de l’e- l’autre le dessein libéral d’appropriation des spèce humaine» et ne peut donc que refuser en contenus échangés via les réseaux à des fins bloc les avancées de la technique? Ou celui de de profit financier. teurs passivement rivés à l’image et à son Que nous disent en effet. à la standardisation des modes commentaire fabriqués à des fins de ce qui de vie et de travail. l’utopie optimiste – le même. la diffusion et le lien avec revanche. qui fit d’évaluer globalement une quantité. donc la diversité des cultures. de ce d’écrire: «Il faut maîtriser toute la chaîne de la point de vue. progrès tech- nique encore plus grand. Puissance du binaire. à laminer la tion des points de vue. que nous évoquions pour cyberspace. pour nous devenir à la fois plus analytiques et tions comme VECAM. donc par définition imparfait? près du règne de la pensée unique (Guerre du Entre les deux. l’utopie libertaire des machine. l’interactivité. aujourd’hui. paradoxalement. A commencer par l’Administration On fera donc le choix et le pari du para- américaine: le rapport Magaziner – affirme doxe optimiste: plus le binaire séquentiel vouloir faire d’Internet une vaste zone de libre devient puissant. prendrons-nous alors le parti de l’u- internautes sans loi ni maître.» (Le Monde. Ce danger n’a pas échappé ressemble fort à de la propagande. le risque existe d’un accaparement par multimedia (1997:29): «Internet. Entre les deux. le PDG de la Compagnie besoin de savoir compter pour vivre. il lui suf - Générale des Eaux. le développement de l’hypermédia l’abonné. démissionne pas de sa condition humaine. ne craint pas l’écriture) l’alphanumérique représente. loin d’uni- et pour le profit financier d’un outil qui formiser les cultures au profit d’une culture devrait bénéficier à tous. hiéro- vient de s’assurer l’exclusivité du réseau de glyphes et idéogrammes sont antérieurs à télécommunications de la SNCF. Contre dans toutes ses potentialités. donc. à l’envers – qui par un minimum de régulation. Adoptant cerveau droit est premier (l’animal n’a pas cette logique. sans doute. permet l’affirmation partagées et très tranchées: il y a ceux qui d’une multitude de particularismes individu- voient dans les NTIC et Internet un nouvel els. leurs specta. Jean-Marie Messier.» Eldorado. commencer. la gauche. Avec. comme souvent. grâce au progrès technique progrès de la technique. voici l’occasion ce type d’attitudes se sont fondées des associa. le binaire donc. C’est ce que croit et dit Tony Toma dans son ouvrage Les enseignants face au De fait. Ici les opinions sont mondialiste aseptisée. en production. 8 février 1997). qui se donnent pour mieux synthétiques. S’il est pensera à ces encarts publicitaires qui déjà vrai comme le dit encore T. “Quant à l’extension et au perfectionnement redresse la balance: la mise en réseau de mil- spectaculaire des moyens de communication. Toma que le envahissent bien des pages Web. si l’on n’y la comparaison.

donc on ne peut pas iste de l’informatique quantique.. certes. 22). si. ou différente. si puissants soient. les naïfs justement. nous verrons bien. Ceux qui aiment le langage 1997: 38). vers les réseaux neuronaux.Puissance du binaire. on voit bien à maticien Türing. de ce fait. ne peu. plus croustillantes les unes que les rait alors devenir numérisable. mais nous ne savons pas eux. créativité du synaptique: M P Perrin spécialistes des neurosciences? problème. Bono): soit la séquence UDTQC: comment la ils. comme définies. dont nous sommes par programmable (par exemple la rose de Pen- définition. 26 April mai 1997. mais avec des nombres réels.. reliés entre eux de telle façon que mode de communication prévisible. chacun (rappelons qu’il machine imaginaire qui porte son nom. autres. particulièrement les biophysiciens. Et la raison pour laquelle on ne peut qui ne permet pas de dire que la machine pas programmer des ordinateurs pour qu’ils «pense». jusqu’à présent c’est une intelligence humain. même si le terme fort microprocesseurs. l’ensemble puisse non seulement exécuter par donc codable. neurotransmetteurs. Et que dire de l’incapacité de répétition à l’infini certaines tâches pré- Deep Blue et congénères de résoudre. physicien à Oxford. patrons) que elle fait preuve d’une forme artificielle d’intel- perçoit et enregistre globalement le cerveau ligence. donc nous ne pouvons pas mod. De même monde sait que «les subtilités du langage nature est l’autre machine théorique BSS humain échappent toujours à la logique binaire développée à UCLA Berkeley par Steven des cerveaux de silicium» (Titre d’un article Smale et Lenore Blum (1997). à la portée pourtant d’un enfant Ils nous disent qu’en l’état actuel de la doué d’un minimum de pensée latérale (E de technique.. sont y en a des milliards) capable de 11000 liens battus en brèche par les tenants de la physique synaptiques en même temps. qui serait capable de fonc- pas naïvement. mieux en mieux la composition chimique des Ces savants d’un nouveau type s’orientent.ALORS: réponse par Negroponte soi-même (1993). sur le mode enthousiastes du tout numérique. les ordinateurs.. par lesquels dire pourquoi ni comment une combinaison la configuration des machines se rapprocherait holistiquement perçue l’est comme semblable bien davantage du fonctionnement du cerveau. a conçu une programmer un cerveau artificiel. 10 quantum frontier». Jusqu’à présent. tionner non plus grâce à la succession binaire Bien sûr. ne savent pas reconnaître ce qu’on Donc. parce qu’ils fonctionnent sur le mode algo. l’informatique est arrivent à ce même résultat. New Scientist. on connaît de quantique. Nicolas binaire de base du SI. p. machine. Les anec. aimeraient pouvoir dire rose. vrais ou faux. tout aussi théorique pour l’instant serions-nous tentés de dire. continuer? rithmique. le véritable inventeur de l’or- l’œuvre l’interconnexion «massivement paral. qui abondent dans ce domaine. et le test de la lèle» de nos neurones. or aperiodic pattern ECHAPPERONT toujours. éventuellement distants. répétitive. spécial- éliser ce fonctionnement. ne sait pas décrire COMMENT s’opère en lui Mais de plus en plus la théorie du mathé- cette «pattern recognition». dinateur (qui date de 1935). sont prompts à souligner les zones de ridicule entiers ou décimaux. to exist in nature: five-fold symmetry») pour- dotes. David Deutsch. modèles. Qu’est-ce donc qu’un réseau neuronal? vent masquer les réels progrès de la traduction Rien d’autre qu’un vaste assemblage de assistée par ordinateur. «patterns» (motifs. imprudent de traduction automatique tend à analogue au réseau des neurones dans le être abandonné: cela ne marche que pour un cerveau. Tant mieux. mais réellement apprendre à les nous le rappelle l’un des adeptes les plus accomplir. de 0 et de 1. Tout est encore. Mais le meilleur illustrating something which is not supposed n’est jamais sûr. Ce qui restait du domaine du non- et les langues. «a theoretical quantum stupidité des machines d’aujourd’hui: tout le computer and DNA computer». «Crossing the du Monde sur la traduction automatique. si la machine calcule cent millions ne peut nommer facilement qu’en anglais les de fois plus vite que l’homme. Mais ne pavoisons que celle de Türing. c’est que l’homme restée une branche de la mathématique. «A non repeating. un très simple un output choisi au stimulus d’un input donné 32 ReCALL .

comportementales et communication- robot «émotif»: capable de ‘lire’colère. Deep Blue. Sur la neurodépendance de la pensée sous niversité de Bordeaux 2. crustacés. On construit ainsi un immédiatement. professeur ronal est que le feedback sur la pertinence des au MIT. l’ex. pure. il existe déjà des greffages «apprend» le terrain au fur et à mesure. uni.sut. a mis au point un «bébé artificiel» qui réponses fournies par la machine en réaction à explore son environnement réel. plaisir nelles. pour ainsi dire qu’on n’a plus rien à faire de la distinction sous nos yeux. et il apprend à intera- mode de fonctionnement. no 301 septembre INTERNET). Très élémentaire apprenne à ne pas refaire les mêmes erreurs: les encore. subjectives. sur Mars. Petit à petit. dont «œil» gauche) et d’y répondre par mimique voici un extrait édifiant: adéquate. créativité du synaptique: M P Perrin (c’est ainsi que fonctionne la recherche versité deTokyo. Neurobiologie de la pensée. fonc- hybrides. qui. (1995: 318) Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 33 . on voit oscillantes spécifiques. dans le cerveau l’activité de pensée: à tel point Toujours est-il que le greffage sur ces braves que nombreux sont les savants qui déclarent homards a bien été conduite. eux. sions. il devient possible de localiser pas oublié Orange mécanique et sa chimère. Mais l’imagination scientifique est dans The Society of the Mind. par des chercheurs bordelais. Délicieux et avec l’idée que ce sera plus efficace qu’une terrible normally de la part de celui qui parlait pré-programmation exhaustive comme celle de plus haut de incredible stupidity. mais huit ment électronique: «it normally exists only as a processeurs autonomes spécialisés: un ensem- simulation on a conventional computer» ble de petits modules auto-programmables. on lira avec profit l’austère traité de ou peur humains (par caméra CDD dans son Julien Le robot Sojourner. C’est ainsi toutes ses formes. et de trompent les biologiques». Le taux de reconnaissance serait exact à des messages sensoriels en perceptions con- 87% (c’est-à-dire aussi bon que chez les scientes résultent de multiplexages synchro- humains. de mieux en mieux. de plus en plus. ou pour le pire de tous les fantasmes de logiques classiques ou de logiques floues. été jusqu’à présent testé que sur d’inoffensifs avec les réseaux neuronaux la machine «pense».” à la booléenne des moteurs de recherche sur chara/e3. En parvenir à ce résultat. il lui faut réagir comme un neurone. Puissance du binaire. soma- qu’au Japon une équipe a mis au point un tiques.html . qui En réalité. Mais le «plus» du réseau neu. et non plus ces stimuli lui est en quelque sorte réinjecté virtuel. sauf la peur). sans limites – et notre imaginaire collectif n’a de plus en plus. Pour haustivité stupide devient moins nécessaire. Ces multiplexages de quelles applications cela pourrait donner. La Recherche. 1997). reconnaissent les expres. alors que la transmission réseau hybride comprenant le neurone artifi. (Equipe Fumio Hara. homard.kagu. cérébrales. pour configurations adaptives pourraient permettre la le meilleur de la domotique pour handicapés formation de colligations relevant selon les cas moteurs. gir avec monde réel par essais et erreurs. (Laboratoire de Jean-Didier Vincent dans sa Biologie des Pas - neurobiologie et physiologie comparée de l’u. esprit-cerveau: c’est le cas par exemple de Jean- qui concluent: «Les neurones électroniques Pierre Changeux dans l’Homme Neuronal. 1997). donc fonction de ses «expériences». nisés de circuits réverbérants réticulés présen- sions du robot à 83%. depuis la Terre prend plusieurs minutes. ciel et deux neurones biologiques: le tout n’a Bref. en modifiant sa programmation en pour qu’elle s’auto-améliore et se régule.r6. De son côté Rodney Brooks. pas un programme central unique. Des neurones vivants sont connectés tionne de la même manière: même s’il demeure à un circuit électronique se comportant en partie piloté de la Terre. www. En même temps. Bientôt tant chacun des co-résonances chaotiques combiné à la reconnaissance vocale. (Michael Lockwood. l’inventeur a conçu non principe il s’agit d’une simple simulation. No 2 du MIT. ce robot «regarde» avec ses caméras et micro-processeurs ajustent d’eux-mêmes leur «touche» avec ses «bras». 1989: 56). La machine opère par reconnais- sance des formes et programme de logique “On peut penser que les transformations rapides floue. sur des neurones de ganglions de C’est ce que dit Marvin Minsky.

en tout cas. tifiques et philosophes (comme par exemple sans doute. et comme déjà. On voit de plus en plus même trons et d’octets. tion.. mais peu importe: car elles ne savent pas qu’elles pensent – elles n’ont pas. Intéressante convergence de tous sans doute ici. Sartre raux sur le 21ème siècle. 1990). la nivers. mais singulièrement inconfortable. du mot.en matière prendre. à nouveau. Il reste de l’inconnu devant nous: 34 ReCALL . l’intitulé de ses concepts. transcendance. Le suivant va se concentrer les matérialistes de stricte obédience.. le profane comme moi. qui ter- la véritable conscience et le véritable juge de l’u. qui tout en allant pour. les ordinateurs ne Alors je dirai (avec et après. mouche et l’homme: ments corticaux préalables de son cerveau) il accède par téloduction mentale et noétique con. dont il doit demeurer le maître tique. qui se termine s’est beaucoup occupé d’elec- mots. mine ainsi en mars 1997 son livre La souris. de la conscience: les humanités? La réponse. apocryphe ou non. avec nucléiques et de souvenirs. après tout. E. “Should we then conclude that computers have tant très loin dans la logique du tout-matière..” (Lockwood. qui confèrent à la précarité suivant va se concentrer sur les souvenirs et les existentielle de l’Ego une sorte de ‘transcen. Odile Jacob. scien. que j’aimerais médicales substitutives diversifiées . Gros. entre autres. avec bien des nuances naturelle- L’ingénierie du vivant. inconfort: maîtres. Paris. nent tous la présentation de leurs travaux et mieux. désirs.” (ibid. nous dirons que le siècle Conscience. pensent mais ne (les) réalisent pas ès-qualités”. inner lives comparable to our own? I think not. vient du même Julien Barry. comme nous Ego matériel... C’est le pari. Autre version. par LA ques- FLOU. qui sera spirituel ou avant lui. N’y aurait-il pas là Descartes. le sci. étayé de la convergence frappante de correction de la surdité (cf. en procédant in extremis à un n’auront jamais de conscience morale. les résume tous. prix comme celui de ses dérivés. découvertes par des questions. “Nous sommes un redoutable mélange d’acides sciente à tous les Univers de la pensée.. admettre les actes de liberté d’un ne sera pas. tendent à balayer l’omniscience. Les biologistes notamment. sinon la personne humaine. avec leurs exigences et leurs occupé d’acides nucléiques et de protéines. (id. mots clés. CHAOS. d’opinion. à terme toutes programmables: peu importe. et en fin de compte Nobel de médecine. ment. a tendance à se dire que le tous les penseurs de toutes écoles. Tous concluent sur le «mystère» de une lueur d’espoir pour les humanistes. pas moins enfermées à tout jamais dans le fini faces mécaniques et neurochimiques ont déjà du monde technicien (Jacques Ellul sera con- trouvé des commencements d’applications bio. Fini le péremptoire de Malebranche et entisme. qui termi- vocabulaire même de la science d’aujourd’hui. sont unanimes. bien sûr. Searle) que les machines. sur le cognitif et le poétique. Les machines n’en restent “Des prothèses neurales comportant des inter. Le siècle qui se termine s’est beaucoup les imaginaires.) En transposant du biologique à l’électron- ique et au numérique. de désirs et de pro- leurs ouvertures sur tous les possibles et tous téines. Les rétablissement spectaculaire (pardonnez la processus mentaux/cognitifs sont sans doute longueur de la citation: je ne peux pas ne pas quelque part réductibles à des fonctions la donner): cérébrales. le positivisme. tent). François Jacob. Le valeurs propres. affirmative. qui est l’artisan et l’utilisateur de l’intelligence face aux fantastiques avancées du génie géné- artificielle.Puissance du binaire. John font que (les) simuler par des moyens différents.les processus de compréhension et des opérations intellectuelles . écrit en effet un peu plus loin: Consciousness is a great mystery. de Mal- Quiniou). créativité du synaptique: M P Perrin Alors. de la communauté des scientifiques Il reste que dans tous les cas c’est l’Ego humain d’aujourd’hui. 1997) “. Saura-t-il résoudre de telles questions?” dance’ sans équivalents. parce que (au delà de tous les traite.321) peut-être. Et il poursuit.

chose qui fait que l’individu participe à quelque tionnement (qu’on pourrait documenter ad chose qui le dépasse. Au lieu de cette alternative. «sans inconnu tinctes (John C. McLuhan a gagné con- ment.. l’Américaine Patricia Churchland. en fait. 1994) versa. peut-être une hypothèse. tion des traces (idéogrammes. Debray alistes d’intégrer la notion de vie intérieure. images). qui écrit lui aussi: naturalisme pur. le cerveau est l’esprit) de Changeux C’est encore Penrose. pessimiste. et le sujet en Pour terminer. souligne que la personne humaine ne acknowledge the existence of something that se laisse pas réduire à sa seule identité might be described as the soul. Dans sa thèse «médiologique» par Ceci permet au plus farouche des anti-spiritu. outil d’intériorité. Jacob? cerveau. au sens dogmatique du terme. L’observa. pense à la télévision abrutis- le système nerveux central la face objective sante que l’on gobe passivement. un neurobiologiste “The notion that the human mind can ever fully comme Pierre Karli. A son pessimisme. sons. il travaille à la conception de la machine quan. qu’au. selon le mot de René Char. quelles sont ses images et son mode de saisie. qui fait de lui. Celle.» (Vie et mort de l’im - ne peut savoir l’effet que cela fait à la chauve. lui suffit d’être un Homme Neuronal») ou de tique capable de rendre obsolète tous nos ordi.” (Debray. promouvoir et faciliter la réalisation optimale sans doute. d’échange et de com- cune tomographie avec émission de positons munication vraie. mard. à l’op- devant soi». c’en est fini de la culture et de la démocratie. Mais Debray. paraît elle aussi hors de course.v. diront cer- libitum). néolithique. où est notre libre arbitre. pense que la découvertes et les non moins incommensu. une personne capable de s’approprier sa sion. l’ordinateur multimédia. Galli- souris d’être chauve-souris). Eccles) est à l’abandon. oublie. un peu de soul music? quête de sens et de liberté intérieure – cette Devant l’impressionnante unanimité du ques. s’efforce de montrer à la fois les fantastiques Régis Debray. du philosophe Thomas Nagel. il y a l’acteur social. de l’invention de l’écriture à l’ère teur peut dire que telle zone du cortex est électronique – des corrélations vérifiables entre activée . tains. la théorie de l’identité (l’esprit est le cite également F. adepte du nateurs actuels. refusant toute explication comprehend the human mind could well be folly qui ne laisserait pas place à la subjectivité et à – it may be that scientists will eventually have to la liberté. celui-là même qui («L’homme n’a plus rien à faire de l’Esprit. en effet. mais bien propre parole: d’où l’intérêt de voir les NTIC une question. d’apprentissage guidé. dans cette His - “la conscience représente la face subjective et toire du regard. Entre Djihad et MacWorld (q. qui des potentialités de tout être humain en devenir. 1995: 5) Si le dualisme qui considère l’esprit et le cerveau comme deux entités totalement dis.. actuelle du «double aspect». laquelle il condamne notre époque. créativité du synaptique: M P Perrin et comment vivre. la sagesse semble être dans la théorie tre Gutenberg. 1995). nous avancerons non pas une conclu. en zappant d’une même entité baptisée l’Esprit-Cerveau. impossible pour autant d’affirmer à les activités symboliques d’un groupe humain.. sans plus savoir distinguer l’un de l’autre. que posé. quoi «pense» le sujet.) Selon lui. où: Barber. pour chaque période de l’histoire – du que d’autres en un instant donné. vidéosphère aujourd’hui est en train de détru- rables limites des neurosciences aujourd’hui ire notre civilisation fille de l’écrit. Puissance du binaire. une histoire du regard en Occident.. age. «Savoir (et exprime cela simplement. lettres. en disant qu’on que n’égale pas savoir. carac- ne savent pas dire de quel mensonge il s’agit. je préférerai le mot de Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 35 . d’archivage et de circula- mentales: les machines à détecter le mensonge. alors.” allègrement du reportage à la fiction et vice (Missa. tères.” (1995: 40) biologique En même temps que l’individu biologique. Plus scientifique. ne saura jamais «lire» – les scanners les plus perfectionnés ne savent que montrer quelle “La thèse médiologique est qu’il est possible zone du cerveau consomme plus d’oxygène d’établir. 1997.

de maintenir «people first»! trois auteurs récents. 74. (1992) Introduction aux sciences cogni - chapitre intitulé «Pour une approche des tech.. les niveaux de culture. son Barber R. la tête dans les Changeux J. 142). Hypermédias. dimension humaine (juillet 1996). puisque nous sommes dans une instance didacticiens. l’hypernavigation intelligente. Cette humilité de PUL. P. “Un néant à l’égard de l’infini. sociales – celle des techniciens. Philippe Breton. Classe CM2 de Villard de nocentriques. (1995) Neurobiologie de la pensée. first@fse. un milieu entre rien et tout. Acceptons- staure une véritable éthique des NTIC. et donc Pierre Champs/Flammarion (Visual Thinking. fragilité: les pieds sur terre. tous trois sensibles à la manifeste valeur ajoutée possible des nou- velles technologies. également en Balpe J. tout cela peut au contraire. gros de toutes les catastrophes. des relations industrielles et des affaires Ceci est possible. technologies en 1995. A l’op. Paris: Marabout/Le Monde. On peut se livrer 2.regards. qui enracine l’homme dans l’humus Breton P. http://www. C’est la en l’augure: que la technique. /9707/9707res08. effectivement préjudiciables. que certains au moins de monter dans le monde les niveaux de con. Le Cerveau et la liberté. avec cette dia. un homme des autres langues et cultures. il est encourageant de con- multimédia utilisé à bon escient par de vrais stater. Paris: sans pour autant rejeter l’apport extraordinaire du binaire au synaptique. tives. MacWorld. nos Eurocrates l’ont bien compris: le Livre science. Paris: Gallimard. tion de toute entreprise éducative. notamment par le biais Vb5 s’intitule en effet Vivre et travailler dans d’une meilleure maîtrise par chacun d’une ou la société de l’information: priorité à la plusieurs langues d’ailleurs. à laquelle je souscris des deux mains. (1995) Hypertexte et hypermédias. la révolution finir sont Pierre Rabardel Les hommes et les au bout des un tout à l’égard sans que nous bougions. Malheureusement ce l’auto-poèse comme dit le cognitiviste n’est pas la direction européenne pour l’éduca- Francesco Varela. New York: hubris. Paris: A l’image de l’homme en 1997.” à grande échelle. avec sa divinisation de la technique. Fayard. mais dans ses Pensées: d’avoir d’autres yeux». à toutes les réalités du néant. La numérisation en somme. avec un premier Andler D. la pédagogie hypermédia nous mènent à magnifique adresse électronique: people- cette auto-nomie. sache thèse. 1997). niques centrée sur l’homme». (1996) Actes du séminaire rappelle M. justement. (dir).. à la condition que s’in. et fait sa grandeur dans sa LIP6: université Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6. (1995) Djihad vs. il y a humilis. toulouse. Lans. faire à visée européenne. (1983) L’Homme neuronal. 36 ReCALL . ces autres yeux. Karli. l’interactivité que permettent les réseaux. Arnheim R.cec. (1997) Le multimedia. Barry J. et al. Certes Prométhée sera toujours parmi Paris: Hermès. ce ne serait Ceci nous ramène à Pascal. le Dans cette optique.Puissance du binaire.dg5. Paris: étoiles. (1974) La pensée visuelle. Time Books. nous. (homo et humus ont la même étymologie nous Bruillard E. qui a tout dit pas d’aller vers de nouveaux paysages. Classe de CM1 de Piquecos 46. http://www. L’outil multimé. tous trois également très Notes vigilants face aux dérives et dangers non 1. Serres dans son Tiers instruit. Bibliographie Ces trois auteurs que j’aimerais citer pour Alberganti moins manifestes du tout technologique acca. 1969). Regards: http://www. Lille: posé d’hubris. grâce aux NTIC qui nous ouvrent. tion qui l’a trouvée: c’est celle de L’emploi. qui est la plus haute ambi. et al. Nous les avons. bon les niveaux de vert de la Commission européenne DG tolérance mutuelle. véritable gestion de soi. éducation et formation 1996.html paré par le tout commercial. (1995) A l’image de l’homme. créativité du synaptique: M P Perrin Proust: «Le seul véritable voyage. à une critique vigoureuse des approches tech.

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Thames Valley University Susan Myles describes a research project currently being undertaken in the field of computer assisted vocabulary learning (CAVL). I knew only too well what she was going through when she mounted the rostrum and ner- vously organised her notes. however. that the mass of notes that Susan has left behind will yield further results. Susan is greatly missed by her colleagues and students at Middlesex University and by all her friends and family. It is likely. continuing to teach. Such was Susan’s courage in her struggle against cancer that she gave few outward indications of her suffering and only looked to the future.ReCALL 10:1 (1998) 38–45 The language learner and the software designer A marriage of true minds or ne’er the twain shall meet? Susan Myles Middlesex University In Memoriam When Susan presented this paper at EUROCALL 97 she was extremely ill. and it only hints at the interesting find- ings that were beginning to emerge. My last conversation with Susan centred on t his paper and the trials she was about to conduct with her students in the new academic year. Graham Davies. The paper is published here with the minimum of editing. As Susan’s PhD super- visor. to research and to give her attention to her home and family. 38 ReCALL . the modes of testing adopted are justified. findings of previous research experiments in the field are seen to provide some useful guidelines both for analysing the data and for conducting the sec- ond round of trials. but I could not have imagined that in two short months her life would come to an end. It stands as a tribute to Susan’s research but represents only a short summary of the vast amount of data that she had collected so meticulously. the research methodology adopted is outlined. The aims of the research are stated. some initial impressions gained from the data are tentatively given and finally an attempt is made to anticipate the direction in which the results might lead.

Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 39 . but the find. this package presents and tests language learning class. Fun with Texts. CALL software trials dents’ rates of retention of German vocabu- lary are lower than they would like. not specifically as a foreign language. Some research has been sents individual items of vocabulary out of conducted into these processes. by a different method: often the only problem they appear to see is that of defining the corpus. from the same learner. The German Master. the amount of German incorporated into a CAVL (German) package they already knew and their motivation for to maximise its effectiveness. the bare shape of which (in the form reasonably be expected to be. in order to cue the item being tested. trialled four CALL software packages each of appear to regard vocabulary as merely some which attempts to teach German vocabulary body of words to be thrown at the learner. especially if non-linguists. semantically clustered within a their ability to point the way to further learner-centred approach which organises research rather than their inability to produce the vocabulary items according to how it statistically meaningful generalisations. What appears of a number of blanks) is then flashed up to be needed is a vocabulary teaching pack. The learner has no recourse to L1 in language learning situation. packages trialled and the only package of fication to warrant a research project of this the four to boast multimedia facilities. and stu. age. the value of the data is seen to lie in Essentially. activity of vocabulary acquisition – that of German vocabulary in particular – is diffi- cult. Tak. The language learner and the software designer: S Myles Aims of the Project increase the uniformity of the subjects. It is can be used as a CAVL program. The age the design of which takes these needs as learner has no recourse to L1 in this pack- its very starting point. The project takes the form of a case study 3. here not as design process. the students software writers. context although in semantic clusters. the language learner contains the items of vocabulary to be per se or the language learner in a particular tested. translation into or from L1. thereby largely 1. the sample has within each item bilingually in the form of a writ- it a certain amount of common factors which ten or spoken translation. the language learning habits they have establish what design features need to be consequently acquired. Consequently the software is isolated items but within a context-sen- probably much less effective than it could tence. and ings have not generally been applied to the flashes them onto the screen at a regulat- design of learning and teaching materials. able speed. and has gathered data designated to teach vocabulary but which on the students as language learners. such as the way in which they have hitherto been The main aim of this research project is to taught. research hitherto conducted into the CAVL 4. tedious and underresearched. The pro - essentially a qualitative experiment: it will not gram devises a variety of reconstruction attempt to generalise from this minute sample exercises around a passage of text which to the general population. Each item is presented and Hence – as has been confirmed by initial tested bilingually by means of an instant interviews with the subjects – CALL soft.4 the most recent of the four learning process is considered sufficient justi. CALL After the initial needs analysis. Vocab. sees the functions and notions of the ing a group of just six students. ware often leaves the learners feeling that 2.1 a very primitive. ignoring the complex psycholinguistic DOS-based authorable program which pre- processes involved.3 a straightforward text- of a very small group of students of German reconstruction package. The mental participation in this experiment. The lack of this package. Travel Talk.2 which presents vocabulary items their needs have been overlooked in the once again in semantic clusters. nature.

they require just two players: one to L2).”8 40 ReCALL . who were being taught the learn vocabulary. However. taken from a topic area which the test results of both groups will be compared. by way of a justification of its rejection as a • post-presentation vocabulary test (L2→ research testing mode. or screen (by a variety of methods. the other to respond to each of these words with the first word Based on the data generated by the software that enters his or her head. and incorporate as far as possible the recommen. using quote Meara. using the traditional translation one to suspect that learners’ responses mode of testing. The data gathered from the trials were There is a range of methods available for the based on the following for each of the four testing of vocabulary. The final vocabulary. for example: already known. appropriate for L2 situations. L2→L1 in the case of those packages which present Each of these will now be briefly considered. some of which may have packages: produced richer data and might therefore have appeared more attractive than the traditional a) Pre-trial vocabulary test (L1→L2). the indications are that nal experiment and of previous research semantic links between words in the experiments in this field. syncratic responses. learners often tend to give idio- dations suggested by the findings of the origi. according c) VKS (vocabulary knowledge scale) tests.The language learner and the software designer: S Myles The aim of each trial was to teach 20 items of taught them by non-CALL methods. call out single words. association research is clearly one of these ing of this package and the methodology cases. that they are extremely simple to adminis- f) retest six months after software trial (L1→ ter. not fixed. Previous ascertain whether any of the items was research experiments have used. “tried and trusted tools which of course a different set of students – not yet work for L1 situations are rarely wholly exposed to the items to be presented – and tri. in L2). to the package being trialled). a) A number of experiments have been con- c) re-presentation of the 20 items (L1→L2). L1 since this invariably produces higher scores than L1→L2). Again the package learner’s mental lexicon are somewhat ten- will aim to teach.”7 In any case. Alongside them a control group was tered CAVL program can be seen to increase formed. • initial presentation of vocabulary on b) yes/no word recognition tests. and a control group will be could be considerably less stable than the tested on these same 20 items having been response patterns of native speakers. there will be a second run of trials. Both groups were tested on these items at appropriate stages and the results of Methods of testing vocabulary the two groups are to be compared.5 The author. in subjects would in any case be covering in the order to suggest whether it appears likely that coursebook but which they had not yet been using an appropriately designed and adminis- taught. Gapkit.6 Such tests appar- e) retest one month after software trial (L1→ ently have much to recommend them. to trials. and word alling only one package. b) Software trial (including: a) word association tests. ducted using word association tests in d) vocabulary test immediately following order to ascertain what a learner’s mental software trial (L1→L2). test and finally retest a body uous – all these considerations would lead of 20 items. lexicon might look like. to translation mode as a research method. “learners’ vocabular- adopted in the second trials will attempt to ies are by definition in a state of flux. same bodies of vocabulary but by non-CALL methods. comprising students from the same the effectiveness of these learners’ efforts to class as the sample. the vocabulary bilingually.

This project is not attempting to estimate the size of the It is doubtful whether any test procedure learner’s mental lexicon.”12 The complexities of the word- 5. Finally. I know this word: it means. using the scale it is even possible package in question. testing can be seen to be inappropriate for the In fact. but it always operates from responses to a number of real words and a the essential trigger of the L2 item. extensively by cognitive psychologists True. recognised in the testing of word knowledge cate the current state of his/her knowledge in related research experiments. it begins to test their knowledge of attempting to model the mental lexicon. a cue in L1.. whether the subjects had actually ‘learned’the ulary acquisition research it appears most word to the extent of being able to produce it likely that L2 vocabularies are relatively correctly and appropriately. the traditional translation mode was appear tempting for use in a research adopted in this experiment since this was experiment. from vocab. mining entailments. The language learner and the software designer: S Myles b) Yes/no word recognition tests are based on recognise familiar or unfamiliar words. whereas has the traditional translation mode of testing in practice learners’ own assessment of and indeed of presentation at the very heart of their knowledge is not always wholly reli. its rationale. devoid of L2 hint – that is. such tests are intended as a vocabu. a knowledge test of this kind appropriate to use more innovative modes of is based on the ability of the subjects to testing of its vocabulary. rectly and appropriately – from a cue ever. We must learn its place in ‘state’ of the learner’s current knowledge. treating each point on the scale as a syntactic properties. fications to the semantic and conceptual 4. Whilst In view of these criticisms of various test the ease of application of this scale might modes.13 for example. Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 41 . ‘knowing’a word than any of these test modes by attempting to teach a body of vocabu. in our conceptual system. and its roles in deter- before. seeking to discover at least some of the fea. as that package was per- to track the movement of individual items haps not designed to produce the richer data between states. lexical structure. How. but lexical decision tests that have been used does not test their productive knowledge. I have seen this word before and I think learn the mapping of these Input/Output speci- it means.. and that words constantly move least some cases these alternative modes of in and out of a number of different states. In addition. Subjects have simply to indicate have been able to produce the item – cor- whether or not they know the word. I don’t remember having seen this word its referential properties. can ever hope to be able to test. in at unstable.. e. knowledge of a particular word.g. In his attempt lary and analysing the resultant data.. its relations with other words. The German Master. hence it was not considered able.9 its appropriate usage (see point 5 on the They work by measuring the subjects’ VKS scale).. First. hence smaller number of non-words on the it cannot test whether the subject would screen. it relies on the which these other methods may have pro- subjects’ being aware of the state of their duced. of each of the items using the VKS. since there is so much more involved in tures of the most effective virtual teacher. We must learn the con- 2. but instead is adopted can ever be other than a compromise.11 Second.. I have seen this word before but I don’t ceptual underpinnings that determine its place know what it means. we must 3. I can use this word in a sentence. lary measurement instrument.. to answer the question “What is it to learn a c) The VKS10 comprises the following five word?”. 1. but have hitherto not always been vocabulary items by being asked to indi. learning process are thus not to be underesti- Thus the learner is tested on a number of mated. it was rejected for this project taken to be the most reliable way of testing for a number of reasons. We must learn its semantic properties. meanings. Finally. Ellis reminds us: “We must learn its points.

The rote-learning – transpires to yield the high- methodology adopted in the trials was in est score in the post-trial tests or proves each case that recommended by the most popular with the students. or 1. the by their immediate appeal to learners that they subjects need to have learned the items by would transpire to be more effective than oth. However. Error analysis requirement for an interval of time in 6. promoted is of an essentially surface nature. deep processing. Word assocations. it tells us that language each package trialled and consideration of the and language use is context-dependent. psy.The language learner and the software designer: S Myles Data analysis the software. a mode of presentation considered. tering would be the absolute minimum ogy might not be fulfilling the potential of requirement in the presentation of items 42 ReCALL . and therefore there is a ers. if the final test results only are out of context. it may be that the very program gests certain reasons for this lack of success: which presents the vocabulary. thus there is a 5. not in con- textualised sentences but in the form of a 1. none of the four packages proved to be need for deep learning to be promoted. in which even to read the item. Comparison between data produced from 2. Indeed. Learning strategies or styles which that conscious effort can be made. whereas the subjects found that the course of this experiment by indicating in practice this was barely sufficient time what aspects of the data merit close analysis. it appears that the following for it to be stored in the memory.g. but the design of none of the four packages trialled presents CALL software is all too rarely based on the vocabulary entirely decontextualised: psycholinguistic or even pedagogical con.16 anything like as effective as its marketing The vocabulary is in some cases presented would claim. deep learning – the quality of which is indisputedly superior to surface Initial impressions of the data learning – is actively precluded by the methodological design. Make-up of list of items to be taught (e. It may appear obvious that such clus- gesting that the recommended methodol. the data 3. To have any Whilst some modes of presentation suggested chance of retaining the vocabulary. Surface or deep processing of learning effort on the part of the learner15. The impressions of the students hardly favoured by the advocates of the trialling the software suggest that the packages communicative approach. defined: “If the communicative approach fully. The design of the package has not been list of items – maybe even designed for preceded by a formal needs analysis. The impact of the package on the quality of L2 → L1 testing and from L1 → L2 testing learning is such that any learning which is 8. A combination of a thorough review of tells us anything. Some could have a significant bearing on the degree research has been conducted into whether of success achieved by subjects using the four the storage of items in the memory is a programs trialled: spontaneous process triggered by having the items flashed in front of the eyes. all are connected by semantic clustering at siderations. let alone For example. collected in this experiment would suggest syntactic class) that a very low retention rate indeed is 4. least. however are not doing their job particularly success. 7.”17 findings of previous research experiments sug. the speed of presentation at three seconds cholinguistics and SLAcan been seen to guide per item. Role of context in comprehension more likely to be the result of a conscious 2. In fact authors of the package. accordingly the data are sug. For example. Subject’s selection pattern from within list attained without any conscious effort being of items made to learn an item. the authors of The German Master14 recommend setting Research findings in the fields of CAVL.

even in SLA semantic clusters than they do learning research which claims to be classroom- semantically unrelated words. cognitive strategies for inferring the mean- 4. and may not be produced by one specifi- the difficulty of learning and remembering cally identifiable event. argues that success lies in acquiring cogni- hension and subsequent retention of the tive strategies for acquiring unfamiliar new vocabulary. and explored learning and memory are being • deep processing for elaboration of the ignored in software design. but some research ously difficult to discern and describe reli- findings suggest very strongly that stu. new word with existing knowledge.21 learning styles are notori. but rather by the the targeted information increases like. The reason he posits for this is that century. and the explicit learning process. and a body of research which is useful in this mapping the surface forms to these rich connection. Their data strongly sug. Successful learners use sophisticated tion to be learned increases. “learning is not generally directly and larity increases between targeted informa. for enmeshing them in the apparently not informed by theories of meaning networks of other words and con- learning or cognitive styles. 5. Along the same some students approach the task of vocab- lines. The title could be play.”23 wise. from reading demonstrate that neither dic- gests that distinctiveness is a crucial factor tionary look-up nor direct instruction is in the learning of new information and necessary for vocabulary acquisition [.19 Such data might lead one to ques. Whilst there is cepts and imagery representations. cumulative effect of a number of events. A psychologist’s view is useful in this con- tiveness (non-similarity) of the informa. The language learner and the software designer: S Myles for vocabulary teaching. the presentation of These include: new vocabulary items to L2 learners in • inferring word meanings from context. far from ate to the task of vocabulary acquisition. ably. theory can help teachers to teach and ing new words presented to them in learners to learn. This relates ease of learning to the distinc..] learning tion and other information learned either emerges only after some unspecified time before or after the targeted information. and this role will be con. To the extent that Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 43 . Liddell22 questions whether cognitive dents actually have more difficulty learn. clusters impedes it? It appears that the • semantic or imagery mediation between ideas and evidence presented by a signifi- the L2 word (or a keyword approximation) cant number of researchers who have and the L1 translation. immediately observable [. Ellis distinguishes between the implicit but without a title. facilitating learning. lexis: “Metacognitively sophisticated lan- sidered in the data analysis of this research guage learners excel because they have project. so does the metacognitive knowledge to choose suit- ease with which that information is able cognitive learning strategies appropri - learned. The design process of the package is ings of words. The apparently haphazard fashion in which tactically similar words. then. In fact. ers teach far exceeds that on how learners as it evolved during the first half of the learn.. The task of needs-related CALL software tion the wisdom of presenting L2 students design is thus much more difficult than with their new vocabulary organised for might at first appear.] that. and ing a role in promoting effective compre. nection: “Studies of vocabulary acquisition tion to be learned. In some cases the vocabulary is presented in the context of a short passage of text. them into clusters of semantically or syn. more recent psychologists have ulary learning would suggest that a num- posited a ‘distinctiveness hypothesis’ 20 ber of learners need to learn how to learn. meaning representations. 18 These based.”24 3. which hypothesised that as simi. as the distinctiveness of the informa. that. Can it be.. the body of research on how teach- findings are based on interference theory..

glossary in some form) produces higher ers in their attempts to learn vocabulary. and an experiment conducted into 2. what potential is there for any the validity of monolingual vocabulary improvement in its efficiency as a teaching presentation produced some surprising medium? results. however. The nature and effect of feedback on The bodies of data generated by the second progress is a factor which is often over. Realistically.The language learner and the software designer: S Myles vocabulary acquisition is about meaning. In some cases insufficient thought has been tions of the computer itself as a teaching given to the way in which the learner is to medium appear to render it unsuitable for the discern the correct meaning of a vocabu. efficient learning of L2 vocabulary. and within that short time and under tion of successful learning strategies for those conditions considerable acquisition the learners’ future use. If CAVL software can be and should be ascertained. it available for these words. or should be presented monolingually and ing the meanings of vocabulary. Certainly psychol. both cific recommendations will be made to a com- within the programs and at the end of the puter programmer and software designer as to first round of trials.”25 It might is repeated an average of 15 times within be possible to incorporate within a CAVL the novel. scores. 44 ReCALL . The German Master. but each of them is an explicit learning process. There is no glossary mos Software Ltd: Dunstable. learning tool than anything tried hitherto. Learners’needs could the control group. 7. Beds. such as will facilitate the adop. If. them. tain types of learner. authentic context such 6. A few days after reading it the package modes of presentation or exercises subjects had a surprise vocabulary test the rationale of which promotes deep including 90 Nadsat words sprung upon learning. giving students a false impression of tiveness as a vocabulary teaching tool for cer- the amount of vocabulary learned. a References novel containing 241 totally unfamiliar words drawn from a Russian-based slang 1. Are these results to be interpreted can usefully be taught explicit skills in as an indication that L2 vocabulary could inferencing from context and in memoris.27 Their subjects were asked to read Anthony Burgess’ A Clockwork Orange . The testing procedures adopted. Where exactly were the shortcomings of the or even desirable – for each item being computer as a teaching medium seen to lie? taught. The design features of the package do not as a long reading passage or novel? Cer- appear to be conducive to retention. spe- 8. administered in order to maximise its effec- able. the limita- 9. have been shown in how CAVL courseware might be designed and some research experiments to be unreli.0 (1993). partly as a result of the absence of a son will be made with the data generated by formal needs analysis. round of trials will be analysed and a compari- looked. the fol- lary item in order for efficient learning to lowing questions will be asked: take place. Research is divided on the issue of whether an L1 translation is necessary – 1. Version 2. For tainly opinion is divided here: there are example. it is emerging in the initial data research findings to refute this on the basis analysis that the absence of the dimension that bilingual presentation (availability of a of sound appears to be impeding the learn. had apparently taken place: subjects were ogists such as Ellis are of the firm opinion found to have acquired some 45 new that such skills are teachable: “Learners words.28 Thus it may transpire that the multimedia package is the one which has the greatest appeal or proves the most effective as a Future directions vocabulary teaching tool.”26 within an extended. and Help seen to appear more effective as a vocabulary designed accordingly to accommodate them. Kos- known as Nadsat.

7. Nottingham Linguistics Circu . (eds. 47–59. University of Wales. System 21 (3). Crowder R. Fun with Texts. whereas Matthew is at Southampton Institute. 27. See for example: Clarke J.. Windsor. based software design for language learning’. 76–101. (1994) ‘Learners and second lan.0 (1994). R. Grace C. The Language 26. Ibid. tions for the design of CALL programs’.. CORRECTIONS In ReCALL 9 (2). 70–78. Ellis N. Meara P. Ibid. Apologies for this. (1993) ‘The effect of semantic clus- 5. 24. and Baumgartner P. and Paribakht T. (1983) ‘Word associations in a for. Journal of Experimental Psychol - modelling to yes/no vocabulary tests’. Ibid. assessment’. in the article on page 8 the name of Paul Baker at the University of Lancaster was mis-spelled. Op. a CALLinteraction’. Library. 15. Camsoft: 17. op. 3. 35. lary’.. Swansea. ‘Vocabulary learning and reading’. 25. Berks. (1976) Principles of learning lar 11 (2). 167. Wesche M. Saragi T. 18. (1994) paper. Tinkham T. S. (1996) ‘The application of Rasch tinctiveness’. and Powell C.). and Sanchez I. Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 45 . NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Vocab (Wortspielerei). The language learner and the software designer: S Myles 2. 13. Ibid. (1995) ‘Vocabulary acquisition: psy. Teacher 19 (2). (1996) ‘Effects of the first language guage acquisition: a union blessed by CALL?’. style and computer-assisted learning: problems ing second language vocabulary knowledge: and a possible solution’. 27–33. Matthew Fox’s affiliation was given as University of Southampton. (1978) 13. In the same issue. The Canadian Modern Manning P. in the CALICO 97 report on page 64. 20. Libra Multimedia Ltd: CALL 4 (3). R. WIL. Ibid. Language models of vocabulary acquisition: an empirical learning with computers. 29–38. chological perspectives’. 23. (1982) ‘Indepen- 8. S. 14. Meara P. 12. Op. 4. Alt-J 1 (1).. Travel Talk (1994). Nation I. cit. vocabulary’. 14. tering on the learning of second language 6. (1993) ‘Methodological considera- Language Review 53 (1). Ellis. Version 2. depth versus breadth’. Group Virtual Library. Hillsdale. (1996) ‘Assess. Berks. Gapkit (1996). M. G. 371–380. dent effects of semantic and nonsemantic dis- 9. 28. 15. Liddell P. cit. on the retention of second language vocabu- CALL 7 (2). P. (1994) ‘Cognitive 10. (1997) ‘Matrix Hall A. Vocabulary Acquisition Research 22. and Mitchell D. System (6). ogy: Learning. 21. and Meister G. A. 5. Wida ‘Approaches to vocabulary learning: Data from Software: London. M. 168. 19. and memory. 163–173. B. Swansea. In 11. 16. Vocabu. CALICO 96 unpublished conference 16.1e. Laurillard D. lary Acquisition Research Group Virtual 81–97. (1992).. 141. Camsoft: Maidenhead. Ibid. Version 2. Memory and Cognition 8 (1).. Berks. eign language’. University of Wales. ReCALL 6 (1). cit. 28. Shillaw J. Goodfellow R. (1991) ‘Principles of computer- Maidenhead. Hunt R.

e. but also newsgroups and lists on the simply fall away will be a primary concern of Internet. I arena. Cultural differences are significant becoming more and more blurred as email as affective factors in the learning environ- acquires more conference-like features. telephone or written of difference. All ment. and considers whether culturally influenced behaviour has an effect on communication online. In this paper. The distinctions between these two is my paper. research into shall attempt to show that communication cross-cultural differences has provided a style online is affected by cultural factors just framework within which we can analyse types as in any face-to-face. or whether the lack of social clues present in face-to-face interaction leads to greater confusion. whether culturally influenced behaviour has i. we are inclined to consider ences in posting styles according to gender. that CMC is not a neutral or culture-free an effect on communication. There is consideration of the indicative areas for cross-cultural misunderstanding taken from research into management com- munication. though possibly to a which misunderstandings arise. The question lesser extent than in face-to-face interactions. The results from a small sample of questionnaires exemplify the cultural attitudes towards learning of a UK-based group of respondents. and the basic assumptions from fields of communication. field in which cultural or other differences tems. and also from research into gendered difference in posting styles on newslists and in ‘neti- quette’ guidelines.ReCALL 10:1 (1998) 46–52 Does computer-mediated conferencing really have a reduced social dimension? Tricia Coverdale-Jones University of Lincolnshire and Humberside This paper looks at computer-mediated conferencing (CMC) in the international arena. of whether online communication is really a CMC includes email and conferencing sys. In the Management field. When we have experience of computer-medi. I shall refer to previous research which has ated conferencing (CMC) and email in the indeed shown that there are observable differ- international arena. The question is raised of whether the ‘reduced social dimension’ of CMC allows participants in a conference to overcome social barriers. Introduction these variations on CMC are tools which can be harnessed to assist language learning. and ones which teachers or facilitators 46 ReCALL .

In his analysis of whether the Internet should be censored.“In both masculine and feminine cultures. Collectivist cultures assume as a means of transmitting cultural values. Definition/description of areas of difference in teaching and Uncertainty avoidance “defines the extent to which peo- learning ple within a culture are made nervous by situations which they perceive as unstructured. strict codes of behaviour and a belief in absolute truths.. How these may impinge on CMC ized by teacher-centred education. students are not expected to initiate communi- tions of many CMC practitioners.1 Power distance and CMC • uncertainty avoidance In applying this expectation in a high power • power distance distance culture.” tion as one of the archetypal role-pairs in any society: Masculinity/femininity refers to the differentiation of roles between the sexes. which he/she cannot detach him/herself. administered to managers from forty willing to share their ideas in a public forum. and be naires. online communication (which I shall refer to gories of cultural difference. cussion without much teacher input. male-dominated (Goodman 1994: 138) group (Herring 1994). In a more masculine society the dis- tinctions between these roles are more clearly differenti- “Not only are these role patterns the products of ated. These assumptions include a view of freedom from constraint in When we consider this factor we must chal- Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 47 . Hofstede categorised cultural differences into Central to the ‘anarchic’ view is a belief that four fields. they are also the device par nant values within political and work organisations are excellence by which that culture itself is trans. however. viz public discussions be referring later in this paper. who may cation or speak up unless called upon to do so. Power distance … “defines the extent to which the less powerful persons in a society accept inequality in power and consider it normal. those of men. the domi- a society’s culture. his findings were based on an students will participate freely in online dis- extremely large sample of 116. we are open to the • individualism/collectivism pitfalls provided by cross-cultural assump- • masculinity/femininity.” ferred from one generation to the next” (Hofst- ede 1986: 302). I shall here briefly summarise Hofstede’s cate. indeed that person looks after his/her own interest and the interest of teaching and learning play an important role his/her immediate family. tions. power distance society in higher education: “High Power Distance societies are character- 2. to which I shall as the ‘anarchic’ view). as indeed may the learner.” ing and Learning (Hofstede 1986) we can take the idea that cultural values and behaviours Individualism/collectivism refers to “the extent to which a may be reflected in learning styles. unclear or unpredictable.belongs to one or more “in-groups”from Hofstede refers to the teacher-student interac. situations which they therefore try to avoid by maintaining From his article. The four areas he identified were: 2.” 1. Informa- There are many assumptions associated with tion flow is from the teacher to the student and CMC practice which may also be the assump.” represent a largely US-based.000 question. Computer-mediated conferencing: T Coverdale-Jones need to be aware of. Consider Goodman’s (1994) description of the roles of teacher and learner in a high These four factors are defined in Table 1. in which the teacher transfers wisdom to students. The teacher or facilitator Table 1 Hofstede’s four factors (based on Hofstede may be unaware of these potential areas of 1986:307–8) difficulty. that any person. countries. Cultural Difference in Teach .

i. Participants can always ‘say’ as experiences of mixed-nationality groups. the same or similar behaviour illustrates its ments themselves (cf. Indeed. kind of contribution is expected of her have However. this may been announced. not much as they want to without fear of interrup- only in societies with high uncertainty avoid. until the moderator or a leading puter conference. To quote Goodman (1994) again: 2. Britain has a weak uncertainty avoid. presence. The usual way to deliver knowledge to the lective goal can be strengthened in the elec- learner is for the lecturer to give a lecture. Some may prefer 2. however. tasks and deadlines. context as learners with high uncertainty Students are not expected to draw attention to avoidance will. can apply learner-centred approach. CMC context a student could hold back her It will take a certain amount of courage on contribution until she felt that it was her ‘turn’ the part of the student to ‘speak up’ in a com- to speak. this factor is not com- path. in a contact. ance and not only in CMC.e. especially The third factor of cultural difference which those from outside Western Europe or North may affect learning in the real or the electronic America (Hofstede 1994). gesture and ‘atmosphere’. learners may have expected significant online. others by sending longer and more frequent selves. is regarded. however the tant.” (1994: 138) structured learning situations with precise objectives. to in terms of power distance. which facilitates the sharing of with no interruptions or disagreements from ideas. Thus. tion or of taking another contributor’s turn. and a sched. according to Hofstede. already referred In my own experience of an online course. tronic forum. in behaviour and expectations despite the ‘same’ cultural background. in the electronic forum. McConnell 1992). i.4 Masculinity and CMC a highly structured. without the ‘chore’ of taking deter some participants who eventually drop 48 ReCALL . or until guidelines on when and what who has the right to ‘speak’at any given time. a high dropout rate amongst predominantly somewhat uncritically. by many enthusiastic British participants could have been affected CMC practitioners as a problem which is not by such factors. The question of turn-taking.e. the student may be unsure first. postings. the course tutors to deliver content to us rather some participants did hold the floor more than than expect us to work things out for our. responsibility for their own learning path in a puter conference. encouragement from the tutor/moderator. detailed assignments. This approach will meet with bafflement on the part 2.2 Uncertainty avoidance and CMC “Individuals will find more satisfaction working The related factor of uncertainty avoidance with a group for a collective goal rather than similarly affects the process of learning in this working individually for their own achievement. teacher-centred delivery of It is possible that a certain type of message can materials. and certainly will not expect to determine pletely separate from the previous two. fact that the course may still be structured in tion to their students with limited input or terms of objectives. in that the content of the online course and assign. we as language cause fewer problems than in face-to-face teachers recognise this situation from our own interactions. In my own experience.3 Individualism and CMC of students from some cultures. if she/he is not used to hold- member of the group has given their input ing the floor. prefer themselves by calling out answers. This also social impulses are weakened by lack of eye reflects a greater power distance. The added impetus of working towards a col- ule. which I certainly would not have felt in a participants can still show individual variation face-to-face seminar. who expect the classroom is that of individualism-collec- teacher to determine the learning content and tivism. I felt this to be unimpor- ance score on Hofstede’s scale. Once again. and this despite the a ‘hands-off’ approach in leaving the interac. or even a seminar.Computer-mediated conferencing: T Coverdale-Jones lenge the assumption that moderators of a com. What we do not yet know is whether the students (Goodman 1994).

ally sending more messages than males (in that of attenuative/supportive and adversarial. shown here. that of masculinity/femininity. Regarding ‘netiquette guidelines’. Herring ever. but a clear ticipants recognised a difference in style differentiation at the ends of the continuum. following Levinson’s model online behaviour which suggest that there is a (Brown and Levinson 1987). the ‘netiquette’ the question: does CMC really have a reduced guidelines and the behaviour reflected in mes- social dimension? A quantitative approach in sages posted. according to gender. naire in terms of positive and negative This brings me to consider other aspects of politeness. the extreme ends of the posed by Deborah Tannen (Tannen 1992). postings contain elements of both styles does pathetic males in the group tried to analyse not contradict her analysis that online commu- why she felt so insecure. Herring 1996). a qualitative approach which involved notes that “the overwhelming majority of par- interviews with the women participants and a ticipants exhibiting this style are male” (1996: textual analysis of messages and reactions to 118). she sis. This goes some way towards answering der differences in nine lists. The adversarial style is. which is seen as hos- the masculine culture which led to more soci. der. A continuum are evidence which contradicts the female participant. tile by many of the women in her survey who etal emphasis on achievement and competi. Her analysis of the messages this study showed the female participants actu. however. describes finds that these reflect the values of the domi- more masculine cultures as differentiating the nant group of a particular list. out netiquette guidelines which promote an itly. 3. Hodgson and munication is not actually taking place in a McConnell 1993) on turn-taking by men and context-free arena without cultural ‘baggage’. citing the analysis pro. The authors conclude that two overlapping bell curves. email. do not differentiate between hostile and non- tiveness. there is certainly an overlap. Computer-mediated conferencing: T Coverdale-Jones out of the conference. at its most ing roughly an equal number of words. stopped post. and the experience of online She has analysed two areas which reflect gen- talk. This research has shown how online com- at Lancaster University (Hardy. The fourth factor of Hofstede’s analy. and finds a simi- considerable social dimension in CMC and lar range of gendered views in the responses. How. When these styles are analysed by gen- them (including no response) showed that par. This analytical nication is not gender-free. Some research which ings to a number of newsgroups on the Inter- analyses group interaction has been conducted net. as in Figure 1. posted shows a continuum along two scales. women in CMC. Many lists send male and female roles more separately/explic. Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 49 . masculinity scores for the USA are fairly high in Hofst- ede’s study. contrast to some previous studies) and generat. Gender differences in online behaviour Figure 1 Distribution of adversarial and attenua- I shall refer briefly to Susan Herring’s (1994. although Britain and Ireland score slightly higher. tive/supportive posing styles by gender (from 1996) research into gender differences in post. Herring also analy- approach actually seems to have deterred her ses the data from responses to her question- from making further contributions. represented by ‘flaming’. who had expressed online “myth that gender is invisible on computer her anxieties about contributing. the difference is in women’s ‘rapport’ talk and Herring notes a considerable overlap men’s ‘report’ talk. extreme. networks” (1996: 120). The research on gender online has tended to focus on US-based lists. in these cultures the dominant culture was agonistic debating style. The fact that many ing messages to the conference when the sym.

candor. more discipline in following the remains. responses reflect a concern with task achieve. Thus the respondents report their dislike of Amongst the advantages cited of using long messages. introduce new relevant ideas from own experi- The first question asks what behaviour is ence. similar concern with achievement rather than ture-bound. which express appreciation for short emphasis on positive or negative politeness. However. as there are not enough responses among the participants. also of we find a similar belief in the student input 50 ReCALL . CMC. and continuing the discussion publicly. ment. it is simply not ques- time or fuss is the goal or basic assumption. associated with masculinity. is most appreciated from other participants. early adherents of CMC have acclaimed the When asked what changes they would like medium as neutral territory may possibly be to see in the way people behave in computer due to the absence of norms by which to conferences. questionnaire The fourth question on the role of the tutor in CMC accepts all the norms of CMC which The questionnaire which was presented at had no doubt been explained to these users as EUROCALL 96 remains the basis of the the rules of the game. erences and quoting relevant paragraphs from tural communication styles as much any other the previous communication so that it is easy type of communication. Americanisms (sic) and more serious view- points and clearer guidelines on how to behave ‘inclusively’ where appropriate and 4. supposedly ‘neutral’ territory is cul. The two cultures of men and social interaction is shown in some of these women (Tannen 1990) are different in their answers. clos- not numerous enough or varied enough to be ing down drifting discussion and similar func- conclusive. doubts and to learn from peers. messages. useful ref- of online communication are affected by cul. All the tutor is as a guide rather than as the source of respondents so far are graduates from the UK. all knowledge. be able to benefit from a wide range of most annoying in a computer conference. and debate” (1996: 127). The fact that many to pick up the thread. from the results so far we can see This can also be seen in the answers to the that the answers are as would be predicted by fifth question on the role of the learner. The Hofstede’s and others’ categories for a North. A Again. focusing. The views and be prepared to share knowledge. whether there is a reduced thread or topic or in re-naming of a thread social dimension online rather than no social when the message has switched topics. communication which others have not seen ship. questions. She found both in the “people responding in a direct manner to one questionnaire responses from men and the person but copying to everyone where this is netiquette guidelines an emphasis on what she inappropriate. The assumption the questionnaire which deals with qualitative here is that the main discussion takes place responses. roles suggested included research. less dimension.Computer-mediated conferencing: T Coverdale-Jones hostile disagreement. they wished for more focused behave and assess behaviour. Research methodology/ not otherwise. where get. People picking up a personal calls anarchic values: “freedom from censor. prompt and considerate replies and So we may assume that CMC or other forms acknowledgement. serious debate. moderating. ern European country like Britain. The question discussion. however. but difficulties in getting returned summarising. compared to other methods of learning. learner should engage in discussion or debate. ambiguous thread headings. Learner-centred education is taken as the norm ting the task completed with a minimum of by these participants.” We can see here a clear differentiation The second question asks what behaviour according to the predominant group on the list. and that input from the (Section C) for quantitative analysis. introduc- questionnaires have meant that the results are ing a provocative or stimulating thread. frivolous or irrelevant behaviour. tioned or discussed. I shall refer here to Section B of tions to direct the discussion.

Hodgson V..eff. Oaks: Sage Publications. and Hines tative part of my research appear to support C. Liang A. Philosophical where misunderstandings and the false attribu. CMC may overcome the barriers to some tion and feedback. Cam- Only when asked about the disadvantages bridge: Cambridge University Press. At EUROCALL 96 I pointed out the available in TESL-Larchives. invisible to users from Western Europe and Herring S.W. “it can fall flat if people Berkeley Conference on Women and Language. international exchanges. Politeness. J. Berkeley Women and Language munication in management. Computer-mediated conferencing: T Coverdale-Jones and contribution to the learning process. Journal du Multimé - 5. Day M. Virtual Reality: Proceedings of the Third lack of spontaneity. and Levinson S. In Brislin and Yoshida (op. As access to CMC and online communica. (1987).. and Brislin R. (ed. Approaches to Computer-Mediated Communi - tion of motives arise. January 1997. ley: WITS. (1996) ‘Posting in a Different Voice: tion spreads across the world. particularly to Gender and Ethics in computer-mediated com- other continents. Actes/Proceedings of the ITC Confer - ence. speeds up communica. asynchronicity than face-to-face collaboration. http://www. 115–145. i. of the Third Berkeley Women and Language Conference.” Also mentioned is a lack of paralan. lose interest. thoughts and express issues that there may not be time for normally.. completely neutral forum.) (1994) Improv - they find the asynchronicity of text-based ing Intercultural Interactions: Modules for CMC facilitates participation when the time is Cross-Cultural Training programs. (1997) ‘Cross-Cultural Issues in CMC’. 1994). (1994) ‘Intercultural Education at tion in areas of cross-cultural difficulty. C. If we are able to cation. CMC RHETORIC file complete. need for data. we may encounter instances munication’. The that awareness to our students involved in respondents say that CMC facilitates the dis. (1996) Intercultural Conflicts in learner/participant training to be culturally British-Hungarian and American-Hungarian sensitive online. is a useful way to order extent. It remains unknown whether International Organisations: SIETAR 96. Coverdale-Jones T. Paris. (1993) Networking: The Rhetoric of the The state of research at present is far from New Writing Classroom.. cit.” Berzsenyi Dániel College. and it enables the shar- ing of knowledge openly. presentation at EUROCALL ‘96. (1994) ‘Politeness in Computer Culture: North America. Cultural Performances: Proceedings the analyses in the field of cross-cultural com. They mention loss of context. etc. and to impart Hofstede G. preparedness of References individuals to ‘speak up’ where in seminars they might be too shy or less confident. (eds. (1993) indeed differences in communication style Computer Conferencing: a new medium for according to gender. the CMC context will improve communica. and McConnell D. (eds. Goodman N. Some people react badly to the Berkeley Women and Language Group. pp. that CMC is not a investigating issues in gender and learning. do respondents refer to the social aspects which Cherny guage – body language.article control/interaction. Herring S. and Yoshida T. Szombathely. for awareness and for Falk-Bano K. R.).). Albany: SUNYPress. The reduced social Unpublished paper from Centre for the Study of content cited by (Day 1993) may be simply Management. (1986) ‘Cultural Differences in Teach- Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 51 . loss of personal Gender_issues/cherny.e. (1994) Gender Differences in Text-Based may be lacking. Berkeley: WITS. Conclusions dia (forthcoming). research in other areas shows that there are Hardy V. Group. Some the University Level: Teacher-Student Interac - tion’. encounter these with awareness. Bucholtz M. Lancaster University. and CMC is seen as “more Coverdale-Jones T. (1996) ‘Cross-Cultural Issues in problematic for group project work due to CMC’. Berke- computer. Hungary. In is that the limited findings so far of the quanti. Thousand right for individuals. What we can say at this stage Why women thank and men flame’. Brown P. In Ess. we may find that cussion of problems. Sutton L. C.

org/pub/Net_culture/Gender_issues/ cross-cultural communication. and Levin J. M. (1995) Riding the Waves of Cul - Springer-Verlag. Riel M.) (1991) Collaborative Learning 19. 1991). Instructional Science Kaye A.Computer-mediated conferencing: T Coverdale-Jones ing and Learning’.uk 52 ReCALL . 301–320. M. Other interests include Communication 6 (1). International Journal of tronic communities: successes and failures in Cultural Relations 10. computer networking’. 145–169. pronunciation/intonation. London: Nicholas Brearley Publishing. (1994) ‘Gender Differences in University of Lincolnshire and Humberside. (1991) ‘Collabora- tion in International Online Teams’. McCreary E. Berlin: Trompenaars F. and Brochet. cit. online learning and http://www. has a long-standing interest in CALL and its appli - Online Chronicle of Distance Education and cation in the classroom. lish as a Foreign Language and German at the Mulvaney B. (ed. A. (1990) ‘Building elec. ture. In Kaye Tricia Coverdale-Jones is Senior Lecturer in Eng - (op. through Computer Conferencing. M. November. Email: tcjones@humber. She Communication: An Intercultural Perspective’.

Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 53 . student tasks reflecting real-life experiences. The notion of interactive software has taken personalities and beliefs. clicking within a rigid program is still primitive ing as it does close contact between teacher and a far cry from what was meant by the pro- and students in meaningful interaction. at least in terms of pedagogy. That ponents of interactive language teaching. ticularly challenging for machines. It will demonstrate that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. Achieving this is a a big step forward recently with the arrival of challenge in any teaching environment. especially on the WWW. and par- multimedia applications incorporating video. Illustrations from our Vietnamese course are included. the receiver and the context of learning that is already difficult to foster in of situation”. have significantly increased the potential for even more authentic inter- action in the classroom. involves nicative competence”. and offering information with which the user can ‘interact’. involv. and that there is no need to reject technology despite difficulties and frustrations because the latest developments in technol- ogy. 159) that interaction is “the heart of commu. and how the desired level of based approach. the dominant strategies are interaction can be produced in a medium that group work and collaborative activities. but. Introduction sound and text. The trouble is that The learning and teaching of languages is a the sort of interaction offered by pointing and difficult business at the best of times. Just as in the more recent task- the classroom. Mean- difficulty is underlined by the temptations of ingful interactive language teaching can never technology. then we cannot avoid “the establishment of a triangular relationship the question of how a machine can offer a type between the sender. with is not yet intelligent. If we agree with Brown (1994: be one-way or teacher centred (Rivers 1987).ReCALL 10:1 (1998) 53–58 Virtual language learning: potential and practice Uschi Felix Monash University How realistic is it to achieve good quality language learning and teaching using technology? This paper looks at the advantages and disadvantages of using CD-ROMs and Web-based materials in the quest for providing meaningful interactive language learning strategies to students. according to Wells (1981: 29).

and feedback (and may even offer some hope attention span. control over pedagogy. there is no room for a rivals. all these goals are subsidiary Pedagogy and need to be subordinated to the over-riding There are two powerful advantages in peda- educational goal. knowing that the latter course gives allow for student differences – ability. And while it is not the only tool. Offer- this by using existing material or by creating ing resources on CD-ROM or the WWW can their own. much technology offers a real prospect of producing more promise than when CALL was preemi- quality language learning. 1997b). To put this another way. literature and culture in other things will flow automatically. more indigenous students. and everything needs to judged rated into teaching alongside the old. practice packages. Advantages of technology not be to save money. against this requirement. audio and tool that offers the prospect of contributing to text – all in one flexible resource that students the solution. This is not to suggest that the new tools and traditional tools are to be seen as In the quest for quality. or to redistribute time. lectures and con- Technology is not itself the solution. authentic settings. This article looks at exciting tool that has emerged to date in lan- the promise and the pitfalls of what is avail. In the real world. This is not to deny that increasingly diverse student population. In this respect. the task nently the domain of the lone user of drill and then becomes to find ways of using it to pro.Virtual language learning: U Felix The basic question therefore is whether it is one with a great deal of promise. interest. greater range of cultural backgrounds. There many of these goals are admirable – even the are now more women in the universities. the form of tutorials. Firstly. The essential jus. The WWW is the most duce desired outcomes. of meaningful activities available in real-time ied in a new Web-based course in Vietnamese. but the assumption here is the improvement of teaching and learning that that the new tools can and should be incorpo- it allows. Teachers in Australia are confronted with an or to acquire expertise. or to Student diversity increase enrolments. or to save time. Nonetheless. norm (Trent 1997). more expertise in the field is reasonable in itself – students for whom English is not the first lan- and some of them may be of great and increas. or to retain enrolments. time spent on learning. the limited amount of time available to teach- tification for any use of technology has to be ers and students. many of the material on language. guage. some of them will inevitably play an impor. the central justifi- cation for the introduction of technology can. guage learning. content. whether learning outcomes are being they can provide large amounts of linked improved. assessment learning strategies. it does not simply promise to match conventional teach- ing but offers some advantages over existing Goals of the technology approaches. infrastructure support. can work with alone or in pairs or take home if 54 ReCALL . There must always be competition for simple focus on technology. offering as it does a plethora able. or to make money. but a textualised exercises using video. If that test is passed. and more ing importance in a world where resources are students with education backgrounds that diminishing while demands remain the same deviate from what has been regarded as the where they are not growing. games. If it does. a desire of some staff to acquire. or to deploy. The test should always be gogically sound multimedia programs. and illustrates one way ahead as embod. prior knowledge – to be dealt of monetary return) but at a very high cost in with more systematically and more easily than the provision of the necessary expertise and in a classroom. Technology holds out the prospect of cater- tant role in institutions’ decisions to become ing for students in a variety of ways relevant involved in the field and in whether they do to the individual (Felix 1997a.

Very soon after duce hypermedia to read on the Web. This the best teacher could hope to provide all that may lead to prompt oral or written in a regular classroom environment without responses. and useful to work with good multimedia • Extending learning communities. communication can be in real time. could add an exciting and useful • Bringing groups of students together. described above). a large number find it enjoyable exchange of views. They can now visit lent links to sites in Vietnam. be a most valuable additional resource ning a real prize (http://www. provision needs to be ing an appropriate resource of this nature into made to cope with the extra demand on an already excellent teaching program. gent use of technology requires awareness of the balancing disadvantages. even happen by accident.daedalus. While not all students are in favour of or chat sites can provide a forum for the technology. Students materials. We are unlikely ever language teaching. Students our Vietnamese course appeared on the can be encouraged to enter real competitions WWW. how. lished passwords) or join a chat site in France • The possibility of a wide variety of feed- in which they can exchange written messages back and assessment formats (see below). and a common observation is that in traditional language classes tend to they find it non-threatening (Felix 1997a. because. life situations in which they have some sort of The interesting thing about working influence over the outcome. While this has obvious Secondly. Students can be where the target language is spoken can involved in co-operative exercises in which add a wonderful dimension to the learning they are engaged in a task or quest in true-to. with the potential of win. Further. manipulating beautifully around the world who wished to communi- produced images and texts. their academic life. particularly in any comparisons need to be fair and not areas of delivery: weighted by an inappropriate choice of com- Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 55 . Delivery As with any tool. with the WWW is that good things can Judy’s (1995) approach whereby students pro. Again. Naturally. contained numerous excel- pore. Integrat. such as Murphy. we had an email message from a on the Web such as the one in which they are designer of a site in the USA developed led through a wonderful set of written and especially for students of Vietnamese visual instructions. sion to the learning and teaching environ. changing sizes and cate with each other. the opportunity to work with opportunities for truly interactive language students in other places and in countries teaching at the highest level. ment. now linked lay-outs to create a collage representing their to our course and vice versa. in real time in an environment which places them in ‘virtual’ authentic settings around Paris (telnet://logos. tutors’time. ever. an collapsing under the burden of coordinating efficient mode of communication is avail- technical and pedagogical resources. Not even • Direct and instant links to the tutor. Intelli- are given in Felix (1997b). the way in which it is The great advantage of WWW technology is employed is of critical importance. http://www. turned out to idea of Singapore. the flexibility that it This site.goethe. experience. More detailed examples to find tools that offer only advantages. work with the same peer group throughout Rézeau 1997). the WWW in particular provides advantages. Not Disadvantages of technology much imagination is necessary to harness these wonderful free resources for excellent Enthusiasm is dangerous.htm • The potential for co-operative work among to buy a real ticket for a trip on the train in students that is task or project oriented (as Germany (naturally with previously estab. it too. Virtual language learning: U Felix they have the appropriate hardware. but even when it does not.

of development namese program. or even knowledge. semester of 1997 – providing useful insight • Even with fully optimised sites. ning Vietnamese. and (7) a chat site. rations can disable functions. there are significant weaknesses Monash University’s Centre for Languages in the technology: (http://www. the recom- based learning. It dif- fers from the Finnish project in that the Web- • Access can be slow at long distances or in based materials are more extensive and consti- heavy traffic where many students seek to tute a large part of the teaching materials. and soft. conference and available on the Web site of lent teaching. test and password-protected timed tests which ware. sound and into the problems of Web-delivered courses – video take longer to load over the Web and integrated into the first year course at than on a CD-ROM. experimental research in the area (Dunkel 1991). while it could make sense in some cases to compare computer-based Ideal and practice: Vietnamese learning with poor classroom teaching – one WWW course can imagine situations where this is a real choice. Our version of this is the beginners’ Viet- Even within an ideal context where Web. This disadvantage can able Web resources into the module of begin- be reduced by providing copies on CD. (5) changes to or upgrades of server configu. (3) an on-line dictionary. For example. (6) a student database.Virtual language learning: U Felix peting systems.arts. or specifically developed for the course. files. sound and video databases for (4) grammar ware incompatibilities or unannounced lessons linked to the visual component. as one can imagine situations where What follows from these remarks is that an computer-based learning is the only option – excellent approach to the potential of the tech- these sorts of comparisons do not have much nology is to combine CD-ROM and Web- to say about the general power of computer. distance is mixed mode: face-to-face teaching dents working on their own with a computer supplemented by the WWW and by other uses with the experience of a small group of moti. leading to user- tation to contrast actual performance in one unfriendly programs which require the system with potential performance in another. For comparisons to be fair and useful. In the same way. nor of the end-user’s will or capacity are submitted directly to the lecturer via the to download relevant plug-ins. teaching with the best alternative solution. An vated students working together in an ideal excellent example of this latter approach for setting with an enthusiastic and qualified the teaching of ESL in Finland was demon- teacher. it is not help. (2) • Server complications are a threat. emphasis • There is a temptation to use a great variety was placed on developing and incorporating 56 ReCALL . The course incorporates freely avail- significantly slower. The access the same component simultane. based of provides practical exercises and games. or by succumbing to the temp. of technology like video-conferencing. course was trialed on the Web during the first ously. strated at the EUROCALL’97 conference they need to be between existing best practice (Tammelin 1997). also demonstrated at the based material is integrated into already excel. It • There is no control. Web the Vietnamese alphabet and tones and a developers are rarely responsible for server vocabulary contained in visual and sound configuration and maintenance. self- the end-user’s hardware or browser soft. mended approach if teaching is offered at a ful to compare the experience of isolated stu. More widely. end-user to download numerous plug-ins if This criticism has been levelled at some the program is to run properly. The Web component ROM which will give students full access includes (1) visual and textual information on to activities other than those that are linked Vietnam either taken from linked existing sites to other Web sites. and response rates are Monash. In producing the module. WWW.

tioning students interacting with the Web materials. enquiries coming in by email.000 grant to carry out the work. they have mastered the content of a lesson Negative comments have come from the through attempting the accompanying timed independent external testers who needed to practice tests. Only when students feel that same time. he is delighted. it has demands on his time in terms of coping with real potential to add significantly to the quality Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 57 . variety in activities. which is used mainly given by the programmer rather than the acad - for structured co-operative writing exercises. of this is unavoidable. A recommenda- be structured. materials of this sort is potentially the most nary only. each majority of sessions in the computer labora- containing extensive exercises that include tory. In the second. essary to run the videos and the Vietnamese Students are able to interact with their lecturer script needs to be included) and read through directly in class as well as through email at rather long instructions on how to do this and any other time and through the in-built chat how to use the course in general. we are in the process of The chat site has two options. with the fact free writing. ogy even if reasons for its introduction need to especially the use of the chat sites and the be carefully considered and the advantages links to authentic sites in Vietnam. While most site. The first is addressing these problems (all feedback wel- meant for simple communication exercises come). working with the and on different parts of the course. translation same class. all in the contents of a virtual reality movie. Feedback has been very posi. are they required to submit tests download various plug-ins (Quicktime is nec- and other written work directly to the lecturer. ments as extensive as this are expensive and There is also a link of the month which is time-consuming (Felix and Askew 1996). listening comprehension exercises variety of questions and difficulties at the and many more. interviewing the lecturer in charge of the course and asking outside volunteers to Conclusion evaluate the user-friendliness of access to the Web materials. in Vietman which are used for setting up the It needs to be pointed out that develop- types of interactive exercises discussed earlier. however. difficult aspect of the development. There is no reason to shy away from technol- tive in relation to the materials themselves. When a course is as extensive as this between students or between lecturer and stu. Implementation of Evaluation of the course has been prelimi. consisting of observing and ques. Two such examples are with many hours of unpaid work necessary to street signs in Vietnam and cooking recipes complete the first stage and now the more around which many meaningful activities can extensive evaluation process. Virtual language learning: U Felix interactive strategies for both teaching and the technology itself and the added number of feedback. one. emic. hardware. especially when instructions are is closed. Teaching the The course consists of 15 lessons. because we pre-load all nec- is able to give feedback to the students. essary plug-ins in the laboratory and instruc- The culture section has many links to sites tions are given by the lecturer in person. tive and technical support. We changed continuously to give students more had a $25. Our local students do not face any of all written text is retained so that the lecturer these problems. enabling him to attend to a greater exercises. software and administra- video. it is more difficult to make it user- dents in which the text disappears after the site friendly. Despite the lecturer is overwhelmed by the extra the difficulties (including those of cost). tion for future projects is to embark on devel- The course has also been transferred to opments of this nature only with adequate CD-ROM so that students can have faster financial back-up and access to appropriate access to the exercises containing sound and expertise. Naturally weighed against the disadvantages. matching sound to pictures or that students can now work at their own pace dialogues to video clips.

edu. During Felix U. zu authentischer Kommunikation. 133–137. Cam- Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall Regents. ety of content in a flexible resource. Tammelin meaningful interaction by importing the bridge: Cambridge University Press. (1997) ‘The learner. the teacher and the nology should not reduce the interaction that machine: golden triangle or Bermuda triangle?’. teaching methods and teaching evaluation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Duke University. and the use of time. Verlag: Tübingen (ISBN 3-8233-5177-X). In Dunkel P. for language teaching’. particularly if it is Interaktiver Fremdsprachen. Paper delivered at EUROCALL ’97 – Where Research and Prac - tice Meet. Dunkel P. M. (1996) ‘Languages and mul.felix@arts. giving Murphy-Judy K. especially in innovative versities Review 39 (1). (1997a) ‘Integrating multimedia into the the last decade. bourne. 5–36. (1987) Interactive Language Teach - the potential actually to increase the amount of ing. (1991) ‘The Effectiveness of Research on Computer-Assisted Instruction and Computer- Assisted Language Learning’. Rézeau J. Computer-Assisted Language Learning Associate Professor Uschi Felix is Director of the and Testing.htm student and student in the classroom. In Meissner F. (1981) Learning through interac - interactive approach to language pedagogy. Language Centre at Monash University in Mel - Felix U.).unterricht. D. Email: uschi. tion: The study of language development. (1995) ‘Writing (hypermedia) to read’. 16–21. Annual Symposium 1995. and Askew D. (1994) Teaching by Principles. An Wells G. Wege integrated into conventional approaches. Gunter Narr designed programs should present a rich vari. takes place between students and teacher or http://www. http://ultibase. her work has focussed on CALL in curriculum: a case study evaluation’.Virtual language learning: U Felix of teaching in languages. References Trent F. learning style USA. ated learning environment – new perspectives and pedagogical challenges’. Proceedings of the Computer Assisted learners a host of choices among the sorts of Language Instruction Consortium (CALICO) activities that they wish to engage in. 2–11. atic integration into the curriculum of tested CALL Felix U.(ed. Well. ( in applied linguistics. viding flexibility of approach.). but it has Rivers 58 ReCALL . (1997) ‘Teaching Diverse Groups’. Australia. OnCALL all its various aspects. concentrating on the system - 11(1). et al . New York: Newbury House. (1997) ‘Creating a telematics-medi- side authentic world from the Web. and (1997b) ‘In the future now? Towards applications from stand-alone software to WWW meaningful interaction in multimedia programs materials in various languages. Australian Uni . She has a research background timedia: dream or nightmare?’.-J.html Brown The adoption of the tech.

Having validated the courses for accreditation and wider distribution on a commercial and part-time studies basis. 1. as with classroom-based courses. provided in the context of time and budgetary constraints. Relatively little research has been undertaken to try and understand how technology can best be used for language acquisition (cf. with particular emphasis on the role of the teacher. Background to the Language by developing courses which will exploit new Learning Network modes of delivery to increase flexibility of access for learners. The aim paradigms of classroom-based language of the scheme is to promote lifelong learning instruction and of self-study. communication with and support from the tutor is considered paramount. The findings in this paper are based on the pilot phase of the Language Learning Network. a project to design. This paper attempts to begin to redress the balance by focusing on teaching and learning issues related to technology mediated distance language acquisition. The project has established models for regular synchro- nous and asynchronous contact with tutors. Pedersen 1987). deliver and evaluate a technology mediated vocational distance language course. The aim is to Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 59 . much attention has been paid to the questions of learner support. Indeed those studies which have been undertaken have tended to be inconclusive (cf. With distance learning. to improve both the effectiveness of the learning and the learner’s enjoyment of it.ReCALL 10:1 (1998) 59–67 Breaking down the distance barriers: perceptions and practice in technology-mediated distance language acquisition Matthew Fox Southampton Institute Has the time come to re-evaluate the role of the teacher in technology-enhanced language learning (TELL)? Studies into Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and TELL have tended to focus on issues relating to learner/computer interaction or learner/learner interaction mediated via the computer (eg Warschauer 1996: 7–26). Matthews 1994: 35-40 1a or Zähner 1995: 34–481b) particularly at a distance. assessment and quality assurance. The Language Learning Network is a three The Language Learning Network has been year project funded by the Higher Education developed as a technology-mediated distance Funding Council in England under the banner language course which attempts to bridge the of Continuing Vocational Education.

studies meant there was limited control over tive and efficient development times together variables and no random assignment to group with potential cross-platform flexibility. Both groups undertook identical control group of around 35 (numbers fluctu. No computers were provided large quantities of information which to be used in class time. 6 of whom survived through to the very thermore. Only the following issues will be empirical experiment was put into question. A mail and discussion lists. delivered by tutors low-up interviews with the control group par- over the normal three hours per week of ticipants. now need to be analysed and explained in Clearly. as learners ing out an experiment”. involved in routine classes. as were control group cies depleted numbers. tionnaire administered to both groups and fol- cal materials in paper form. It is not proposed to do this the pilot course the validity of the course as an here. At the same time. have made use of quasi-experiment since the ing the negative effects of learning in reality of working with groups of undergradu- isolation. Additionally a pre-test was adminis- tered to both the pilot and control group which 2. a feature of nor- ated) was formed from students studying on mal language programme practice. computer-medi- please refer to Fox (1997). the other two Clearly.2 attitudes to language learning. telephone and video-conferenced end. experiment. As Nunan (1992: 27) the Internet. This group was to study with identi. would in any case ing the learner which go some way to reduc. 60 ReCALL . Fur- total. a classes. after a series of job moves and redundan. tance tutorials and electronic means such as e. There is no face to face grouped together for reasons other than carry- contact involved in the courses. these forms of data elicitation have general language classes. Finally the Southampton Institute Language Pro. with all of the experimental group (HTML) and the multimedia capabilities of being mature students. support is given through dis. Indeed the group profiles were quite courses employ Hypertext Markup Language different. the possible. one a grammar class.Breaking down the distance barriers: M Fox provide a distance course with extensive tai. Data was collected in a variety of ways. explored in this paper: learner attitudes and The research design. ated learning and computer-mediated language learning. between March and June 1997. ates and professionals of mature age with very Developed with relatively simple techno. This was certainly the study from multimedia PCs at home or at case for the Language Learning Network work. with the reduction in numbers in greater detail. classes. language studies undertaken with groups lor-made materials and systems for support. Research and the Language asked for an evaluation of confidence in core Learning Network language skills and tested knowledge of basic syntax. tutorials were recorded. assessments for the course. Courses last 15 weeks. real demands and expectations about their logical solutions which allow for cost-effec. to rearrange students into different groups or with 3 weeks Information Technology induc. course participants which explored issues drew at a very late stage leaving 12 learners in raised in the pre-course questionnaire. Initially 26 Interviews were carried out with pilot participants enrolled but one company with. in line with the expected level of Four companies signed up for the first course knowledge for average students taking the at roughly GCSE level which was piloted course. as is often the case in the role of the tutor. For a more full pre-course questionnaire was administered to account of the pilot course and its develop. classes at will” and often experiments have to tion and 12 weeks of language self study with be carried out with “subjects who have been tutored instruction. all the pilot group to gauge motivation and ment using the tenets of PragmatiCALL. there was a post-test and post-course ques- gramme. However. to offer learners a varied set of says “unfortunately it is not always practicable learning materials.

In keep. This allowed them to prepare tasks that some instruction rather than the ‘zero either based directly on roleplays and ques- option’ of no instruction. learners number of communicators in the classroom”. That tions appearing on the course CDROM. learners range of research into the effectiveness of were given a programme of activities in instruction has not proved conclusive. the teacher ’s role as advisor was language teaching and learning. the course is that the learner is freed and empowered. Boyd-Barret and communicator and facilitator. the ways in A fundamental truth in Computer Assisted which teachers and learners interact among Language Learning accepted in the design of themselves” is a crucial one. experience also shows that way through it which.3 who will men. act with them and in doing so. each unit or chapter of the course has a path. the Language Learning Network has achieve this through negotiation always treat- followed the trend in language education for ing the learner as responsible but presenting increased learner-centred instruction. 3. since the core design princi- 1984: 60) who suggests that “learning will be ple of the Language Learning Network was to dependent partly on the teacher’s ability to develop learner-centred approaches to the use stop teaching and become simply one among a of technology for language learning. learning techniques”. receiving guidance is both helpful and reassur- will ensure that all the pedagogical elements ing for the learner. Pedagogical framework to the that “allowance will probably have to be made project for variations in learning style.. Scanlon’s view (1991) that “the educational tor the learner through his or her studies. see the ways in which teachers and learners inter- below. expertise.2 Tutor-supported activities cises in any order she or he wishes. One of the key issues in the development of Clearly. if chosen by the learner.g. Taking Kohn’s view employ the learning styles and strategies of his (1995) that “distance communication concerns or her choosing rather than having an bi-directional and interactive distance-tutor approach dictated by the teacher. Increasingly the have been made by the learners of the tutors’ teacher is being seen as a facilitator and par. the teacher’s important. Brumfit’s position holds well for the available as much as possible and to make use model of distance tutorial adopted by the of them for both the elements of autonomous course. Nevertheless. it is also recognised vocational skills practice such as answering Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 61 . themselves in the valid role of experts in ing with the Communicative and now Post. an emphasis on self-instruction in a the course was to provide learners with a course such as the Language Learning Net- coherent structure to their learning. Many teachers courses. By this it is meant that own learning style. however. were encouraged to explore the resources In fact. should work does free the learner to choose his or her they wish to follow it. but it was felt that further use could role is in a state of flux. In the Language Learn- Communicative paradigms prevalent in UK ing Network. ticipant in the learner’s learning (e. it is felt advance. bilities is to help learners develop the most As is inevitably the case with distance effective learning techniques. As Dickinson (1987: 33) and skills practice designed into the unit will makes clear: “One of the teacher’s responsi- be undertaken and experienced by the learner. to tackle exer. Although the and learner-learner communication”. or being the case. Brumfit Nevertheless. which places the tutor primarily as a learning and for the tutorials. at a more The focal point of the learning activities was sophisticated level she or he is also freed to the weekly tutorial. at a simple level.1 Structure and autonomy: factors need to be taken into account to ensure the design approach an effective matching” (Ellis 1994: 660). is preferable.. For a significance of computing to a significant more detailed discussion of the role of the extent may reside not in the machines but in tutor in the Language Learning Network. although it is not clear what instructional factors and learner 3. Breaking down the distance barriers: M Fox 3.

in interviews and post-course Studies into motivation and learning styles questionnaires. regimentation and imposition of targets by the tutors! 4. discussion lists. though more than a traditional book-based distance general studies have tended to look at com. citing lack of time as the main reason. the software function or that their computers that self-study brings the benefit of allowing the were not properly specified. The majority of the Harasim 1980) or the use of standalone pro.. is likely to be demotivated”. case. From and support beyond the tutorial via e-mail or the pre-course questionnaire administered to the phone. in relation to their cognitive styles. this did not always prove to be the and Earnest-Youngs 1997). tance course (3.Breaking down the distance barriers: M Fox the telephone or making a reservation. of language courses (e. in spite of the technological difficul- checks her own interpretation of the target lan. e-mail.. Most learners learning in Higher Education courses have also felt that computers would offer them been documented in several sources.609) and choosing when from its conventional classroom role. Stevens to learn (4. been given as to the availability of suitable gies and learning techniques. See below for a discussion of the the 24 potential participants. ifications had been discussed and assurances ing. learners also felt that the technology would grams as replacement for taught components not be an obstacle to their learning (3. the learners were asked why of self-study learners have shown that there are they had not exploited the full functionality of unique features in the practice of self study the course (e.2 Learner attitudes and participation By the end of the course attitudes had The pre-course questionnaire revealed that all evolved and been modified.g. When. computer an attractive one (3.375). ties. Learn. It is acknowledged. with half back loop’ is central to the learner’s ability to the finishing participants asking for greater create constructs for their own learning. Participants nev- says (1987: 33) there is a strong argument for ertheless made very few requests for technical maintaining tutor input “.g.652) but if a choice had to be made. The most signifi- 62 ReCALL .75. Willingham-McLain However. course (3. son. however. Learner attitudes to skills in a professional and social environment Technology Enhanced was 3.304) and the fication. On a five point lik- ert scale.167). guage by asking for simplification. noteworthy data emerged. Mason and Kaye 1989. for what. whether com. which have equal sound files) they cited time as a primary rea- bearing on the learning process. even (Dickinson 1987: 18–35).. the mean score regarding the learner’s perception of the value of language 4. puter mediated communications for distance that a classroom course was preferable to dis- education (e. and while most described the quality Language Learning (TELL) of previous language learning experience in downbeat terms. a learner who support. feedback was at odds with this view. even though spec- learner to make their own choices about learn. but a secondary reason that emerged was puter-mediated or traditionally text book and that they were unable to make all elements of cassette-based. the post-course (1995: 15) points out quite rightly that the‘feed. with regard to success and 4. pre-course questionnaire were that most found ever reason. the participants were instrumentally motivated ers were also encouraged to ask for feedback for either professional or social reasons. As Dickinson PCs at the start of the course.g.1 Studies in TELL enjoyment.870). By the prospect of autonomous study with the providing the means to obtain advice and clari. in a teacher/ attractive in terms of deciding how to learner relationship which is inevitably altered approach learning (3. the following tutor’s role and learner attitudes to the tutorials. Nevertheless. they recognised now the potential Studies into effectiveness of computer-based usefulness of language skills. the Language Learning Network possibility of self-managed learning was also attempts to maintain motivation. and who is Other attitudes which emerged from the regularly denied this by the teacher. strate..

prepare materials.g. Most felt that tives. Since most second language tutor involved in the technology-based course. an area in which comput- Certain key features in the supported dis. and tailoring their input to Universal Grammar. learners depend on feedback in the form of omy of skills adopted from Carver (1982. open pedagogic integration”. to make to learner needs. They can be 1987) to be able to develop their second lan- condensed as follows. In addition to having the guage. develop and select and they had been unable to devote the time neces. e. White ers facilitating self-study require. ers have largely failed to be effective. the tutor- questions about workplace-based training and ial's core role became increasingly apparent. targeted language learning. However. tured contact with the tutor. vidual’s requirements and his or her progress and is also radically different in that it requires on the course. an intellectual work to time? It might be thought that this challenge. ability through positive feedback. Counselling course as they wished. tic and instructional settings.1 The tutor’s role defined differing needs were of each individual and set The role of the teacher in the telematically. the facilitation of studies. It gave the learner based training and the pressures which they several things: a learning target for the week. Might it be that Feedback from learners also supported this there is in fact a disparity between companies’ view of the significance of the weekly struc- stated commitment to employee workplace. advice. facilitation The crucial role in feedback in both naturalis- and tutoring. aid with learning strategies.3 Feedback ing. Redefining the teacher’s role were set objectives for each tutorial. carry out had been given inadequate support by their administration and management and to act as a companies to enable them to complete the librarian of potential resources. This revelation.2 Learning targets for the week In their programme for the course. for short-term benefit at the long-term cost of technical information. The feedback must allow them to necessary target language skills. it is widely accepted that that. quite meticulous in recording individual fering responses and differing response times learner progress and achievement. These issues will now employing less well-skilled and less motivated be discussed in turn.) and integrating and to ensure that the learners had realistic tar- Kohn’s view (1995: 7) that the conditions for gets for the following session. Breaking down the distance barriers: M Fox cant aspect in the learners’ self appraisal of able to perform needs analyses. while and supporting also remain crucial roles. tutors were rapidly able to establish what the 5. speech production. social con- were a short-sighted redirection of resources tact. learners 5. analyse language. teachers understand what is correct and what is not. In fact. to set objec- their performance was time. access to administrative information. employees. involved with self-study learners need to be While the core materials for the course Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 63 . does raise As the pilot course progressed. encouragement. cit. 5. targets which kept nominally to the learning delivered course is both in keeping with the programme but also corresponded to the indi- traditional framework for the distance tutor. acquisition (SLA) theory in the last 30 years The teacher will still be making judgements has drawn on the principles of Chomsky’s about learner needs. 5. good autonomous language learning are “communication-embedded language learn. particularly in was core to the tutors’role. or that they dures. Maintaining Stevens’ idea of best use of the time available in the tutorials the ‘feedback loop’ (op. carry out assessment proce- sary to do their learning justice. Dickinson proposes a taxon. and both dif. bring to bear on their employees to complete feedback at various levels. The tutor therefore needed to be a new set of technological skills. is much tance learning paradigm remain familiar to the theorised about. no surprise to the tutors involved. negative evidence (or some argue for learn- 1983) and McCafferty (no date) which teach.

evalu. the tutor was them into expressing relatively complex ideas called upon to be a participant in the roleplays. can be significant in keeping learners through probability calculations on compe. and was having to 5. develop). mood or confidence when providing some of the analytical processes which go into learning challenges. was only be possible as a result of government able to monitor and counsel remedial work national education policy rather than anything when necessary. at least in several occasions in this paper. where learner is to maintain motivation when iso- learners had prepared the wrong work). adapting to the level and content of the learner’s performance. which able to offer feedback at several levels: simple were designed to allow group cohesion to error correction. Using a marking scheme and com. able to gauge a learner. interested in their course. whole variety of factors such as learner attain- ments sheet. have a most precious resource in the form of ments column was used to identify remedial our teachers? In the post course interviews. the importance testing reading and writing skills. A reassuring mance levels have been answered in sufficient word or praise communicated via e-mail or the quantity to be able to form a evaluation phone. partly though the nature of use of the possibility of communicating with the tasks. to lated from fellow participants. and praise was undertaken intensively by the tutors. the tutor for his or her part.4 An intellectual challenge with learners’ performances which sometimes Proponents of adaptive testing such as Noijons went well beyond their expectations for indi- (1997) will argue that computers can now vary vidual achievement. learner There is no doubt. preliminary question- uation and correction of pronunciation and naires indicated that all the participants had intonation. A process of reassurance ation of progress as a whole. which extended beyond the else). 64 ReCALL . summary of errors and correction low confidence about their ability in all the of structures at the end of interchanges. As has been stated on the level of challenge in exercises. Furthermore.5 Encouragement and advice monitor errors and provide feedback. and structures in short timespans. However. Might it be that as the evaluating learner performance. guage Learning Network pilot phase. to tailor One of the key challenges of the distance materials to the particular situation (e. in the form of the language constraints of the course materials or allowed teacher we have a highly developed generator their use in a manner appropriate to the of adaptive testing materials. In fact. isolation was not an issue for most learners. since adaptive testing learning routes and strategies which will help systems require enormous databases of ques. the tence and attainment. challenge of the tutorials which often stretched During the tutorial sessions. language skills areas. however. As an advisor. by offering a of the tutor’s role in fostering learning and realtime assessment of performance until the maintaining learner motivation in the courses questions appropriate to the learners’ perfor. we are in danger of forgetting that we areas. tutors were able to concretise ment. rials allowed the learner to gain far greater since they were clustered within groups in feedback than is commonly available in large companies and indicated that they made much group classrooms. Individual stock of the computer rises continually in edu- scores were given for the four language skills cation. tutor can play an important part as language vantage of this system is in terms of develop. offered instantaneously. In the Lan- interpret the silences and hesitations. materials for sending to the learner. develop the learners’language acquisition. advisor. Tutors were lack of activity on the discussion lists. should not be underestimated. roleplay. that these tuto. the tutor can explain ment cost and time.Breaking down the distance barriers: M Fox were embedded within a rigid framework into tions (which explains why their adoption might the CDROM.g. the learners said they were highly motivated by the tutor’s role became increasingly demanding. eval. A further com. Clearly the great disad. which reflected a genuine satisfaction 5. However. and confidence. and partly because tutorials were each other face to face (which may explain the conducted on a one-to-one basis.

should not be expected to get involved in tech. Salaberry’s (1996) view seems a valid one. To a ever his or her mode of study. and a brief ice. obvious issue of phone-call costs not being Perhaps one of the key issues with distance borne by the institution. Currently. It seems that technology can bring to the language learning that empathy between learner and tutor at a experience but also appreciate that there are distance is very important. cit. As explained in the Pragmati- between the tutors and learners grew stronger. was that often the session would technology-enhanced or technology-mediated be preceded or ended by a brief social language learning should be geared to provid- exchange. or her learning. by offering a range of support keep to deadlines. “It is not the medium itself that deter- 6. Furthermore. such as focus has been less on the technology. can contribute posi. the tutor remains the best calls or social contact.7 Administrative and his or her learning. macro level. development vant expertise. The sense of complicity mode of delivery of language courses may shared by learner and tutor can help to reduce vary. effective courses. And what of the role of Technical support was also given ad hoc technology-enhanced learning? Clearly the over the phone by the tutor. In terms of course design. the certain extent. course ory addresses issues in course design at the design and teaching with regard to a technol. demands on their time and the need for rele. development.) approach to CALL materials One aspect that developed out of the one-to. Apart from the here) is central to learner success. is not so much what the learner does during 5. we can only try to create the best possible nicate important issues to do with the course. The TELL also need further research. the telephone or video-confer. By tutorials were also used as reminders and preparing the learner psychologically for his cajolers to students to provide information. many micro areas of ogy-enhanced distance language course. therefore needs to take close stock of learning theory. became integral to the tutorial and was con. While the a classroom session. However. the main thrust when developing one tutorials. arrange alternative tutorial structures and by continually striving to moti- sessions etc. Conclusions mines the pedagogical outcome. as would happen in most telephone means. conditions for the learner to progress. it the sense of intimidation that the tutorial can is clear that effective tutoring (in the many cause. but more what she or he technical support doesn’t do. and learner control over the playback of listening Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 65 . ing. Learners were asked to dial in to the guises that term encompasses as described tutor rather than vice versa. what- tively to the development of empathy. particularly with courses ensured that the learner was mentally prepared such as the Language Learning Network that for the tutorial. it is at its most useful. source of adaptive input for the learner. aspects of learning best catered to by other breaker. CALL (op. In the age of learner-centred learn- While letters and e-mail were used to commu. Where technology can be exploited to reduce nical issues for the obvious reasons of the effects of distance. relationships technology. we can hope to develop coherent and of the classroom-based teacher. but the spe- cific focus of the theoretical approach on the This paper has attempted to explore some language learning phenomena”. tutor plays a key role as a motivator and enced tutorial is a more intimate process than provider of support for the learner. Approaches should recognise the strengths that ducted in the target language. This role of the tutor mirrors that vate. However tutors emphasis must be on enhancing learning. this system also language learning. Learning the- issues regarding learner motivation. and consequently also the tutor’s role.6 Social contact more on the human issues relating to the use of As the course progressed. Breaking down the distance barriers: M Fox 5. With some learners this exchange ing learners with varied learning opportunities. strive to offer a clear pedagogical framework.

spectives on a New Environment. The ‘facilitator ’ role is one in Pedersen K.) (1991) Com . Moray House (mimeo). Boyd-Barret O. Praeger. 5–36. (1994) The Study of Second Language CALL into strong research agendas. ReCALL 7(2). Cambridge: Cambridge University learner or acting as a partner in communication Press. 19–43. (1987) ‘Research on CALL’. recognising both its strengths Pergamon Press. CALICO Journal 14 (1). Assisted Language Learning’. or the effectiveness of reading from puters and Learning. CALICO Journal 13(4). Computers & Edu - of the courseware. New York: through face to face encounters or CMC). and weaknesses as a learning facilitator. The ‘communicator’ role is one in which the Nunan D. NC: Duke Uni- with a tutor who will guide and advise as to its versity.) (1990) On-line Education: Per - second) and interaction with other learners (e. (1996) ‘Toward a Theory of Technologi- • The courseware uses templates which are cally Assisted Language Learning/Instruction’. tech. nicative. and Scanlon E. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (ed. which will probably be commu. Stevens A. Wesley. technologically Harasim L. Currently. (1982) Introduction to ‘The selection offer useful instantaneous feedback. West Point. (ed. • The courseware is simple to use and robust. of the learner. and Kaye A. (1987) ‘Testing in Multimedia Language the specific demands of the distance mode of Courses: Function.g. Report of the Workshops in the Role and Train - cessful language learning. Matthews argues for the integration of Ellis R. (ed.Breaking down the distance barriers: M Fox materials. materials are tailored to Noijons J. 1a and 1b. but is not and Training of helpers’. with the learner. • The courseware will make appropriate use of Mason R. 3. jr. New York. (1995) ‘Issues in Distance Teaching in 66 ReCALL . Oxford: the technology. Dickinson L. In Cousin W. R. cation 23 (1&2). (1997) ‘Beyond the Technocentric – Devel- resulting tension over attempts to marry SLAto oping and Evaluating Content-driven. Durham. (1992) Research Methods in Language tutor is providing comprehensible input for the Learning. in CALL.). Language Teaching. (1996) ‘A Theoretical Foundation for the Development of Pedagogical Tasks in References Computer Mediated Communication’. Lincolnwood. as a means of bringing together Brumfit C. (eds. (1984) Communicative Methodology in materials from a multiplicity of media.. nology certainly offers convenience. Kohn K. • For remote learners. 5– ing activities. (no date) A Consideration of a Self- generally considered not to feature successfully Access Approach to the Learning of English. sentation at CALICO 97. J. • The courseware is supplemented by appro. ing of Helpers for Self-Access Learning Sys - tems. since communicative activities are McCafferty J. 2.). 35–40.). Wokingham: Addison- screen versus paper. The British Council (mimeo). Modern Media in Foreign Lan - guidance to enable communication on the part guage Education: Theory and Implementation. (eds. Internet- CALLdesign. based Language Courses’. 19. Consortium 1997 Annual Symposium “Content! • The courseware is supported by interaction Content! Content!”. (1994) ‘Integrating CALL into • The learner is properly inducted into the use ‘strong’ research agendas’. Oller J. Format and Flexibility’. Pragmatic CALLhas several key elements: Johnson E. (1995) ‘Perspectives on Computer priate tutor-selected and tutor-animated learn. pre- learning. of the Computer Assisted Language Instruction ent pedagogical framework. explores the issues of learner variation and the Fox M. In Borchardt F. can also Carver D. best use (pedagogically first. In Flint which the tutor is providing the stimulus and Smith W. Matthews C. simple to develop and cost effective. Proceedings • The courseware design is driven by a coher. (1989) Mindweave. necessarily a be-all and end-all recipe for suc. Zähner Acquisition. (1987) Self-Instruction in Language Notes Learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Salaberry M. and Rhodes L. IL: National Textbook Company.

261–285. ReCALL 7 (1). 34–48. Multimedia Projects Manager at the Centre for (1997) ‘An Empirical Study of Computer. West Warschauer M. New York. is Willingham-McClain L. Breaking down the distance barriers: M Fox Languages’.ac. previously a lecturer in French. (1987) ‘Markedness and Second Lan. CALICO Journal 13(2/3). and the computer: variation in second language White L. (1996) ‘Comparing Face to Face and Point. guage Acquisition: the Question of Transfer’. 12–19. Email: matthew. (1995) ‘Second Language Acquisition Classroom’. Southamp - Assisted Language Learning in a Second. 7–26. pre. acquisition’. of TELL in Elementary College French’. sentation at CALICO 97. He is conducting research into tech - Semester French Course. Electronic Discussion in the Second Language Zähner ton Institute. Studies in Second Language Acquisition (9). Matthew Fox. Electronic Communications (Cecomm). An Empirical Study nology-mediated distance language courses. ReCALL 7 (1).uk Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 67 . and Earnest-Youngs B.

this pro. We report on some of the outcomes of this project.ReCALL 10:1 (1998) 68–78 Learning to learn a language – at home and on the Web Robin Goodfellow and Marie-Noëlle Lamy Open University This paper reports on work at the Open University's Centre for Modern Languages (CML) and Institute of Educational Technology (IET). and help them to fellow 1997). 68 ReCALL . We describe the Lexica On-Line project. learning at home and which also provided pathways to the French on the web Web in general. 1994. 1. i. to use at home. and by Lamy on the design of develop more effective learning strategies. The vocabulary-related work involved the development of a CALL • To promote autonomous vocabulary learn- program for vocabulary learning. The aims were: sity. on the use of technology to support language learners working at home and in virtual groups via the Internet. an on-line discussion forum. distance language learning (The Open Univer. ing and practice of reading skills ica. The project set out to address the issue of whether this configuration of tech- Lexica On-line is a development from work nical and tutorial support could promote the carried out by the authors. on com. and guided access to the Francophone Web. incorporating computer-based lexical tools to be used at home. 1995b. enhance the students' under- (Goodfellow 1995a. standing of how they learn. and others.e. called Lex. • To exploit the Francophone Web as a They were supported by means of a computer learning resource. In the Lexica On-line project. • To generate on-line communicative inter- gram was given to a group of students from action focused on the development of the OU Centre for Modern Languages' upper reflective learning practices intermediate French course. 1997). development of reflective language learning puter-based strategies for vocabulary learning practices. Introduction: reflective conference accessible via a Web browser. and discuss the effectiveness of such a configuration for the promotion of reflective language-learning practices. Ebbrell and Good. which created a learning environment for Open University students of French.

of encouraging students to comment on their cessing it.). and their use of the Francophone Web. Figure 1 Configuration of students. Figure 1 shows discussion. a copy of the French-English of a constructive task. a glossary of technical terms. the nature of the on-line discussion. all the students of French of the Centre for to test whether the students would be able to Modern Languages. all the messages they sent to the project forum were stored for later analysis. documentation was put up on the access to a Web site at the Open University. in which students an introduction to the French Web. Outcomes – what they did and what they said The outcomes focused on here are: student workload. 2. and thirdly to introduce the students to disk. success in the vocabulary learning procedures supported by the Lexica program. At the end of the project they were asked to return the log files maintained by the Lexica program. project web site. and the overall configuration. extracting vocabulary and pro. They were on-line. The conference was moderated by on-board concordancer. dur- Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 69 . They were all adults. Occasional ref- erence will be made to student attitudes as revealed in the final questionnaire. All had supervision. and themselves to a minimum of ten hours work over a period of six weeks. were required to work on a starting set of two on-line tutors were engaged. discussing their progress with tutors (and others') progress. with minimal intervention from supplied with a copy of the Lexica program on tutors. Learning to learn a language: R Goodfellow and M-N Lamy A group of 10 student participants was using the French Web as a source for further selected at random from those who responded texts with which to repeat the cycle. with the brief course texts. This was in addi- tion to the workload already required of them by their ongoing course (approximately 12 hours a week). Lexica and its pedagogical features (e. to try and create self- PCs running Windows 3.1 Student workload technology for Lexica On-Line Table 1 summarises the amount of time. In addi- tion. the aims of the on-line tutors throughout the project. the ject forum. including nine texts in electronic form the Francophone Web in a controlled way.1 or 95 and Internet sustaining interaction amongst the students connections with Web browsers. To guarantee their compliance for the duration of the project they were promised a fee on completion of the work. principles of creating two French native speakers who also acted as semantic groups etc. and to fill in a questionnaire report- ing on their experience of the project. to a questionnaire on Internet access. In addition. sent to The objectives of the project were: firstly.g. In order to assist these Collins-Robert dictionary on CD-ROM. and objectives. The students committed and other students on the on-line forum. secondly. covering the technical use of via a computer conference known as the pro. tutors and 2. ulti- from the French course they were currently mately guiding them towards the completion following. use the lexical tools without face-to-face located in different parts of England.

iet. sites they were given to look at.html). which space precludes. as the work was based round mented. not simply supple- to be expected. The estimated time of the program can be found in the documenta- spent on the forum includes reading others’as tion on the project web site (http://www- well as writing their own messages. Details there was not enough time. Most of their time was. with consider- minimum amount of time for which they were able scope for extending it with respect to the promised payment. of the program. For some. which for a time could not be sustained alongside other study- made her unable even to receive email. that a workload of this size Internet service provider. the Lexica program without giving a description mitments continued throughout the project. It is an important consid- broadly confirmed by the log files they sent eration whether there are elements of conven- to learn a language: R Goodfellow and M-N Lamy Table 1 Student time on the project activities Student Estimated total time Estimated time with Lexica Estimated time on Forum Estimated time (hours) on Web s1 20+ 6-8 5-6 12+ s2 10-15 5 3 4 s3 15-20 10 2 1 s4 15-20 7 5 3 s5 10 7 2 3 s6 10 3 4 2 s7 15-20 8 4 3 s8 10 5-7 2 1 s9 20+ 15 9 2 Average 14 8 4 3 ing the six weeks of the project. Most felt they would have spent ings and use of these items more time had it been introduced earlier. however. • Grouping items according to relationships though it is unlikely that they would all have of meaning and form 70 ReCALL . The relatively low times spent on the Collins-Robert Dictionary and on-board Web were a result of the Web task not being keyword-in-context concordancer to inves- introduced into the work until week four of tigate and record information about mean- the project. even with a estimations for time spent with Lexica are financial inducement. Features of the forum software which • Free selection of new vocabulary items allow for downloading and working off-line from the given texts were helpful. Briefly. This was which could be substituted. (The one who dropped out on-line discussion and the use of the Web. their learning 50 new vocabulary items – a stipulated minimum Even allowing for subjective inaccuracy. It is did so because of a series of problems with her clear. spent tional distance language learning courses using the Lexica program at home. the program consists of four activity modules: ness with access to the conference via their modem. but again these take time to learn • Use of the electronic French-English to use.) The ing commitments for too long.2 Success with Lexica vocabulary in the questionnaires that they would have learning activities liked to develop their use of the forum and the It is not possible to fully discuss their work with but given that their existing course com. Several said 2. this was affected by a certain amount of slow. that students indulged as much as the student who spent estimated they spent on each of the constituent more than twelve hours exploring the French activities. it In general it seems that the work of the pro- is clear that most of the nine students who ject engaged these students up to and beyond completed the project put in more than the the level of workload expected. by this kind of activity. in fact.

in particular those con- The students in this project achieved rates cerned with semantic structure and the ranging from nine items per hour to one (in the mnemonic grouping of related words and case of a student who chose to do very little expresssions. but. Messages are displayed in a it is likely that access to improved documenta. one of the objectives of the items selected was between 43 and 119 (all but project was to generate among students an on- one achieved the minumum 50). this project it was expected that on-line dis- tion. These were seen them with an English as a Second Language as key pedagogical and logistical issues in an (ESL) group who worked as a class with a approach to distance language-learning in supervisior. as will be processed (from selection to successful pro.8 29 89. they did little duction).5 SFL (individual supervision) 4. to have some degree of correlation Lexica program. and cussion would take the place of the supervi- results of self-tests. This measure has shown. notes about meaning. Learning to learn a language: R Goodfellow and M-N Lamy • Self-testing for production of the items tion about optimal learning strategies could have futher enhanced their performance. there remain a number of issues about items are often linked to deeper approaches to how to promote insights into strategies for vocabulary learning in general. and (b) be sustained by them.5 75% 3. Table 2 compares mal intervention from tutors. The average line discussion in French which would (a) rate can be compared with other groups who have as a topic their language-learning prac- have used the program under conditions of tices.8 62 84% 5. and to observer. and whilst its Goodfellow 1995. and an English as a Foreign Lan.5. self-testing). (see useable without direct support.6 Lexica On-Line (self-access) 10. whilst it has proved to be with qualitative assessments of learning. That means to say that strategies which text for discussion and some degree of reflec- optimise the rate of successful processing of tion. threaded bulletin board system accessed via a Line students did not suffer unduly from the World Wide Web browser such as Netscape or absence of face-to-face supervision. ensuring reasonable workloads for on-line guage (EFL) group who received instruction tutors. and the number of As stated earlier. groupings.3 The on-line discussion three and fifteen hours. The number of items sion that other groups received. Ebbrell and Goodfellow activities were successful in generating a con- 1997). averaging 5. in previous From the point of view of the design of the studies. work. divided by the number of hours the explicit discussing of their use of Lexica. The locus for this discussion was the in the strategies which the program supports project forum. a Spanish as a Foreign Language which student collaboration is central both to (SFL) group who worked individually with an optimising the learning experience.5 Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 71 .7 16. (details of these studies can be found in Good- fellow (1995a) and Ebbrell and Goodfellow The project forum (1997)).5 6 EFL (instructed) 3. ferring to talk more generally about the con- sure of effectiveness for a particular learner's text of the vocabulary they were interested in. with mini- face-to-face supervision. For The program saves all details of item selec.8 25 91% 6. hierarchy that shows which messages are Table 2 Comparison with averages from previous studies Group Time (hours) Items Correct Rate ESL (group supervision) 4. seen in the following section. The structure of the on-line forum is a This comparison shows that the Lexica On. gives a general mea. vocabulary learning. although Internet Explorer. pre- program has been in use. The log files con- firm that the time they spent varied between 2.

could help the students to become more s1 5 mn 44 thoughtful about the processes involved in s2 16 es 13 their language learning. and. The selection included fiction. study its vocabu- lary. there read messages by clicking on the message were significant contributions from at least title.html). Their task. contributions contributions i. Users engaged in extended discussion about it. Some students were novice users of the Web. A chain of replies and replies-to. so a French search engine was included for those who might wish to extend their explorations. ing. All the stu- dents completed the search-and-download part responses to which other ones (Figure 2).Learning to learn a language: R Goodfellow and M-N Lamy The forum was also used to guide the stu- dents’ exploration of the Francophone Web. The tutors’ role in s3 11 (de 5) this was to set initial tasks. although not all of them it can be seen ‘who is talking to whom’. of the project. initially their use of Lexica and subse. s8 15 ing comments and replies. non-fic- tion. A decision was s9 16 made not to do any overt language correction.e. bution is anything from a one-line response to come. the printed press and the audio-visual media. but others were more experienced. but the tutorial some part in the discussions. and typing or pasting their response into the box that appears. (Technical informa. tributing two or three times as much as others. The reply then appears in the The amount of on-line discussion tree structure underneath the message being Table 3 summarises the amount of on-line dis- replied to. via a ‘gateway’ page which contained a list of sites which had been judged to be easy to nav- igate and potentially useful as a source of texts. introduced in the fourth week of the pro- and bring their findings and questions to Figure 2 The Project Forum the project forum for discussion. in order to encourage spontaneity. In addition to these active contributions. Table 3 Numbers of contributions to the forum sion which might have benefits in terms of the Students No. a half-page report on a task): In this forum students had a discussion area The table shows that all the students took for informal chat (the ‘Café’). of development of reflective learning and s6 7 s7 7 then to moderate the discussion by encourag. The question was whether the technology could support the kind of discus. of Tutors No. such as “report on s4 14 rg 28 the first ten vocabulary items you have s5 16 selected and say why you chose them”.open. cussion that went on over the whole six weeks replies is called a ‘thread’. Thus of the task. was to find a suitable text. They reply by clicking the Reply button four of them about their findings. download it from the Web into Lexica. all quently their exploration of texts on the Fran- cophone Web. Total 107 Total 90 72 ReCALL . in terms of numbers of actual tion about the forum and its software can be contributions from each participant (a contri- found at http://trout. with some con- focus was discussion about vocabulary learn. reflecting the topics and genres studied in their Open University French course.

Eamonn of French. and evaluated. in the course of the focus of the work. with #135 Rencontre 9/5/97. Stephenn focused less on successes and failures with the #76 Caen 24/4/97. One of the tutors. Eamonn its offerings quoted. Stephenn able amount of tutor input. and #88 Caen 28/4/97. Thread 2 tion to minimise it. Learning to learn a language: R Goodfellow and M-N Lamy students read all the messages sent. #167 L'obligation de contexte 21/5/97. selves. This was Figure 3 Discussion in the on-line Café perhaps because it is a familar tool. Nevertheless. Robin form. rection of the French. whilst a lot of the interaction took the conven.this was exacerbated tutors. Marienoelle #176 L'obligation de contexte 22/5/97. some success. in fact. Miken Figure 3 shows a part of the interaction where Figure 4 Student-to-student interaction on lan- students were discussing their forthcoming guage isssues visit to Caen for the OU’s summer school. the discussion data shows that it #139 Salut 10/5/97. Moyra there was also evidence of developing student. Miken messages bouncing questions back to students. and its Vol 8 No 1 May 1995 73 . but a number of reflecting questions back at the group had the student participants contributed quite sub. Moyra Lexica program. Most of the tutor interven. despite the inten. issues of word meaning and context. There was also. a consider- #138 hangman 10/5/97. Although the project set out #75 Caen 24/4/97. Eamonn #71 Oxygène 13/8/97. student interaction in several of the threads. and much more on language #78 Caen 24/4/97. the main expressed some concern. Miken lary-learning. and 13/8/97. Stephenn Thread 3 those of ‘de’ in brackets were from an #163 le Web francophone 19/5/97. (indicated Thread 1 by the forum’s ‘history’function which shows #122 les groupes basés sûr la deuxiéme syllable who has read any particular message. one conclusion from the evi- dence of the shape of the on-line discussion The content of the on-line discussion about has to be that the project did not get the tutor language role quite right. and #66 Cafe 22/4/97. Carolinet #124 hangman 7/5/97. Figure 4 generating student-student collaboration in shows sections from three student-dominated on-line tutorial discussion asserted them- threads dealing with language questions. #114 Caen 4/5/97. Gerardl in general. on meaning in particular. Davidw A look at the shape of threads reveals that. technical issues and in English. Johnet implicitly on the students themselves as users #112 Caen 4/5/97. concordancer and grouping tool). a small amount of discussion about language #4 CAFE 15/4/97. Moyra The dictionary was referred to a lot. Topics included the Lexica tools (dic- tionary. no language work needed to be undertaken. #183 Groupement 25/5/97. and those of ‘rg’ were mainly on #164 L’obligation dramaturgique 20/5/97. Marienoelle for example in the tutor-free ‘Café’area where #178 obligation dramaturgique 24/5/97. There was also evidence elsewhere of stu- dent-to-student interaction and collaboration for her by the decision not to do any overt cor- focusing on linguistic issues. Davidw the French Web. however. the well-attested difficulties of stantially to this kind of discussion. This was some. tional ‘classroom’ form of tutor-student-tutor. that she was not sure of what she was students responding to questions from the supposed to contribute . mainly occurred through work. Although the tactic of times helped along by a tutor. #177 Pas quebecoise! 23/5/97. Eamonn tions (‘mn’ and ‘es’ above) tended to be short #186 mots bizarres 26/5/97. Stephenn to promote talk about vocabulary and vocabu- #86 Rendezvous à Caen? 13/8/97. Moyra when). #196 Francais a l'ecole 28/5/97. Johnet #82 Caen 24/4/97. Discussion about language issues. Moyra observer.

and had nous offre pas ‘sous les allures'. people who ‘just want to use’ the language. (message 113 ) awareness. Une this knowledge: earlier in the this case. sometimes?) a container. for example. not to quickly became aware of its own shortcom. This suffix seems to tion.. (message 95) some questions about its relevance.But you find the sense of a word le mettre. The quote below shows a student rejecting an avenue of research suggested by Je croie que j’ai choisi des mots trop specialisés the tutor: parceque j’ai trouvé trop peu des références dans la concordance. and offering a solu. a few participants contextes possibles. par exemple squelettique ou racoleur qui ne One might be tempted to say that he ‘betrays’ sont pas trop facile de placer de catégorie. as I found too few references in the récipient. This was symptomatic of a general disinclination to It’s clear that. C’est évident que. this level. moles etc. something that contains something. lexical classification. I’ve The bulk of student-to-student interaction got a grouping which I call ‘people’ where I put on the Forum was about the meaning of partic- 74 ReCALL . (message 85 ) Par contre.Learning to learn a language: R Goodfellow and M-N Lamy way of looking at language is implicitly words which describe human emotions. such as tea. He does it as a result of arguing with his tutor. The message below.. this may have been the result of their unfamiliarity with the meta- The concordancer. a dictionary engage with language relationships of a more can't provide more than a proportion of the pos. One approach. Ce suffixe I think I’ve chosen words that are too spe.[. n'est-ce pas? The grouping task gave some students prob. words ending in ‘-ière’ don't ties caused by polysemy. Mais le sens d’un mot se trouve dans sa racine. for example. ‘squelettique’ or nosis of the shortcomings of the dictionary’s ‘racoleur’which are not easy to categorise. Peut-être il faut mettre allure la In this message. the student displays a good dedans. despite being an unfamiliar language. It’s not easy to decide where to put them.There's a bunch of supplies – in excellent French – a good diag. mor- sible contexts. Perhaps understood. me semble dénoter (toujours. des taupes etc. words like. des mots se terminants en ‘-ière’ne me paraissent pas aussi prometteurs. solution is to put words into two or three group- ings. ça. The quote below shows a student facing difficul. suffixation. captivated students. e. Robert ne found the grouping task challenging. Il y a tout une gamme des mots comme grasp of the semantic functioning of suffixes. un dictio - nnaire ne peut proposer qu’une proportion des Despite such self-help. (message 123 ) lems. he solution est de mettre les mots dans deux ou had not revealed the extent of his language trois groupements. On the other hand. quelquefois?) un cialised.000 showed that they were capable of reflecting at words). pour certains mots. when pushed.. concordancer. which were mainly due to the small size Nevertheless.. J’ai un groupement que j’appelle les in the root don't you? gens ou je mets les mots qui décrivent les émo - tions humaines. but we believe that there may be a tool. abstract kind. seem as promising to me. ings. Je trouve que ce n’ est pas facile de décider ou marl. for certain words. me to mean (always. de la marne.g. issues of us ‘sous les allures’ word frequency. but are only of interest to expert linguists. For some. I should put ‘allure’with them. which they set about surmounting. Robert doesn’t give phological relationships. some of them of the corpus it was working on (50. They understood the more fundamental objection that such things way it worked and were keen to use it.] Dans ce cas. ce qui contient quelque chose: du thé.

to be studied at Does anybody know what it means? The text is will. the chance to be much more in control of this bien que la traduction ne soit pas difficile. talking about that language is an activity through which identity is constructed. We are told what procedure was followed. à mon its context? avis on peut utiliser en anglais ‘Thatcherism’ parce que pour nous le mot ‘liberal’ est toujours Exchanges about translation and context were associé à les idées de la centre-gauche et pas ways of discussing language which was famil. though it's about French. avec la droite. Another miliar territory of a social discussion in and phrase which I think would be useful. J’ai I suggest that your phrase [obligation dra. concerne le contexte de cette phrase. they were in line with students’need trouver des expressions très métaphoriques. below would serve as a model. En particulier c’est difficile à about the context of that phrase. je le pense. which focuses on the For a student learning a second language. only is proficiency revealed. cherché tous les journaux et enfin j’ai trouvé un maturgique] means ‘the need to be seen doing debat entre Laurent Fabius et Alain Madelin en something. ou. or in anticipation of their have been no way to make friends. particularly in social exchange because there were enough terms of translation and context. or the need to tell a story in mime’. I hope you find it useful too. a student is asking for assistance and structures: there were no expert linguists offering her peers a suggestion (as a gesture of among them. This contrasted signs of becoming self-sustaining. aussi. j’ai choisi un texte qui m'intéresse beau . but education. offers a translation and justifies besoin de faire un récit mimé d'un rôle» mais on his choice. issue of context. so a discussion of suffixes would thanks perhaps. There was help). Learning to learn a language: R Goodfellow and M-N Lamy ular words and expressions. What an on-line forum offers is phrase que je trouverai très utile. is ‘les précautions ora. It is a report on some translation not difficult to translate. – ‘Il ne suffit pas d’agiter Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 75 .Ici on trouve plus de phrases et mots but it would be good to have more information intéressants. Liberation. Her call is answered by the author of the no ‘social’advantage to pursuing those topics. It was around peer ‘experts’ among the group so they could these topics that the discussion showed most swop valuable contributions. an absence of response is less likely to trouverez utile. Est-ce and their etymology – all unbidded: que ma suggestion saisit la signification de votre phrase dans son contexte? (message 164) J’ai choisi un texte politique parce que c'était une semaine très importante en France. (message 163 ) be marked. A contribution such as the one shown the phrase ‘obligation dramaturgique’ appears. coup et dans lequel on se trouve la phrase experience and other aspects of personal back- ‘obligation dramaturgique’. Je me délecte à iar to all. to cling to their own language or to familiar comme – ‘Là démocratie est bonne fille. and they were also currencies for elle n’est pas sotte’. J’espère que vous la pared. There is also more opportunity to observe and assimilate norms of group inter- So I chose a text I’m very interested in. comme le RPR. Une autre threatening. work which a student took it upon himself to toires’. It is not surprising that some find connaît la signification? Le texte concerne such discussions in the face-to-face context l’élection françsaise qui va bientôt. The student Je suggère que cette phrase veut dire «le also communicates his feelings about the task besoin d’être vu de faire quelque chose ou le (delectation). do after finding a text on the Web. mais referents. Does my sug. In the quote with discussions on groupings or linguistic below. message that follows. Not Alors. c’est process.Il y a personne qui en ground too. and then starts a discusssion of the désirerait d’avoir plus d’information en ce qui metaphors associated with the semantic field. Contributions can be thoroughly pre- ‘les précautions oratoires’. in which action. traduire les mots qui expliquent les idées – gestion capture the meaning of your phrase in comme par exemple ‘ultralibéralisme’. of how to engage in the relatively unfa- about the forthcoming French election.

le forum or ‘liberal’ is always associated with the ideas of télécharger. phraseology – we assume that phrases like faire ibéralisme. Vrai . as is the sage text. The clearest evidence is phrases there. thanks John and Moyra. Je l’ai to promote discussion in L2 is that some new trouvé cette page par ‘Yahoo’ très facilement language may be learned either in a considered comme tu as dit). erated by this project is unlikely to yield much In summary. 76 ReCALL . all of which appear in student mes- the centre-left and not with the right.Enfin. planned for 1998. or. tutor. tionaries or in the electronic one which students ing France a red rag won't be enough to make were using. sary given with the project guide. as a result of correction. This particular area of research will be ject has ended Finally.Learning to learn a language: R Goodfellow and M-N Lamy un chiffin rouge devant la France pour qu’elle good. of re-use of Web-related terminology and ticularly difficult to translate – for instance ‘ultral. In the post-project questionnaires explanation of the ‘guillotine’. The search for evidence of more her lose her senses’. as such terms ing metaphors like ‘Democracy may be prepared do not appear in (even recent) conventional dic- to put up with a lot but it’s no fool’ . There were interesting words and continued investigation. of important week in France. Partly merci John et Moyra. but how can this be demonstrated? The info. But political phrases and ideas are really perde la tête’. in the way of evidence of re-use of a more gen- and I’ll keep on roaming it after the Lexica pro. This student has achieved a position of fully ‘berner’(‘to fool’or ‘to hoax’ but also ‘to toss in a engaged member of the learning community. as you relatively small amount of discussion data gen- had suggested). I searched all the vocabulary and structures encountered in the newspapers and I finally found a debate tutors’ contributions. or in a more En résumé j’aime bien le WWW en français et je osmotic way. Stephen. accuracy in French was not discussed ficile à traduire! (message 204) by students or tutors. a peer or an authentic stimulus. blanket!’). I delight in discover. in French. l'origine de cette seconde signification? Pendant faisant du surf j’ai pris plaisir à lire ‘le virtual Evidence of the re-use of language in the baguette’ Ici on a lu l’explication de la guillotine on-line discussion avec beaucoup d’expressions humoristiques. I would think ‘Thatcherism’ could be une recherche. as well as to our theories of language reading the ‘virtual baguette’. from a continuerai flâner là après le fin de Lexica. subtle kinds of ‘osmotic’ re-use is an important research issue. for the French. An implicit assumption underlying the attempt (Merci Stephen pour le renseignement. eral kind. There I read the acquisition. so re-use of language aris- ing from correction does not figure in the dis- I chose a political text because it was a very cussion data. poses a challenge to our methods of Can anyone explain to me the origin of the sec- analysis and interpretation of on-line discussion ond meaning? While surfing I really enjoyed data. via imitation of a model. aren’t they? J’ai trouve aussi des mots intéressants tels que. how it can be fool’ or ‘to hoax’ but also ‘to toss in a blanket!’) detected. difficult to translate. I one of the objectives of a scaled-up version of think that the translations you suggested are the project. grâce au used as a translation. – ‘Show. I found the site very easily via Yahoo. because the English word moteur de recherche Ecila. Re-use of the second type. les traductions que vous through shortage of time. (Thank you. and if so. have come from the dedicated glos- case with the French RPR. and found many the students claim to have learned a lot of humorous phrases. Words expressing ideas are par. project. and partly because of avez suggestées semble exactes à moi. Est ce quelqu'un qui peut m’expliquer and is declaring this to the group. charger un texte dans. is a subject of ‘Libération’. the abstentionist error-correction policy in this ment les phrases et les idées politiques sont dif . I really like the francophone Web. way. in each others’messages in between Laurent Fabius and Alain Madelin in Web texts or in the project guide. The question whether it happens I also found interesting word s like ‘berner’ (‘to in on-line discussion.

Discussion areas with which of computer-based tools (such as the Lex- students are less likely to engage initially are ica program) and of on-line documentation those concerned with linguistic form. in the ica On-line project will be a re-designed and context of a research programme funded by larger-scale version of the course. looking at principles of with OU French students in the spring of 1998. of personal and group identity in an on- gic approach to the learning of vocabulary. The next stage in the development of the Lex- ment of the approach is now underway. but self-sustaining discussion by stu. this is and study guides. Strategies for supporting platform supporting reflective discussion of learners working together should take into issues arising out of the application of these account the needs that different individuals strategies. This work will take account of exploitation of texts found on the World Wide experience in on-line language learning Web. existing criteria for the assessment of live versation. Reference will be made to tional classroom model of tutor-student con. Data is being exam- In general.hull. deemed ‘worth asking’by the group. Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 77 . The tutor’s role is by the characteristics of on-line discussion involved in this. Student resistance to ‘expert include talk about translation and discussion linguist’ topics needs to be defused. conversational interaction developed at the dents can be promoted by the tactical use of Centre for Modern Languages. L2 on-line discussion. It is necessary to understand how to-face to be run the Open University. Such top. • Promotion of reflective discussion of lin- ics with value for reflective learning practices guistic issues. especially in the develop- which afford participants more control in the ment of metalanguage. Students will take up and re. action. The activities of the program the social dimensions of the construction provide an appropriate framework for a strate. Implicated also are ques- probably because it is considered to be of inter. the responses students gave in ined from a number of sources. Pedagogical considera- put into it. Learning to learn a language: R Goodfellow and M-N Lamy 3. tions will arise from any evidence that can sented an enhancement of their language be found of sytematic re-use by learners or learning experience and were keen that it modelling by learners and tutors. Further develop.g. ceeds initially on the basis of questions http://www. as is the representa- presentation of themselves and the assimilation tion of these types of relation in the design of group The forum and the program together have for security in the presentation of provide the means and the rationale for the themselves. involving the development use relevant terminology. reflecting the work they had email discussion. and focus - learned ing on the following key issues: Distance learners are able to use the Lexica • Promotion of student-student on-line inter - program as effectively as those who have face. and line L2 discussion. affect the involvement the on-line discussion forum is an efective of individuals. if the about context – including personal experience. Summary – what has been open learning of languages on-line. Initially. the role of coursework. ological issue. but the search for of techniques for identifying specific evidence of more implicit types of acquisition examples of language use in a database of is problematic. ‘bouncing’ questions back. and by focusing on • Investigation of re-use of ‘new’ language. full benefits of reflection on learning prac- Exchanges of the latter type may be favoured tice are to be realised. assessment. They felt that this project repre. for example the issue of tutors is likely to be a reflection of the conven. tions related to the formal aspects of est only to expert linguists. should be incorporated in a more extended form into their OU course. areas of discussion which they themselves This is both a theoretical and a method- have introduced. the MERLIN project. elsewhere (e. including the post-project questionnaires was positive different types of computer conference and and enthusiastic. On-line conversation by students pro.

Milton Keynes: for foreign language vocabulary learning. (1995a) A computer-based strategy French language and culture. Szombathely: Berzsenyi the Open University's Centre for Modern Lan - Dániel College. His research interests in Ebbrell D. (1995b) ‘AReview of Types of Pro.Learning to learn a language: R Goodfellow and M-N Lamy References University. Educational Technology. 78 ReCALL . in Teaching at the Open University's Institute of Assisted Language Learning 8. Institute of Educa- tional Technology. Computer. The Open University (1997) L210 Mises au point: Goodfellow R. Robin Goodfellow is a lecturer in New Technology grams for Vocabulary Instruction’. Rüschoff B. 207–221. In Kohn J. guages. Milton Keynes: The Open tance-learning of French. Unpublished PhD thesis. and Wolff D.). foreign language learning are in lexical acquisition teacher and computer – a mutual support sys. Her research interests are in French lexi - The Open University (1994) L120 Ouverture: a cology and syntax and student strategies for dis - fresh start in French. (1997) ‘Learner. The Open University. New Horizons in CALL– Proceedings of Marie-Nolle Lamy is a senior lecturer in French at EUROCALL 96. 2–3. and learning via asynchronous networks. (eds. and Goodfellow R. tem’. Open University.. Goodfellow R.

notamment au niveau l’Apprentissage du FRANçais) s’inscrit dans de la gestion et du traitement des ressources le paradigme des systèmes d’enseignement linguistiques ainsi qu’à enrichir les intelligemment assisté par ordinateur (EIAO) environnements d’enseignement et et a pour objectif le développement d’un d’apprentissage. etc. L’intérêt de ce système concerne l’utilisation à des fins didactiques d’outils 2. le dictionnaire électronique conceptuel FR-Tool et le con- jugueur FLEX. interface dans laquelle sont intégrés progressivement des outils de traite- ment automatique des langues naturelles. dans le cadre du projet SAFRAN. favorisent l’expéri- mentation et enfin. nous entendons montrer que ont pour mission l’intégration de techniques certains de ces outils ont maintenant atteint un empruntées à l’intelligence artificielle dans les Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 79 . 1. Objectif et hypothèse de stade de développement suffisant pour être recherche intégrés à des applications d’enseignement des langues où ils contribueront à augmenter la Le projet SAFRAN (Système pour flexibilité de l’interface. tels que le dictionnaire électronique assisté par ordinateur (EIAO) partagent leur conceptuel. offrent un support au diagnostic. Ces outils. système d’enseignement du français oral et écrit. Avec (Yazdani 1987. l’analyseur syntaxique. Notre article fait le compte-rendu de deux années d’activités scientifiques pour lesquelles nos efforts ont porté sur le développement d’un module sur l’en- seignement de la phonétique du français qui intègre les outils de TALN mentionnés supra. le synthétiseur vocal. les outils de architecture avec celles des tuteurs intelligents conjugaison. Les systèmes d’EIAO issus des recherches dans le domaine du traitement automatique des langues naturelles Les systèmes d’enseignement intelligemment (TALN). Ils permettent l’accès à des ressources linguistiques riches et variées. Ils SAFRAN. Frasson et Gauthier 1990). sont l’analyseur syntaxique et le synthétiseur vocal FIPSvox.ReCALL 10:1 (1998) 79–85 Les outils de TALN dans SAFRAN Marie-Josée Hamel UMIST Le projet SAFRAN a pour objectif le développement d’une interface dédiée à l’enseignement du français assisté par ordinateur.

MSLE (Frederiksen. La mise à jour des système expert dans les mêmes conditions. 1992). aussi l’analyseur). le privilégié jusqu’ici dans la recherche en découpage et la reformulation des ELIAO. pragmatique. Le but de ce système ILLICO (Ayache et al. Finalement. domaine des connaissances à enseigner. Le de synthétiseur de la parole. rappelons-le. Pour le traitement de module de l’apprenant emmagasine l’écrit. d’apprentissage déterminés à partir des GPARS (Loritz. Le phonétique. résultat de la comparaison sert à établir un diagnostic. 1987). gérant ce que 1995). en fonction d’objectifs et de stratégies 1991). Sa fonction est de fournir une principe dynamiques. Hirst. sur l’écart qui existe 3. (apprenant-expert). syntaxe. Alice (Lawler et Yazdani. CALLE (Rypa et Feuerman. On le rencontre dans des prototypes connaissances sur le domaine à enseigner et d’applications tels que LINGER (Yazdani. (antécédents. 1992).1. Outils de TALN dans les entre l’input de l’apprenant et celui du systèmes d’ELIAO système expert). l’outil d’analyse est le parseur (on dit l’ensemble des connaissances sur l’apprenant.-à-d. 1995) et l’on appelle le dialogue utilisateur-machine BRIDGE (Sams. Le informations est par conséquent constante. lexique. celui de génération est le c’est-à-dire des informations sur son profil générateur de phrases et/ou de textes. automatique de segments de la langue orale et/ou un module tutoriel et une interface usager. le parseur sert essentiellement d’outil d’aide Les systèmes d’EIAO sont des systèmes en au diagnostic. un environnement linguistique fermé). Lorsqu’il s’agit de traiter de module expert emmagasine l’ensemble des segments de la langue orale.Les outils de TALN dans SAFRAN: M-J Hamel systèmes d’EAO et ce.) et sur l’état de ses connaissances du domaine expert.-à-d. style d’apprentissage. Le d’ELIAO qu’on les retrouve.. lequel en général repose sur la notion d’erreur (c. 1997) en est module. définissables sur proposant des choix de mots suivant l’état des la base des niveaux de représentation suivants: contextes syntaxique et sémantique. est de modéliser le cependant un exemple. porte le nom de système de reconnaissance de la c’est-à-dire les données factuelles et parole alors que celui de génération porte le nom procédurales qui décrivent ce domaine. Ils comportent généralement fonctions1 dont l’analyse et la génération un module expert. de particulier qu’elles intègrent une ou L’intégration d’outils de génération plusieurs composantes de TALN. les connaissances à modéliser sont des fur et à mesure dans sa composition en lui connaissances linguistiques. Les applications d’EIAO pour l’enseignement sur ce que les représentations de l’apprenant et et à l’apprentissage des langues (ELIAO) ont du système expert ont en commun).1 Traitement de l’écrit Le module de l’enseignant (tuteur) réunit des Le parseur est l’outil de TALN qui a été informations concernant le choix. Dans ces applications. 1995). dans une application représentation de l’input écrit de l’apprenant donnée chacun des modules s’enrichit au fur (mot/phrase/texte). Dans ce système. un module de l’apprenant. Le de la langue écrite.1 Fonctions des outils de TALN rendre mieux adaptés au profil et aux besoins Les outils de TALN se destinent à plusieurs de l’apprenant. 3. dans le but de les 3. Donin et Décary. ce. C’est au automatique de phrases et/ou de textes dans niveau du module expert des applications les systèmes d’ELIAO est moins courante. l’outil d’analyse connaissances sur le domaine à enseigner. l’interface-usager sert de canal de distribution 1992). STASEL (Payette et connaissances sur l’apprenant.-à-d. et de collecte des connaissances. etc. mais peut aussi reposer sur la notion de compréhension du message (c. 80 ReCALL . laquelle est ensuite et à mesure des connaissances accumulées comparée à une représentation produite par le dans les autres modules. l’apprenant est invité à créer ses propres Quand le domaine en question est celui d’une phrases aidé d’un générateur qui l’assiste au langue. sémantique et système opère dans un micro-monde (c. COALA (Pieneman et Jasen.

). etc. prononciations distinctes. une maturité nécessaire à l’ELIAO. avancée que dans celui de l’écrit. déterminer les valeurs de fréquence fondamentale c’est-à-dire dans le fait qu’il offre une et de durée pour chacun des segments. fiable et constante des phénomènes linguistiques qu’il a fonction de 4. Il faudra sans doute attendre encore quelques années 4. 1991). ambiguités lexicales impliquant des homographes À notre connaissance.1 Le synthétiseur vocal FIPSvox avant de pouvoir penser à une intégration FIPSvox est un système de synthèse vocale du pleine et fiable d’outils de reconnaissance de français (Gaudinat et Wehrli. La première. plus économiques et plus accessibles autres. les problèmes de un système de traduction automatique.2 Le dictionnaire conceptuel FR-Tool décrire. un ELIAO. La deuxième est inconnus. la dénasalisation. et des produits commerciaux qui intègrent une dans la mesure du possible. ex. Nkwenti- Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 81 . la base de l’analyseur syntaxique FIPS La synthèse de la parole reste la grande (Laenzlinger et Wehrli. Talk to l’origine pour d’autres applications. Les outils de TALN dans SAFRAN: M-J Hamel 3. du synthétiseur FIPSvox. etc. De plus. de lever pratiquement toutes les que les outils de reconnaissance (Last. pour un système de lecture l’analyse. et à un TALN qui exploitent cette technologie sont système expert5 chargé de phonétiser les mots rares donc peu disponibles. lorsqu’ils sont manifestement phonétique s’appliquent ensuite..). Enfin. et la plus sont ensuite phonétisées. 1997). 1989).2 Traitement de l’oral outils de TALN dans SAFRAN et. chargée de tient dans la robustesse d’un outil de TALN. “président”: Deux raisons majeures semblent expliquer substantif ou verbe?). Un projet connu dans le domaine. il ajoute à ce négligée des technologies de TALN en dernier une base de données phonétiques. Construit sur la parole dans les systèmes d’ELIAO. disponibles. couverture exhaustive. nous avons composante de reconnaissance de la parole cherché à réutiliser des outils développés à (Prof de Français2. qui permet. Il est un fait que la recherche vocale. dire que les applications d’ELIAO sont encore silencieuses: les systèmes actuels comportent en effet peu ou pas de composantes de 4. Les structures analysées cette lacune. traitant la liaison. le projet Comme nous l’avons mentionné au début de SPELL (Hiller et al. Très qu’elle offre des outils qui possèdent leur schématiquement. Certaines règles d’ajustement que ces outils. on peut particulier. Les outils de TALN dans traitement de la parole. des FR-Tool (FRench-Tool) (Hamel. les résultats obtenus s’avèrent plus ainsi que l’analyseur syntaxique intégré à ou moins satisfaisants (la parole est traitée en SAFRAN a été originellement développé pour segments non-continus. Dynamic English3. Pour ce qui est l’intégration d’outils de TALN. etc. nous le pensons. ce système fonctionne comme utilité dans le domaine de l’enseignement des suit: le texte d’entrée est tout d’abord soumis à langues (Dutoit. etc. n’a pas donné suite. la maturité composante prosodique6 intervient. en Du point de vue strictement TALN. Or. Nous nous proposons maintenant dans le domaine de la parole est moins de décrire brièvement ces outils. qui visait cet article. le bruits et d’accents pertubent toujours synthétiseur. aucun prototype hétérophones (mots qui ont une même courant d’applications en ELIAO n’intègre de orthographe mais qui possèdent des véritables outils de synthèse de la parole. 1994). C’est le cas. grâce aux informations importante. Ceci est d’autant plus surprenant module de phonétisation et une sortie vocale. C’est Me 4. 1997) et qui sont en fait plus une analyse syntaxique détaillée. réside dans le fait que les outils de lexicales (base de données phonétiques). entre fiables. tant au niveau de sa SAFRAN reconnaissance que de sa génération. notre objectif principal avec le l’intégration d’un système de reconnaissance projet SAFRAN est de montrer les avantages de la parole dans une interface d’ELIAO pour qu’offre pour l’enseignement des langues l’anglais. n’ont parfois pas atteint la l’élision.

met l’accent sur le travail de Sa base de données totalise à date plus de discrimination auditive et de répétition mais 15. 82 ReCALL . mag/antimag. des activités d’expérimentation et est organisée à l’intérieur de champs de pratique visant à une meilleure obligatoires et de champs facultatifs. nous avons le dialogue entre le système et l’usager. 1996) est un dictionnaire 5. description des phénomènes segmentaux relié. dérivé. en sélectionnée. etc. dénasalisation. La (voyelles. illustrations. Ces développé un environnement multimédia pour interfaces sont: SAF-tuto. la FLEX est capable de conjuguer. langue étrangère. de programmation Delphi. L’aspect théorique couvre catégorisation) et champs sémantiques (syn/ ainsi des notions qui se rapportent à la antonyme. usage. définition. épenthèse. sémantiques s’inspire des travaux de Mel’cuk prosodie) qui caractérisent la phonétique du (1982) sur les fonctions lexicales. à tous les temps et phénomènes observés (ambiguité tous les modes.). aussi sur les relations qu’entretiennent entre elles les formes phonétique et graphique.1 Élaboration de contenus électronique conceptuel qui fournit pour didactiques chacune des entrées au lexique une Chaque unité de leçon développée (il y en a représentation non-linéarisée des connaissances dix) traite d’un aspect théorique de la linguistiques reliées au domaine de l’entrée phonétique du français et propose. Voici dev. etc. traduction). Chaque unité de leçon est introduite par une 5. 4. Les unités ont été prévues moins aux champs des dictionnaires en fonction des besoins d’un public traditionnels (mot-vedette. variés. relation prosodie-syntaxe. SAFRAN comporte trois interfaces qui gèrent Dans un deuxième temps. Des recherche ont porté sur l’élaboration d’un conseils pour le futur enseignant ont été module destiné à l’enseignement et à prévus ainsi que de courtes fiches l’apprentissage de la phonétique du français.Les outils de TALN dans SAFRAN: M-J Hamel Azeh et Zahner. catégorie lexicale. par l’intermédiaire d’exercices n’importe quel verbe de la langue française. nous avons vu à d’ouvrages consultés. sous. en principe.3 Le conjugueur FLEX Elle met l’apprenant dans des situations où il FLEX (FLEXion) est un système de doit faire appel à ses connaissances conjugaison des verbes français qui permet la personnelles et à son intuition pour résoudre consultation de n’importe quel verbe français des problèmes en rapport avec des figurant dans le lexique. base de règles de dérivations morphologiques. biographiques et une bibliographie Dans un premier temps.). pratique. La présentation de la matière données totalise à date un ensemble d’environ comporte de nombreux rappels. hyper/hyponyme. SAF-exo et SAF- accueillir contenus et outils de TALN. Les compréhension et à un renforcement de la champs obligatoires correspondent plus ou matière enseignée. La partie expérimentale est consacrée quant à elle aux démonstrations.000 verbes. Enfin. semi-voyelles et consonnes) et recherche qui entoure la définition des champs supra-segmentaux (liaison. idiomatique. définitions et 7000 mots-concepts. Elles ont été développées avec le langage un bref compte-rendu de nos travaux.2 Design d’interfaces outils de TALN que nous venons de décrire. La base de données du FR-Tool parallèle. SAFRAN série d’objectifs d’apprentissage et se termine par une synthèse présentée sous forme de Nos deux premières années d’activités de graphes récapitulatifs et de mots-clés. bulgarophones inscrits dans un programme Les champs facultatifs sont de deux types: de didactique de l’enseignement du français champs grammaticaux (morphologie. Développé en Modula sur la catégorielle. l’élaboration de contenus didactiques. d’apprenants: des universitaires domaine du lexique. ‘e’ instable. La base de français. contenus qui prévoyaient l’exploitation des 5.

hypermédias déclarés dans les contenus L’apprenant est par ailleurs aussi invité à textuels et graphiques de SAF-tuto et de SAF. Les outils de TALN dans SAFRAN: M-J Hamel 5. vidéo. l’ambiguité phonétique créée par les C’est une interface qui sert à la saisie et à la homographes hétérophones. porte sur la des problèmes d’orthographe.1 SAF-tuto 6. dont l’orthographe serait déficiente chacun proposant à l’apprenant sous une (“rancontrer”. la chute du ‘e’ instable.) du module expert qui y sont poursuivre une recherche lexicale sur un mot associées. sensibles à l’intérieur de graphiques.2. sélectionnés dans l’interface de SAF-tuto. composante la plus récente de SAFRAN.2 SAF-exo synthétisé. les différents gestion des bases de données de SAF-tuto et patrons prosodiques. Le de l’apprenant bulgare lequel a du mal à gérer premier volet porte sur la discrimination la correspondance entre les alphabets auditive et le second sur la répétition. paires minimales. Cette forme plus ou moins ludique des activités application répond en particulier à un besoin entourant la pratique des sons du français. Ces segments des tutoriels et des exercices). le volet graphie-phonie. enregistrement. des phénomènes variés tels SAF-dev (SAFRAN-développement) est la que la liaison. FR-Tool. identifient des zones segment du français écrit. des programmes externes (SAF-exo. prévoient l’utilisation de FIPSvox pour illustrer. mots du phonétique. lancent des mots ou des phrases qu’il aura lui même applications multimédias (animation. Ces liens ouvrent des FIPSvox peut synthétiser n’importe quel fenêtres secondaires. Un outil de référence liens hypermédias. SAF-dev peuvent être facilement modifiés avec SAF- permet de plus de modifier les liens dev. puisque tout énoncé peut être 5.1 FIPSvox dans SAFRAN l’enseignant grâce à un système sophistiqué de i. relation et le transfert de la forme graphique à la forme orale alors que le dernier volet. L’interface comporte quatre volets.3 SAF-dev démonstrations. et surtout offre une flexibilité maximale. Un outil de démonstration et volet phonie-graphie. Dans SAFRAN. les unités de leçon du module de 6. sous forme de scénarios hypermédias.2. porte lui sur la relation d’expérimentation inverse c’est-à-dire le passage de la forme Les unités tutorielles du module de phonétique orale à la forme écrite. SAF-tuto s’occupe aussi de la dans SAFRAN a l’avantage d’être gestion et de l’intégration des outils de TALN économique puisqu’il ne demande aucun pré- (FIPSvox.). Intégration des outils de TALN SAF-tuto (SAFRAN-tutoriel) est l’interface qui dans SAFRAN interprète.2. FIPSvox se prête bien à ce Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 83 . le ii. SAF-exo (SAFRAN-exercices) est l’interface Les possibilités de synthèse de FIPSvox qui gère les exercices du module de ont aussi permis la création d’un outil de l’enseignant et les bases de données recherche de mots par le biais de leur forme (phonèmes. audio). L’utilisation d’un synthétiseur tel que FIPSvox courriel. “astronote”. Cet outil permet à l’apprenant de lexique. etc. etc. font FIPSvox sert à l’apprenant d’outil de apparaître des définitions textuelles et/ou référence phonétique car il lui permet entendre des définitions sonores (avec FIPSvox) d’entendre à tout moment la prononciation des en indice sous des zones de texte. propres exemples. tester le synthétiseur en lui soumettant ses exo. Sa fonction principale est de entendus dans les démonstrations proviennent permettre à l’utilisateur-enseignant la mise à d’une intervention de FIPSvox sur des jour des bases de données du module expert segments textuels rangés au niveau de la base (les lexiques) et de l’enseignant (les contenus de données de SAF-tuto. Le cyrillique et latin ce qui lui cause entre autres troisième. “aporter”). Les exemples de SAF-exo. FLEX). etc. dans des situations de 5.

modèle qui s’accompagne viendront se superposer. le signal sonore de Delphi. les signal prosodique. Sa vocation première dans SAFRAN. Zoltan chacun des mots-vedettes de la base de Pinter (Université de Pecs) et Dimitar données. Pour compenser. quoiqu’indépendant du l’apprenant ne peut être analysé en tant que lexique conceptuel. Le premier de l’apprenant se fait par le biais d’une projet est un projet de modélisation recherche phonétique qui s’effectue sur la articulatoire (animation de coupes sagitales). répétition et graphie-phonie. Compte de plus sont présentés. Tous deux utilisent comme équivalents lexicaux retrouvés par FIPSvox point de départ les données résiduelles de sont affichés à l’écran. s’il y a lieu. celle-ci étant en Le second projet concerne la représentation du général un mot.Les outils de TALN dans SAFRAN: M-J Hamel genre d’activités d’expérimentation puisque sa extraits du dictionnaire didactico-thématique couverture phonétique est relativement français-bulgare de Decoo et Vessélinov exhaustive. nous en d’adaptation entourant son intégration dans avons parlé plus haut. Suite à cette recherche. etc. parmi nos projets futurs. FIPSvox couvre quantité. n’est pas une faute en soi). Des outils de référence s’accompagnera d’une réflexion sur le rôle du Le FR-Tool est un dictionnaire électronique parseur comme outil de TALN en EL(I)AO et conceptuel qui permet à l’apprenant d’avoir verra plus particulièrement à l’intégration de accès en ligne à des ressources lexicales riches l’analyseur syntaxique FIPS dans le système et variées. Or puisque nous travail de transfert des données sur plate- n’utilisons pas d’outil de reconnaissance de la forme PC et de réécriture de l’interface en parole dans SAFRAN. relations. Le projet 84 ReCALL . Nous visons l’output de FIPSvox sert de modèle de au développement de supports visuels qui comparaison. la définition de contenus et d’exercices pour le module de 6. phonème. réponse de l’apprenant. Travaux en cours et futurs à l’apprenant des moyens de s’auto-évaluer. Le conjugueur. nous tous les volets de SAF-exo. Son adaptation pour ce projet a Mes collaborateurs dans ce projet sont Eric consisté à fournir une traduction bulgare pour Wehrli (LATL. qualité. temps. certaines tâches liées à la correction en utilisant les possibilités de FIPSvox. nous avons cherché à fournir 7.2 FR-Tool et FLEX dans SAFRAN grammaire de SAFRAN. est une composante SAFRAN a consisté principalement en un importante de l’ELIAO. Dans les volets nous intéressons présentement à la discrimination. Dans le volet signal de synthèse et à la transcription phonie-graphie. calcul de la durée et de la fréquence Dans le cas d’homonymie. SAFRAN est celle d’outil de référence lexicale. L’ajout d’une centaine de termes Vessilinov (Université de Sofia). tous les équivalents fondamentale des phonèmes). En effet. L’apprenant peut ainsi FIPSvox (correspondance graphème- comparer sa réponse à celles du synthétiseur. en temps réel. Le rôle du conjugueur FLEX dans iii. nous avons automatisé à partir de celui-ci. Université de Genève). la gestion des réponses écrites phonétique produits par FIPSvox. peut désormais être activé tel.) qui font partie tous les phénomènes caractérisant la du programme d’études de l’apprenant phonétique du français. Ces termes se rapportent à des des liaisons défendues (ce qui de toute façon thèmes choisis (existence. au d’explications. Dans cette perspective. Ce travail i.Un outil d’aide à l’auto-évaluation et SAFRAN est aussi celui d’un outil de de support au diagnostic référence grammaticale. à l’exception des liaisons (1995) a de plus permis d’élargir ce lexique facultatives qui sont traitées par défaut comme conceptuel. bulgare. espace. C’est ainsi que FIPSvox intervient dans En ce qui a trait au module de phonétique. représentation du signal sonore. Le travail La détection automatique d’erreurs.

M. Vaughan R. Publishing Corporation. (eds).. 4 (1). Avignon: AUPELF. D. guage Learning: The BRIDGE Project Within Frasson C. (1991) ‘The LINGER Project: An Arti- puter-Assisted Language Learning’. Analysis’. 26. 9 (1). and Décary M. EUROCALL 95: Actes. R. and Gates. In: Hol. Berkeley Linguistics Society: Actes. FIPS-vox utilise un module Mel’cuk I. guage Learning’.H. 8th Annual Meeting of the de Lausanne). À l’heure actuelle. and Sams. (1989) Artificial Intelligence Techniques 2. New Jer- sey: Lawrence Erlbaum. Laver J. 87–102. le Bretonneux. Jean Bart 78960 Using Language’. (1997) ‘NLP Tools in CALLfor Error par ordinateur. TA Infor - d’information.. (1995) Dictionnaire D. 427–444. (1991) ‘FIPS: un de TALN la recherche par mot-clé. (1997) An Introduction to Text-to-Speech Sams M. wood. Micro Application. 6. Sous presses. systèmes d’aide à l’apprentissage du langage Rypa M. Kaplan J.). Ce sont des fonctions qui mations.D.. Evans D. (1997) ‘Analyse syntax. CALL. (1992) ‘Generalized Transition Network 5. 267–270. CAAL Journal. Email: mjhamel@ccl. CALL. In: Holland V. Soft Collection. (1995) ‘CALLE: An écrit’. (1995) sey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 27–56. and Wehrli E. FRANCIL. (1990) Intelligent the ARI Language Tutor Program’. l’extraction analyseur interfactif pour le français’.. Talk To Me. New Jer- Frederiksen C. Les outils de TALN dans SAFRAN: M-J Hamel SAFRAN bénéficie d’une subvention de (1996) ‘The Conceptual Dictionary in CALL’. and Jack M.. Sofia: Tutor. London: Kluwer. ‘A Discourse Processing Approach to Com. Mahwah. Gaudinat A.. JST 97: Actes. Russian. (eds. J. Loritz D. M. Last R.umist. 32 (2). Decoo W. Intelligent Language Tutor. and Vessélinov Alice System: A Workbench for Learning and 4. Hiller S. (1994) ‘An Automated System Notes for Computer-Aided Pronunciation Learning’. Japanese and Chi- Dutoit. Ses travaux de recherche portent sur l’intégration Gougenheim G. and Sams M. Dutoit T. 5–22. (1992) ‘An Intelligent- Assistant for Stylistic Instruction’. Valence: Presses de l’UniversitÈ. baum. ficial Intelligence Approach to Second-Lan- land. New Jersey: Ablex V. nese’. and Pasero Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 85 . Mahwah. 1. Geneva: LATL. (1958) Dictionnaire fondamental des outils de traitement automatique des langues de la langue française. 10 (1). 55–76. Rapport interne. (eds. C. Ce système expert. and Wehrli E. and Gauthier G. R. (1995) ‘Advance Technologies for Lan- Synthesis. (1982) ‘Lexical Functions in Lexico- de prosodie développé par le LAIP (Université graphic Description’.). Mahwah. Comptent aussi parmi les fonctions des outils Laenzlinger C. and Zahner. and Hirst G. B. 19 (1).. 99–120. guage Tutoring’. In: Holland Tutoring Systems. Chichester: Ellis Hor- des Petits-Hôtels 75010 Paris. Eckert M. 12 Av. Exploratory Environment for Foreign Lan- UREF. Norwood. and Sams M. V. Intelligent Language didactico-thématique français-bulgare. CALICO. Marie Josée Hamel Hamel M. Rooney E. Yazdani M. Nkwenti-Azeh. Kaplan. Berkeley. Language Development Levins L. a été développé à Parsing for Language Study: the GPARS Sys- l’Université de Mons par l’équipe de Thierry tem for English. Godbert F. 7 (1). Auralogue.. M. 107–116.R. relèvent du domaine de la dictionnairique. Références Payette J. (1991) ‘The Courseware. Intelligent Language Tutor.M. California: BLS Press. le Mbrola.-J. (1997) ‘Deux in the Humanities.R. FIPSvox’. Kaplan J. New Jersey: Lawrence Erl- Daniéla Oubénova. Dyned International.-J. 35–49. D. 20-22 Rue in Language Learning...W. 51–63. France. réseau membre de l’AUPELF. Donin J. M. naturelles dans les systèmes d’enseignement assisté Hamel M. 3. www@dyned. Paris: Didier. Computers Ayache L. 509–518.. and Feuerman K. Marie-Josée Hamel est maître de conférence à ique et synthèse de la parole: le projet UMIST où elle enseigne la linguistique du français. 7–22.

and will explore their implications as they relate to research and practice in CALL. or from With recent developments in computer net. In contrast. communication techniques. though both ori- away from ‘computer-based instruction’ and entations are clearly evident in the tertiary sec- ‘intelligent tutoring systems’in which the nar. more traditional CALL adopt a principled approach to providing tutor- techniques. The debate has been explored in some dent.. learning environment for the individual stu. the debate is only just beginning to them the victim of the machine”. Shneider. the role of the computer as tutor to the role of working and the use of computer-mediated the computer as tool (see also Levy 1997). any CALL design reflects a particular conception of teaching and learning. and learning that emphasises social interaction. For example. Introduction there is a move away from ‘agentive’ to ‘instrumental’ uses of the computer. counter that instrumental learning are becoming widely accepted (see uses of the computer are “deficient for learn- Warschauer 1995a. He believes emerge in this context. ing purposes”. Debski et al.ReCALL 10:1 (1998) 86–94 Two conceptions of learning and their implications for CALL at the tertiary level Mike Levy The University of Queensland Though it may not be expressed explicitly. 1995b. research agendas and techniques. tor for adults learning a second or foreign lan- row choices for students sooner or later make guage. Examples that present 86 ReCALL . However. This paper will detail the theoretical underpinnings of the two approaches. and the need for CALL “to 1997). A broad division may be made between learning that focuses on the individual learner. “We are rapidly moving Scrimshaw 1993). is paramount”. The two perspectives imply widely differing classroom practices.. The first orientation is represented by the work of Piaget. whereas Vygotsky is the prime example of a the- oretician who has focused on social factors. detail for children learning their first language Shneiderman 1997). using computers in formal school settings (see man (1997: vii) says. 1996. with a particular focus on the tertiary level. CALL approaches Nevertheless CALL researchers such as Good- that involve telecollaboration and cooperative fellow (1995: 223). have been criticised (see Hartog 1989. whose conception of learning is individualistic. where the computer structures the ial support .

of Vygotsky (1978). In contrast. (1997) on social computing. learner as a lone. In particular. He argues that knowledge does not sim- Two conceptions of learning ply result from the passive recording of obser- vations. and as this ori. 23). tors. Holland et al. both within a differ considerably in how they see a learner’s constructivist framework. Renié with others (Vygotsky 1978: 131). However. it looks at two own understanding and makes sense of the theoretical positions. he stresses the fact that the ception of teaching and learning. their positions will be sketched and significant and Debski et al. followers emphasise the social factors that Piaget has already exerted a strong influence influence learning. At the same time an individual conception of Both Piaget and Vygotsky are concerned learning is apparent in the considerable inter. Two conceptions of learning: M Levy a social perspective are given in edited works views in detail here. that learning arose out of acting on and adapt- ware design. Acquiring a key differences in perspective. tle attention to social processes. In this way. an idea derived from the their views are of special interest (Boyle 1997: work of Engels (Haas 1996). particularly in language enables the learner to think in new the ways in which the roles of the teacher and ways by providing a cognitive ‘tool’ for mak- the computer are perceived. a broad division may be made adapting to the complexities of the world between learning approaches that focus on the (Jones and Mercer 1993: 19). inventive scientist trying to make sense of the world (Piaget 1980. that underpin individualistic and this area of agreement. Vygotsky also emphasised the role that lan- resent fundamental positions on teaching and guage plays in cognitive development and in learning and are most helpful in distinguishing mediating the learning process. Phillips 1995). assumptions and implications considered. Piaget and Vygotsky social conceptions of learning. It considers how cognitive mechanisms working. His conception of psychological mechanisms of the individual the learner is highly individualistic and pays lit- learner. There is insufficient space to present their that humans interact with the environment Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 87 . learning strategies constructs knowledge using his or her own and Intelligent CALL (see Gremmo and Riley cognitive apparatus. constructivist because of their emphasis on the This paper aims to explore this debate in a ways in which the learner constructs his or her little more detail. and the indications are that ing to some impersonal world. and Chanier 1995). Further they are ing sense of the world through interaction. Piaget and Vygotsky rep. Vygotsky (1896–1934) sug- These two positions are well-represented gests that such a view of learning is inade- by the work of Piaget and Vygotsky who pro. quate. both regarded as constructivist. with how the individual learner learns and est in learner autonomy. In contem. and that social transaction not solo per- vide a rich theoretical base for thinking about formance is the fundamental vehicle of learning in individual and social contexts (see education (Bruner 1985). and those that emphasise social fac. these views of learning are being interpreted Piaget (1896–1980). advocated by Piaget and surrounding environment. Vygotsky 1978. but that it comes from “a structuring Though it may not be expressed explicitly. Vygotsky did not consider on theory and practice in education and soft. They are both seen as 1995. Phillips 1995). Engels posited 83). but the key elements of by Warschauer (1996) on telecollaboration. learner is both mentally and physically active in porary CALL. 1995). any activity on the part of the subject” (Piaget 1980: CALL design presupposes a particular con. beyond Vygotsky. typically sees the research and practice. generally regarded as in CALL and discusses their implications for the founder of constructivism. Vygotsky is currently exerting a comparable but rather that it resulted from engagement influence (see Jones and Mercer 1993. Vygotsky and his Piaget 1980. as did Piaget. The notion of language as a cognitive tool for entation currently represents the dominant mediation is one of the most profound insights approach in educational multimedia design.

In this regard. Marullo (1993) provide a detailed critique of tions that occur. and sentences to achieve their first language. it is which is employed to manipulate objects in worth noting that both Piaget and Vygotsky the kitchen.” (Haas 1996: 17). As Bruner (1985: 24–5) eign Language Understanding Engendered by puts it.. An important and immediate corollary of where certain kinds of . within the Vygot..” (Haas 1996: 14). and manipulate the world through simulation. the tutor functions as “a vicarious form Naturalistic Techniques). (Papert 1980: 125). the headings of ‘neo-Vygotskian theory’. Activities require learners to pro- were concerned with how children learned duce words. Since that time his followers concept is seen in the work of Seymour Papert have developed and extended his work under who was once a student of Piaget. On the other hand.. Though Vygotsky’s under. Further manifestations second language. One graphical pre- of consciousness”. These differences in the sentation of a microworld in FLUENT is role of the teacher are profound. commu. guage – especially speech. For Holland (1995: xiv) simulation technolo- chological processing. 1 In a nicative participant in the learning process. thinking could hatch these two conceptions of learning concerns the and grow with particular ease’. was translated (see ment. The powerful ideas or intellectual structures. Where computers have potential in this argues that “Vygotsky’s theory of mediation context is in extending our ability to transform helps us see tools. but also writing and other sign systems – as a psychological tool that provides the “mediational means by which Piaget: implications for CALL higher psychological functions develop. role of the teacher. On the whole they did not simple goals.” teacher’s role is to provide ‘rich learning envi. signs. deal with an unpredictable real world environ- Thought and Language. called Kitchen World.. Haas extends this idea yet again changing themselves and the world around to include technological tools as well. Through the interaction both the extent to which a Vygotskian perspective the environment and humans are transformed. (see Higgins 1982. ronments’ within which learners may make The microworld concept has also been discoveries for themselves (Jones and Mercer investigated in the field of language learning. 1995). Here the learner manip- Before turning to the implications of these ulates a human figure with a moveable hand two conceptions of learning for CALL. Vygotsky died at an early age and his work In other words we can learn and practise on took a considerable time to reach the west: it our own in a simulated world before having to was only in 1962 that the seminal work. ‘an incubator’. She them. systems that function to augment human psy. Papert developed a microworld called tural psychology’.. 1993: 22). ‘cul. ‘communicative learning Mathland which was designed in such a way theory’ and ‘sociocultural theory’: the latter that certain kinds of mathematical thinking term is now perhaps the most common and is could be facilitated (Papert 1980). in CALL and in Intelligent CALL (ICALL) skian view. Laurillard and of the microworld concept are realised through 88 ReCALL . phrases. rather than a first language. describes the microworld as “a ‘place’ . Papert used here (see Jones and Mercer 1993: 21). can be sustained for students learning a second Vygotsky extended this notion to include lan. The recent interpretation of the microworld idea. the teacher is an active. Within the Piagetian view. and technologies as . Holland et al. teacher acts as a support to help the student Hamburger (1995) describes a second lan- until the time comes when he or she is able to guage tutoring system called FLUENT (For- operate independently. According to Piaget. and ‘a ‘growing place’for a specific species of the student is seen to be working alone.. gies offer ways to “buttress lived experience”. people grow through standing of tool is intended to be purely play and constructive activity by alternately metaphorical. A well-known implementation of this Vygotsky 1986).Two conceptions of learning: M Levy using material tools which mediate the interac. and the system responds appro- make claims about how adults might learn a priately at each stage.

Two conceptions of learning: M Levy virtual worlds created in cyberspace. The The teacher’s role within the Piagetian GLEn is fundamentally collaborative in nature conception of learning lies firmly in the back. the computer for freeing the teacher from the As far as CALL is concerned. cultur- human learner and a computer tutor (Tomlin ally oriented conception of language learning 1995: 221). feedback tends to be pre-packaged and formu. and utilise a approach or cooperative learning techniques. space. and potentially language learners. A learning environment that embodies laic. conferencing or electronic and approaches in language teaching and mail.” (Barson and Debski 1996: of the computer to ‘free’ the teacher from the 62). or it is not given at all (Harrington 1996: many of these ideas is the goal-oriented 7). most ICALL systems involve a single Debski 1997). natural language processing and the stu. (Jones and Mercer 1993. Kern 1996. and activities negotiated between students. Vygotsky’s theory supports a collab- tion beyond the word level. observes. these systems feature a (Jones and Mercer 1993). In CALL. Learning is defined as “managed action” ‘more tiresome labours’ of language teaching and the motivation derives from project goals arises (Skinner 1954: 96). As McDonell (1992: 56) avoid dealing with student input and evalua. students may collaborate and interact by working together at a computer. and a communicative. for example. because it “analyses how we are embedded tems. Here the use a plan of action. with one another in a social world”. lar. numer- student model to guide the sequencing and ous other projects use a collaborative manner of the material presented. Many CALL writ. the human system. an appeal to Vygotsky’s work has 2. students may interact through the machine been made to support the following techniques by networking. a Vygotskian more ‘mundane’ aspects of language teaching or sociocultural view of learning has been (see Levy 1997). Now collaboration is not lim- looking after certain aspects of language ited to the classroom and the same physical learning. with traditional CALL. teachers engage in exploring and making sense of a working with students on purposeful activity simulated environment. framework described by Barson and Debski the focus has tended to be on the individual (Barson and Debski 1996. or ers since Skinner have referred to the use of students and the teacher. work involving computers may occur in at tion and involvement. In essence. learning in social groups (Kern 1996. Warschauer 1995a). A division of labour is given a boost by recent advances in network- implicit here. vocabulary extension for example. The dynamic orative approach and cooperative learning. collaborative aspects. with the computer or technology ing technology. Of course. a Global Learning Environment (GLEn). thus providing a mental construct and teacher’s role becomes separated. They contrast out making explicit reference to Vygotsky (see with traditional CALL programs which tend to Warschauer 1995b). and dent model enable student feedback to be because it is consistent with a view of teach- dynamic and flexible. 1997). nature of the control structures in ICALL sys. ing where the process of mediation is central. where learning: cooperative or collaborative learning users. Barson 1997. can (Light 1993. least three different ways. Barson and Debski (1996) describe teacher present. Typically. Deb- learner working at the computer without a ski 1997). and “models the system of access to resources ground. each of which involves social processes: Vygotsky: implications for CALL 1. or Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 89 . But in both ICALL and traditional CALL. Barson Beyond the microworld concept in particu. but may be extended to include collab- while the human teacher caters for other oration at a distance. parser to enable natural language to be or encourage learning in a social context with - processed (Harrington 1996). Since the computer tutor is designed and the necessary links between users of the to function as a substitute teacher. those that necessitate human interac.

pletely reliable. is provided with incorrect or incomplete feed- port student enterprise as it manifests itself. again. there is no reason to believe that their for the teacher is warranted. which have the potential to provide more effective posits that learners benefit most from tasks CALL learning programs and environments. The success. adaptive individual guiding and that “the shortcomings only loom large if the motivating student-directed work. convenience. the computer tutor can provide and need. but with the help of a more able language learning experiences. as in the case of a tutorial package used on a Piaget: critique of individualistic self-access basis. functionality will not steadily improve in the ers over the gap between what they can do future. especially extra is central to the learning process. that are just beyond their own individual capa. he introduced the well-known theory In ICALL. component of a learning experience. back in answer to a question. through inappropriate or inflexible control mechanisms (see Hartog 1989. the individual from the real world. regard. For Piaget. improved models of learning of the zone of proximal development. the com- interpretation of the teacher’s role. alone and what they can manage with the help Where the student is generally working of others. an used. there is no second wave of feedback that inseminator of ideas. and advice given. help and learning. the computer has to In further elaborating the role of the reliably give the student the right kind of guid- teacher in the CALL context. and appropriate for the student’s level language class.Two conceptions of learning: M Levy 3. puter has strengths in its flexibility to provide the learner essentially works alone. more efficient and hence more enjoy- tasks on their own. drills and hinges on how reliably the program manages practice).” For Kern (1996: 108).” learning As far as simulations are concerned. of the computer in the tutorial role. and a force maintaining can come with a teacher’s presence to act as the proper level of motivation of students”. in helping learn. alone without the teacher. Whilst the knowledgeable and experienced individual sophistication of CALL tutors is limited at the they are able to accomplish them. that are acces. If for some reason the student the role of the teacher is to “trigger and sup. particularly ways in which the riences. ciency is not made known to the student. for example. In this language practice. whilst having the potential to simulate 90 ReCALL . Such expe- icism of late. a role moment. the potential threat of isolation and mere vicarious Traditional CALL and ICALL programs that experience need to be considered. these descrip. students’ computer-mediated communication accurate and appropriate is the feedback. “rather than delegating to the computer certain therefore. becomes an integral participant in the student’s learning and on how timely. Debski (1997: ance and advice every time the program is 48) describes the teacher as a “facilitator. the computer may act as a partner in some computer might inhibit or constrain the learner way in an ICALLprogram. backup. But for Vygotsky the teacher’s role valuable supplementary work. aspects of language instruction (e. Debski 1997. might isolate or distance learners have received some unfavourable crit. Virtual attempt to address the needs of individual worlds. teacher is not available and at the learner’s ments. serious problems can result.” In combination. Thus. Piaget and Vygotsky differ greatly in their Shneiderman 1997). This point is supported by tions of the teacher’s role see the teacher as an Kenning and Kenning (1990: 34) who argue involved. Learners are not able to complete such richer. for Barson and Debski (1996: 50). Increased sophistication of systems promises bilities. and the defi- often in unexpected ways (contingency princi. or main. then ple). The computer program must be com- and. For students attending a regular sible. computer-learner dialogue constitutes the sole.g. though the language learning opportunities when a teacher can help organise discovery environ. on and off the computer. the teacher. Nevertheless.

also suggest that a The discussion here will focus on the last very large number of practitioner-oriented claim because it involves cooperative learning studies tend to overlook the difficulties and is consistent with the view that learning is involved. especially as far as nents. the research design and goals of these studies 2. Knowledge does not transfer between to see exactly what they were to designed to tasks. Obviously. and they must be willing to work skian perspective. the position taken by Vygotsky. They examine four major claims fully argued the case for cooperative as (1996: 6): opposed to individual learning. It is likely. Even so. To illustrate the point they give the analogy of the violinist who plays in an orchestra. 3. meet together as a group. one Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 91 . The orchestra analogy also suggests other elements needed for suc- cessful cooperative learning. including those with large social compo- deal with social aspects. (1996: 9) continue that rel- exerting a strong influence on educational atively few controlled studies have success- thinking. there are times when independent Directions for research learning and practice are essential. Also. tially detrimental effects in cooperative learn- social environments. All members of Vygotsky: critique of cooperative the orchestra must share a commitment to the learning goals of the group. investigate and how they were carried out. equitable levels of ability and learning has been given by Anderson. are usually best taught by a combination preparation for a job is concerned. and confi- and Simon (1996). and that many comparative studies report ‘no differences’. clear and agreed goals. 1. Instruction needs to be done in complex. On the one hand. dence in the leader’s ability are all essential tive learning is presented in the context of a ingredients for success in cooperative learning broader investigation of the claims of Situated activities. (1996: 10). and training in social settings. Their analysis of coopera. skill and experi- Of the implications that derive from a Vygot. clearly dent and proficient language users. one of the most important is together under the leadership of the conductor. Two conceptions of learning: M Levy real communicative situations. They conclude: inherently a social phenomenon. Reder experience. to interact with people face to face in the same for example. they do point to a number of poten- 4. Action is grounded in the concrete situa. ence. Of course one needs to look very carefully at tion in which it occurs. nevertheless impractical for the whole orchestra to always remain illusory. a view of learning that is currently Anderson et al. Anderson et al. Here the individual is free to choose the focus. then. For the violinist. this is not of training procedures involving both whole in itself sufficient reason for demanding that tasks and components and individual training all skills need to be learnt in a social context. argue that though one must tasks. and can The two conceptions of learning discussed in concentrate on problems that are personally this paper imply widely differing research relevant without distraction. that there are distinct contextual physical space using language to accomplish factors that impinge on learning and only arise real world tasks. factors such as individual levels of advantageous. it would be agendas and approaches. Learning. that skills in complex Anderson et al. The evidence shows. to become confi. the goal of there are skills that can only be acquired by the majority of language learners is to be able actually playing in the orchestra. in the group context. that collaborative or cooperative learning is Arguably. Training by abstraction is of little use. That said. they need to be comparable in terms of their knowledge. A useful critique of cooperative commitment. ing such as ‘free rider’ and ‘ganging-up’ effects.

second. cient justification for devaluing or abandoning ceived as essentially a cooperative venture? this work. Key elements derived from tively oriented research in second and foreign the educational setting. of learning. but for group argue that whilst not denying the impor. Anderson et al. like include class size. or is it per. with thoughts of individual stu. of course. and follows their influence understated.Two conceptions of learning: M Levy might focus on the cognitive aspects of the non-directive tool rather than a tutor. vocational or time looking at the nature of the messages. learning context.or network-based research ble. academic goals. tutor. With technology there is per. issues. (Crook 1991). as far as Piagetian and Vygotskian the teacher’s role largely marginalised. contact hours. This is not only important for adult learners. and the educational back- based uncritically on an individualistic model ground of learners. or field so far. email exchanges between high-school stu. I believe there needs to be a greater Debski (1997: 62) argues for more ethno. all learners if. secondary or tertiary sector. and the nature and language acquisition that has dominated the goals of the learners are often overlooked. access (1996: 20) conclude that the fundamental issue to CALL opportunities outside scheduled class is whether the most productive research path times is potentially beneficial. they are going to be tance of the social. involved in the learning process. context. sensitivity to factors that emerge from the graphic studies. For instance. the primary. and experimental techniques may the teacher is actively and intrinsically be appropriate. Further. due to low contact hours. where individual. the question of whether aspects of language learning such as these to learning should consist mainly of social or be covered entirely in the classroom with a individualistic activity is an ideological issue: teacher present. but researchers and practitioners must be haps the additional fear of the dehumanisation cautious and conscious of limitations and of education. suffi- development of the individual. analysis of text messages and ing. are we considering: children or dents. and with Finally. My own particular interest is in adult sec- In drawing their discussion on possible ond/foreign language learners in a university research directions together. first. Here positions on language learning are concerned. current limitations in is education to be seen as primarily for the ICALL applications are not. Here. only by breaking things able to operate confidently on their own out- down and focussing on the individual can real side the classroom without the teacher. collaboration is encouraged whenever possi- graphic classroom. language most of the practice they seek to evaluate. on the other hand. for example vocabulary learning Conclusion and listening comprehension practice. I believe. Circumstances and an ethnographic approach in investigating approaches differ according to the conditions. ultimately. the Vygotskian view appears to present us with Boyle (1997: 81) believes they may be seen as a solution. make learners aware of them. meticulous tracking of all interactions over compulsory or voluntary classes. it is one that takes individual or social activity as underpins the notion of learner autonomy. There is a role for the computer as (Light 1993: 41). teacher availability. a sociocul. There progress be made. His approach includes interviews. where the computer is utilised as a either challenging or complementing one 92 ReCALL . are also aspects of language learning that may usefully be extended or practised in self- access mode. adults. Tella (1992) agrees. Further. or foreign language learn- observations. dents working alone at the computer. This the principal unit of theoretical focus. and in-class or out-of-class Crook contends that the majority of evaluative activity? Other significant factors might studies of computer-based activity are. and where tural perspective might be taken and ethno. techniques may be required to identify and In order to help resolve some of these assess key factors in the learning process. There is simply not enough time for many important In part. in addition to the quantita.

important and very significant qualitative dif- Haas C. 80-1 (44–5). (1995) Intelligent language tutors: theory shap - Barson J. and Smith. M.). Lan .-M.-J. Melbourne: ALAA and the Horwood Lan- guage Centre. (1995) ‘A review of the types of conversational partner. 6–18. 1–32. (eds. (1989) ‘Computer-assisted learning – Barson J. Hartog R. and Smith M. D. 17 (1). Two conceptions of learning: M Levy another. (1982) ‘The Grammarland Principle’. guage Teaching & Curriculum Centre. communication and cognition: Vygotskian patterns of cognitive development common to perspectives. Hawaii: Second Lan. There are fundamental ceptual perspective’. (eds. Certainly for Vygotsky. Gassin J. In Scrimshaw Warschauer M.. 11–26. P. when the partner is a com- self-direction and self-access in language teach- puter tutor rather than a human tutor there are ing and learning’. (1996) ‘Intelligent computer- Anderson J. eign language learning. (1995) ‘Autonomy. V. work. Higgins J. 5–11. R. for technology’. S. and goal-oriented activity’. (eds. classrooms and computers. NJ: Lawrence Erl- CALL: technology in the service of foreign lan.M. 12. Reder L. assumed. microworlds. guage learning based on creativity. On-CALL. The individualistic view is important Boyle T. (1996) Writing technology: studies on the ferences that must be taken into account before materiality of literacy. Gassin J.. Crook C. D. included. Mahwah. and Mercer N. and Simon H. In Debski R. baum.). Mahwah. Researcher. (1996) assisted language learning’. Telecollaboration in for .A. J. Educational Computing. Melbourne: ICALL projects that utilise certain kinds of ALAAand the Horwood Language Centre. (ed. In Holland human.). London: Routledge. M. (1997) Design for multimedia learning. Occasional Papers Number 16.). (1995) ‘Tutorial tools for language was that the partner in the interaction would be learning by two-medium dialogue’. Educational 2–9. R. Jones A. Holland V. Mahwah. (1985) ‘Vygotsky: a historical and con- world we interact with. Vygotsky’s perspective sity Press. helps account for social factors in learning. mal development: implications for evaluation’. contin. Applications. 15–31. follow CALL programs for vocabulary instruction’. Language. Gassin J. and Smith M. Melbourne: Bulletin Pedagogique. tive apprenticeship model also might be Gremmo M. or Piagetian in conception. (1993) ‘Theories of learn- gency. (1997) ‘Space. M.). 151–164. (ed. 39–66. time and form in the pro. 25 (4). (1996) ‘Calling back ing technology. In ing and information technology’. Vygotsky. and Sams M. ICALL systems are not necessarily Language learning through social computing. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum References Associates.) (1997) 1. 183–200. (ed. In Wertsch J.. coaching or configure the computer to be a Goodfellow R. Kenning M. both theoretical posi. In my opinion. because of the invariant features that we share London: Prentice Hall. Kaplan J. Journal of Microcomputer Debski R. in our biological makeup and in the physical Bruner J. Certain kinds of simulated social Computer Assisted Language Learning 8 (2–3). Cul - ture. and Kenning M. Harrington M. In resource paradigm’. tions have the potential to inform research and Debski R. NJ: Lawrence a true Vygotskian perspective could be Erlbaum. However. interaction.. and work that follows a collabora- 205–226. ALAA and the Horwood Language Centre.). (1990) Comput - Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 93 . 10 (3). ‘Situated learning and education’. (1991) ‘Computers in the zone of proxi- and the role of the teacher in supporting class. System 23 (2). from process control paradigm to information ject-based foreign language classroom’. and Sams M. Occasional Papers Number 16. 49–68. (1997) ‘Support of creativity and collab- practice in educational computing and in oration in the language classroom: a new role CALL. On the other hand.) 1–38. the intention Hamburger H. Cambridge: Cambridge Univer- all. Occasional Papers Number Note 16. Kaplan J. 49–53. and Debski R. guage learning through social computing. Intelligent language tutors: theory shaping technology. Debski R. in a sense. (eds. (eds. Language learning through social computing.. and Riley P. V..

by Oxford University Press. Melbourne: ALAA and the Kern R. Gassin. Teaching & Curriculum Centre.) (1993) Language. Mahwah. (ed. In Debski. (1992) Talking shop via email: a thematic & Curriculum Centre. 51–64. foreign language learning. and computers. (ed. (1993) ‘Collaborative learning with com.).: Harvard University Press. 24. Cam- McDonell W.) (1995b) Virtual connections: tional 94 ReCALL . classrooms CALL. NJ: puters’. and Smith. (eds. classrooms Education. 24 (7). 105–119. (eds.). J.). the bad. telli-Palmarini. Occasional practice. and Oxford University Press. In Warschauer M. Harvard Educational (ed. computer-assisted acquisition of a second lan- guage’. tion: using email exchanges to explore personal Skinner B. the Australian Journal of CALL. in CALL for the last 12 years. F. (1995) ‘Modelling individual tutorial Levy M. London: Prentice Hall. 1997. New York: Horwood. (1993) ‘Computer. and the Language Teaching & Curriculum Centre. 99). Warschauer M. (ed.oz. (ed. In Holland V. the art of teaching’. Oxford: ICALL’. ment of higher psychological processes. In Kessler C. online activities and projects for networking Piaget J. Warschauer M. 5–12. Language. ugly: the many faces of constructivism’. Hawaii: Second Language and its epistemological significance’. (1992) ‘Language and cognitive bridge. and Chanier T.Two conceptions of learning: M Levy ers and language learning: current theory and learning through social computing. Mass.). Warschauer M.cltr.uq. 221–242.). Learning: context and contextualisation’ published Shneiderman B. learning. D. NFLRC Research Notes #17. Press. Tomlin R. Educa . (1996) ‘Computer-mediated communica.: The MITPress. London: Routledge. Department of Teacher In Scrimshaw P. R. London: Harvester collaborative learning: theory and practice. (1997) Computer-assisted language learn . Sams M. Hawaii: Second Language Teaching Tella S. Hawaii: Second Phillips D. MA: Harvard University Press. (1995) ‘Collaboration and Language Teaching & Curriculum Centre. 86–97.). M.. Language.) (1995a) Computer-mediated Papert S. (1986) Thought and language. (ed. In Scrimshaw P. London and New York: Rout.). (1997) ‘Forward’. S. Intelligent language tutors: Light P. learning. (ed. Kaplan J.. development through cooperative group work’. (ed. C. Language and learn . University of Helsinki. interactions: theoretical and empirical bases of ing: context and contextualization. Vygotsky L. Papers Number 16. Telecollaboration in foreign language Review. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. recent book is ‘Computer-Assisted Language ledge. S. Cooperative language Cambridge. theory shaping technology . and linguistic analysis of electronic mail com - Laurillard D. Mass. London: Routledge. 145-165. (1980) Mindstorms. Computer Assisted Language Learning. Vygotsky L. M. class . S. (1978) Mind in society: the develop - 40–56. Language Email: mlevy@lingua. He is editor of On- Scrimshaw P. (1954) ‘The science of learning and histories in two cultures’. munication (Research Report No. Dr Michael Levy has been writing and researching 8 (1). His most and computers. (ed. 3–29. and Marullo G. (1980) ‘The psychogenesis of knowledge language learners. rooms and computers. M. Helsinki: based approaches to second language learning’. In Piat. Hawaii: Second Renié D. R. Horwood Language Centre. (1995) ‘The good.) (1996) Telecollaboration in ing Cambridge.

using the theories to shape countries (see. and at the pedagogical experiments. Introduction Brammerts 1996). It then reports on the pilot phase of an e-mail tandem project involving Irish university students learning German and German university students learning English.ReCALL 10:1 (1998) 95–101 Designing. 1995).). Eck et al. implementing and evaluating a project in tandem language learning via e-mail David Little and Ema Ushioda Centre for Language and Communication Studies. each of whom is learning the other’s language. e. ing by e-mail can actually take place. and then reports guage learning. e-mail version in particular. language learners with individ. Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 95 . At the formal end of the members of the Network recognize that long- spectrum there have been projects of various term progress depends on elaborating appro- kinds linking language classrooms in different priate theories. the Network’s first concern has been to establish reliable For a number of years e-mail has been used to infrastructures so that tandem language learn- support second language learning both for. Successful tandem partnerships observe the principle of reciprocity (“tandem learners support one another equally”) and the principle of learner autonomy (“tandem partners are responsible for their own learning”) (Little and Brammerts 1996: 10ff.. involving Irish university students learning co-ordinated by Helmut Brammerts at the German and German university students Ruhr-Universität Bochum (see Little and learning English.g. 1. issues of principle that arise from the concept More recently there has been a surge of of tandem language learning in general and its interest in the use of e-mail for tandem lan. But mally and informally. Trinity College Dublin Tandem language learning is based on a partnership between two people. and subjecting those informal end. experiments to empirical evaluation. thanks largely to the work of on the pilot phase of an e-mail tandem project the International E-Mail Tandem Network. Inevitably. This ual e-mail accounts have sought pen-friend. process. paper is a preliminary contribution to that ships with native speakers of their target lan. This paper begins by exploring some of the theoretical implications of tandem language learning in general and tandem language learning via e-mail in particular. It first explores some of the central guage.

g. The obvious opportunities for communication in the target solution to this difficulty is for tandem part- language – it is. schemes (see. see Little and Brammerts ners’only mode of language learning. gogies that are institutionalized in our educa- tional basis for a formal course of language tional systems (for a brief discussion of learning. after all. But if on both sides of the partnership the native speaker maintains an appropriately The practice of tandem language learning is supportive role. the basis of to produce independent. develop new perspectives on their own and guage learning in tandem depends on the prin. especially in the early stages of their cation plays a crucial role in the development partnership – advice on how to prepare for and of oral proficiency. degenerate into two (probably rather ineffec- known as it might be (see. They may each must support the other’s learning explic. Effective lan. e. since the aspiration of our curricula may involve reading and writing. 1996. (Little and Brammerts 1996: 10ff. This does not rule out the provision tive problems that any new approach to lan- of corrective feedback. or they may be the part. and are responsible for their own but also for their implicitly. The prin. especially in spontaneous communication. ers has by and large failed to reform the peda- to-face tandems may provide the organiza. or they may support a formal course learner autonomy in relation to tandem lan- as an optional extra. In practice making the learner aware of lexical similari- this means (i) that they must devote the same ties or syntactic contrasts between his mother amount of time to each language. Essentially. and (ii) that tongue and the target language. support in recogniz- efforts to communicate and does not try to be ing and overcoming the linguistic and affec- a teacher. If the native speaker is to manage meetings. tive) language lessons.). unconscious intuitions we follow. tandem encounters should not well-established. Little (1991) provides a fuller treatment Perhaps the most obvious attraction of of theoretical and practical issues in the devel- face-to-face tandems is that they offer regular opment of learner autonomy). support. on the contrary. in nat. This is hardly place.1 Face-to-face tandem learning Probably the most widespread difficulty In its canonical form tandem language learn.. guage learning is likely to generate. The principle of part of the conscious tool-kit that we apply to learner autonomy insists that tandem learners language learning and language use. their target language. e. how to select appropriate provide maximum benefit to the learner in learning activities. The uralistic as well as in formal contexts. tral concern in tandem language learning priately take the form of grammatical explana. These new perspectives can facilitate language ciple of reciprocity insists that tandem learners learning but also language use. and in the second role. it is essential that he or and (ii) native speaker. self-managing learn- their partnership is oral communication. beyond dispute that ners to be provided with plenty of advice and frequent involvement in purposeful communi. development of appropriate support structures back is one of the most important stimuli to and counselling techniques has become a cen- learning (and from time to time it may appro. guage learning. Face.. 96 ReCALL . as itly and without reservation. precisely because they ciples of reciprocity and learner autonomy communicate with their partner bilingually. and although their learning activities surprising. 2. Partners work come is an undeveloped capacity for together at the same time and in the same autonomous learning behaviour. Brammerts 1993). Lewis et al. feed. each of whom is learning is its capacity to help learners learning the other’s language. that tandem language learners have to over- ing happens face-to-face. 1996). as part of the network of largely partner’s learning. A less obvious benefit of tandem language nership between two people. develop and be exploited both explicitly. she concentrates on supporting the learner’s how to provide feedback. how to behave as (i) learner each tandem exchange. Calvert 1992. though perhaps not as well.g. for instance by must support one another equally. it entails a part.Tandem language learning via e-mail: D Little and E Ushioda 2. Tandem language learning tion).

in the actual based on the native speaker’s intuitions rather formulation of each message the learner is than explicit linguistic analysis. mixing the two lan- language learning via e-mail guages within paragraphs and sentences. In e-mail tandems feedback can like- ing is negotiated between the participants. and here again. And it is face-to-face. Alternatively. but they may seek the help of an adviser via e- in due course partners may well develop tech. sational repair. in e-mail tandems each autonomy is to be promoted within an e-mail message should be so divided. The transposition of tandem learning from It is not an involuntary product of the commu- face-to-face to e-mail mode also has conse. This is because written communica- general desire to find new ways of using infor. in wise take two forms: reformulation of defec- written communication it must be produced by tive structures. is especially pronounced in the e-mail tion are in short supply. it has the inevitably on his or her own. Tandem language learning via e-mail: D Little and E Ushioda 2. As regards tandem reference to lexical definitions. for example via the operation of conver- sages that look very like the turns in a conver. guage. mail. or vice versa. Inevitably. it can be explicit sation. the native speaker always knows when he or nership. and so on. whereas the linguistic sub- gave rise to the idea of tandem language learn. When vocabulary have more in common with speech native and non-native speakers communicate than with formal written registers. that one doesn’t use that word in this particu- munication: whereas in oral interaction mean. spontaneously in the course of communica- they can exchange a succession of brief mes. tion and structure of communication between tandem learners communicating via e-mail tandem partners. course we arrange to record it). for example. arising correspondence are on-line at the same time. But although speaker can only ever provide the learner with the first of these forms of feedback may be linguistic support after the event. this means that the native rules. and thus for the language should find it all but impossible to avoid learning process. so that their syntax and medium has particular consequences. not least because in mote the development of new perspectives on many formal learning environments native the learner’s mother tongue and target lan- speakers of one of the two languages in ques. that e-mail is a channel of written rather than The requirement to provide feedback to oral communication. nication process. But these facts must not be allowed to and direct. tion. It can be implicit and indirect. In the early stages be offered face-to-face advice. Whereas in face-to-face tandems each she is providing feedback. tion provides us with texts that we can analyse mation systems to support language learning. same intentional character as the second form. It is true that in many one’s partner should play a decisive role in quarters e-mail exchanges are conducted in a this process. grammatical language learning. Face-to-face tandem partnerships are not The capacity of tandem learning to pro- always easy to arrange. as when the native speaker inter- obscure the fundamental difference between rupts the flow of communication to explain oral interaction and all forms of written com. This may seem tandem scheme depends on the institutional to imply that messages should be written in and perhaps curricular structures in which the two halves – first mother tongue and then tar. lar way. together with the version. But whatever practical arrangements are Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 97 . This. norms of usage. Learners may get language. and reflect on. feedback takes two distinct also true that when the partners in an e-mail forms. drawing explicit comparisons and contrasts The first consequence arises from the fact between mother tongue and target language. In principle. and in the written medium quences for the bilingual structure of the part. particular scheme is embedded.2 Some basic issues in tandem niques of code-switching. meeting should be divided fifty-fifty between How exactly the development of learner the two languages. or this is probably the easiest way to proceed. stance of oral communication remains only ing via e-mail. and explanation of mistakes by the writer working alone. the change of fleetingly in our short-term memory (unless of medium has consequences for the organiza. the e-mail very informal style.

Evidence from that are so much more central to written than the pilot phase of the project strongly supports to oral communication. empirical investigation in 1997–8.Tandem language learning via e-mail: D Little and E Ushioda made. the courses are taken as both tandem partners to share in the coun. we present our findings to date of advice.g. devoted to developing robust organizational Although other factors may have played a part structures and establishing appropriate moni. To this end. it is possible for institutions. one for the way in which coun. In this part selling is organized. work successfully as part of a larger course of there were between 25 and 30 active partner- study. Thus there is no guarantee that all stu- tional and pedagogical structures are needed dents in a course of study will be assigned a for tandem language learning via e-mail to tandem partner.1 Organizational structures ous advantage of this arrangement is that it In the pilot phase. the project seeks agency of the International E-mail Tandem to address a number of important practical Network. a focus on similar topic medium itself can offer is an asynchronous areas. and the other for the focus of the paper. 3. this joint scheme is underpinned by ers will need help with organizational and our own firm conviction that an institutional affective problems. etc. lack of toring and evaluation procedures. the demand for questions to which these issues of principle partners in certain target languages outstrips give rise: in particular. a number of features in common. and the best the e-mail munication skills. 3. so were twinned with German students learning that the process of seeking and accepting English at the Ruhr-Universität Bochum. institutional collaboration is required to The e-mail tandem project to which we now address the practical problem of securing tan- turn has largely been shaped by consideration dem partners for all students. In the pilot year of the project. technical problems using e-mail. selling process in the virtual communication students who are not studying a foreign lan- space provided by a MOO (Multiple user guage for their degree). Irish university students enables learners to define problems and learning German at Trinity College Dublin explore possible solutions collaboratively. and conclude by looking dem partners learn together in the same place forward to the second phase of the project.).. (e. supply. of advice. In both discussion forum. These will be interest.e. pointing to the need for very close institutional co-operation through the planning and implementation stages. and what measures can be taken to mon. in a three-way encounter. ships. The joint scheme thus domain. face. This figure accounts for less than 20% itor and evaluate its effectiveness. however. However. of the total number of Irish students initially the first year of the project (1996–7) has been enrolled in our German courses in 1996–7. but that e-mail tandem partnership of this kind is a prerequisite for the learners will need particular support in devel. Object Oriented) such as the Tandem offers an appropriately controlled context Language Centre at Diversity University (see within which to conduct an empirical evalua- Schwienhorst 1998:123). what kinds of organiza. at the same time. there is little doubt that failure 98 ReCALL . Equally. it is possible to advise them together. including an to-face advice can only be available to each emphasis on the development and use of com- partner separately. successful implementation of this mode of oping control of the intentional procedures learning in a course of study. this conviction. optional extras by non-specialist students (i. In its mally assigned through the central dating design and implementation. As regards the focus tion of tandem language learning via e-mail. it seems likely that all tandem learn. Precisely because face-to-face tan. The advice is an integral part of the tandem courses of study in Dublin and Bochum share process. Partners are nor- of these issues of general principle. In the case of e-mail tandems. and a cycle of project work. from the pilot phase. The obvi. In practice. The project: an interim report At the most basic organizational level. the e-mail medium has two important used as the basis for conducting a full-scale implications. moreover.

3 Empirical evaluation procedures cessful as a whole. that part- relatively low number of students with working ners in the early stages of correspondence may partnerships made it difficult to assign more find it difficult to decide what to write about than a superficial role to tandem learning in the or how to correct each other’s errors. a system that will be take into account the differences in the term exclusively adopted in the second year of the and semester structures between the two insti- project. Empirical evi. scious of these principles and vaguely attuned close institutional co-operation is also required to each other’s language learning needs. we realize that tandem Through tighter organizational structures of learning must be assigned a more central role in these kinds. effective language learning in tandem depends on the principles of reciprocity and 3. the difficulties caused by loss of partnerships The integration of tandem learning into the through student withdrawal (a problem faced course design in this way should ensure a in both institutions because the language pro. In addition. quate induction and ongoing support to stu- munication for students whose partners drop dents. the pilot phase suggests. Detailed design of the course. so that active use is made of those will be ‘double-dated’. in unlikely that they will put the principles into terms of the role that tandem learning plays in practice without appropriate support and each course of study and the kinds of support guidelines. be able to exploit their tandem partnerships in and not simply left to students themselves to a more effective and principled manner. The fact that stu. Feedback from students in the that are provided. However. This corre. much tighter organizational structure that will grammes are extra-curricular). it is envisaged that students will the design of the courses in both institutions. The pursue in a haphazard and unfocused way. as well as in terms spondence will moreover form part of the of learning outcomes and linguistic outcomes. It should be noted that the joint twin students through direct contact between planning of the two courses has also had to our two institutions. While partners may be con- Beyond such basic practical arrangements. In addition. During the pilot phase. degree to which they succeed in doing so will Our own course design for 1997–8 will of course be subject to empirical evaluation. however. paper. their learning experience.2 Pedagogical organization learner autonomy. so that each is assigned periods in the year when regular communica- two tandem partners. Students were simply guidelines drawn up by the two institutions are encouraged to exploit their tandem partnerships thus needed to help tandem partners agree on in order to learn and communicate in German procedures for formulating exchanges. recting errors. for example. working on tasks and providing dence suggests that some students did indeed mutual learning support. work submitted by students in fulfilment of The pilot phase of the project was devoted to their course requirements. A further mea. cor- and get help with project work. engage in productive and effective tandem learning. for the scheme to be suc. in an effort to overcome tion can be guaranteed. recognize the importance of providing ade- in order to provide a back-up channel of com. learning support and exchange of information As the year progressed. Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 99 . Tandem language learning via e-mail: D Little and E Ushioda to secure a partner was by far the largest factor similar kinds of projects at the same time determining the relatively low number of should provide plenty of scope for mutual active partnerships. developing appropriate procedures for evalu- dents in both institutions will be working on ating these various outcomes. 3. we discussion forum between the two institutions. thus include correspondence with tandem In this respect. steps were taken to and ideas. it is at the level of pedagogical organization. it is intended that students tutions. facilitate the effective exploitation of this sure will be the setting up of a bilingual e-mail medium of learning. As indicated in the earlier part of this out or fail to write. success is to be measured in partners as an integral part of the project work terms of perceived benefits for students in that students will be engaged in.

it was consid. it offered regular through the pilot phase.Tandem language learning via e-mail: D Little and E Ushioda A simple open-ended questionnaire was small a corpus to yield more than some very devised to elicit students’ perceptions of their general indications about content. and administered length and the proportions of English and Ger- via e-mail twice during the pilot year. suggesting that those with work- ing partnerships found tandem learning via e- mail both appealing and different from other 4. Our experience in the pilot year zum Bundeskongreß in Freiburg (1992) des makes it clear that rigorous procedures must Fachverbandes Moderne Fremdsprachen. to useful detailed evaluation of students’ use of tandem vocabulary including colloquial idioms. Evaluations from students who a concrete focus and purpose for these written responded were on the whole positive and exchanges. The questionnaire was required to submit a series of tandem thus administered to all students enrolled in exchanges as part of their course work. For a sub-sample of when they wanted to learn. experience of real-time text-based communi- ner’s failure to respond. it involved purposeful communica. 121–32. over. the project work that students will be ists and not just those with tandem partners in involved in will provide tandem partners with Bochum. These latter findings cedures but of further clarifying and extending underline the importance of monitoring tan. too Calvert M. or problems finding a cation with their tandem partners in the virtual computer free). the evaluation will extend to their ties were either of a practical kind (e. sentence tandem learning experience. and it gave stu. In the pilot phase. In the second year. but also an analysis of their corre- spondence with their tandem partners in order Brammerts H. to evaluate the kinds of learning process and In Fachverband Moderne Fremdsprachen (eds. Perceived difficul. between partners (e. the Saarbrücker Schriften zur Angewandten Lin- data collected were limited to samples of guistik und Sprachlehrforschung 12). For this man used. of process and product that are reflected in dents the freedom to decide how. or difficulty ways not only of refining our pedagogical pro- knowing what to write). our understanding of the theoretical issues dem learning activity and providing appropri. Fremdsprachen für die Zukunft – Nach - linguistic outcome that are reflected in these barsprachen und Mehrsprachigkeit. This will entail an evalua- learning. focusing on both the affective dimen- first-hand information about the target lan. encouraging. or related to problems in environment of the object-oriented multiple establishing mutually agreed procedures user domain (MOO) at Diversity University. a partner’s tendency to As a result of this research we hope to find write in English all the time. brücken: Universität des Saarlandes (SALUS – tity and quality of data.g. since students will be perceived by students. More- our foreign language courses for non-special. the integration exploratory phase of the project. a part. Beiträge exchanges. tion of the organizational structures developed tion with a native speaker. Conclusion: the next phase forms of language learning they had experi- enced. the students. Monitoring tandem learning requires not only an analysis of how students evaluate their References experience. Our objective in 1997–8 is to conduct a full- Its principal attractions seemed to be that it scale empirical evaluation of tandem language was more relaxed and informal than classroom learning via e-mail. (1992) ‘Working in tandem: peddling an 100 ReCALL . exchanges volunteered by a few students.g. sion of their learning experience and the kinds guage country and culture. ate support and guidelines for both partners. briefly addressed in the first part of this paper. and to learning. what and their written exchanges. (1993) ‘Sprachenlernen im Tandem’. It will also entail a exposure to the target language. of tandem learning via e-mail into the design ered important to obtain as broad a picture as of the course will enable us to gather data in a possible of how tandem learning via e-mail is more efficient manner.). Saar- be implemented in order to assure both quan.

Where Research and Practice Meet. and Thompson J. (eds. Ema Ushioda is a research Little D. Proceed - Lewis T. Broady E. In tember 1997. ReCALL. Dublin. Dublin: Trin- 19. (1995) nication Studies. Promot - ing Learner Autonomy in University Language Teaching. Ergebnisse..-M. his principal research interests are Little D. in language learning. In Blin F. Dublin: Authentik. tual reality applications for second language Bochum: AKS-Verlag (Fremdsprachen in Lehre learning’. Woodin J. 105– and Communication Studies (CLCS). und Forschung 18). David Little is Director of the Centre for Language guage Studies in association with CILT. (1998) ‘The “third place” – vir- richt: Informationen. Dublin. Legenhausen L. London: Association for French Lan.. Projekte. 17– CLCS Occasional Paper No. Schwienhorst K.). 11–13 Sep- learning: independence through partnership’. Telekommunikation und Fremdsprachenunter . (1996) ‘Tandem ings of EUROCALL’97. Tandem language learning via e-mail: D Little and E Ushioda old idea’. and Brammerts H. fellow in CLCS whose principal research interest is guage learning in tandem via the Internet’.). and Kenning M. and Wolff D. ity College. 118–126. lege. the study of motivation in language learning. Trinity Col - 20. 46. (1991) Learner Autonomy 1: Definitions. Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 101 . learner autonomy and the use of new technologies Issues and Problems. 10(1). and St John E. Centre for Language and Commu- Eck A. Language Learning Journal 6.(eds. (1996) ‘Aguide to lan.

At the end of this year a full ation of medium and lower-level CALL mate- 102 ReCALL . This les- the package. be carried out over a two year period with two access to the software and an upgrade of the groups of students. This was to mostly concerned student time management. The first year of the exercise son is discussed in greater depth later in the served as a practice run. miliarity with even the most basic elements of It proved to be a valuable learning period for CALL software. this paper deals with many of the issues involved in the successful integration of a piece of multimedia software into a language curriculum designed for non-specialist advanced undergradu- ate students of French. despite the apparent prolifer- this author/tutor. Background and context evaluation of the integration was carried out with the students and subsequent necessary The practical purpose of this research was to changes were made in preparation for the new attempt to introduce and make full use of a cohort of students arriving in the second year. It involved training stu. a CALL multimedia package Liam Murray University of Warwick As one branch of CALL research moves further into the analysis of software integration into second lan- guage courses. After discussing the background and context of the research. the paper describes the software used and the surrounding integration aspects as well as the future use and development of the software as adequate courseware and research material. ries being assessed and matched against the It remained true that at the beginning of practical experiences. software.ReCALL 10:1 (1998) 102–108 Why integrate? Reactions to Télé-Textes Author 2. multimedia CALL package in an advanced These changes were few in number and level French non-specialist course. with integration theo. end of the first year dealt with the students’ Students were then set the task of creating and attitude to working within what was for most designing their own materials for use within of them a new learning environment. many students displayed an unfa- teaching environment of the course designers. particular resources and each year. paper. 1. An important lesson learned at the dents in the use and evaluation of the package.

separate student TT2 CD-ROM. the author was quite fortunate in finding a In the second term. As noted elsewhere. The class. video news clip realia as well as other CALLmaterials such as 1. A-level or equivalent standard with the stated where students were interviewed prior to aims of deepening students’ understanding of course enrolment about their opinions and any French civilisation and extending their writing concerns they may share or have had about and speaking skills. for the most part. presen- upgrading of the original teaching package. the students are divided small group of software developers and into workgroups and the project work begins designers who had already produced a suitable in earnest. the course is made exposure to CALL had to be introduced in a up of two hours per week class time over a planned and careful way to the software. using the software on a weekly basis duced during the first term and used in class. Such an experience to students” (Laurillard 1995: inclusion will be carried out using the new 179). debates. The compilations of the materials are designers were very willing to co-operate and finished and near the end of this term students discuss ideas informally on the use and devel. books. if the duction of materials for TT2 which would. Lan- software producer both during and after the guage and culture textbooks. tations. The students’ multimedia using the multimedia project as a learning project is intended to focus their attention on resource. Fun with Texts.4 It must be reported that student opposi- ‘Tendril’ software. ing objectives had to be redefined: “. In addi- Integration meant a redesign of the original tion. grammar discussions. students’ learn- the whole learning process through their pro. be included in TT2 and potential and offer a new kind of learning used with future groups of students. This TT2 is also made available for general student resulted in longer peer discussions of the soft- Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 103 . The various media CALL materials available that are aspects and subject items of TT2 are dis- aimed at advanced learners. three students facing the PCs. students with their limited previous course. The commercial cussed. which was itself news clips and materials begins and there is a based upon an older multimedia German noted upsurge in the use of TT2 outside of the CALL package called TV und Texte. namely Télé-Textes. at new medium is to achieve its pedagogical the appropriate time. The newer version of Télé-Textes. joint commercial venture but it did represent It must be remembered that the multimedia for this author a valuable opportunity to dis. for example. final term.1 The course GramEx and GramDef are also used. minimal.. when this software has been fully tested majority of the learners had already used com- and becomes available to us. It is aimed at a post occurred right from the beginning of term 1. The search for their own video package. During the legitimate content and finally write and cut a remainder of the first term students were. component is but one part of several other cuss introduction and integration issues with a resources that are used on this course. TT2 is intro. This will allow puters in some respect and the major questions the tutor to take the separate elements of the and worries surrounded tutoring in and access project materials. the most recent addition to tion was. The vast TT2. “Why integrate?”: L Murray rials such as. the projects are submitted and namely Télé-Textes Author 2 (TT2). In their defence. The dents had seen or used an advanced level presentations and inductions were conducted CALL package. inside and outside of classroom time. make formal presentations to their peers opment of an upgraded version of the soft. As it now stands. Given the according to their submitted ‘diaries’ or log limited exposure time in class. This twenty five week period. their future project is described to reasons for this situation are obvious but in the them and guidelines and deadlines are given. Centre throughout the whole of the year. include them within TT2 as to our chosen teaching software. it must be during twenty-minute periods with groups of stated that there are currently very few multi. In the ware. where criticisms are sought and given. It use in the Open Access area of the Language was therefore no surprise that none of the stu. was not a marked.. end.

“Why integrate?”: L Murray ware contents and in questions to the tutor on learning model and the generation and assem- many of the subject issues relating to contem. TT2 also had to service the same number of exercises and tasks specifically needs. textbook and standing of contemporary France and its insti. In approaching an advanced French language course. as can be seen the general course content needed to be lin. and the speaking skill through the presentation and defence of their project. ing elements of video. it was the long evalua - tion and mimicking of the original designers’ Figure 1 TT2 screen dump 104 ReCALL .2 The students to ‘repurpose’ existing materials (in his exam- Student motivation on this course was rarely a ple it was with multimedia essay writing). They exercises and tests for use with the video clip. appealed to each of them. A brief profile reveals that these With TT2 this idea was taken further and stu- learners are non-specialists in language learn. bly of their own material and exercises with porary France as they were studied using tra. along with the video transcription and the language exer. The learners had to be set a goal and a challenge. exercises and diary. The course itself was conducted. This is what ditional materials and TT2. This was achieved thus: the listening written for use with the chosen subject. In our case. dents were allowed to have their own choice ing. are very much aware of the need for other life In this way the project activities force the stu- skills in enhancing their future CV documents dents to think carefully about what they are and the prospect of being content providers compiling and what they are offering to future and designers on a multimedia project users. the division of labour’ choices were left entirely to the individual students. Each Dossier has at least two video clips and a gual skills. a user notepad and a Stu- cises. These clips guistically challenging for their level of are to be found within seven themed Dossiers. No problems were reported in this respect. optional transcripts. stratégie. Plowman (1988: 29) calls ‘cognitive enhancers’. in the target language. This French course is an academic option of video news footage in the full knowledge on their main degree programme and they hail that they had to devise competent language from a broad mixture of backgrounds. the reading skill through work on scrollbar to control the video clip. 2. précis. in which the user is given the tools 1. skill was practised and tested through the The TT2 workspace also provides a video video work. The software They expected no French literature analysis and to practise and polish their language skills TT2 combines the traditional language learn- to a high degree and to deepen their under. from the screen dump (Figure 1). these stu- dents also had certain needs and expectations.3 Needs and aims TF1 and offers a fair range of contemporary In tailoring the course to these specific needs and cultural subjects for study. French with ample practice of all four intralin. cahier d’exercices onto a self-access and easy tutions. It uses eighteen short video news clips from the French television station 1. the writing skill through work on their own transcription. A noted major adjust- ment for several students was in learning to participate and contribute to a working project group. audio. problem. for the most part. other students on a final project. With a maximum of three students per project group. to use CD-ROM.

politics students chose a clip on a national bus strike. Some efforts ing and producing content for a multimedia were. The course designers recognised similar level of difficulty as in the précis the need to overcome all ‘prejudices’ and con. is ular news item and form part of the already employed in each and every subsequent year mentioned stratégie. as the second screen of the project. Points were made in the first tinues to be taught erratically in UK year of use concerning the need for student schools. two years of the study: able on the screen) or by using the different answer boxes by clicking on them when the • the video newsclip search was sometimes cursor is placed in the correct blanked area of a reflection of their own interests. The language skills are tested by a set of tasks classified under Figure 2 TT2 screen dump twelve headings. some students as it forced them to think about how to be still had to be eased into the process of learn. every news section offers a concise written introduction and a stratégie on how to approach and use the particular news items.1 Student reactions to and • the video transcriptions. “Why integrate?”: L Murray dio facility for voice recording and multime- dia role-playing with the learner in the guise of a television journalist. 2. there is a character bar always avail. to average as this essential skill still con- ing comments. 2. though found by evaluations of the software many students to be most difficult task. The following comments are typical for the acters. intervals throughout the whole of year. dump shows (Figure 2). students support resources during the second • the stratégie writing was quite good and year of use. the the question. overlong and reflected a environment. For some students this is an exposure to other types of CALL software and entirely new skill and it must be taught the development of critical skills in this area each year to all of the students as early as of evaluation. comments range from initial enthusiasm for • the précis writing ranged from very good the software to later more critical and search. but are usually limited to a choice from six headings per news clip. learnt during the first year trial. contamination de sang.2 Tutor’s evaluation of student dent may be entered either by typing them in. writing.g. an instructional designer. however. Despite general acceptance of again students spent a lot of time on them TT2 as legitimate courseware. Their grève. Student reactions to the software were were generally very good examples of sub- recorded on questionnaires at bi-monthly jects include: avalanche. e. vince students of MM learning-values at the • the language exercises were quite varied beginning of and during the course. A fact recognised thus incorporated more extensively within the by both students and tutor. and offered room for some creativity. projects in the conventional fashion (for accented char. as indeed are the news clip sections. TT2 allows the tutor or teacher to build their own specific sets of exercises and tasks and is designed for use with the original Télé-Textes video clips. As well as the spoken short introductions. The Dossiers are listed in a file card display. son. This les. The six offered headings are pertinent to the partic. GramEx and GramDef were possible in the first term. exploratrice. Answers to the many questions and exercises presented to the stu. The Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 105 .

and some tutors’expertise. it is arguable that this is partly design have only limited utility. Gardiner. the better they will remember it – mond (1993: 53). it must be stated that and exploited earlier in the student’s life. and carried • although the tutor workload initially out significantly more background increased through the preparation and research than was required on how the redesign of the course and students’ French televisual news presented the demands on the tutor outside of classroom. In 3. synonymes. images. Language an open access area and using it in class learning and practice. one nent topics in our situation: group did a project on Laurence de la Ferrière. lier. being made very clear to them right from the start in explaining why exactly they are doing certain things in their projects. rial.that guage learning or teaching goals to be the more the learner thinks about the mate- achieved by the application” and Ham. remplir les blancs.“Why integrate?”: L Murray list of student compiled tasks includes: characteristics of the learning situation and Préparez-vous. pursued software. Here we find echoes of that we should: “Clearly identify the lan. although learning process for some students unfa- regularly recorded also held many writing miliar with hypermedia and. The group level of a ‘typical’language course. it must be reported that ricula. but mistakes tended to appear. almost became secondary in the theoretical. linguistic errors did occur here. as stated ear- mistakes. this enthused students. 106 ReCALL . styles and contents. ished project. Educational technol- l’essentiel (with certain trick questions). Hammond’s (1993: 59) comments: “. in reminding us that where ‘more’ does not mean simply for human learning is extraordinarily varied. In this sit- guidelines for educational [hypermedia] uation. Indeed. artefact in question”. ogists such as Hammond tell us that in util- vérification. expres . However the group. the achieved ulti- with headphones having to be provided) to mate goal. the institutional formed a small part of the students’ fin- support. and the achieved through the generation of teach- author must take account of many of the ing materials for someone else.. the female explorer. cochez la bonne réponse. ising hypermedia we should be adding sions-clés. it also must encapsulate a relatively new • the work diaries or log books. In the larger context. This would form part of the oft-quoted this is where the majority of the writing ‘enhancement of the learning process’. the following represent the most perti. For example. then distilled their gathered information • technical problems have been minimal due and included it innovatively as part of their to the working relationship with the own exercices. perhaps reflecting their low posi. points out that: “Generic prescriptive • promotion of effective learning. how people are likely to learn from the compréhension. and Conclusions which were other tools to the repertoire of learning subjects for general discussion and formal styles and not exclude other styles learned debates. These important issues ranged this ‘mini’ project because they were from the practical (having access to TT2 in deeply interested in the subject. Integration issues combining other skills that they are acquir- ing and practising such as ‘reading’ news There are many issues surrounding the ques. looking into news presentation tion of software integration into language cur. longer but in greater depth and variety”. this designer and programmer. with the benefits in the overall project. explorer’s adventures and how the various the situation has eased somewhat to the printed news publications did it. vrai et faux. some students need to be ‘encouraged’ tion of importance in the students’ minds in this learning process. • when and where it is appropriate to use the although fully aware of this fact. Hemard (1997: 19) states these instances.. However.

“Why integrate?”: L Murray

(1989) has described this as the generation • carry out further research on précis and
effect where one learns more from the stratégie writing as practised by students
material that one has produced oneself. As within a multimedia environment;
a concept, this is a continuation of the • begin research on student implicit and
enactment effect, or learning by doing, explicit knowledge where learning from
which has been extensively documented images occurs when viewing video clips;
and proven elsewhere; • continue research on individual language
• redesigning of a course curriculum to learning styles, their differences and stu-
account for the multimedia element. The dent metacognitive skills;
course designers had many discussions • move on from the use of news clips to
both during and at the end of each year on include sections from films, televised dis-
the development of an already established cussions and documentaries.
language course and on any necessary
changes to the course. The changes to the
original course mainly included the set- 5. Conclusion: why we should
ting, production and assessment of the stu- integrate
dent project work. The marking scheme
itself is under continual evaluation but cur- This conclusion is positive for the most part as
rently stands thus: the project represents the overall learning process is believed to be
15% of the overall mark for the course; 8% motivating, challenging and new. It was felt
is for ‘correct language usage throughout’, by students to have incorporated and encour-
including the diary report; 4% is for the aged the development of different transferable
concepts used in the mixture of students’ skills and greatly helped their understanding
own exercises and other components; 3% of certain aspects of French civilisation and
is for an overall impression mark. During their confidence in understanding, writing and
the presentation of this paper, some com- speaking the French language. In spite of the
mentators thought this accreditation to be amount of effort required of the students
rather low given the amount of work throughout the year given the accreditation
required of the students (even within a scheme (the perhaps ‘negative aspect’), the
groupwork project) and this author agrees production of their own Dossiers did offer
somewhat with those sentiments. How- them a source of satisfaction and pride in their
ever, as the project work establishes itself work, especially in the knowledge that it
as a legitimate and advantageous learning would be used by future groups of learners.
and teaching scheme within the course and It cannot be claimed that the integration
satisfies the requirements of the course freed up time for the tutor and this may always
examiners and designers, the accreditation be the case with newer courses, but it can be
may well increase in the future. claimed that the project work did enthuse
these students, they learned and they did enjoy
the challenge. A generation effect was dis-
4. Future use and development of cerned from the returned sets of question-
the software as adequate naires and from interviewing the students indi-
courseware and research vidually.
material In some ways, the question “Why inte-
grate?” is a fatuous and superfluous one.
The software itself will be continually devel- Expectations are there (and rising) from many
oped by the original designers and from our quarters to use CALL software in our teaching
perspective it is intended to: at tertiary level as much as possible. Whilst
welcoming these ‘pressures’ to a large degree,
• integrate the use of Tendril and other it must be remembered that we, the tutors,
authoring tools for student use; should attempt to obtain and maintain as much

Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 107

“Why integrate?”: L Murray

as we can, knowledge about and control over Hemard D. P. (1997) ‘Design principles and guide-
the choice (and even the creation) of the soft- lines for authoring hypermedia language learn-
ware and its use and appropriate pedagogical ing applications’, System 25(1), 9–27.
integration. Hammond N. (1993) ‘Learning with Hypertext:
Problems, principles & prospects’. In
McKnight C., Dillon A. and Richardson J.
(eds.), Hypertext: A psychological Perspective,
References Chichester: Ellis Horwood, 51–69.
Gardiner J. M. (1989) ‘A generation effect in mem-
Barker P. and King T. (1993) ‘Evaluating interac- ory without awareness’, British Journal of Psy -
tive multimedia courseware – a methodology’, chology 80, 163–168.
Computers and Education 21(4), 307–319. Svensson T. and Nilsson L.-G. (1989) ‘The rela-
Oxford R.L. (1995) ‘Linking theories of learning tionship between recognition and cued recall in
with intelligent computer-assisted language memory of enacted and non-enacted informa-
learning’. In Holland V. M., Kaplan J. D. and tion’, Psychological Research 51, 194–200.
Sams M. R. (eds.), Intelligent Language Tutors:
Theory shaping technology , Mahwah, NJ:
Lawrence Erlbaum, 359–369.
Laurillard D. (1995) ‘Multimedia and the changing Liam Murray has been working in CALL since
experience of the learner’, British Journal of 1989. He has developed “Hypermots” for literary
Educational Technology 26(3), 179–189. study of Sartre’s “Les Mots”; he is now researching
Plowman L. (1988) ‘Active learning and interactive areas of software integration, Web pedagogy and
video: a contradiction in terms?’, Programmed writing methodologies in a multimedia environ -
Learning and Educational Technology 25, ment.
289–293. Email:

108 ReCALL

ReCALL 10:1 (1998) 109–117

Using the Internet to teach English
for academic purposes

Hilary Nesi
University of Warwick

The paper describes how networked self-access EAP materials have been developed at Warwick Uni-
versity since 1992. The current package of materials (The CELTE Self-Access Centre) can be freely
accessed from the World Wide Web, and aims to provide some basic training in Information Technol-
ogy alongside more conventional language and study skills activities. Problems of development and dis-
tribution are discussed, including the resistance of those EAP practitioners who have little experience of
the Internet in an educational context, and the unwillingness of users to interact with unknown task set-

Background pants, and which therefore cannot be catered
for in class.
Like most English-medium Higher Education We needed a safety net for those who were
Institutions, Warwick University provides missing the opportunity to develop their lan-
courses in English for Academic Purposes guage and study skills by more conventional
(EAP) for students whose first language is not means. A Self-Access Centre was the answer,
English. Such provision includes a preses- but before it could be created several practical
sional programme, a full-time certificate pro- problems concerning location, staffing and
gramme, and a programme of lunch-time and space had to be resolved. It was difficult to
evening classes. Yet these courses alone do not decide on a location for a Self-Access Centre,
entirely meet the need for English language because Warwick University is spread across a
and study skills support. Exchange students three-part campus covering 500 acres. Many
and visiting academics often come to Warwick university campuses are far more extensive, of
during periods when no EAP courses are on course, but we still felt that some potential
offer, and full-time students often find that users would find it difficult to reach a single
lessons clash with departmental timetables. centre, wherever it was placed. We did not
Some learners also have language needs that have the resources to staff multiple centres,
differ from those of the majority of partici- and indeed it would have been costly to staff

Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 109

defeated the purpose of a scheme designed to The network monitor we used was Sabre increase the availability of English language Meter. materials were fairly typical of self-access 1995). to departments. Matchmaster. minutes. with normal user behaviour. excep. without interfering in any way provide a similar service for overseas students. selected. in terms of the activity and program the user cal problem of finding the space for all poten. No permanently available resource the activity. We were. from February 1993 to charge to students. in 1991 Sabre Meter recorded 391 different users of we began to develop a collection of computer. Jobs and Collo. a software package which recorded use support. however. A pilot version of the package tended to be far more popular than writing was trialled in 1992 (Tsai 1992). ated at Warwick. located in every area of the campus. number of users. than we would have been able to meet face-to- vided with a small grant from the University face.Using the Internet to teach English: H Nesi even a single centre outside conventional extremely accessible (workstations were office hours. we found that the package was existed independently of any use made of it being accessed by a broader range of users for teaching purposes. and the user’s department and sta- room on campus would have been large tus (undergraduate. A front-end menu was cre. and many supplementary EAPat Warwick is financed by were available 24 hours a day. for example. The and a range of Topic subcategories (British average duration of access was only fifteen Life. network as a medium for learning materials. all year round). a questionnaires and publicity leaflets. As at most British universities. tutors and subject tutors an expanded version It may be that the users of our networked was made available in 1993 (Nesi 1993. postgraduate. report cards The Warwick package was. tional timetabled classes. A network monitor records Nowadays a number of British universities unobtrusively. making them pay for the February 1994. Topics and Vocabulary). 110 ReCALL . had a predilec- Our self-access materials were created tion for the very early morning hours that using six well-known authoring programs: could never have been satisfied by conven- Eclipse (John Higgins) and Choicemaster. and 1668 instances of use for be accessed via the hundreds of networked longer than four minutes. Grammar. unrelated to English language learning. Although we were workstations on campus. and in activities. Pinpoint and Vocab seemed to justify our choice of the University (Wida Software). a small central fund and is provided free of and for twelve months. researcher or enough to accommodate all the self-access staff). Places. the amount of time spent on resources. which demanded greater effort. the learning materials from 33 different based English language learning exercises. con- response to feedback from students. University Life. and diaries that are used to evaluate learner tional in two important respects: it was activity in a conventional self-access centre. which presented materials We also noted that users seemed to treat not according to exercise type but according to our materials as a kind of light relief from learning purpose. however. the time and the date when the activ- tial users and a sufficient quantity of ity was accessed. and for this rea- and in some respects our early efforts were no son it may reveal patterns of use that are not different from those of many other institutions. and to print at unexpected times of the day and night. We also registered many instances of use to cover the purchase of software. Using the University not reaching all the students we had hoped to network cost virtually nothing. time. A final consideration was the practi. we used a network monitor to extra expense of staff time would have record every detail of its use. pro. as the network provide for. EAP centration and time. In the twelve-month monitoring period As a solution to these problems. and matching and selecting exercises quial English). These two findings Gapmaster. evident from the questionnaires. Details of the Sabre Meter data are learners who might wish to use it at any one given in Nesi (1996). It had four main categories other computer-based activities that were (Functions. learners in general.

due to the fact that many EAP course design- port for our students. and only 13% taught students how to access provision at Warwick. We therefore concentrated required students to search for information on on creating reading skills materials instead. many of the Warwick becoming conscious that the provision of EAP computers did not have sound cards. Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 111 . and render them of the package was subject to continuous accessible to students off-campus as well as change as we responded to feedback from all those who used the workstations at War. perhaps greater guidance and more personalised sup. and We hoped that an EAP Website would intro- the menu which had looked so up-to-date in duce learners to some of the conventions of 1992 no longer impressed those users with the Internet. although highly qualified in other respects. the Internet. and also provide a springboard to other mercial authoring programs were too rigid for sites on the World Wide Web. only 24% included training in E-mail 1997). use. our students’ Internet use. However we went on to improve self. We could create alling of materials. tion. Jarvis reports that although exercises were all free-standing and could be most courses provided training in wordpro- accessed in any order rather than along speci. use at those workstations where audio recep- Whilst subject departments increasingly tion was possible. As with our previous seemed to offer the additional advantages of project. and there seemed to be few if any study skills port or feedback. and the in British universities was failing to keep pace University could not provide headphones for with developments in learning technology. One of the stated aims of our new self- By 1995 our self-access package was looking access materials. We were rials were not viable. link them password holders only. Access was limited to activities in all manner of formats. our purposes. despite our attempt to create coherence of 1995 (Jarvis 1996) presented evidence to by grouping activities into categories. at the right juncture. the Internet materials on the Internet. However. tion tasks when they receive no human sup. After talking to Warwick wick. it was often impossible to pro- vide all the information we wanted to provide. ers and tutors. tutors and users. The programs were not some basic Information Technology training. therefore. Using the Internet to teach English: H Nesi Perhaps most self-access learners are disin. the support this view. was to provide rather old-fashioned. rather fragmented approach to the learning A survey of thirty presessional EAP package may also have been due to the fact courses at British universities in the summer that. University Computing Services we accepted We also had a further motive for choosing that our initial plans for audio and video mate- to site our materials on the Internet. We also felt that com. and when they do not even materials which trained non-native speakers in meet the task setters. This suggests a we would have to explore ways of providing serious failure to meet learner need. encourage e-mail communica- previous IT experience. and the overall design in whatever way we chose. in the right format. EAP tutors seemed to refer clined to work on difficult language produc. and it The development of an EAP was difficult to establish direct links between self-access centre on the Internet different programs and thereby encourage users to follow a designated learning path. cessing and the use of on-line library cata- fied “self-access pathways” (Kell and Newton logues. it was clear that access the World Wide Web. almost exclusively to paper-based resources. Windows-based or even mouse-driven. In 1995 we applied for and received funding While retaining all the advantages of the for a small two-year project to develop EAP internal network at the University. we began with very small scale tri- flexibility and accessibility. are themselves unable to use the Internet and do not recognise its impor- Why the Internet? tance for university study.

Working with Texts. for example. Because of dictionaries for language learners and sub- for the first time we were offering the materials ject specialists. Although we printed leaflets adver. To help users navigate their on screen. and many students who were cious use of colour photographs and illustra- unfamiliar with the Internet also encountered tions (although with these we were sparing. Nevertheless we recorded 119 hits in downloading unimportant images). A selection of users’ com- amounts of coursework upon which their ments were displayed in the Guestbook sec- admission to the university may and in each of the magazine excerpts that would have made three main sections. inviting users to contact us with com- sive because students have to produce large ments or questions. Study Skills. note taining writing and editing tasks. some activities we provided learners with the sional programme. page. In both of these cases. but in final phase of our three-month summer preses. and to explain academic con- to anyone with access to the Internet. had created for the internal University network ally at its greatest. Most feedback was instant. taking and the editing of grammatical errors in We moved on to the second stage of devel. newspaper and book and Bulletin Board). so that at the begin.Using the Internet to teach English: H Nesi Our first attempts were dogged by a num. and a new section con. We hoped to examine use of the materials on a ‘personalised’ the materials further by posting larger scale. our Self-Access Centre on the to an average of 46 hits per month until Easter Internet aimed to present Study Skills infor- of the following year. an attempt was made to that some of the activities we were creating lead users along pathways of progressively were actually more successful on paper than more difficult tasks. access to the site was negligible. ventions concerning the compilation of bibli- ing page informed first-time users of their ographies. At this stage. prehension questions. Editing including prediction and com- around shorter texts. categorise and list a large number Website (http://warwick. being too long. rials in a variety of formats. our materials rights and obligations respecting the materials.) Presentation and practice can be integrated In the meantime we were redesigning and much more successfully on a Web page than expanding our materials. when we had opportunity to send their answers on to us. to demonstrate the way did not pass the leaflets on to their students as a skilful reader might take notes. with hand-written tising the site. followed by 173 in October when Unlike the package of EAP materials we demand for English language support is usu. we were refused copyright Skills. student writing. Later versions The materials made use of a wide variety of of the site featured reading activities based exercise types. unjumbling tasks. and we found and Working with Texts. with computer-based materials . via answer buttons. separate sections (About the course. 112 ReCALL . means that they and their tutors have less time One further way in which we exploited the for experimentation than at earlier stages in flexibility of the medium was to present mate- the course. Guest - permission for many textbook. within a suite of commercial authoring pro- ning of the 1997 presessional course we were grams. many of the presessional tutors sections. addressed IT issues that are almost completely From the main menu. Study Skills excellent EAP reading passages. difficulties with the system of password because we did not want to waste users’ time access. and the judi- we had hoped. or lacking the links way across sections a Back to Main Menu but- and textual commentary normally associated ton was provided on every page. After that use settled down in 1992–4. September. our open. users had access to five neglected by published EAP textbooks. pop-up comment screens duced the materials to students attending the and hypertext links to model answers. (By the summer term mation as well as to provide language practice. publicising our product. open-access to describe. This tion. The final phase of a and creating e-mail links at the bottom of each presessional programme is always very inten. Editing ber of problems. opment in September 1996 when we intro. Thus we used the Study Skills section ready with a much more extensive. we encountered some difficulty in photographs of ourselves on several pages.

General user statistics for the two-month Week beginning: Local Remote Total period from August 10 to October 12 1997 are presented in Table One below.htm). for example. designed to provide als was lost in hard-copy format. tion. Using the Internet to teach English: H Nesi Acknowledging the role of IT in modern following weeks. would provide some than the opening page.October 12 1997 Bulletin Board. and com- ments sent to us via the Website pages and the Table 1 Asummary of weekly server statistics. able to monitor response to Study Skills: dictionaries. our server statistics only progress of individuals from page to bookmarked. inviting them to examine our September 14 198 779 977 materials and advertise them to their Some visitors accessed later pages in the over. although the number of hits decreased in the Total 1304 8447 9751 Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 113 . we felt that sample links such as they spent on different activities. and how ply printed and photocopied pages to hand out to cite electronic sources (www. others by-passed the opening page by going age them to conduct further searches on their directly to another page they had previously own. were. August 10 . It goes without www. with the option of instant return to the that some individuals progressed no further Bulletin Board section. but with our present monitor- our site we had no means of identifying our ing system we were unable to track the visitors by password. At present we timetable Websites.warwick. We some rather neglected Study Skills issues. saying that the interactive nature of the materi- The Bulletin Board. The two com- Evaluation ponents of the largest section. During this period I wrote to August 31 201 3885 4086 presessional Course Directors at 72 British September 7 144 841 985 universities. August 24 216 1395 1611 side Warwick.war- wick to a number of relevant tourist and train wick. The table provides a rough Unfortunately. we discussed the use of elec. and equally likely that training for novice Internet users and encour. Table 2 gives a simplified summary of use in each section of the Website. Study Skills. questionnaires to tutors and students on the Warwick presessional course. the kind of close monitoring of measure of the relative popularity of the sec- user behaviour we had been able to achieve tions by showing the total number of hits to with Sabre Meter on the local area network the opening page of each section or subsec- could not be replicated on the Internet. the number of occasions that http://www. More. courses looked at our materials as soon as they tronic dictionaries (www. nor how long Internet. The enormous August 10 37 13 50 increase in use at the beginning of September August 17 142 23 165 is largely due to an influx of visitors from were notified of their existence.warwick. It is possible these. information about presessional trips and local It should be noted that Table 1 only shows places of interest. but then sim- study_skills/dictionaries/elect. September 21 81 521 602 September 28 182 478 660 Many new remote visitors must have been October 5 103 512 615 introduced to our site as a result of this to their students rather than urging them to EAP/study_skills/compiling_a_bibliography/ access the site for themselves.htm). having decided to allow open access to section was accessed. are listed separately. up-to-date information about recently pub- tistics. Staff on some presessional Study Skills. made the simple distinction between those that The two Study Skills sections dealt with were ‘local’ and those that were ‘remote’. offered links beyond War. gave our materials by three means: weekly user sta. Although we did not want have no means of knowing how many individ- to ‘lose’all our users in the vast expanse of the ual visitors accessed the site.

However. for example. kind of information also needed to be rein- sessional students. presessional course. and sessional course. Some students Editing Skills 313 claimed to have gathered data for their pro- Working with Texts 682 jects from the Internet. Presumably such stu- form. In some cases respondents who claimed Guestbook 176 to have accessed newspapers in their first lan- Bulletin Board 198 guage on the Web explained that they had been unable to use the CELTE Self-Access Centre because they did not know how to lished dictionaries in book and in electronic locate new Websites. the site are summarised in Table 4. as an excuse commented that they intended to sisted of many pages. whilst Editing Skills was access the site once the presessional course comparatively short.7% of the total student tutors were able to advise their students in this number. and we students are often overwhelmed by the quan- sent out questionnaires to all of them in their tity of information they receive in the first few final (and most hectic) week. In practice. Findings are summarised in Table 3. dents were using the Web in a very limited phy dealt with the problems that can arise way. to access just one or two sites that com- when the authorship of a source is unclear.Using the Internet to teach English: H Nesi Table 2 Asummary of use in six areas of the from the University of Warwick homepage) Website and e-mail. We received 67 days of their course. respect. Respondents’ reasons for not accessing probably also affected by the quantity of infor. Board did not contain any learning materials It should be noted that the content and use as such. we were unable to uncover how it related to their EAP studies. strated to all new students at each stage of the Despite the fact that 1019 hits were regis. the library OPAC service (available as a link Of the 11 respondents who claimed to have Table 3 Presessional students’use of the World Wide Web Question Yes No Had you ever accessed the WWW before the presessional course? 50 17 Did you access the WWW during the presessional course? 44 23 Did you access the CELTE Self-Access Centre during the presessional course? 05 56 114 ReCALL . Perhaps these sections were consulted more The five students who had used the CELTE often because they filled a gap in the Study Self-Access Centre seemed to have been Skills literature. but this much evidence of use of the Website by pre. the frequency with pleased with the materials that they found which these subsections were accessed was there. mation each section contained. many respondents cited are summarised in Table 5. but the most popular Study Skills: compiling a sites seemed to be those containing informa- bibliography 652 tion and news about the students’native coun- Study Skills: dictionaries 756 tries. Guestbook and Bulletin was over. In theory all students tered from Warwick before the end of the pre. patriots had found for them. as newly-arrived third (September) phase of the course. This suggests that student knowl- Section Total number of hits edge of the World Wide Web was not as exten- sive as might first appear. and Study Skills: compiling a bibliogra . The responses of 19 out of the 25 When asked to name WWW sites that they tutors on the September presessional course were familiar with. representing 30. very few replies. should have known how to find the site. but were intended to display topical of the CELTE Self-Access Centre was demon- information and comment. con. The Study Some of the students who gave lack of time Skills: dictionaries section. 218 students attended the forced by presessional tutors.

although us directly. although some users suggested which really scare me. given below: Although all new tutors had been introduced It is quite useful and practical for the material. of students Reason No. us confuseing. Using the Internet to teach English: H Nesi Table 4 Presessional students’reasons for not Table 6 Presessional tutors’reasons for not accessing the Website accessing the Website Reason No. tographs of ourselves. A sample of comments is or pages. Table 5 Presessional course tutors’use of the Website Question Yes No Had you ever accessed the WWW before the presessional course? 13 6 Did you access the CELTE Self-Access Centre during the presessional course? 7 12 Did you refer the CELTE Self-Access Centre in class during the presessional course? 11 8 Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 115 . big book favourable. for fear that we would the long passages. It sent to us. we only received naries is useful. in response to specific needs. users whom we had not met before were very It is a great idea to get information from such a unwilling to make contact. But if there are more detail info in the other had not examined the site for themselves. Rea- pages. of tutors Lack of time 18 Lack of time 3 Did not know existed / Forgot 3 did not know how to access 15 Did not know how to access 1 Did not think it would be useful 7 Eyesight problems 1 Not happy working with computers 2 Forgot 1 that we should add more activities and infor- mentioned the CELTE Self-Access Centre in mation. We had at first been worried about is because students usually do not like reading providing this facility. Perhaps only politeness prevented they had told the students that the site existed. I think it will suitable for more students as sons given for not accessing the site are sum- some students like to read more info in their marised in Table 6. Our final means of evaluating the success of the CELTE Self-Access Centre was by The information is short but clear especially for analysing the comments that users of the site the areas of the study skills and reading skills. most admitted that their references had dents would have been unwilling to criticise been very general. most suitable and worthy choice to buy. and inviting comments. to the CELTE Self-Access Centre on their the point is clear listed so that someone can induction day. and all of these were choices of dictionaries for us and always make from users who were known to us personally. It could be argued that our respon- class. Because there are many 16 messages of this kind. however. it was not surprising that tutors improve the reading skill by reading in a short did not provide detailed information if they time. It gives us the ‘personalise’ our materials by posting pho.This page shows the information It would appear that despite our attempts to of dictionaries and helps us a lot. In other words. them from being more negative about some they had not recommended specific sections aspects of the site. In the period August 10 I think the page about choosing and using dictio- –October 12 1997. be inundated by e-mail messages from learn- ers around the world. network on computer that really save my time The comments were without exception instead of catching them from a thick. spare time.

perform hard language production tasks when Nesi H. and also unwilling to self-access centres’. our site more completely into the fabric of our presessional programme (and also into the programmes of other universities). Fortunately Web-based materials are Centre has been reasonably successful in its also organic.Using the Internet to teach English: H Nesi As all we can see from the pages. March 1995. or wither and die. and ready for a new influx of pointed that we could not integrate the use of arriving students. The or interact with us in any way. Kell J. gramme of work. Their cre- ation requires rather different skills than those Conclusion of the hard-copy materials writer. 43– the medium of instruction. (course designers. tutors and materials writ. We were. EAP practitioners in general opment. of 1998 may well be very different from the bers of visitors and favourable comments site in the autumn of 1997. The CELTE Self- presessional handbooks. linear reading of a single attention easily and is my pleasure to read them. pages grow. and we are still learning how to make the most of the We conclude that the CELTE Self-Access medium. text.warwick. Both projects were financed by grants from ers) need to become more aware the status of the University of Warwick Teaching Innova- IT in modern university studies if we are to tions Fund. first few months of full-scale operation. We wonder Daily Telegraph. Busy EAP Acknowledgements tutors with little personal experience of the Internet preferred to refer their students to The projects described in this paper could not hard-copy materials. Bibliography cally perhaps a little relieved) that so few of our site visitors chose to send their work to us. better. (1997) ‘Death of book exaggerated’. short texts with plenty of opportunities for learner intervention and interaction. bigger. however. Tuesday October 28. We were also disappointed (and paradoxi. in and the site that presents itself in the summer that it has attracted unexpectedly large Fisher P. they are all The Internet encourages a more visual and well organized and presented very well for the non-linear form of literacy (Fisher 1997).uk/EAP) tion to its role in supporting the aims and is managed by Benita Studman-Badillo. ReCALL 8. and users. guage support’. ELT Journal 51 (1). Web-based materials are therefore limited Normally. (1997) ‘Roles of pathways in bly shy to make contact. although many were have been completed without the help of two sympathetic to our project in principle. regardless of demic Purposes: a survey’. 14– change learner attitude in this respect. and drawing atten. Users were proba. University of Warwick postgraduate students. I find reading very boring but now I in their scope. whether this is an inevitable consequence of Jarvis H. Access Centre (http://www. 28–30. versity network was developed and evaluated ences to the Self-Access Centre in printed with the help of Celia Tsai. there are always some beautiful is not the best medium for some study needs. 116 ReCALL . ReCALL 9 (1). and Newton C. (1995) ‘Self-access for students you may tutors to become involved we might be able to never meet’. (1993) ‘Self-access system for English lan- these formed no part of their assessed pro. 48–53. Clearly more work needs to be done away The first package of EAP materials on the Uni- from the computer screen. and tend to be based around have love to. continue to provide relevant study skills train- ing. We hope it will be from EAP learners. 15. Besides. (1997) ‘The role of IT in English for Aca- self-access study at a distance. 8–9. disap. If we can persuade more Nesi H. CALL Review. pictures and colored phases which draw my such as extensive. by adding refer. who objectives and the syllabus of the presessional also played a large part in its design and devel- programme. 51.

(1992) The setting up and preliminary eval . Rea-Dickins P. versity. and a PhD from University College uation of the CELT package for English for Swansea. Language Testing and Evaluation Language Teacher Education at the University of Unit. Her research interests include dictionary Academic Purposes on Warwick University use. Issues in Applied Linguis - tics: Evaluation Perspectives no 1. She has an MSc in ESP from Aston Uni - Tsai. University of Warwick. (1996) ‘The evaluation of a self-access pro. University Hilary Nesi is a lecturer in the Centre for English of Warwick. Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 117 . Unpublished MA disserta. (ed. discourse features of electronic text. 41–48.). C. ESP/EAP vocabulary development. Warwick. and the Computer Network. Using the Internet to teach English: H Nesi Nesi H. In Language Teacher Education. Centre for English gramme on a university computer network’. tion.

object oriented) sys- tem provides a flexible. so often described by been facilitated and diversified by increasing the term ‘information highway’. There is emphasising the different communication now a variety of communication modes avail- modes that have been enabled through recent able over the Internet. thus keyboard driven modes like e-mail to guage learning terms. easy-to-use multiple user virtual reality that allows for the integration of lan- guage learning tools and resources in a common environment. 1. as well as ever-increasing bandwidth. existing frameworks of student-computer A second recent trend in computer technol- interactivity. In lan. mainly building on the concept of constructionism. Interaction will subsequently refer to human- During the past few years the notions of how human communication. The renewed discussion of interface design has provoked a reconsideration of the traditional graphical user interface and a shift towards more intuitive interfaces like virtual reality. interactivity to the Internet can and should be used for lan. human-computer communication. guage learning purposes have shifted. from text-based and developments in Internet technology.ReCALL 10:1 (1998) 118–126 The ‘third place’ – virtual reality applications for second language learning Klaus Schwienhorst Trinity College Dublin Recently we have seen a shift of focus in using the Internet from often inappropriate human-computer interactivity to human-human interaction. interaction and interactivity to point out their from Graphical User Interface to fundamental differences and the resulting Virtual Reality areas of application in language learning. multiple live audio and video conferencing tors and students to consider Internet-based systems that enable whole groups or classes to interaction between students in addition to interact simultaneously with each other. based on collaborative learning concepts like learner auton- omy and tandem learning. a third place. The MOO (multi-user domain. From interactivity to interaction. I would like to separate the terms ogy has been the renewed emphasis on the 118 ReCALL . The Student interaction over the Internet has wealth of information. has been computer hardware and software performance matched by notions of the ‘global village’. this has enabled educa.

In the last few years. and increase developing learner autonomy. The computer can formulate short. an issue that has been closely linked and productive way of interacting with com- with increasing computer performance. Since 1994 an extensive num- guistic research force us to reconsider the role ber of bilingual sub-nets has been set up. playfully and spontaneously developing a ers use both languages in equal amounts and mutual discourse. CALL 1997 conference (Little and Ushioda ally working toward some goal. this idea human-computer interactivity. instance. the computer. The user moves the cursor to to computer-mediated communication that the appropriate place and clicks the mouse sees the role of the computer as providing an which causes something to happen. Since puters than the traditional interface (Halfhill the first Graphical User Interface (GUI) was 1996a. to the click of the mouse” (Stone 1995: 10).and long-term learning also very often fails to assist the student in targets. and working arrangements support collaborative language learning mod. there has been no basic change in computer-assisted language learning has human-computer interactivity. We all know that any current interface guage input). activities. Reciprocity implies that both learn- tion. metalinguistic awareness. more specifically on the of the computer in language learning. autonomy. The current has extended to Internet-based tandem lan- limitations of artificial intelligence and lin. English learner of German meet for a number toring and planning learning progress. fails to provide the autonomous language user who determines interactivity that we consider necessary to topics. b). like managing. In it expressed in detail elsewhere (Little and he describes it as a mutual and simultaneous Brammerts 1996) and also during the EURO- activity on the part of both participants. presented with severe sions together and learn English and German and fundamental restrictions on the concept of from each other. However. Tandem language learning more than this. VR applications for second language learning: K Schwienhorst computer interface. see Little (1991). see Virtual Reality (VR) as a more creative tivity. target lan- 11). because “the machine can (see Warschauer 1996). taking cues and suggestions support each other equally in the language from each other as they proceed” (Stone 1995: learning process (e. provide reliable and differentiated computer Tandem learning originally refers to face- counselling mechanisms to help the forms of to-face tandems. The inter. for interplay that shape student-student or stu. of weeks. The second ner’s learning. Here it will suffice to repeat its major name five corollaries to his definition that can principles. moni. recently shifted from the traditional definition click button or menu interface has become the of the computer as tutor or equal partner and standard for what is called interactive multi. a German learner of English and an dent-teacher interaction. Many design and nature of human-computer interac. This implies that. and an autonomous language learner who els like the one developed within a tandem through analysis of linguistic input and output language learning partnership. It works towards an agency. methods to achieve them. The point-and. co- Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 119 . the focus of attention in Apple. visit courses and counselling ses- at least for the moment. for example. its emphasis on human-computer interactivity media platforms. He went on to 1998). environment for human-human interaction activity is limited. Learner autonomy insists on the and application in CALL is far from being responsibility for their own but also their part- interactive in Lippman’s sense.g. only respond to an on-off situation: that is. guage learning. developed at Xerox PARC and popularised by Consequently. Tandem learning is based on two be summed up as follows: “interactivity major principles: reciprocity and learner implies two conscious agencies in conversa. interactivity should imply much 2. usu. For a more detailed research in artificial intelligence cannot yet outline of the concept. We are. Andy Lippman from the MIT Media Lab set forth a definition in the early The principles of tandem learning have been 1980s which still has significance today. corrections.

first by introducing hypertext (for example in Pueblo-enhanced MOOs). Within our project with interaction via the keyboard in real time. could be reused to create any number of differ- dem consists of a bilingual e-mail discussion ent text-based worlds. can contain messages in English or the most widely used foundations of text- German. Then came the first implementation of real’ world. photographs to enhance the notion of 3D “a highly interactive. More about the notion of MOO speakers. English. for of the LambdaMOO core has made it one of instance.0. an example of which is the Bio- these definitions to Internet-based VR. The continued revision list. keyboard. Virtual Reality extended. advancement and system-inherent properties speaking students learning German and Ger. matched via e-mail by a ‘dating agency’ and The first VR applications began as purely are encouraged to collaborate via e-mail on a text-based adventure games that were repro- number of tasks using both languages in grammed to be able to handle multiple-user equal amounts. rooms that refers to VR. Black Sun at 120 ReCALL . background noises. for example. Germany. rooms may refer to different topics of discus- Recently the e-mail tandem exchanges have sion). ment provided an object-oriented core that The second component of the e-mail tan. The tandem web site ble implementation was created by Pavel Cur- (http://www. micro. Desktop-based VR can at http://www. that combine real-time com- sporting events. for instance. Onlive! Traveller for Internet-based VR. of the 1990s. In recent years. chat systems were also created and languages used.syr. the MOO concept has been 3.onlive. the ultimate tool for every application. but shared workbenches that creates a Spanish a participant with the computer in a ‘virtually VR).com. a dis.VR applications for second language learning: K Schwienhorst ordinated from Bochum. space (see. time. (see. speakers. Cold Paradigm at media environment in which the user becomes http://moo. Desktop-based manipulated in real time. data gloves or body suits. they are not regarded ities. Bochum University. object-oriented) later. A more flexi- Ushioda 1998). Gate system for MOOs that is available for tinction between immersive virtual reality any MOO now (Mercer 1997). Transferring VRML 1.tcd. The Virtual reality can be defined as “the idea of next developments were graphics and WWW human presence in a computer-generated enhanced MOOs that contained pictures or space” (Hamit 1993: 9). VRML 1. however.” (Pantelidis 1993). or more specifically. political or cultural events. multi. Immersive VR is not also audio-conferencing. based or proprietary 3D programming. In one of be structured according to technological these sub-nets. German-English. thus representations VR relies solely on traditional input/output of humans (avatars) would not move in real devices like monitor. As content other than general ‘netiquette’ and the a side note. computer-based. As that is about the only feature in chat been complemented by text-based virtual and other tis and others at Xerox PARC at the beginning Internet resources provide a number of materi. Topics usually deal with still exist today. There is also a variety of proprietary phones. On the list there is no restriction on (multi-user domain. we decided to MUD 1 (multi-user dungeon) was created in pair the students ourselves (see Little and England in 1979 (Bartle 1990). by either English or German native based VR.0- includes simulators. in the context of VR. or munication with the notion of rooms (different simple questions of grammar and vocabulary. Curtis’ LambdaMOO environ- als and task templates for students to work on. The English-German discussion list.0 still (hard VR) and desktop-based virtual reality had several drawbacks: objects could not be (soft VR) simplifies matters. but rather in the context of conferencing modes via the Internet. mouse. and is individualised representations of characters certainly at this moment not a feasible solution etc. while immersive VR also systems that include not only VRML 2. that make it more or less attractive for lan- man-speaking students learning English are guage learning purposes.

] Were it not for the this interaction and act as mediator between stipulation that cyberspace be computer. they possess the expert using VR to create a place where people can knowledge of native speakers to support each collaborate has been central to the issue. enables humans to of the computer is first and foremost to foster gather in virtual spaces. a QuickTime-VR based environment which it is implemented”(Hamit 1993:74). The concept of learner autonomy After all: “Virtual reality reduces the need for contains the idea that learning arises essen. also emphasises the importance of VR applications have been used in lan- social interaction to create VR: “The essential guage learning programmes before. and England 1995:1). a third place that is creators of Habitat (a commercial text-based neither work nor home. which he understanding the real world can be used for defined as “the distance between the actual understanding synthesized information”(Carr developmental level as determined by inde. the idea of interaction. neither the target language culture biggest of its kind with over 10. however. VR applications for second language learning: K Schwienhorst http://www. according with it as if we were part of that penpalships.. Progression in learning. compare Roehl (Vygotsky 1978: 86).. enhance the traditional classroom (Zohrab Interaction is also of central concern in the 1996).blacksun. Ran. In this to him. navigate through it and manipulate it. abstract. visualisation of information. The relationship 1996). the applications included an immersive envi- riences with Habitat is that a cyberspace is ronment for learning Japanese at the Univer- defined more by the interactions among the sity of Washington (Rose and Billinghurst [users] within it than by the technology with 1995). only develops VR and interactivity and continued growth of hundreds of text. [. problem solving under adult guidance or in In our notion of interactivity. giving students guage students. or WorldChat at collaboration with more capable peers” http://www.worlds. They in the concept of tandem learning.000 sub. 3. sports.1 VR and interaction In addition to peers in ordinary classroom Right from the beginning of VR. Here. and hence have at least one thing in common. admit many common forms of theatre. and allowing us to interact Vygotsky. nor our native speaker community. extero-centric thinking by presenting tially from supported performance. interaction emphasise the importance of virtual space. where the role “Cyberspace. the does not only mean exchange between lan. or in language learn- but graphics-enhanced VR that is maybe the ing terms. This special learning relationship should dal Walser from Autodesk put it like this: be particularly effective in VR. the pendent problem solving and the level of space itself potentially becomes a flexible tool potential development as determined through to encourage and enhance learning activities. or in tandem. language learner the ability to ‘handle’ and work with informa- and native speaker. VR provides an alter- laboration with real humans in desktop based native to the formal environment of the insti- environments. which is processed information in an apparent three- central to the works of the Soviet psychologist dimensional space. and virtual Multiple-user interaction is thus one of the models of Greek and Roman buildings to major factors in creating VR. We know that in any formal learning environ- based environments derived from MUD 1 and ment the capacity for autonomous behaviour MOO is living proof of the fascination of col. of equal standing as language learners. scribers). between tandem learners is certainly one of peers. the learner and the target language speakers based. From this viewpoint. was achieved through the idea of the way our evolutionarily derived processes for “zone of proximal development”. the definition [of virtual reality] would and their culture. and games” (Hamit 1993: 144). other. one of the tutionalised classroom. Some of lesson that we have abstracted from our expe. this Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 121 . tandem exchanges are no tion. These non-Internet-based applications concept of learner autonomy. on CD ROM (Trueman 1996). however. The existence 3. Chip Morningstar. the medium.

bandwidth and thus very fast. David Little.] To I have already mentioned some of the central this. be it plug-ins or helper 122 ReCALL . the exis. any student can extend the them to achieve to a remarkable degree the VR and construct his or her own learning autonomy that characterizes the fluent lan. minimal and cross-platform. but an environment interfaces to the same VR. not simply by tools. It allows for edly emphasised the importance of learners multi-user access and shared applications (i. been developed over the past six years. devising their own learning materials. be they ples can be realised quite effectively in VR if advanced systems of 3D VR and/or synchro- interactivity is not understood as multiple nous communication (like. The MOO system which people actively construct knowledge from their experiences in the world. especially text-based interactivity that we find in systems like MOO systems. the working on the same document in real time). [. Microsoft’s Encarta CD ROM) but as a means of learner interaction via the net. for instance. Links to task templates.VR applications for second language learning: K Schwienhorst virtual place needs to be sufficiently flexible both partners and that offers the necessary to be influenced by all users. new technology into the classroom. we want language learning and authentic resources can to be sure it works. the third interactivity between students and computer place. WWW.. resources and activities that provide passive consumption but by active collabora. Activities and inter. has repeat. tion with the environment.e. and/or VRML only a necessary interface. in 4. It facilitates participation engaged on as their own. “it asserts that learning is an active process. while its hardware requirements are his concept of learner autonomy. lar updates and extensions and a wide distribu- scripts that students can exploit in a number of tion have consolidated its reliability.. Regu- action in these rooms can then produce tran. and others (Papert 1993). A shared place and a shared set of activities Interaction not only between peers but also form a common point of reference. an important can produce personal text books of much more feature for institutions that rely on slow meaningful content for language learning than modems. Any medium avail- that is neutral yet potentially controllable by able on the WWW. it is quite easy for teachers and video-conferencing as compared to VR as students to create private ‘rooms’and ‘objects’ described above. The programming environ- that can also serve as starting points for lan. relies on free those commercially available. and facilitates collaborative language learning structionism developed by Seymour Papert à la tandem. conferencing) seem the more ‘natural’or ‘real’ ple. space. it learners “experience the learning they are is always available. ment goes back to 1979 and LambdaMOO has guage learning activities. incentives and support for language learning. which helps to create social interaction environments has been the foundation of con. more detail. These princi. collaboration while other systems. The wealth of target language input in based communication is extremely low those files. In VR systems. Thus. for exam. Papert saw construc- tionism as a combination of two strands: first. Text- ways. and it is construct new knowledge with particular time to present its object-oriented nature in effectiveness when they are engaged in con. The MOO system together with the guage user” (Little 1991:31). not once but all the time. together with e-mail exchanges. in software. constructionism adds the idea that people functions of the MOO environment. be built into VR to make them instantly acces. recently developed BioGate system (Mercer tence of VR serves an important purpose: 3D 1997) features a powerful Java-based interface space and its built-in resources provide not incorporating text. There real opportunity to create meaningful artefacts are a number of reasons: when we introduce for language learning. and this enables by its members. It may be asked why the MOO structing personally-meaningful products” environment has been chosen as a platform for (Bruckman and Resnick 1995). video paths through the same world (like. It is free of charge. Some additional reasons lie in the lack of sible.

with the one ticipate actively in DU. is object-oriented. When they connect to DU for the first The board of managers at DU will then send a time. a room is an object. VR applications for second language learning: K Schwienhorst applications. The modular and flexible nature of the tape recorder. the last few years have seen connects your room to it. Stepping out of the dorms. This allows any cally created for language learning purposes. which is normal procedure for the first time is to con.du. This involves giving your name and duration of the project. and where in where a variety of language learning tools are this VR you want to build. teacher’s point of view is the Visiting Student sity (http://www. ties. notice boards with tandem informa- Thus. In effect. including the right to allowed to build anything. so is a notice board. and in order to connect. MOO. If you want to start communication can be instantly recorded into building. they become instantly recognisable to any- When connecting to a MOO like DU. give them rights to build or pro- pus and has always been at the forefront of gram objects. agers that you know how. a Gate. This quota depends on what you want to use it for. This means that a random between partners. You can then select an area Following adventure MOOs and social MOOs within the virtual campus. Certain entry rooms have been assigned to and explaining the purpose of your request. build. Programmers teacher a sub-manager in DU. and you will not be permanent character. a great advantage for ongoing meetings nect as a guest. ments. and a manager in the early 1990s. a manager will give you a certain so-called Log Files and thus produces instant quota that defines how many objects you can transcripts of any session. both of which you subsequently need McPartland. questions. a conversation robot that could be pro- the OO in MOO. VSPOs. you are requested to exception that their character only lasts for the register. although not specifi. Everything within DU. you have to show one of the man. tion. etc. If you want to par. etc. among them. they find something. build or to program new objects. and a robot. e-mail address. the Bochum organiser. themselves in the Tandem Language Centre. for instance DB. Building a room ‘costs’ a quota of 1. Becoming a learning resources on the WWW that I devel- builder involves understanding the nature of oped. Diversity University – a old DOS text editor and is facilitated by an MOO-based VR extensive help system that guides you through the process. Player Object (VSPO). Next door they can find the Tandem Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 123 . Students and teachers can participate freely use. MOO than one ballroom object. Diversity Univer. the emergence of a variety of more or less Maybe the most important object from a focused educational MOOs. This takes the form at their disposal: links to tasks and language of an interview within the MOO. as grammed for simple vocabulary or grammar indeed in any other MOO. teacher to introduce whole classes to the offers a number of useful tools and environ. it makes any implementing new technology. By giving them a consistent user in DU and create their ideal learning environ. For the Dublin- from Diversity University (DU) developed the Bochum project. stating your research interests. DU management gave me BioGate system and some useful tools for two VSPO groups for one year that I could learners. name with a certain ending. Building a room is as easy as using an what. they been tested extensively and is now available to could take up more space in that database any MOO that wants to employ it). Then. can be incorporated into Bio. distribute user names and passwords ments built around the idea of a virtual cam. Each object takes BioGate system means that it can be adapted up some room in the DU database. the body as members of the same group. your character is an object with proper. they see a description of either a Dublin user name and password to your e-mail or Bochum dormitory created by Jackie address. They have all the rights of a name is assigned to you. if you want to build myself. If you to any user’s needs (the BioGate system has were to create two tape-recorder objects.

treasure hunt or visit neighbouring departments Synchronous communication in a MOO to find out what else there as in a face-to-face situation. This means that by a simple tion. The tasks make use of WWW. e. give instant support for their partner and negoti- Recently the resources have been enhanced by ate meaning. tion has to be applied to other tasks than e-mail French. Working arrange- vides a context for interaction: nobody can ments have to be arrived at that suit both part- control what rooms or objects students may ners and are independent of classroom sched- find interesting enough to work in or on. to go on a virtual ioda 1998). the MOO envi- face to a different language. ules. and they need to be tightly organised by During the last year I developed foreign local co-ordinators. the practice of debates and discussions. this means that a These annotated resources. the transience of live speech is 6. there is hardly any time for editing. The tially also the creation of students’ own learn- more important problems are caused by the ing environments. ease of use and effective navi.html). and reacting to corrections. put on screen straight away. ing. Even ing in real time. This has already ronment forces each student to look at his out- been realised on a related MOO. forms of written production. which cannot be said of e-mail and other command users could change the whole inter. available in several tandem pair in a MOO is able to support each languages. The parameters of the environ- ment allow for collaboration on tasks and As mentioned before. Again. DU is currently considering an though there is hardly any time for planning.tcd. where a tape recorder and very nature of synchronous and written com- notes provide some tools for meetings by the munication and the differences in organisa- tandem network and tandem counselling ses. JavaScript technologies to provide a frame. Synchronous communica- language resources on the WWW for German. not provide students with the opportunity to gation were the main design objectives. requires adding collaborative tasks that can be used much higher capacity for autonomous language side-by-side with any authentic material from use in formulating a message alone. Open Forum. revising it. and e-mail into existing courses does not pri. E-mail. Students can modify each MOO message is usually very short. where they find the tools 124 ReCALL . the production of text. students’ requires by definition that both partners are interactivity with these rich environments pro. working at the same time. the student is con- fronted by his or her and the partner’s output on screen. Even shortly after and a Portuguese MOO. orate on WWW resources while communicat. the integration of MOO material on WWW sites. A meaningful communication is constructed by work for students that does not irritate or dis. most The integration into the MOO environment communication is limited by the speed of typ- makes it possible for tandem learners to collab. messages. and adapt them and choose appropriate Although there are tools to transmit longer resources themselves. ences have been held solely on MOOs). extension to their database by providing a mul. and sentences tend to be rather short. extensive role plays. Within the tandem framework. Students are of course free to explore the and educational institutions (Little and Ush- rest of the virtual campus. make use of the latest HTML and other immediately. MOOsaico. the collaboration of both students. Integrating tandem MOO and transferred into the written word and thus E-mail exchanges made visible. revision and elaboration at the time of produc- tilingual interface. interface consid. poten- marily involve technical considerations. in that respect. English and Italian (available at http:// and may work best in conjunction with it. tional frameworks between different cultures sions. Again. the Internet. E-mail does orientate them.VR applications for second language learning: K Schwienhorst Counselling Office. even speeches (a variety of confer- erations played a major part in their design. mail and MOO facilities and are formulated as Another difference between synchronous templates rather than specific assignments with and asynchronous modes lies in the fact that pre-defined resources. www.

Students can analyse them and assembled by the learner himself. purposes by the students themselves. and used for reference them are part of the assessment. tion of meaningful learning material and the cussion list. Audio and video munication instantly visible. activity with the environment and the wealth listing essential phrases in a particular seman. ing is the development of metalinguistic ing. the possi. and over a few months students permanence and visibility of the written can assess and literally watch their own medium. places: “Third places exist on neutral ground and on the other hand an enormous sample of and serve to level their guests to a condition of his or her own efforts in the target language. The wealth of material forms in activities are part of our students’project cycle itself a future learning resource that can be and the final (face-to-face) presentations of organised. because of their own produc- partners or classmates or within the e-mail dis. The preservation of discourse is as sim. In The communication and use it as a mixture of. The nature of MOO also determines that Another advantage of the medium of writ- the major medium of communication is writ. recorded log files with a tandem partner can tic material than text-based MOO. The special combi- proficiency in pronunciation and non-verbal nation of target language learner and native cues that are not yet present or replaced by speaker expert provides a constant model of written cues in MOO. cle for the display and appreciation of human tion. social equality. focusing on seri. The major advantage of written communi. conversa- always under pressure to produce meaningful tion is the primary activity and the major vehi- discourse to keep up and develop a conversa. of interaction with native speakers. writing in the MOO makes live com- cal factors mentioned above. the Vygot- virtual tape recorder (to use the VR interface). that in text-based communication the increases the distance from the event and the students can focus on the elaboration of a time of production. how. they bring together two of the major ditional GUI) or using a virtual tape with a learning concepts in recent years. Within these places. apart from techni. which is essential for the develop- has a number of advantages over audio. For lan- use them as the basis for e-mail activities. only beginning to become a major factor in bility for each learner to preserve the entire education and thus language learning. for instance pronunciation. learning. assessing their own performance etc. and more even better work towards the development of so as this material is in oral form and requires metalinguistic awareness. and sec- tic field. language user. ondly the development of the autonomous lan- They can share and discuss the files with their guage learner. In terms of ple as saving a text file (to stay within the tra. Ray the one hand authentic and personally mean. on their own with other systems like the language lab or with an 7. as previously mentioned. VR applications for second language learning: K Schwienhorst they may consider most useful. structured. on Great Good Place (Oldenberg 1989: 89). because of the wealth of inter- ous interruptions caused by their own output. although it is live. Compared to video-based conferencing. tion and Papert’s constructionist framework of non-verbal cues that have been written down. smaller subset of skills and develop others. interactivity within meaningful environments These files can be printed out or saved to and with meaningful learning tools created or floppy disk. guage learning. input and comparison. Textual communication awareness. Conclusion Erasmus student in class. The importance of multi-user virtual reality is cation is. skian framework of interaction and collabora- Text files can include movements. actions. Oldenberg argues for the importance of third ingful material produced by a native speaker. multi-user VR can support working for instance on unknown vocabulary firstly the development of the autonomous used by the native speaker. the written form ever. Some of these progress. speech. That also means. personality and individuality”. and the work on conferencing may provide even more authen. Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 125 .and ment of learner autonomy.

VR applications for second language learning: K Schwienhorst

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126 ReCALL

ReCALL 10:1 (1998) 127–128

Seminar on Research in CALL
David Little
Centre for Language and Communication Studies, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland

For several years Dieter Wolff has argued that research. It thus seems entirely natural that
EUROCALL should do more to promote the language learning, and especially language
development of a research culture appropriate learning stimulated and supported by informa -
to CALL. The organizers of the Dublin con- tion systems, should be the focus of a sus-
ference responded to this by inviting Dieter tained research effort. Yet in European univer-
and myself to co-ordinate a seminar on sities there is a widespread bias against
research in CALL. In the event, ill health pre- research that concerns itself with processes of
vented Dieter from attending the conference, teaching/learning, and many university lan-
so it fell to me to run the seminar on my own. guage centres are specifically excluded from
The call for papers announced that the the research requirements of the institutions of
seminar would focus on the design of good which they are a part. The professional situa-
research projects, the use of possible research tion of many EUROCALL members is such
methods, and the definition of what consti- that they can engage in research only as a
tutes research in CALL/TELL. A large box hobby that their universities do nothing to
file was left at the conference desk so that encourage, and in some cases actively dis-
intending participants in the seminar could courage. Here it is worth noting that in a sym-
submit for discussion issues, questions, prob- posium on university teaching published in the
lems, possible solutions, and examples of Times Higher Education Supplement of 27
good research practice. By the end of the sec- June 1997, several contributors suggested that
ond day of the conference the box was still more weight should be given to good teach-
empty, but any fears that that this betokened ing, but none of them argued that good teach-
lack of interest proved to be unfounded. Over ing is parasitic on good research. It is also
sixty conference participants attended the worth noting that EU policies have tended to
seminar and engaged in lively and sustained confirm the traditional breach between teach-
discussion. ing and research: designed to promote lan-
In my introduction to the seminar I posed guage teaching and learning, LINGUA and
two questions that I take to be fundamental. related initiatives have excluded an explicit
First, how do we ensure that research in research component, and in many cases have
CALL is possible in the first place? To out- also excluded the possibility of appropriate
siders this might seem to be an odd starting empirical evaluation. Clearly, EUROCALL
point. After all, most work in CALL goes on has a role to play in re-educating policy mak-
in universities, and universities are partly ers, university administrations and EU deci-
defined by the central role that they accord to sion makers.

Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 127

Seminar on research in CALL

My second introductory question was in concluded the seminar fell into three broad
two parts: What should be our primary categories. First, there had been discussion of
research focus, and what varieties of research the general orientations appropriate to
do we need to undertake? As regards the first research in CALL. One group suggested that
part, I recalled a point made by Nina Garrett in we need to draw on the theories and research
her opening plenary address: that in the next practice of other disciplines, including linguis-
few years developments in information tech- tics, psychology, social sciences, anthropology
nology will necessarily reshape second lan- and education; while two groups noted that it
guage pedagogy. If this is the case, then is important to be clear what kind of research
research in CALL must take the process of we intend to engage in and to adopt an appro-
language learning as its starting point, though priate methodology. Research takes time,
it will need to engage with other perspectives which costs money, and one group pointed out
too – for example, human-computer interac- that without research funding it is impossible
tion, artificial intelligence, computational lin- to undertake large-scale empirical projects.
guistics. As for varieties of research, I sug- Secondly, most groups spent some time dis-
gested that we need theoretical research in cussing the implications of a fact to which
order to provide ourselves with a basic orien- Nina Garrett drew attention in her opening
tation; empirical research in order to explore plenary: that most CALL applications allow
in a disciplined way how language learners researchers to gather large quantities of data
actually use information systems, and to what with minimum effort. One report pointed out
effect; and action research in order to ensure that it is one thing to collect data and another
that our research enterprise is not a linear but a to know what to do with it, and several groups
cyclical process, leading back into the teach- emphasized the importance of good research
ing/learning situation. In her opening address, design. Thirdly, the groups addressed the role
Nina Garrett noted that a characteristic of that EUROCALL might play in helping to
autonomous learners is the ability to research develop a research culture appropriate to
their own learning. One might say the same CALL. It was suggested that EUROCALL
about autonomous teachers: action research is should establish a register of research activi-
a sign of teacher autonomy. ties and perhaps a special interest group for
At the end of my introduction, I invited research; join forces with CALICO to found a
participants to call out the topics they felt the world-wide electronic journal for CALL
seminar should address. They produced the research; seek funding to sponsor research
following list: research on language, con- projects run by its members; organize a sum-
trastive studies, transfer; learner autonomy; mer school on research in CALL; establish an
quantitative versus qualitative research meth- electronic discussion forum on research in
ods, student data, evaluation methodologies, CALL; and lobby against the exclusion of
and ‘the fallacy of objectivity’; postgraduate research from EU-funded programmes such as
programmes and the selection and guidance of SOCRATES and LINGUA.
research students; safety critical issues; ways The seminar was one of the liveliest events
of dealing with technological change; the pub- at EUROCALL 97, no doubt because it gave
lication of research; the establishment of a participants an opportunity to share and debate
EUROCALL discussion forum. At this point some of the interests and preoccupations they
the seminar divided into six groups for forty- had in common. It is very much to be hoped
five minutes’discussion. that EUROCALL will act on at least some of
The issues and proposals brought from the the suggestions generated by the seminar before
groups to the plenary feedback session that the 1998 conference convenes in Leuven.

128 ReCALL

a fully-refereed acade. Ireland September Romania. Dublin City University. Executive Committee meetings János Kohn.hull. regional EUROCALL workshop can call upon mic publication. continues to be published by this expertise. March 1997. publication has improved steadily and it now Only one regional workshop took place occupies a respected position among journals during the last year: at the University of devoted to IT and language learning and Timisoara. subject to the payment of travel CALL. Dublin City University. free of It is expected that the EURO- the CTI Centre for Modern Languages.htm fourth President's Report on the activities of EUROCALL over the past year. available on the Web in PDF format: sional association for three years. EUROCALL members has been set up – all specialists in different fields of CALL and TELL – with a view to providing expertise in 3. 13 March 1997. Special The Executive Committee met twice in Selected papers from the EUROCALL 1997–98: 1997 conference will be published in a double issue of the ReCALL Journal 10 (1). The quality of contributions to this and subsistence expenses by the local host.htm The EUROCALL 1996 Proceedings. thanks are due to Stephan Pohlmann for his Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 129 . EUROCALL Back numbers of the ReCALL Journal are also has now been in existence as a formal profes. EUROCALL workshops Full minutes of these meetings are available from June Thompson. Bernd Rüschoff and Dieter Wolff.hull. CALL member will provide his/her expertise versity of Uni. http://www.ReCALL 10:1 (1998) 129–132 President’s Report EUROCALL Annual General Meeting September 1997 1. Ireland 4. Any institution that wishes to host a The ReCALL Journal. edited by 2. Introduction The ReCALL Newsletter is available on the Web: It gives me great pleasure to present this http://www. so I will limit this part of Members are reminded that a database of my report to just a few important observations. have been published and distributed. in association with EURO. Publications the running of regional EUROCALL work- shops.

uk/ Links with other associations and organisations (For “yourfirstname” etc.hull. plus http://www. Ton at the United States Military Academy. individuals or reductions in their conference fees to members institutions must be members of one of the par.htm information and examples on how to use them EUROCALL’s electronic discussion list can for teaching and learning. and we endeavour to be Groups can be obtained from the EUROCALL represented at their conferences and to collabo- website: rate in other ways. and I apologise for It is planned to issue guidelines on setting up any omissions. WELL website is now accessible at: ing message to: http://www. Special Interest Groups (SIGs) guage learning. Its activities will be be joined by any EUROCALL member. EUROCALL members ent organisations.hull. The discussion list simply by sending the follow. intended to be all-inclusive. University of Abertay Dundee. of either association. If you of interest to all teachers and students of lan- have access to email facilities you can join the guages regardless of sector and location. organisations. Coopera- CALICO. These are some of the key http://www. WELL A proposal was made to set up a EUROCALL IALL & FLEAT III SIG devoted to Web Enhanced Language We are pleased to welcome Nina Garrett. Pres- 130 ReCALL . This proposal has now Kohn and Mária Balaskó for their valuable been dropped. Matthew Fox and Jenny The European coordinators are: Philippe Parsons attended the CALICO 97 conference Delcloque. CALICO CAPITAL We are pleased to welcome a number of CAL- CAPITAL is a joint SIG of EUROCALL and ICO members to EUROCALL 97. and running SIGs within join eurocall-members yourfirstname yourlastname 7. A report on CALICO 97 was published in the ReCALL Journal 9: 2. as a Web Enhanced Language contributions. New WELL aims to provide access and can be accessed at: to high-quality Web resources in 12 languages. devoted to using computers in the tion between CALICO and EUROCALL is domain of pronunciation in the widest sense of becoming closer. This list is not under discussion in the Executive Committee.well. EUROCALL does not wish to com- pete with this project but to offer its help and EUROCALL’s WWW site is fully operational To join the group. selected and described by subject experts. West Koet.President’s Report help in setting up this workshop and to János Learning (WELL). events and projects with which EUROCALL members have been The position and role of SIGs are currently associated during the last year. We welcome the attendance of representatives at our conferences and partici- Information on EUROCALL’s Special Interest pation in our activities. of course. associations. Learning project has now been awarded fund- ing by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) under the FDTL pro- 5. Philippe Delcloque. substitute your own!) EUROCALL maintains close links with a number of professional associations and organ- isations that promote technology enhanced lan- 6. Hogeschool van Amsterdam. CALICO or EUROCALL. Both associations offer the word. Electronic communications

(1997) (eds. Bernd Speaker at EUROCALL 97. University of Further information available about World. and of the Scientific Committee of the The- bourne will host WorldCALL 98. activities. I Thematic Network Project (Languages) was also invited to take part in a panel discus. EUROCALL Treasurer. Coun. been the case – but the higher conference fee gies in language learning and teaching. Graz. We can be found at: extend our warm welcome to her. The University of Mel. June Thompson and Jo Porritt man. Further information about these projects who is also present at EUROCALL 97. which includes informa- Several EUROCALL members have recently tion on current membership and membership been involved in the Council of Europe's fees. Hawaii. April 1997. I was delighted to Rüschoff. under the auspices of ATELL. Lis Kornum LLA (Language Laboratory Association of attended the Council of Europe Conference in Japan).arts. new journal. is Council of Europe submitting his report.unimelb. so we will be well-rep- resented.fu-berlin. include sub-groups on New Technologies Journal 9: 2. The WorldCALL organiser is June represent EUROCALL on the WorldCALL 98 Steering Committee. This was organised jointly by IALL and Workshops 7A. Canada. Strasbourg. France.msu. President’s Report ident of IALL. which is published exclusively ticipate in a plenary panel event. Language in August Europe’s series of ‘New Style Workshops’: 1997. I know that on the World Wide Web: several EUROCALL members are planning to http://polyglot. I am delighted to have been invited to give I am a member of the Editorial Board of this a keynote paper at WorldCALL 98 and to par.) New technolo . and I am also a member Language Learning and Technology of the WorldCALL 98 Scholarships Commit. 13–17 July matic Network Project’s sub-group on New 1998.html Graham Chesters. involved as ‘animateurs’ in the Council of University of Victoria. particularly those promoting new Conferences will in future be restricted to technologies and language learning. as our opening Keynote cil of Europe. Journal tee. The Editor is Mark Warschauer. fees than non-members – which has always and Rüschoff B. will now include the annual EUROCALL Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 131 . Technologies and Language Learning. aged a stand promoting EUROCALL. I am tralian Association for Technology Enhanced also a member of the Board of the European Language Learning. both of which are sion entitled “Futurewatch: language learning funded under the SOCRATES Programme of and technology in a global context”. 8. These two linked attend WorldCALL 98. and June Thompson and I gave a joint paper on European Language Council and the “National and international cooperation”. Lis Kornum and I have also been be able to attend the FLEAT III Conference. and Language Learning. A report the Commission of the European Communi- on FLEAT III was published in the ReCALL ties. Joseph Rézeau and I are members of the Policy Group of the Euro- WorldCALL 98 pean Language Council’s Policy Group on Close contact has been maintained with New Technologies and Language Learning ATELL. Membership and recruitment ~hlc/worldcall/ CALL can be found at: http://adhocalypse. Graham Chesters. June Thompson and I http://userpage. this means Rüschoff is one of the joint editors of a recent that non-members will pay higher conference Council of Europe publication: Korsvold A-K. 9A. the Aus. In effect. Bernd EUROCALL members. 7B. Australia.

especially June Thompson and Graham Chesters for handling the increasing 9. not forgetting membership fees alone are insufficient to their enormous team of helpers. Membership subscriptions are our 10. EUROCALL company – that we have the name of an indi. Thanks main source of income. and attractive posters have been printed. no reactions to my appeal last year. please publicise EURO. I have had account. Publicity leaflets can be to the success of our association. I also wish to enable EUROCALL to embark upon exciting thank Dr Daniel O'Hare. When seeking sponsorship it is Graham Davies important – especially when contacting a large President. As I have indicated in my previous reports. Sponsorship burden of administration. September 1997 132 ReCALL .President’s Report membership fee. I wish to offer my personal thanks to As I have indicated in my previous reports. Many thanks are due once again this year. someone who is known personally to a lected in this way direct to our current EUROCALL member. member who has made a valuable contribution wherever you can. but my spe- made available to you if you can make use of cial thanks are due to the Executive Commit- them. workshops and conferences. preferably enabling us to transfer membership fees col. Once again. It is CALL at seminars. difficult to single out every EUROCALL among your colleagues at work – in short. local firms that might be willing to sponsor EUROCALL. I therefore urge all members to pass for offering to host EUROCALL 97 and pro- on to the Executive Committee the names of viding such a friendly environment. tee for being diligent and supportive through- out the year. This has the advantage of vidual contact in the company. Membership figures show a net increase of 20 over last year's figures. ventures. Françoise Blin and Jane Fahy as the main EUROCALLdesperately needs sponsorship as organisers of EUROCALL 97. President of DCU. but we must not be complacent.

‘The Research Assessment Exercise learning and teaching but also the concern that and its message in relation to IT and foreign research and developments in this field – languages’ delivered by Professor Richard including teaching. The lively discussions jects as compared to the more traditional which soon developed showed the tremendous research was highlighted in another plenary interest in the potential of IT for language session. printing-press and will socialize people into • analyse the results in such a way that gen- communication groups. place away from these exercises. a for- of teaching and the development of new mate. to bring an authentic environment into the classroom and will stress on-line reading and Some recognition by the new researchers of Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 133 . projects need to: rapid and time/place independent. Mark Warschauer maintains that the impact of the • be embedded in. the theory of new technologies on language learning and second language acquisition. In ‘CALL versus electronic literacy: theoretical research framework. The computer is able eral principles can be deduced. generalis- the ‘real’ language was conceived as taking able results. verifiable. Sri The concern about the validity of IT pro- Lanka and Hawaii. reconceiving technology in the language class. With the advent of Hypertext and the Internet. writing and the interpretation of information pants from all levels of education to Cam. as the prevalent skills. some from as far afield as Latvia. he showed that CALL programs went ogy which allows meaningful statements through a phase of ‘drill and kill’and were not to be made. • Research follows a recognisable methodol- room’. are not readily accepted as research. reading New teaching materials and approaches per se time is spent increasingly on the computer. guage Resource Centre of the University of • Research takes place within a definable Hawaii . for example. bridge. the criteria for accepted research as: The keynote speech was delivered by Mark Warschauer from the National Foreign Lan. providing replicable. More serious even. The speech outlined leagues in the old established areas of research. research into new methods Towell from the University of Salford. mer member of a language RAE panel and the rials – are not always taken seriously by col. instead Computer-aided communication is written.ReCALL 10:1 (1998) 133–135 CILT Research Forum 6–7 January at Homerton College. teaching will be more far-reaching than the • clearly state the method of investigation. chair designate of UCML. • Research builds on existing knowledge. integrated into the work taking place inside • Good research moves the field forward by and outside the classroom. Cambridge Information technology: the pedagogical implications for language teaching and learning This Research Forum brought over 100 partici.

She lege Northampton and the University of Hull. is the sites – the University of Warwick. 134 ReCALL . • to get feedback from staff and students and availed herself of a difficult task with great compare this with the learning outcomes enthusiasm. This talk was in a sense a fol- reported on research investigating the effec. Centre) talk on ‘Using electronic media to Nadine Laporte from the University of support advanced grammar study in a self- Wales. Its aims are: William Haworth so far is that at present the potential of this new technology is not yet • to find out the context in which materials fully recognized and exploited. ference dinner. tion of these resources for the learning and • students are initially ambivalent in their teaching of languages. are used. At a late hour and after the excellent con- • to establish how materials work in differ. le.and grammar-checker for Heather Rendall the previous evening. vous. it is only ever possible behind those apparently positive attitudes. She which the packages were designed to assist. One important feedback while the other version provided finding of the investigation is to establish the only basic bi-lingual dictionaries. One paper examined self-access computer-based group of learners had access to a version grammar support for students of French in which gave them immediate grammatical their first year at university. School of Psychology. majority of cases. both of the mother Authoring Shell. Nene Col. and perceptions. training takes place on a DIY basis in the tive evaluation of TELL Consortium materi. reported on her findings regarding ‘The Effec- tiveness of CALL in Secondary Schools’. to attend a selection. currently in progress. access setting’. key to storing meaningful patterns.CILT Research Forum the validity of these criteria and by RAE pan. A els of the value of this new form of research is very uneven picture emerged: while many therefore essential for the next round of the institutions have a positive attitude to web- RAE exercise. he discussed staff and student development. Moores University is leading an FDTL-funded it was essential to note that according to this project of a consortium of universities. The learners of Welsh as a second language. The conclusion drawn by als. • resources alone are not sufficient. At issue is how TELLproducts can to variables like tu. but the ones I managed to Students in institutions are often better attend provided much food for thought. GramEx and the TransIt Tiger standing of structures. The results importance of researching learner attitudes are as yet not totally conclusive. from invariables like ‘the’ and ‘you’ interviews. low-on from where we had left off with tiveness of a spell. based learning in the humanities. pointed out very clearly how native English The tools used in the investigation were ques. log sheets and semi-structured fusingly. speakers have to switch. with study’s findings the objective of spreading good practice in the use of Web-based resources and the exploita. the provision There was a diverse range of optional ses. Heather Rendall. la and even more be integrated into modules and what bearing variables when learning German. and staff and student The first one was a report on the summa. equipped than staff. based on case studies at three tongue and those of foreign languages. For those of us who are keen William Haworth from Liverpool John to promote self-access and independent study. of equipment especially for staff lags far sions and unfortunately. this could have on pedagogy. constantly and con- tionnaires. She The packages chosen for evaluation were argued with great conviction that the under- Encounters. learning and Day 2 offered another set of options of teaching methods and the management of which I attended Elspeth Broady’s and Alison resources. humour and expertise.The results will be published in the Dickens’ (University of Brighton Language near future. dent Advisory Teacher from Worcestershire. Bangor. As one important issue attitude towards working independently. an Indepen- ent environments.

CILT Research Forum

• self-access material is not used regularly This was in the first instance a conference
unless students are directed – at least dur- reporting on work in progress and therefore
ing the first steps towards autonomy. few definite results could be provided as yet.
However, the major issue seems to be how to
However, and this is positive, students were give all these projects the theoretical frame-
increasingly encouraged to find things out for work and the generally acceptable research
themselves, e.g. to deduce their own grammat- methodology required so that the next RAE
ical rules which they are meant to check then exercise can find it in its power to acknowl-
against the ‘official’ explanation in the gram- edge the valuable work done for the promotion
mar book. of language learning and teaching through IT.
The Research Forum was summed up very
comprehensively by Professor Chris Brumfit Annegret Jamieson
from the University of Southampton. University of Hull

Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 135

Software Review

PROF (Practical Revision of French)
Minimum system requirements: PC 386 or higher with 4MB RAM (8MB recommended), SVGA monitor,
Windows 3.1 (95 compatible), MS-DOS version 5.0, 8MB available hard disk space. Can be installed to run
over most networks, tested on Novell NetWare v3 and 4.
Available from: Institute of Computer Based Learning, Queen’s University, Belfast.
Price: £40.00 to UK HE institutions. £65.00 elsewhere

Description of software / intended brief but informative with clearly detailed
use instructions for installation and set-up. Once
installed, the user clicks the PROF icon and
PROF is a CALL grammar package written enters the initial menu screen. This is a grey,
primarily for level one undergraduate learners and somewhat unappealing screen entitled
of French but it may also be useful at post Practical Revision of French followed by a list
GCSE / Advanced level. The package is of grammatical areas. More could be done to
intended to enable the learner to revise and improve the user-friendliness of this initial
consolidate their knowledge of French gram- interface. Page links are not clearly high-
mar. It is divided into twelve chapters roughly lighted for novice users and it is only after a
following the textbook Le français en faculté. succession of clicks on The Present Tense that
The structure of the chapters is straightfor- one stumbles upon sub-headings in order to
ward; each contains an overview, a brief move through to the first chapter. The opening
description of the grammar point to be revised screen for this initial chapter is much more
followed by a dialogue, a longer grammar pre- attractive and up-to-date. It clearly presents
sentation and sets of exercises the separate sections of the chapter, and once
one has established how to use the links in the
frame to the right of the screen, navigation
Documentation / ease of use / screen through the chapter does not present too many
layout difficulties. Each of the chapters is organised
into separate layers and although the package
The PROF package is quick and easy to install is designed to be used in a linear fashion, it is
from two floppy disks, with clear on-screen quite easy to move around in it and enter and
instructions. The accompanying literature is exit the various chapters and sub-sections. In

136 ReCALL

Software review

many cases, pages are multi-layered so a click seems rather inauthentic for the learner to read
will add additional information at the learner’s scripted dialogue on screen. The dialogues
own pace. There is also an interesting use of could perhaps be recorded with the option of
animated words to illustrate grammar points viewing them. Technology and time permit-
such as endings and the dialogues in many ting, perhaps the static cartoon images could
cases are accompanied by a cartoon image. be animated or video clips used to make the
story more real. I liked the fact that the writers
had chosen a student for the principal charac-
Initial impressions ter: why not on his year abroad? I particularly
liked the use of a map to chart Robert's jour-
Having read a couple of articles about the ney, providing some cultural / geographical
package describing it as a ‘new way of revis- input.
ing French grammar’, I was very keen to have From a pedagogical perspective, my main
a look since I have seen nothing as yet for concern is the lack of real integration between
learners of French at post-GCSE level which the dialogues and the aims of the package. In
betters GramEx for straightforward grammar the grammar explanations which follow each
consolidation purposes. The stated aim of dialogue, examples are taken from the dia-
PROF is “to provide students with the oppor- logue out of context. I feel the dialogues need
tunity of revising and practising (a variety of to link more transparently to the grammar
identified grammatical concepts) in a lively point and explanation. For example, the
interactive way that will reinforce and learner could be required to identify and high-
improve linguistic accuracy”. The choice of light all examples of the grammar point in the
grammar topics covered by PROF is very dialogue, or when they go through the expla-
much appropriate to this aim for students at A nation, a highlighted link could pull them back
level / undergraduate level one. However, I to the grammar point in context. I wonder
must admit to being initially somewhat disap- whether students would feel they could relate
pointed with the ‘dated’look of the static car- to and work with the dialogues enough to sub-
toon pictures which reminded me very much stantiate the claim of ‘interactivity’ for the
of textbooks used in the 1970s (e.g. archetypal package. Moreover, most of the dialogues are
French detective in hat in chapter 7). My own rather long and it is therefore vital that they
experience of students today makes me think bring a pedagogical plus to warrant their
they may find this aspect of the package rather inclusion. This is a concern also expressed by
unsophisticated. the writers of PROF who are reviewing the
relevance of the dialogues within the package.
Their own extensive evaluation initially
Pedagogical content revealed that only 10% of students said they
found the dialogues useful / very useful. There
Dialogues are some excellent features here though which
The dialogues within each chapter follow the need to be built on. I like the fact that the
adventures of a young student, Robert, as he authors have deliberately chosen to include
spends a month in France. They gradually grammar items already covered in follow-up
evolve into a rather esoteric detective story dialogues, e.g. use of depuis in the chapter on
which ends with a mixture of Islamic terrorists the future tense. The hypertext linked glossary
(culturally appropriate?) and French secret is good, with appropriate vocabulary chosen
agents! There are some nice touches of for translation into English - perhaps at this
humour in the dialogue, although a couple of level an explanation of the vocabulary could
the more stereotypical references did jar be done in French though?
somewhat, e.g. une Porsche rouge conduite
par une belle blonde. This aspect of the pack- Grammar presentations
age could be developed in many ways. It Following each dialogue is an unashamedly

Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 137

‘parti. One is normally given two learners felt that. ‘elision’.g. length and content. e. mainly gap filling. the only other package I on formal grammatical terminology e. with access to human feedback (in words. ReCALLNewsletter no. A more of grammatical terminology.. it gave them the opportu- plied in English.. either "try again" or "incor. 10 138 ReCALL . The level of the presentation is challenging but appropriate for revision pur. nity to revise a great deal of grammar”. attempt to contextualise the grammatical More importantly. as this would support any learner who is having difficulty as well as enhance the References claim of interactivity. to function successfully in a self-access envi- prehensive and tests each point presented with ronment. rect – the answer is . to explain the formation of past fact. ‘direct object’. one could ask whether students actu- this the aim of the package? A nice touch was ally want or need their grammar practice to be the use of graphics layering one onto the next integrated into a 'fun' environment. ‘past participle’. Active Learning 5 (CTISS have the advantage of requiring absolute accu. The terms are not always which could be re-appraised. even a missing Tame. know of which addresses this need being cle’. It is encouraging that many of stu- a variety of strategies. It is a shame no Sheridan Graham explanation of the correct answer is given or a The Nottingham Trent University link put back into the presentation of the point. absolutely correct answer. Overall. The authors detailed explanation or linked glossary of appear to have included the dialogues in an grammatical terms would be useful. when using the package). of what is required before attempting the “PROF clearly justifies its title since many questions. Not only are they are problems with the dialogues themselves in required to absorb the grammar rule but also terms of presentation.. e.". The explanations of revising grammar. P (1996) PROF: a new way of revising apostrophe is classed as incorrect.g. measurements. learned little from it. the associated metalanguage in English. Initial evaluation also to the exercises are detailed but it would also suggests they made some improvement in be helpful for the learner to have an example grammar test scores. however. As the authors say. said they asked participle ending. some thought approach to an important need at this level of could be given to the rather heavy emphasis language learning. the links between thought should be given to what the learner is exercises and dialogues are tenuous and there expected to do here. Is Indeed. interested to learn. that students did the package is currently used during class con- not always respond well to the moving tact time. This does French grammar. dents surveyed enjoyed and preferred this way true/false.. TELL consor- As with other traditional CALL packages tium CALL package available through Hodder of this nature. multiple choice. Hickman. perhaps some more points covered. However. Publications). French’).g. GramEx. P (1997) PROF (‘Practical Revision of tle demoralising.. I found PROF offered an interesting poses at this level. in particular the fully explained and learners may often have inclusion of dialogues as well as explanations little experience of this terminology. though they may have attempts at a question and feedback is sup. However. I was Within the institution which has piloted it. P (1996) GramEx French. Tame. There are several areas of PROF ‘transitively’ etc. in the explanations.Software review traditional presentation of the grammar point Overall value / conclusion in English. Careful thought needs to be given to how the package could be Exercises developed and made more transparent in order The exercise section of each chapter is com.. racy from the learner although it may be a lit. one is required to type in an & Stoughton. 69% of students surveyed. 45% said they found them for further grammar explanations during class irritating.

Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 139 .

They require a 486 or Pentium multimedia PC with CD-ROM drive. stress. rounded vowels. Packs of 10 CD-ROMs and manuals can be purchased at the reduced price of £350 plus VAT. The program contains eight Liaison Interpreting modules consisting of interviews between an English and an Italian person on contemporary topics. A minimum of 8 MB RAM is recommended. The materials may be used independently or integrated into existing course materials. which users are asked to interpret. InterprIT(Italian) A self-access interpreting program for learners following advanced interpreting courses. which include use of an Interpreter's Notepad on screen. based on carefully selected video clips. which is a situational- based activity including speaking and comprehension practice with revision and testing exercises. Ça sonne français An introduction to the phonetics of French from which learners can acquire a deeper understanding and mastery of French pronunciation. It also provides listening comprehension and a facility for voice recording so that learners can judge their own progress.and presents broad phonetic transcription. The program covers the classic topic areas (e. rhythmic groups). 140 ReCALL .g. German. There are also two modules providing practice in Consecutive Interpreting. asking the way or ordering a meal. Networking is not recommended. Italian. speakers and microphone. Each dialogue has contextualised help and support and provides practice in the language used in basic situations such as booking a hotel room. Each CD-ROM (one per language) contains 20 or more dialogues. Technology Enhanced Language Learning Multimedia CD-ROMs down in price The TELL Consortium language learning CD-ROMs are now available at the lower price of £49. Spanish and Portuguese) This range of programs on CD-ROM is designed primarily for the non-specialist language learner.95 plus VAT Encounters (French. All seven CD-ROMs exploit the speed and visual attractiveness of multimedia. sound card. Also included is a more advanced module. divided between situation-specific modules.

Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 141 .

Beijing. 16-18 Language Engineering. 7017 Rousse. R. 69A. Language Institute. Parkville. UK 21-12 September1998. Hull. Besançon. Niebuhrstr. University of Email: France Tel: +33 3 81 58 84 70 4-6 September1998.ox.html (see p139 for details) 25-27 May 1998. 100044 8 Studentska Str. Information: 7-9 June 1998. Oxford Via Tel: +46 8 790 Franche-Comté.se/still/ Fax: +39 35 27 72 27. Laboratoire Information: Email: talc98@oucs. Email: Claub@mediacom. Sweden 17-19 September1998. Fax: +359 82 486 379 Email: icce98@center. UK 10-12 September 1998. Oxford. UK OX1 2JA.html 142 ReCALL . France 24-27 July Studies) http://lib. Northern Jiaotong University. Università di Bergamo. 1 Wellington Square. Bulgaria. Horwood Language Information: ICEF . Oxford.unimelb. Université‚ de http://users. University of Rousse. Belgium Tel: +44 161 200 3100 EUROCALL98: From Classroom Teaching to Email: mjhamel@ccl. Manchester. STiLL.Bradley@selc. 10629 Berlin. Manchester M60 1QD. China Multimedia and Foreign Language Training ICCE98: Global Education on the Net Information: Dr Milko Todorov 13-17 July 1998.speech.kenning@uea. Dept of Continuing Education. Germany Victoria 2-3 July 1998. Italy ESCAWorkshop on Speech Technology in Tel: +39 35 27 72 16 http://www.China Tel: +359 82 44 507 356. SMILE Secretary. 5th CercleS International Conference: Integration guage Learning through Innovation. Information: ICCE98 Secretariat. University of Melbourne.umist. Hull HU6 University of Germany WORLDCALL: Call to Creativity Languages & the Media Information: June Gassin. Computer Dept of Computer Systems. UK Workshop on Advising for Language Learning ALT-C 98 Information: Elizabeth Bradley. Bergamo. Australia 15-16 October1998. Information: Workshop Secretariat. Leuven.njtu. Norwich NR4 Assisted Language Learning 7TJ. Tel: +44 1603 592152 Information: Marie-Josée Fax: +46 8 7907854 Slavecchio Worldwide Learning http://www.acad.Languages & the Media.chanier@univ-fcomte. Beijing. UK Fax: +33 3 81 66 64 50 AFLS 98 (Association for French Language Email: thierry. Centro (Royal Institute of Technology) Linguistico d' Information: Dr Marie-Madeleine Kenning. Italy Email: still@speech. Australia Fax: +49 30 324 9833 or +49 228 211944 Email: June_Gassin@muwayF. UMIST. UK School of Modern Languages and European Natural Language Processing in Computer. Diary 9 May 1998.ox. UK EUROCALL99 TALC 98: Teaching and Language Corpora Information: Thierry Chanier. UK Tel: +44 (0)1482 465862/466172 Tel: +44 1865 270360 Fax: +44 (0)1482 466180 Email: altC98@conted. University of East Anglia.kth. Email: E.njtu. PO Box 88. d'Informatique de Besançon. Bulgaria 14-17 October1998. Dept of Email: m. EUROCALL/EUROCALLE. KTH Information: Maurizzio Gotti. 24129 Bergamo.

Vol 10 No 1 May 1998 143 . * On 3. Your text should be laid out as follows: Title of article: Do not use capital letters. except at the beginning of the title and for proper names. All submissions are refereed. development and practice in the area of computer-assisted language learning and technology enhanced language learning in edu- cation and training. up-to-date and well-structured. Abstract: No more than 100 words. Papers may also be submitted in MIME-encoded format by email.5" disk in Word for Windows 2. ReCALL: Notes for Contributors ReCALL. Three free copies of the journal are sent to contributors in lieu of offprints. and discussions of policy and strategy at institutional and disci- pline levels. use the following system: 1. (c) enhancing the quality. use standard conventions. 1. However. Biographical information: Brief.They are accepted for consideration on the assumption that they have not been previ- ously published and are not currently being submitted to any other journal. Please indicate which graphics package you have used to produce them. seeks to fulfil the stated aims of EUROCALL as a whole. Copyright is assigned to the publisher. evaluative studies of courseware use in the teach- ing and learning proce!ss. exploitation of on-line information systems. * On 3. practical applications at developmental stage. which are to advance education by: (a) promoting the use of foreign languages within Europe. The publisher reser ves the right to publish the contribution electronically via World Wide Web. assessment of the potential of technological advances in the delivery of language learning materials.5" disk in Rich-Text-Format (RTF). institution. Texts should not exceed 5. Typical subjects for submissions include theoretical debate on language learning strategies and their influence on courseware design. provided that the contribution is not offered for sale. diffusion and cost-effectiveness of relevant language learning materials. Survey papers are welcome provided that they are timely. but the right to reproduce the contribution is granted to author(s). * Hard copy: preferably laser-printer output.5 with a point size of 12 (please indicate word-count at the end of your text). date. In languages other than English. The text should be left-aligned only.5" disk in ASCII format. Make sure that graphics and screen dumps are also available on disk and are of sufficient size and quality to be reproduced in a reduced format. papers in French or German will be considered. Text of article References If your article includes numbered sections and paragraphs. The language of ReCALL is normally English. Author: First name.1. Authors should be aware that editorial licence may be taken to improve the readability of an article. last name.000 words: line spacing 1. no more than 50 words.0 format or higher (please state version). Please label your disk with your name. the titles of files stored on the disk and the name of the word-processor you have used. (b) providing a European focus for the promulgation of innovative research. * On 3. the journal of CTI Modern Languages in association with EUROCALL.

Use bulleted lists within above system or quotation .. Legenhausen L. .3. thus: Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI). EUROCALL 91: Proceedings. When referring to the title of an organisation by its initials. Single-author books Davies G. brackets. (1994) “Learner autonomy:a theoretical construct and its practical application”. (eds. then a.” (Davies 1985:15) Please avoid using footnotes. 144 ReCALL .E.). Bibliographical referencing within the article . as was stated in a recent study (Davies 1995:65) . iii. References at end of the article Please pay particular attention to the use of full-stops after initials and the use of commas. or eurocall@hull. c. 1. see also Ahmad et al. Use italics or bold for emphasis. Thereafter refer to ICI.I. and any queries. & Wolff D. UK. 2.2. D.2. vi. Articles in journals.. Die neueren Sprachen 93 (5)... colons. 2.. (1991) “Data-driven learning and the revival of grammar”. iii. iv. & Telenius J. Bochum: AKS-Verlag. Email: cti. ReCALL CTI Centre for Modern Languages. ii. D. Your text will be returned for re-editing if you do not adhere to the prescribed system. b.. v. ii.. (1995) Telekommunikation im OBE not I.. Abbreviations Don't use full stops in abbreviations: ICI. 2. etc... 430-442.) (1996) Technology-enhanced language learning in theory and practice:EUROCALL 94: Proceedings. be consistent. Eastbourne:Cassell. Dual-author books Davies G.. “. (eds.lang@hull. Helsinki: Helsinki School of Economics. Little D. Contact address Please address your manuscript.. (1985:123-127) . Edited books Rüschoff B. London: CILT. University of Hull Hull HU6 7RX.. & Wolff D. & Higgins J. Articles in books Johns T.In Savolainen H.1.1. J. (1985) Using computers in language learning: a teacher’s guide. Multiple-author books Eck A.. No brackets. to: June Thompson Editor. first spell out the title in full followed by the abbreviation in brackets. O. Szombathely: Berzsenyi Dániel College.C.. Above all. magazines... (1985) Talking BASIC: an introduction to BASIC programming for users of language. 2. i. Underlining Don't underline.