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Volume 9 · Number 1 · May 1997

Editorial 3

Teaching and Language Corpora (TALC)
T. McEnery and A.Wilson 5

Computer-based language assessment: a formative approach
R. Kane-Iturrioz 15

Email tandem learning and the communicative curriculum
J. Woodin 22

Do-it-yourself multimedia
P. Brett 34

The role of IT in English for Academic Purposes: a survey
H. Jarvis 43

Project MERLIN: a learning environment of the future
D. Marsh et al. 52

Book Review
The Student’s Guide to the Internet 55

Software Reviews
Télé-Textes 58
Collins Cobuild 61
Collins French Dictionary 64

Diary 69

Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 1


CTI Centre for Modern

Professor Graham Chesters
Centre Manager:
June Thompson
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Jenny Parsons

CTICentre for Modern
Languages, The Language
Institute, The University of Hull,
Hull HU6 7RX, UK.
Tel: +44 (01)482 466373/465872 This issue of ReCALL contains the familiar rich mixture of
Fax: +44 (01)482 473816. articles and reviews, designed to appeal to a quite diverse read-
ership. We were particularly pleased to receive the article on
Teaching and Language Corpora, which is the written version
of a paper delivered by Tony McEnery at ETLL7, an Expert
EUROCALL Seminar held in Birmingham and organised by the CTI Centre
Subscription rates for 1997 for Modern Languages in association with Aston University.
Individual: £ 30.00 The article provides a very useful overview of current activity
Corporate: £ 60.00 in exploiting electronic corpora for language learning, the
Commercial: £300.00 potential of which is clearly under-exploited so far.
Further details from the above The next issue of ReCALL (Vol 9 No 2) is likely to be much
address. more closely focused: we are seeking contributions to a Spe-
cial Issue on Grammar. This will be entitled ‘The Challenge of
ReCALL Journal Grammar – Back to Basics or Brave New World?’ and will be
edited by Robin Goodfellow and Peter Metcalfe. The intention
Advertisement rates* is to contribute to current discussion on grammar-teaching
Full page: £150
methodologies in the ‘post-communicative’ world, with special
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Inserts: £150 (per thousand, invited which address the general theme of the pedagogical
single A4 sheet) challenge which grammar presents for the design of technol-
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ogy-supported language learning.
Theoretical papers, reports of work in progress, evaluations
© The CTICentre for of recent practice, all would be relevant and considered for
Modern Languages, inclusion. Articles, in English or French, will need to be
University of Hull, UK between 2000 and 5000 words in length, and to be ready for
refereeing by July 21st 1997. Please contact either of the edi-
ISSN 0958-3440 tors at the addresses below, for further information about sub-
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Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 3

4 ReCALL .

McEnery and Fligelstone. Botley. Glass. yet they have been used considering how corpora have penetrated more and more. is 19941. which aim to bring together those who being done to overcome these obstacles. Whilst it is true that some linguists may still tion of papers related to multilingual corpora view the use of 'performance data' with disap- (Botley. we have con. the paper will proceed by corpora in teaching. this has not stopped the large-scale of this paper is to summarize the progress to adoption of corpora in computational linguis- date in the field of teaching and language cor. Knowles.ReCALL 9:1 (1997) 5–14 Teaching and language corpora (TALC) Tony McEnery and Andrew Wilson Lancaster University Introduction tinct uses of them. even though there have been teaching to date. if anything. McEnery and Wilson. selection of papers (Wichmann. have an interest in the application of corpora to the teaching of language and linguistics2. Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 5 . no open and general debate about the use of With this said. to argue about the admissibility of corpus data. intermittent criticisms of their use3. This process has which is developing. both as a general introduction and as a guistics. by a process of percolation: there has been the past two conferences. McEnery and Wilson. 1994. as we see it. problems face those wishing to use corpora in sciously copied the name of the series of bi. we will concentrate specifically on what obstacles and In choosing a title for this paper. started at Lancaster in conclude by examining what. 1996). Already. their growing influence in mainstream lin- pora. As such. a general There is no need any more. teaching. and will describe three dis. Following this. in Europe at least. Teaching ings (Wilson and McEnery. at the present. 1997). and their exploitation in the teaching gateway to the more comprehensive literature of language and linguistics. tics. this paper owes been expanding for nearly thirty years in the a considerable debt to all of the participants at UK. those conferences have set in train a The Percolation of Corpora into series of publications – conference proceed. The aim proval. We will annual conferences. 1997) and a collec.

as teacher may point the general direction noted by Leech (1997). it is a the moment. tell them what suited to fit in with the dominant philosophy points to examine and what questions to of teaching in UK tertiary education over the ask. selves and one another through the learn- ing.Teaching and Language Corpora (TALC): T McEnery and A Wilson The Growth in Corpus Use edge. Yet such use of corpora has now has a strong peer-based learning element: reached a stage where percolation must be students must share experiences. It provided a the corpus (e. of features: ing and language corpora that the authors are aware of took place at ICAME4 in 1992. sive receptacle. by reviewing work to date. guage teaching of which we are aware They discover features about language for occurred in 19695! themselves. process of interacting in some way with ing is a step in the right direction. ing process. deal with the problem of communication is a ● Mediated learning – the corpus is not a theme we will return to later in the paper. The corpus encourages the student to act as the producer of research. corpora are perfectly for the students.g. Looking at the authored output from the ● Divergent learning – even with the most TALC conferences shows that the use of cor. quite clearly. rather than teaching as imparting knowl. But it is the students who lead them- past two decades: teaching as mediated learn. but there is scant In being presented with corpus materials. been little communication the data and find slightly different things. widen their understanding of a exploitation of corpora in teaching. analysis). through the data under their own impetus. In many ways. but ● Discovery learning – the students proceed that the first application of corpora to lan. a dominant pattern for quite unlike. that is. (Contrast the traditional textbook. where the students do learn directly from tributing to what we might describe as the end its contents. It would be nice to move on from this observation to talk about The Student as Researcher ripple effects spreading out from early centres of corpus-based teaching. 6 ReCALL . Students learn through the cated to examining the use of corpora in teach. say. selves as a pedagogical tool to a variety of educators internationally. medium through which learning may be ation of an ongoing series of conferences dedi. in turned into a clear evaluation and systematic doing so. and. it is sufficient to say that the cre. between centres regarding the use of corpora Consequently corpus based teaching often in teaching. Corpus-based learn- This is no surprise when it is considered that ing can be described by reference to a variety the first conference level discussion of teach. The should come as no surprise. findings of TALC further this paper is con. How to feature under examination. a student is neously. scanning an issue of Le corpus-based teaching developments. a key feature of pora in language teaching is worldwide.) of the beginning of that process. stu- evidence for such effects. Even when presented with ready-pre- have tended to occur somewhat sponta. careful set of instructions. In part. pared printed concordances. For source of didactic learning: rather. corpus-based learning is divergence: dif- Another look at the literature reveals that there ferent students take different paths through has. achieved. These Monde. via practical grammatical beginning. rather than from its explicit con- looking into the future and disseminating the tent. The of a conference like TALC has done is to experience of interacting with a corpus is bring up. to date. and have been widely separated. What the creation dents learn by a confrontation with data. but not led. ● Directed learning – learning from a corpus This growing role of corpora in teaching is directed by the teacher. the process of learning. rather than its pas- It seems that corpora have commended them. both immediately forced into active participation in geographically and in terms of subject matter.

teaching about the naturally occurring language that are not con. The teacher has been greatly eased in recent years by still has a place in the corpus-based classroom. Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 7 . we would obvious application of corpora to the teaching still maintain that the best TALC applica- of language and linguistics. for example. we can subdivide this confronta. 1993): rial and follow their own hunches in a cor- pus. and begin to exploit Direct Use of Corpora in Teaching to teach immediately. Teaching and Language Corpora (TALC): T McEnery and A Wilson These features combined lead to genuine the opinion of the authors. In conducting our brief review we will guages (see. the use In doing so we will be relatively brief. inexorably bound. When observed tions would combine all three strands. the present state of the TALC debate. who know how to extract mate- stone. in corpus. One can simply produce a paper concordance. and review attempts being We have presented these three strands as made to remove them. browse and retrieve from such data. next. Teaching to exploit – unless the students tion. are to be presented with corpus data in paper form only. is emphasized by the brook (1996). day and move on to exploiting corpora the that is. Teaching about corpora – a part of any deal about language through learning via a exploitation of corpus data should be. with students ing described the basic philosophy behind cor. and who also know how to describe the use of corpora in teaching to date. skip the first two stages. occurs at several universities independent room experiments comparing the contents of of any direct application-based exploita- reference grammars with real data make the tion of corpora. e. one may start to use a concordancer with students one The direct application of corpora to teaching. we will now briefly pus data. and hav. 3. Following this tics (see. However. and who. simple class. 1996) and linguis- impact of corpora on teaching. which has been so prevalent in higher educa.g. who understand what it means to use cor- pus-based teaching. and the exploitation of corpora. Meyer. we will come to a more substantial increasingly widespread. Indeed. Exploiting to teach – finally. an awareness insights by the student. 2. the methodology of corpus linguistics tic pedagogue towards the fellow researcher. discussion of what hindrances exist for the progress of TALC. cation of corpora to the teaching of lan- 1997). follow Leech’s (ibid. Similarly. actually presenting students with cor. Kirk. the results they Having described some of the background to can achieve can be impressive6. When Teaching? a student is comfortable with even a mod- est concordance program. methodology of corpus linguistics now tained in reference grammars. This need not be so. ducing students who know what it means to tion with data into three sub-areas (Fligel. use a corpus. as of corpora to enhance the teaching of lan- descriptive reviews of this sort have been guage or linguistics may begin. learn a great 1. consequently. teaching the students to use concordance and other corpus retrieval So What is the Role of Corpora in packages is another strand of TALC. for example. 1994) is now review. McEnery and Wilson (1996) and Barn- tion for several decades. inclusion of the corpus in the teaching equa. Leech. the appearance of general textbooks on but the shift of emphasis away from the didac. pro- more closely. 1993. without ever really discussing what it pus data of one sort or another.) tripartite division of the Okurowski and Hand. rather raising excercise of the methodology of than being told that there are constructions in corpus use. Teaching about corpora point much more demonstrably. The appli- undertaken already (Fligelstone. For example. is the most means to use a corpus.

(Kettemann. we may lems we see coming from TALC. large scale corpus building intitia- 8 ReCALL .7 This. for example. there is every indi . 1997) and child language corpora versity Press. which include some techni- pora in teaching. shelves of most libraries of most dictionaries multilingual corpora (Botley. ask. they are almost certainly cal texts within them.g. whole ranges of textbooks are now being produced on the basis of corpus Up to this point. Problems and Obstacles for the ual pedagogic works based on corpora (e. In languages other than English. So. that does not disguise the fact that in Empirical Linguistics. 1997). and Cambridge Uni. for To date. special corpora of test perfor. Dictionaries and tion. as this arti. Second works for English would mean clearing the language learner corpora (Granger. 1997) are all varieties of corpus versity Press all now produce corpus-based data that are expanding and strengthening the dictionaries. Future Mindt 1995). Annotated to meet Research Needs mances are also being developed. 1996). as well as individ. So. of publications and the Edinburgh Textbooks However. 1997). application of corpus data to teaching in lan- as corpus resources grow. for instance. notably at the University of Jyvdskyld in Finland (e. guage and linguistics.g. we will review the prob- As a final note in this section. McEnery and produced this decade .Teaching and Language Corpora (TALC): T McEnery and A Wilson Use of Corpora Indirectly Applied example. the use of corpora in teaching has also speci- cle suggested from the outset. as Collins. The trend has Behind the discussion of how to bring corpora also developed elsewhere. Wilson. as we have already seen. and consider observe that corpora are being used not only to what progress has been made in solving these inform teaching but also to inform processes problems to date. as research’. new corpus resources are developed. cation that. LSP teach- to Teaching ing at at least one university became corpus dominated from the late 1960s. in part. we have presented a generally data – for example the Collins Cobuild series rosy view of the use of corpora in teaching. to help improve testing proce. you may dures. requires a little justification. Avoiding corpus-based reference eral British National Corpus (BNC). is directly into teaching lies a simple fact: even helped by the balanced nature of corpora being where institutions claim not to be using cor. corpora are also changing would generally be relevant to ‘classroom the way certain subjects are approached. Oxford Uni. following sections. As well as the obvi- ous application of corpora as data for the development of cloze and other kinds of tests Corpora have been Built and (Woolls. Longman. French and Spanish dictionaries and grammars will also become corpus based. could corpora being built and annotated for researchers be a problem if we are casting students in the role of researchers when using Further Teaching Oriented corpora in the classroom? The answer is that Developments the needs of the researchers primarily involved with the development of corpora Beyond the direct and indirect application of have been subtly different from those which corpora to teaching. The first point we should like to make Luoma. developed to date. have already fied problems which corpus and corpus percolated into even the most unsuspecting of browser developers will have to solve. if you benefiting from the fruits of research in corpus are interested only in doctor-patient interac- linguistics in their teaching. In the classrooms. of assessment or testing. How. it is perfectly possible to extract a doctor- grammars of English now commonly rely on patient interaction corpus from the more gen- corpus data. Corpora. Furthermore.

equipped to house gigantic text collections. So entailing further expense and technical exper- you change your goal. you are hoping length” for a balanced corpus of translations from “It is now possible to create a new kind of English into French. versational French to a group of first year and are justifiably ill-disposed to learning undergraduates. However. SGML9 or whatever other markup language is As another example. or Often. at present. Imag. This may be fine if you the use of corpora per se. while useful for corpus interchange. questions. Teaching and Language Corpora (TALC): T McEnery and A Wilson tives have largely been undertaken with the present no problem. one which has no final extent” The largest and most widely available French/English corpora of translations are However. Corpus annotation – Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 9 . computational linguists from Sinclair (1991: 24–25) give a flavour of and lexicographers. As an adjunct to the problem referred to in guistics for some time that storage space is the pr evious section. but who would like are interested in particular kinds of LSP. for example. You can’t: the corpus is not will need to learn SGML to exploit the corpus annotated with syntactic functions. you will be disappointed. but it to use corpus data in teaching. telecommunication manuals. are bewil- dering for non-SGML-aware users forced to Corpus Distribution and browse such resources in the absence of a gen- Exploitation Tools eral purpose commercially available SGML- aware concordance program. The following quotes backing of linguists. processors” pora that have been funded by the European “There is no limit to be placed on text Community. which is a concor- English. finance and technical expertise to install a six ine. may be ill is bad news if you were hoping to teach con. This would prove difficult. Consequently. consider the needs of “Computer storage is now cheap and vast computational linguists. corpus. be of variable use in teaching. National Corpus. The dancer that can understand SGML and hence imperative is not distinguished from the non takes this problem away. it is difficult for teachers to make full use of pus encoding schemes to the extent that they their own text collections. and further to that. he or she object in English. the encoding schemes that they use. Running SARA. morphosyntactic tagging8 of this corpus. If a user goes ahead at this stage and want to introduce your class to the indirect tries to use the BNC without SARA. teachers whose main interest is not in banking documents. means accessing a UNIX machine. viz. with the BNC the use of the imperative form of a verb in comes the SARA program. consider the British necessary to exploit a corpus effectively. mounting the corpus locally involves the and authors represented in the corpus. Similarly. If. This corpus has no problem While corpora such as the BNC10 are attrac- of balance: there is a wide range of text types tive. no surprise that corpora developed largely The size of corpora on offer at present can with goals other than teaching in mind should clearly be a problem for TALC initiatives. corpus linguists are all suitably aware of cor. There has been a mood abroad in corpus lin. Fortunately. size and corpus encoding do pre- invariably of technical texts: parliamentary sent a problem for the TALC enterprise. however. it may also be observed that. effectively and to make sense of the gob- As the research needs of those developing bledegook that will be interspersed with the corpora have a crucial impact on the utility of search results if a non-SGML-aware concor- that corpus in the long run. and decide that you tise11. that tation. it should come as dancer is used. that you want to show your class gigabyte hard disk. third person singular form of the verb in the however. it comes as this: no surprise to find that the data suit them rather well. These have greatly amounts can be searched by fairly small influenced the form of the multilingual cor. that of corpus anno- no longer a problem.

supplementary means of discussion benefits of the use of corpora in the teaching are also required. the CORPORA Deepening the Penetration of list12). At the moment. the field of TALC is developing puter services departments with UNIX rapidly and needs a more frequent focus than machines. but often lack the technical expertise sages (probably moderated). re-discov- annotation tools is.g. So. 10 ReCALL . the role of lan- user and consequently extends the potential of guage corpora in teaching has become much corpora in teaching. prove practice dissemination need a forum which is inaccessible for the teacher wanting to anno. as a cousin to the tertiary/secondary divide. journal. These might include: a regu- of language and linguistics.Teaching and Language Corpora (TALC): T McEnery and A Wilson that is. significant scale to which a substantial and spread: there is no reason to believe that this international body of educators will be drawn. The bi-annual TALC conferences will and elsewhere. which occasionally carry a teaching Corpus Data related message. sion happens. Web site that also allows visitors to post mes- pus data. Even so. move for corpus data is to cross the a dedicated mailing list. especially an issue ering mistakes made elsewhere in the past. that tate his/her own texts. retrieval forum is being provided through the occa- software that is able to make intelligent use of sional publication of articles by a number of linguistic annotation is scarce. the explicit identification of parts of The Development of Further speech. more general CORPORA list. or. both in the UK corpora. where the teachers do not have access to com. while sec. the better. The use of corpora in higher still hold an important place. word meaning. and teaching even when they are generally available. This problem of inventing the wheel. or even a dedi- necessary to install and exploit corpora. 1994). again. more clearly defined because a forum for based Cytor grammar tutor developed at Lan. such as second-language corpora creation. given shortcoming that is exacerbated by the points the rapid development of the field – electronic covered in the previous section. the less likely it is in lyzed corpus in the teaching of English gram. a cated journal or – more appropriately. worse still. McEnery. However. These are an outpouring of received structure. the dissemination and critical review of teach- tiative to encourage more pro-actively their ing practices. This forum in turn has led to an Baker and Wilson 1995) makes use of corpora impending flood of TALC focused publica- annotated with parts of speech and syntactic tions. Major initiatives. teachers to share experiences has finally been caster (McEnery and Wilson. TALC initiatives that effort will be spent re- mar (van Halteren. For example. and similarly. as Catholic University of Nijmegen in the the more this literature permeates the con- Netherlands make use of a syntactically ana. The more frequently this discus- use in this sector. the corpus. corpora are being utilized almost to the discussion of teaching and language exclusively at the tertiary level. surely a necessary lar special section in a journal such as this one. Furthermore. open and responsive. multilingual corpus creation. created. educators at the wisdom to date. as meetings of education should indeed become more wide. will not occur. a bi-annual conference. oped largely by researchers for use on power. They are to be welcomed. given the potential but other. there is a clear need for some ini. Annotation tools have been devel. a World Wide Secondary schools are willing to use cor. and Forums for Dissemination so on within the running text – provides a great amount of ‘added value’ for the corpus Over the past three years. sentence structure. The TALC experience so far has ondary schools may express willingness to use shown that a forum for discussion enhances corpus data. sciousness of educators. diverse publications (such as this journal) and by a variety of specialist on-line bulletin boards and mailing lists (e. 1993. What is needed is an ongoing commitment Currently. ful (normally UNIX) workstations and thus.

the overall picture for corpus retrieval As the teaching and language corpora debate tools is positive. Deepening the Penetration of as pointed out previously. A great deal of good work proceeds. a larger number vary so widely. and multilingual corpus retrieval (Rousell. However. and sophisticated corpus retrieval mind. and. for example. The Longman Mini Concordancer. So. it is important that the MultiConc system of Woolls. routines for the automated generation of multi-word unit lists. then the breed of ing packages. so (WordSmith). teachers are to be able to annotate their corpora based package corpus retrieval tools more and make the maximal use of them. commonly associated with UNIX based sys- tems. there was little for example. but all the teaching purposes. The situation with anno- Oxford Concordance Package. But. At the time of writing. 1997 and the it. (ParaConc. for instance. ence in 1994. the period between the first TALC con. however. were SGML. SGML-aware retrieval (Salkie. cations in language and linguistics learning in WordSmith). By the formats in which annotation is introduced the second TALC conference. is being developed to learning needs become SGML-aware. but. opment of retrieval tools goes hand in hand. British National Corpus). For example. and Word . as cruncher primarily dominated the market. However. 1997). if annotation is intro- of concordance packages had come to the duced in an SGML-conformant format (as is the market. To give an idea of the speed signs are that this particular problem is clear- of this development. part-of- Corpus distribution and exploitation tools speech taggers that can tag text rapidly and fully automatically with an accuracy of more than Again. 95%) are still inaccessible to the non-UNIX per- ference and the second has seen an explosive son. During mer of hope: the AMALGAM project at Leeds. tation-aware retrieval tools is complicated. will perform the automated tag- choice on the open market for corpus retrieval ging of English texts via e-mail or a World- tools. allows one to do this). most ‘intelli- gent’ annotation tools (for example. designed to allow parallel cor. there is evidence of this bottleneck clearing: Word - Corpora are now being developed for Smith for example. even here there is some glim- development in corpus retrieval tools. case with the part-of-speech tagging of the aware. as a general point. Others. 1997) have been developed with appli. the poverty of Corpora SGML awareness amongst PC-based systems for concordancing is an ongoing cause for Although there are no national or international Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 11 . tasks (Raymond Hickey’s Lexa program14. development of annotation tools and the devel- such as the WordSmith tools of Mike Scott13. the INTERSECT corpus browsing (SARA). including within a PC. SGML-aware retrieval packages which are now pus data to be browsed and queried (the under development should be able to cope with ParaConc system of Barlow. Work remains to be done to ease has the development of corpora specifically for the path of corpus exploitation. ing itself up fast and in the right way. such as SARA. an increasing number of corpora are has been achieved over the past two years. and the LINGUA corpora (SARA). being developed specifically with teaching in with ground-breaking work in large corpus mind. Others were multilingual concordanc. Some. a wide variety of ware exists for PC DOS platforms which corpora specifically designed and developed enables users to perform rudimentary annotation with teaching in mind were presented. Although some soft- the second conference in 1996. the first TALC conference. Wide Web interface15. no corpora specifically designed The situation as regards annotation tools is for teaching purposes were presented. Nevertheless. Teaching and Language Corpora (TALC): T McEnery and A Wilson What is Happening? concern. by somewhat less positive. As the TALC debate has proceeded. if are quite sophisticated. to an extent. at the first TALC confer. MultiConc. 1995).

Here the picture is somewhat less rosy. for example. 5. perhaps more so that we can establish pedagogical. we are building a groundswell of and resource goals. dowson (1993).Teaching and Language Corpora (TALC): T McEnery and A Wilson initiatives to deepen the pentration of corpora because of the one forum that we do have in beyond the tertiary level. research. seems the flimsiest in some ways. As evidence of how effective even the humblest bears thought. there are individual which to discuss this issue. They must proceed present at the secondary level to embrace cor. Stubbs carries out nearly all the the topic of teaching and language corpora research undertaken in his book using the hum- 12 ReCALL . guistics. of all the obstacles examined. Baker forum for the discussion of teaching and lan- and Wilson.ox. This fact alone is a local initiatives which are at least getting this powerful testimony to the usefulness of an process underway. 2. all on which to report. slowly cultivating the use of corpora at the secondary Conclusion level in the north west of England. pus-based techniques. Corpora have been However. from now on in a clear and controlled fashion. hope will be of value. However. van Els et al. TALC 1994 and 1996 were held at Lancaster. 1995). making both students and exploitation of corpora in teaching. Consequently. these initiatives are a drop in point. Although not teach- to cover such a relatively broad spectrum of ing related. This ground that has been covered by TALC-ori- latter effort is now expanding. Peter Roe started to use LSP corpora in teaching remember that if this article were being writ- at Aston University in 1969 (personal commu- ten four years ago. This article has only been able research see Stubbs (1996). The teachers more aware of corpus methods. at Lancaster ongoing TALC forum. they do show that a willingness is proceeding by percolation. The next conference will be in 1998 in Oxford. Also. in which interchange of (lou@vax. However. (1984) and Wid- scale. importantly. which we achieving that goal. yet it also 4. we must hark back to a theme we raised the ocean compared with what is needed. increasing the range of the corpus corpora into the teaching of language and lin- linguistic method to include the Midlands. should our initiative expand to a more general effort. We have a programme involving eight schools who are The previous section started to move us using corpus-based grammatical tutoring sys. Public debate of the use of experience in liaison between the secondary corpora in teaching is the key element in and tertiary sectors on this issue. contributed to a general assault over the past level English Language conferences over the two years on the problems associated with the same period of time. there would be no forum a t nication). ence. Gerry Knowles. Tony McEnery and Anne Wichmann. views can take place along a shorter time 3. The conference of the International Computer seems the most persistent. We have also been present. towards our conclusion: TALC has provided a tems developed by us (see entered into a partnership with Birmingham and has led to an ever greater incorporation of guage corpora that we believe has directly ing corpus-based techniques at our regular A. Although there is now an established confer. See. and this 6. For example. we have been visiting local schools and sixth form colleges for over five years now. for our main concluding Obviously. we must Archive of Modern English. The first TALC was organized by a committee composed of (in alphabetical order) Steve Forums for Dissemination Fligelstone. this article would be greatly of concordance programs can be in aiding impoverished. there is still no ongoing forum of the For more details contact Lou Burnard type outlined above. at the start of the paper. as we have ented researchers in that period is impressive. Notes The Development of Further 1. This.

S. McEnery.html. pp. corpora of English have been guage Corpora 1996. References Computer Assisted Language Learning 6(3). M. and Wilson. Knowles. tics. McEnery and Fligelstone (eds). op cit. Details of how to subscribe to this list can be Kettemann. Barnbrook.oup. from a Corpus Linguistics Perspective’. Teaching and 1996. 1996. R. Available on the World Wide Web from: Leech. annotation tasks. 1994. In: Wichmann. and Wilson. 97–109. 1993. P. Edinburgh. Hardt-Maut. S. ‘The role of cor- pora in computer-assisted language learning’.. M. Language Corpora. ICAME Journal commonly used standard way of encoding addi. results can be obtained from concordancers Botley. We are not implying that the problems we Granger. P. Multilingual Corpora in Teaching and speech analysis’. a Luoma. M. McEnery. confidence. In: Wichmann. 233–248. S. Research. Language and Computers. 1997. Edinburgh University Press. 13–24. Queen's approach’. 1989) and in the computer science sity. formal. J. see the World Wide Web page: study’. Baker.. Unpublished licentiate thesis. Botley. Worldwide. Clarendon Press. we In: S. 1995. the attachment of (often quite detailed) (eds) Multilingual Corpora in Teaching and part-of-speech codes to individual words in the McEnery. A. A. UCREL Technical P apers 4 (spe- http://www1.hd. That is. (eds). sion. Edinburgh. A. In: Wich- http://www. ple. A. software/wsmith?.no/lexainf. B. ‘Only Connect. A. corpus. Published by Oxford University Press. As well as allowing the user to carry out limited McEnery and Fligelstone (eds). McEnery. Centre for http://www. linguistic) in corpora. 1997. The experiences of Aston (1997) in try. Critical Dis- Oxford. op cit. Journal cial issue). Aston. outline pertain to the BNC alone. a science corpus in Hong Kong’. Lexa is also. ‘A Barlow. and Wilson. 14. A. ‘Comparability of a tape-mediated and a retrieval tool.. Knowles. UCREL. Rodopi. ‘Teaching and language corpora: the corpora-request@hd. and Wilson.html. and primarily. S. 11. J. G. and Wil- such as LMC. University of Jyvd- amalgam/amalgsoft. Lancaster University. an e-mail message may be sent to (eds).uk/amalgam/ Applied Language Studies. however.hd. ing to use SARA in this manner do not inspire UCREL Technical Papers 6. Oxford. Lancaster University.A. S. ‘Learner English Around the World’ S. P. Fligelstone. 1997. M. A. Knowles. Greenbaum (ed. G. P. ‘Using a Corpus to Evaluate Theo- found on the World Wide Web at: ries of Child Language Acquisition’. ‘Building a million-word computer 9. M. Corpora in Language details on WordSmith are available on the World Education and Research: A Selection of Papers Wide Web at: from Talc94. the Long. A. London.. M. man Mini Concordancer (LMC). pp. ICAME 10. 8. ‘Some Reflections on Teaching. domain (Davison. Standard Generalized Mark-up Language. G.). G. course Analysis and Corpus Linguistics’. pp. 1996. and 13. Convergence’. and Wilson. skyld. ‘Enriching the Learning Environment: McEnery. 123–124 tional information (e. mann. M. statistical analysis of corpus based computer vs In: Botley.leeds. 1992). Lancaster Univer- (Zhu. ‘Teaching and Language Corpora: A http://www. A. Rodopi. McEnery and Fligelstone Alternatively.g. In: Wilson.uib. UCREL. SARA can run across a wide area network from Hardt-Mautner. 12. Finland. 1997. face-to-face test of speaking. 16. Further McEnery. Computer Assisted Language Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 13 . Corpus Linguis - Corpora in ELT'’. Amsterdam. ‘Parallel Texts in Langua ge Teaching’. Davison. son. bibliographic. Glass. the list administrator at: Kirk. 1996.. Teaching and Language Corpora (TALC): T McEnery and A Wilson blest of commercial concordancers. M. J. pp. Indeed. Edin- ner (1995) also exemplifies how valuable burgh University Press. 29–51. UCREL Technical Papers developed for LSP in the petrochemical domain 9 (special issue). For example. traditional human teaching methods of part of A. For details. pp. M. 1993. Comparing English should like to give quite the contrary impres. Longman. 1992. (eds) Proceedings of Teaching and Lan - 7. A.uib.scs. A triangulation 15.htm. (eds). UCREL. McEnery. Note we are using the BNC as a current exam. A.

S. An Empirical Grammar of the English Social Meaning. D. ‘Communication. Oxford. R. M. Corpora.. and Hand. R. Oxford. ven Development of a Multilingual Parallel Oxford University Press. Bongaerts. A. Zhu. pp. pp. (ed.. Applied Lin . Berlin. H. Verb: Modal Verbs. Q. A. Meyer. G. (eds). Text and Corpus Analysis.. 17–28. In Botley. McEnery ands Wilson Language Education and Resear ch:A Selection (eds). ‘A quantitative look at the Guangzhou Edward Arnold. op cit. Woolls. Blackwell. A. 1995. Concordance. London. UCREL. G.Teaching and Language Corpora (TALC): T McEnery and A Wilson Learning 8(2–3). F. G. London. INTERSECT: a parallel corpus project at Papers 4 (special issue). of Papers from TALC94. 4–5. ‘Syntactic databases in the class. In: Botley. Cornelsen. pp. In: The Hong Kong Van Halteren. Glass. Concordancer’. Corpus. pp. 1996..) Language. 14 ReCALL . 1995. Corpora in cise Types’.. McEnery. A. ‘From Purity to Pragmatism: User Dri- Sinclair.. Wilson. Extra. Linguist 5. T. community centered learning’. guistics for Foreign Languages. Petroleum English Corpus’. 1989. A. McEnery and Wilson Stubbs. May University. (eds). J. room’.-M. op cit. T. 1991. In: Alatis. 259–274. op cit. T. Van Os. Knowles. 1994. M. and Wilson (eds). McEnery and the problem of appropriate use’. UCREL Technical Salkie.E. 1984. Widdowson. ‘Using pp. (eds). Okurowski. Longman. C.. Washington DC. In: Wilson and McEnery (eds). ‘Multilingual Concordance Based Exer. H. 1997.. 1993. Collocation. M. E. 171–177. 1995. op cit. Fligelstone. Lancaster Brighton University. Wichmann. D. in Botley. Communication and Mindt. Rousell. 19–37. and McEnery. authentic corpora and language tools for adult. Teaching and Language and Jansen-Van-Dieten. and Van Els. pp 305–315. Georgetown University Press. J. Computers & Texts 9.

the ini. Finally. assessment Within Higher Education there are calls for was still viewed as a mainly summative. redirecting the focus of assessment from being explicit evaluation of performance. Introduction dures to new ideas. ing (CBLT) resulted in computer-adaptive tively by providing feedback on their strengths testing (CAT) modelled on advances in mea- and weaknesses.ReCALL 9:1 (1997) 15–21 Computer-based language assessment: a formative approach Rosario Kane-Iturrioz University of Luton This paper analyses new research into learner-assisted testing. The early primarily summative to being more formative. and applications of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) to foreign language learning. all educational contexts has progressed from can be of great help in providing such feed. gogical considerations to a procedure which is In the case of language assessment. such as modules entirely taught through the use of computer courseware and CAL methods. which accommodate traditional assessment proce. The results of this research. which has resulted in a move away as cost and convenience when trying to from measuring recall of knowledge. innovative approaches within computer-based assess- ment of language learning. encouraged students to adopt a ‘surface’ Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 15 . being a formal process detached from peda- back. have opened up the possibility of helping stu- dents to learn more effectively by providing immediate feedback or further information in the form of clues or hints. patience and flexibility. capacity for interaction and their characteris. assessment in tics of speed. However. The implications of these developments regarding a formative approach to assessment and autonomous learning are reviewed. to help students to learn more effec. However. because of their surement theory (item response theory). the learning experience has increas- scoring tests (computer-based language test. Computers. bringing greater fairness and quality of testing. are discussed. memory. Fur- tial use of computers for both delivering and thermore. development of computer-based language test- That is. since the 1970s. ingly been seen to be as important as its out- ing) involved the mitigation of problems such comes. integrated within learning and teaching. in addition to advances in computer technology and programming.

is called for into the implications of help facil- to be presented to each candidate according to ities such as immediate feedback on the candi- the response which that candidate has made to date’s response (i.e. tive purposes as well as remedial work. the purpose of learned while doing the computer-based test.Computer-based language assessment: R Kane-Iturrioz approach to their learning. test was more useful because of the help facili- ject understanding which is more likely to lead ties. grammar. purpose of tests is to assess whether learning has taken place and that any assistance from an outside agent invalidates them.e. forced the belief of many practitioners that the Alderson and Windeatt’s research (1995) traditional barriers between exercises and tests into learner-adaptive testing found that item and consequently between teaching and test- types such as multiple-choice and jumbled text ing are fading. a dictionary or glossary These developments in CBLT have rein- and clues. One of the most interesting aspects of this ment procedure. In the case of the latter. pre- developed in the 1990s which permit the disclosed questions and open-book examina- learner to adapt the test to him or herself tions). Question Mark. they had learned more vocabulary and to deeper learning. learner-adaptive tests have been assessment purposes and procedures (i. vidual candidate. (a) creating a test more than the paper-based version formal test or exam which can be delivered (although they felt less relaxed while doing the and marked by computer. but also in the assess. computer-based tests and that gap-filling was especially in Higher Education. The researchers concluded that the In addition. right/wrong or clues) and the previous item. This is achieved by selecting Regarding both possibilities. allow access to ‘help’ facilities such as imme.1 and learning strategies. towards an former). and thought that the computer-based appraisal of the acquisition of skills and sub. Furthermore. testing has great potential (a) in assessing the the computer assesses the candidate’s candidate’s performance using the advantage responses while the test is being taken and offered by CAT and (b) for diagnostic/forma- then automatically adapts the test to each indi. have permeated into Higher Education. a second mances. or stored for comparison with future perfor- diate feedback for each response. learners seemed to “welcome the degree of cational approaches which endeavoured to control (over test content and process) that the give the learners as much control as possible. chance at a question. producing a revision of Within CBLT. changes in assessment policy and Language Testing (CBLT) language testing in particular. Formative uses of Computer-Based However. This appears to be confirmed were the most popular in both paper-based and by the current popularity among teachers. This program can be used for dates reported that they enjoyed the computer both testing and teaching. ‘learner-adaptive’ nature of the program pro- not only by allowing them a say in the syllabus vides”. research is that the test takers felt that they had Against this background. the candi. The innovative aspect of a subsequent second chance as an option in learner-adaptive testing is that in addition to testing. This may result in the awarding of choosing the kind(s) of test items which the some reduced credit for a successful second test taker feels more confortable with. Following this trend. further research items from a computerised bank of test items. it can attempt which could be recorded and assessed. many practition- instead of the computer tailoring the test to the ers consider that computer-based language examinee as in CAT. i. the 1980s witnessed new edu. (b) creating an infor- 16 ReCALL . this paper is to give an overview of the role of This state of affairs seems to be at odds with computers in a more formative and integrated the traditional view of formal testing and approach to the assessment of languages in examinations which establishes that the only Higher Education.e. of a commer- considered more enjoyable and useful in its cially available shell authoring package called computer-based form.

questionnaires learning difficulties. computers can administer completion of the remedial exercise) or.. wishing to monitor their own learning. at Explanation mode. Procedures Regarding item types. In this respect. vide learners with some degree of control over mat’ questions. is Question Mark program provides for some that computer-based language tests can pro- limited open-ended responses under ‘free for. together with conven- natively. Regarding this problem. Explanation mode which allows the teacher to supply the correct answer or provide some feedback or further information (clues or Computer-assisted Self-assessment hints) when the response is wrong. computers could contribute to marking as wrong an otherwise correct sen. can be very use. data can be more detailed test routine for an appropriate gathered after each question about the test diagnosis. packages have been developed with diagnostic results can be analysed in several ways to give mechanisms or automatic record-keeping pro- details on how questions have been handled cedures built into the computer program. to use within a test. Despite a few drawbacks concerning jointly with teachers. as mentioned earlier. The reason which makes it possible he calls for further research into the nature of for the same package to provide for teaching. the the research into learner-adaptive testing. (c) letting students ited understanding of the causes of language use the program to design tests. in addition to objec- tive items and numeric questions (i. As self-evaluated language learning. it is feasible to include in the answer. one possibility would teacher providing opportunities for students be the inclusion of “teaching routines. Oscarsson the screen and that the package is very effi. the developing area of autonomous learning in tence. the branching routines. In this way. decide when review is needed . the testing process and that the learners ity seems to be to ask questions for each sen. The com- performance”. the Another important implication arising from student answers by entering a number). which allow the learner or the computer to ful for diagnostic purposes.2 This author proposes that the puter in this case supplies “the learner with test taker could be allowed to opt for a reme. Another initia- Moreover. In doing so. a word of caution is taker’s degree of confidence about the level of Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 17 . this program shows clear benefits in Higher Education. These formula all possible correct variants. the use of computers everything is explained briefly and clearly on has followed several directions. There is no reason why these a reading passage given to the candidate in the choices cannot be extended to decisions. by limiting the least in an informal setting. is that it includes an feedback that would help learners. suitable practice material on the basis of dial teaching exercise in a branching program his/her demonstrated performance level”. Within the area of that no training is needed for students because autonomous learning. The most successful possibil. seemed to welcome the element of choice tence (or part of a sentence) corresponding to involved. alter. which can lead to the computer In this way. on when to take a input. the learner could be branched into a tional objective tests. its content and level of difficulty. makes some references to initiatives in cient at record keeping and report giving.3 questions.e. self-assessment tests. (1989). which. or forms. assessment is increasingly seen tive has been the use of multimedia programs today as an integral part of the learning in which the computer acts as a surrogate process. or with the advice of the browsing.4 before re-entering the test (after successful Furthermore. into which a learner can be it as a tool for learning and informally mea- branched in response to his/her developing sure their mastery of the language. test. and on the clues and revision and testing. Computer-based language assessment: R Kane-Iturrioz mal class test or quiz for students to work raised by Alderson concerning the current lim- through on the screen and. However. self study well as keeping scores on an individual basis.. decisions “can all be made independently. and punctuation in the ‘free format’ computer”.

ing environments which will require suitable possibly. valid one and in 1995 the prototype TransIt- mation gathered using computer-based lan. tant to revert to traditional methods for the lit- son and Windeatt. the possibilities offered by computers of and that student responses and examination “gathering simultaneous ratings from learners results justified a repeat of the exercise in of their performance. the first experience.7 their opinions on test items and their intro. 6 This request was seen to be a and Windeatt (1995) considered that the infor. their self-evaluations. such information can.8 Education such as the translation course there has been an increasing interest in devel- described by Thompson (1996). advances in computer technology can provide esting aspect of the article with reference to assessment methods which would go beyond 18 ReCALL . such as hypertext. How- adopt. 1996”. teaching methodologies for courses in Higher interactive and unintrusive” language tests. Although there were several hitches in test makers about the test appropriateness. and multimedia authoring programs in order to In addition. ever since Canale (1986) artic- make CALL coursework more communicative ulated what he considered to be the ‘promise’ and motivating. that is “ the allowed the development of computer-based move towards process-oriented. examination at the end of their final year. continuous. translation of technical topics. The computer the first part. in what the author with actual performances and provide evi. using computers for the trans- contribute to test and item validation. The most inter. described as “more controversially”. “on the whole. when all their coursework had been carried out dent motivation and learner training. a wider use of computer-based learn- researchers to understand the test-taking and. This report exemplifies that which may spective accounts of what they think they had increasingly be the situation in the future. and not just as an appendix to a computer TIGER was developed. began to ask why they should be expected to ment for both learners and teachers. potentially. lation examination appeared to be acceptable. ‘student influence’. TIGER authoring shell was adapted to provide guage tests combined with self-assessment a suitable examination for the translation procedures provides very useful feedback for course. The students were reluc- ticular language items or task tests (see Alder. For the course oping automated assessments which could be mentioned in this article an authoring shell fully integrated with the learning process itself package (hypertext framework) called TransIt. Later.Computer-based language assessment: R Kane-Iturrioz accuracy of his/her response. Alderson on computers”.and post- flexible tools. learning strategies which learners computer-based assessment methods. “students dence of progress in the area of self-assess. puterised self-assessment procedures for stu. Furthermore. These advances in CALL have of computerised language testing. thus far. or can be used to computer-based assessment is the reported elicit a self-evaluation of their ability on par. ever. the author concluded that Moreover. sit a conventional three hour hand-written In addition to the potential value of com. can compare a candidate’s self evaluations using computers. aimed at reinforcing based course or module with a summative pur- the translation skills and language learning of pose. it is thought that recent fourth year students of Italian. to do in order to answer an item”5 can help namely. (b) monitoring the interaction between Language Learning learners and the computer through learner management systems (database records) and Advances in computer technology and pro. hypermedia tests. (c) evaluating the quality and effectiveness of gramming have provided us with powerful and specific CALL programs using pre. most of the assessment research concerning advanced CALL has been focused on (a) learners’ responses and attitudes Innovative Approaches in towards the computer package they had just Computer-based Assessment of used. 1995 for examples of rating erary section of the course after completing scales and ‘can do’ questions). Finally.

which traditionally has been emphasised process ungrammatical input and reason as paramount in a university education as well about it in view of learners’ predictable as the development of learning strategies (e. acquisition of a proper methodology. “any true evaluation learner reflection on both the domain and the or assessment of a learner’s grasp of the sub. progress while they work. they to provide a more adaptive. individualised consider that in traditional measuring methods form of instruction. this ability involves interface or environment for communicat- high level cognitive skills such as the analysis ing with the learner). interlingual productions during learning. such as mathematics. this new area of research has to of his/her personal enlightenment or mere bet. understanding of the issues involved. This would involve the acquisition process.12 as follows: Even when some form of ‘continuous’ appraisal of students’ coursework with a for. the tutor model. They argue that “at guage learning appear to offer. evaluated. methods usually produce appraisals of the Developments in the application of Intelli- learner’s knowledge of the factual information gent Tutoring Systems (ITS) to foreign lan- of the domain concerned. could only some of them already encountered in tradi- be assumed. self-monitoring) on the part of the learner. the possibility that is used is at least as important as knowledge of in the near future a computer-tutor will be able the information itself”. they tional ITS domains. it is presumed that one human tutoring would contribute to a “by using the computer to monitor and struc. tering of his/her scholarly status. Alternatively. Computer-based language assessment: R Kane-Iturrioz the limited scope of objective tests and short.9 the learner during the process of learning. the value is to the assessors rather than to Swartz (1992) summarised some of the latter the learner”. approaches to learning. and give assessment involving an emphasis on the learners self-confidence and a benevolent criti- process of learning. of information and its synthesis in another 2 the implementation of parsers that must form. one to answer essays. if desired.g. as well as promoting of students’performance. the expert model. faster and better development of high level ture tasks. tunately. there should be a shift from assessing results to 4 the understanding of the foreign language managing learning.11 Finally. Unfor- assessment of progress and the artefacts pro. others. Obviously. base their interest on the cal sense which may offset the counter-produc- acknowledgement that traditional assessment tive perception of assessment as judgement. the task itself can become an cognitive skills and learning strategies. and a method to force some researchers consider that a ‘computer- students to be explicit about their tutor’ can provide opportunities for observing knowledge”. establish that “because summative assessment physics and electronics. how this information of the researchers involved. over. and the still persists. provide answers to many important issues. The ad vocates of innovative approaches to allow for all learning styles and paces. this is not a feasible solution since duced by the tasks set for the learner then human resources are diminishing in compari- become both an assignment which can be son to the student population. learner model. 1 the representation of linguistic knowledge mative purpose is envisaged in a course. specifically usually takes place after the learning phase is relate to the domain of language learning. Incidentally. let alone However. some authors consider that that is appropriate for language learning.10 Furthermore. thereby enhancing stu- ject. Moreover. dents’ learning. 3 the representation of tutoring knowledge For these reasons. in the opinion an undergraduate level. at best guessed”. the in the expert and learner models (An Intel- difficulty of distinguishing between lack of ligent Tutoring System is made up of four basic knowledge and the lack of ability to basic modules.13 learning task itself encouraging students to reflect on the state of their knowledge and Although the problems faced by researchers Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 19 . the manipulate the knowledge to perform the task.

in addition to learner validation as well as aiding researchers to performance and beliefs in the target domain obtain a better understanding of test-taking (e. choose from. while.Computer-based language assessment: R Kane-Iturrioz are considerable. ITS to foreign language learning) will involve With respect to such an integration. the present level of technol- summative. On the other hand. com- ple. authors agree upon the importance of the con- over. The development of shell authoring pack- eign language (e. 1992) and testing and teaching incorporating different syntactic analysis (Matthews. thus far the development of Intel. This situation is bound for language learning. some more. For exam. devel- a considerable research effort before effective opments in the application of Intelligent Tutor- FL ITS (Foreign Language Intelligent Tutor. In addition. ing Systems to foreign language learning ing Systems) become a reality in the class. intended: summative or formative. all test content and assessment process.. More. on the one hand. Others are concentrating their efforts towards fulfilling the capabilities of computers in problematic areas such as natural language as flexible tools which can be used for both processing (NLP) (Criswell et al. the most important of preferring CAL over traditional teaching which is the specification and representation methods. has shown that students. personal object pronouns). providing evidence of some of the difficulties mentioned. does not need to be exclusively formal and Furthermore. Bull (1994) is dedicating her research puters can provide useful feedback about test efforts towards designing a student model appropriateness and contribute to test and item which could encompass. learning and assessment whether computer- The value of computers for formative based or not. some of the strategies. Finally. a drastic change of language learning/teaching and assessment methods and Conclusion procedures which would focus on managing learning instead of only assessing learning Recent research using an advanced authoring outcomes. current research shell package for teaching a translation mod. 20 ReCALL .g. some authors have advocated the inclu- authors warn that advanced technologies do sion of ‘teaching routines’ into the comput- not by any means guarantee success. so that the as Swartz (1992) observed “many of these assessment element can be fully integrated issues (those emerging in the application of within the learning process. appear to offer the first glimpses of a possible room”. levels of feedback and other help facilities to However. 1994). depending on the purpose ligent CALL has tended to proceed in a piece. they welcome the possibility of learning tribution of computers to research in language while doing the test. in addition to in need of solutions. Further- meal fashion. specific general theory of foreign language Furthermore. assessment/monitoring of language computer-based courseware and CAL methods learning: the current absence of a clear and can be envisaged. Test takers seem to favour the ogy does not permit one to assume that it will opportunities for individual involvement be successful in solving the problems faced in offered by learner-adaptive testing over the language tutoring systems. erised testing procedure. in this area points out the many problems still ule.g. many factors affecting the learning of a for. the assessment procedure learning and acquisition.14 future learning scenario requiring. Conversely. students’ learning strategy ages such as Question Mark is a first step usage). they are developing Intelli. at the same time. assessment is also highlighted by their ability gent Computer-Adaptive Language Learning to compare a candidate’s self evaluation with (ICALL) prototypes in an attempt to solve actual test performance. progess in learner training. requested a computer-based end of of the tutoring knowledge that is appropriate module examination. This is the revisiting of to be repeated in the near future when a larger the most important problem besetting the number of courses/modules entirely taught by teaching.

Berlin. S. Prentice Hall International. de Jong and D. Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Assessment in Task-based Computer Course. Computer-based language assessment: R Kane-Iturrioz Notes Assessment of Learning in Higher Education. M. op. 1996. in C. in Lan . in 15. cit. op. Verlag. ‘Self-assessment of language pro. and Warren. 2. 1986. W. op. Matthews. Yazdani (eds) Intelligent Tutoring Sys - 3. L. C. Bull (ed). J. 27. Multilingual Matters Ltd. and Hammond. tems for Foreign Language Learning. Education 5 (4). Assessment’. 1993. Hert. 1989. op. cit. ‘Frames of Mind’ in Stevenson (eds). in ReCALL 6 (1). op. ‘Learner-Centred Testing through 11. student modelling in ICALL’. Choice of Syntactic Frameworks for Language 9. cit. and Windeatt. pp. pp. 533-556. AACE. op. Technology and Language Testing. 13. M. pp. Adman. and Innovation in Language Testing’ in C. TLTP Workshop Papers on pp. Alderson. 1992. cit. Alderson. pp. ‘Learning languages: Implications for 5. 1994. ‘Embedding Technology into 1994. ‘Introduction’ in M. 37. H. ‘Computers and the Universities of Kent and Leeds. S. 15. ficiency: rationale and applications’. cit. L. Thompson. Criswell. Individualizing the Assessment J. ware’in J. ‘Intelligent Automated Active Learning 4. cit. p.. Charlottesville. Language Examinations: a Case Study’. Thompson. Hayet. Oscarson. Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 21 . ‘The Promise and Threat of Com. Bull. Language Learning As Cognitive Science: The ington DC. J. 29-35. Canale.M. Bull (ed). op. C. and M. J. et al. 13-17. Stansfield (ed). L. p. 1995. E. 8. 6. McKendree.cit. Teachers of 16. pp. Swartz. pp. 27. K. Berlin. C. Support the Learner not the Assesseor’ in J. Springer-Verlag. Context’in M. pp. C. fordshire.. Wash. 14. 34-39. L. Alderson and B. 235. 19-24. Pengelly.. p. J. ‘Intelligent Computer Assisted English to Speakers of other Languages. N. North (eds) Language Testing 10. 12. A. in J. 1990. Comprehension’. Springer- 4. M. pp. guage Testing. 13-17. The UK Universities’ Staff Development Unit 1. Yazdani (eds).. L. ‘Take up your Computer and Learn’ Computers: Institutional Issues in Individual in J. C. ‘Implicit Tutoring’. ‘Computer-based Assesment to in the 1990s. of Language Abilities. M. J. M. P. Alderson. J. Swartz Clevedon-Philadelphia. Bull (ed). 307-321. p. L. 6 (1). Alderson. 10.. Swartz. Swartz and M. J. Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Foreign Lan - puterized Adaptive Assessment of Reading guage Learning. 1992 pp. 24-29 Strategies of Teaching Foreign Language in 7. 1-6. Bull (ed).

It is pro- posed that such learning plays a different role from classroom language learning. Background of the International Email Tandem Networki. The project revealed a range of experiences and a case study of one particularly successful participant is presented. ideas and corrections of each other’s language. Students’ impressions and activities sity of Oviedo.slf.html) 22 ReCALL . providing a bridge between the classroom and the natural language setting. Students took part in a discussion forum and worked with a tandem part- ner exchanging information. It is partly funded by the European Union under LINGUA (LINGUA 94-03/1507/D-VB). The concept has recently been extended to incorporate the use of elec- tronic The International Email Tandem Network was founded by Helmut Brammerts of the Ruhr- Universität Bochum and Norbert Hedderich of the University of Rhode-Island. is automatically received by all members of specialist learners of English at the Escuela the group) and were assigned a tandem partner Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Industrial e with whom they could exchange one-to-one Ingeniería Informatica (ETSII) at the Univer. The contri- bution of email tandem learning to CALL within the communicative curriculum is also discussed. emails. Students following a post-beginners or inter- Our project involved electronic mail mediate course at the Sheffield Centre were exchanges between non-specialist learners of invited to take part in the project.ReCALL 9:1 (1997) 22–33 Email tandem learning and the communicative curriculum Jane Woodin University of Sheffield This article describes an email project between undergraduate non-specialist learners of Spanish and English in England and Spain. They joined Spanish at the Modern Languages Teaching a discussion forum (where every message sent Centre of the University of Sheffield and non. Learners take responsibility for their own learning and also ensure that their partner also receives what he/she needs. Both institutions are members were monitored over the first eight weeks of (i) Encouraging second language learning through language exchange has historically been undertaken in a face-to-face Further information can be found via the Internet (Address: http://www.

Email tandem learning: J Woodin

the project and detailed information, including Use of cultural information acquired by
copies of personal emails, was offered by six participants: Students had the opportu-
individuals. nity to use information gleaned from
Two main foci for the project were identi- their partners in a spoken presentation in
fied: Spanish, given at the end of the project
1. What can students learn through participat- Re-use of language offered by participants’
ing in email tandem exchanges? For exam- tandem partner: Re-use of language was
ple, language, cultural information, IT taken as evidence of active involvement in
skills, etc. the learning process.
2. Are some students more successful than
others at learning through this method and These factors provided the basis for evaluation
if so, why? of each experience. Other issues arose through
the course of the project, for example, partici-
The size and length of the study did not offer pants’views of the experience as working with
the opportunity for objective assessment of a machine or with a human being. Figure 1
improvement in language proficiency, but outlines the data collection process over a
from the substantial data collected for each period of eight weeks.
participant an attempt was made to assess Training in using email was offered to all
certain characteristics of the students’ experi- participants, as well as face-to-face support
ence generally considered to be indicative of from their tutor once a week, and whenever
successful language learning. These they needed it via email. In all, six students
included: completed every stage of the project and
became the primary focus for closer investiga-
Exposure to language: The number of emails tion. All six were non-specialist learners of
written and received was considered a fac- Spanish following the same Spanish post-
tor in participants’ success (participants beginners course with 72 contact hours over
normally wrote in L2). Participation in the the year. They were half-way through the
forum was also taken into account (partici- course when they started the email project.
pants normally wrote in L1). Their Spanish partners, mainly engineering
Active learning: [Naiman et al. (1978) 1, Pica students, were involved in the email project as
(1991)2, Dickinson, (1992)3]. Students an additional option to their taught course of
who appeared involved and interested in English for technical purposes; the number of
their tandem partner and in learning Span- students allowed access to email in Oviedo
ish (for example, asked for information, was restricted and there was always a long
commented on information offered, asked waiting list to join the project. One can
questions related to language learning) assume from this that the Spanish students
were considered more successful. who took part in the project were reasonably
Negotiation of meaning and information- highly motivated.
seeking: [Ellis, (1994)4; Dickinson, It is one of the weaknesses of this study
(1992)5]. In the case of email tandem that it was not possible to study both sides of
learning these characteristics are of partic- the partnership in equal detail. However,
ular importance as they help establish a access to the emails exchanged between part-
relationship with one’s partner. ners gave some idea of the relationship
Error correction: Participants who corrected between the students.
and received corrections were considered The project generated a wealth of largely
to have had a successful experience; error inconclusive data raising some interesting
correction was taken as evidence of moni- points. By way of illustration, I present here
toring their L2 performance [Naiman et al. some of the data collected with regard to one
(1978)6, Skehan, (1989)7]. student,Andrew, who had one of the most suc-

Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 23

Email tandem learning: J Woodin

Week 1
Students chose to take part in the project. Questionnaire administered to determine learner styles, previous lan-
guage learning, experience with email, and attitudes towards email as a support for learning Spanish. Students
joined the discussion forum and applied for a Spanish Tandem partner.

Week 3
Questionnaire (as in Week 1) administered again.

Week 4
Participants were informed that they would be giving a presentation on a topic related to Spanish/Latin American life
and that they could ask their tandem partners for help, in addition to using other materials such as television reports
and newspapers.

Week 7
Participants gave their presentations and answered the same questionnaire again, this time stating how much they
felt email tandem had helped them with their Spanish.

Week 8
After this series of activities, each student who had exchanged email messages was invited to give his/her point of
view on the project in a recorded interview.

Figure 1 Plan for data collection.

cessful experiencesii. The source of evidence Pakistan and his visit to Bolivia had fomented
is indicated where relevant (Q = Question- an interest in the ways other people do things
naire, E = Email, I = Interview). (I).
Andrew wrote and received at least five
emailsiii. On average, messages were 180–200
A Successful Case: Andrew words long. Although all participants were
paired up within the first week, they did not all
A final year Biblical Studies undergraduate, start regular correspondence as quickly as
Andrew was computer literate and very famil- Andrew and his partner Javier. Apart from one
iar with email and discussion lists before start- in English, all Andrew’s messages were in
ing the project. (Q, I). Spanish, and all Javier’s were in English.
His interest in Spanish stemmed from a This partnership produced a wealth of evi-
three-month visit to Latin America a few years dence of active participation. After three
previously. He spent a year teaching himself weeks they had exchanged personal informa-
Spanish before signing up for the course, his tion, drawn computer maps of Spain,
first experience of a formal Spanish class. exchanged information on the Pyrenees, the
Although his questionnaire revealed that he Picos De Europa and discussed religion. Mes-
did not like writing in Spanish, he reported sages reveal a mutual sensitivity towards their
that this was because he had no confidence or partner, and attempts at establishing and con-
experience of writing (I); his attitude was sim- solidating their relationship; for example, they
ilar with regard to the “rules of the language” thanked each other for corrections made and
(Q, I). Previous experience of living in referred to comments made in their partner’s

(ii) Participants agreed to their messages being used (iii) In some cases learners reported having lost
for research purposes. All names of participants messages or having deleted them; I have there-
have been changed and extracts of email mes- fore counted the number of messages which I
sages have been left as they were written (com- actually received, this being the minimum num-
plete with errors!) ber sent over the period.


Email tandem learning: J Woodin

messages. In later emails they exchanged partner’s messageiv:
study-related information as well; Javier sup-
plied information on military service, “Write you soon”needs clarification.What is the
Andrew’s chosen topic for his presentation. object and subject of the sentance?” (his
Andrew asked a wide range of questions, spelling error)
both directly and indirectly. Some examples (From Andrew’s email 27.02.95)
are cited below. (Where the original is in
Spanish, I have translated the information, “ Sorry for
ignoring participants’ errors. The symbol > > my last mail, i can not finish completely
indicates part of the original message. The because I have A class of Platicity and elasticity
asterisk * was used by Andrew and Javier to of Materials, ( a very bored signature). I have
indicate the correction of an error or a com- read your mail about the “mili”, and as you can
ment regarding comprehension of the mes- *I don’t understand what you mean by
sage.) “signature”
> see there are many differents opinions. ”
“Soy cristiano y creo que era el hijo de Dios. (Andrew’s corrections
?Qué te parece? of Javier’s email 9.03.96)v
(I am a Christian and I believe he was the son
of God. What do you think about that?) The first steps towards discussion of more
No se nada de los montanas(los Pirineos). complex topics were made:
?Son ellos bonitos?, altas? Puedes me
describirlas. > I am christian too, although i am not sure
(I don’t know anything about the mountains about my beliefes, i
(Pyrenees). Are they pretty? High? Can you >have read the Biblia many times. i am agree
describe them to me?) with you in that
Espero que tus examenes están bueno.” >every people must read the Biblia, but not only
(I hope your exams go well.) this, they must
(From Andrew’s email 21.02.95) * “all people” or “everyone” “Bible”
>be know the other religions and books as
“?Hay muchos deportes en los montanas?” budism,Coran... Because
(Are there many sports in the mountains?) * “they must know”
?Has listo “Odessy de Homer?” >all tell about the samething... love(in its global
(Have you read Homer’s Odyssey?”) form)
“Te mandaré más información de esta libro más *the english is fine, but I am not sure if I agree, I
tarde” will write on this subject another time. “Same-
(I will send you more information about this thing” should be two words.
book later)”
(From Andrew’s email 27.02.95) (iv) Comments from Andrew indicated that email
was useful for learning grammar, but only to a
“I was impressed to hear that you know about point: “Javier could not provide explanations,
Ulysses even without reading the book. Most and I couldn’t work them out on my own” (I).
The explanations of mistakes has not been
young people here have not even heard of it.
encouraged between partners as they are not
The Spanish seem to be an educated people. Is trained language teachers. Over the project
this true, or is it just the few educated people period there was a noted increase in the number
who have been to university?” of questions Andrew asked in the language
(From Andrew’s email 15.03.95) class, which may have been triggered by the
email experience.
Andrew even attempted to help his partner (v) One can assume that by “signature”, Javier
with some grammatical difficulties and made means “subject”, the Spanish equivalent in this
it clear if he did not understand part of his context being asignatura.

Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 25

vi rections were made by Javier concerning the Although Andrew did not show evidence of following points among others. 26 ReCALL . and indeed that they corrections and after a few weeks Andrew understood the negative effect that this could even proposed a new method of correction: have on their partner.Email tandem learning: J Woodin >About your visit to the Pirineos. misspelling) spanish will not help you much..95) mi ultimo/ultima ano (gender agreement) (From Andrew’s email 27. maybe we Left uncorrected were the following (my cor- rections are in italics): (vi) This view was corroborated by members of the Modern Languages Teaching Centre Spanish 15 mil habitantes/inhabitantes (misspelling) team. Other errors left uncorrected are really Although most errors were corrected.02.. agreeing with wrong subject. either they thought of military service in Spain (la because they were unnoticed (perhaps as in the mili) produced a wealth of information and case of the ser/estar error) or because they opinion in English and Spanish. were either ignored or went unnoticed.. gender error) Today I am writing in English as I have not got a Te contare mas cosas sobre mi otra vez. For which are common to English learners of example. however. i can not tell nos mudamos/mudabamos (misuse of tense) you about it esta/este nueva casa (gender agreement) *we say Pyrenees nuestra vieja casa estaba/era en el campo (From Andrew’s response (misuse of ser & estar) to Javier’s email 21. (Andrew (Q). Diane (Q. It appears that the corrections “p. Javier’s cor. For example. Spanish. dence from other exchanges that partners did Both partners assisted each other with error not correct every error. were considered unimportant. made by Andrew’s partner are different from I have found a new correction format.s. some elementary mistakes of gender or spelling.95. There is evi- used in his presentation (I). I will put anything correct.03. I). It is also interesting to note that towards cuando termine /termino (use of subjunctive the end of the seven-week period. Andrew was necessary) beginning to question whether he and Javier Me alegra saber que te gustan las should change the language they write in: montanas/Estoy muy feliz a oir que te gusta los montanas (unusual construction.. begin to ask a lot of brackets: questions in the weekly class about certain grammatical problems (pronouns. the use of a veces es/esta muy interesante (confusion of ser/estar etc.95) of the subjunctive.95) Andrew had a lucky experience with the forum. verb “Hi Javier.02. in Andrew’s letter of 27. helpful to you if I do. which he re. an error which Javier chose not to cor- go..)./dire lot of time and also I am wondering if it is more mas de mio otra ves. using corrections made by Javier in future rections are in italics and my comments in emails he did. To receive a letter in poor (anglicised construction. a short message asking students what Errors may have been left uncorrected. and rarely avoided completely.” rect) but had not yet looked closely at the uses (From Andrew’s email 15. His interest in trying out new ser/estar-two verbs translated as “to be”) methods of correction are a clear demonstra- no me preocupo/ no me preocupa (verb tion of active engagement in language learn- agreeing with wrong subject) ing. an error pointed out by Javier. If you like those which a teacher might have chosen to it we could maybe adopt it. Hilda (I)). cor.02. the group had been that should not be there in brackets ( ) and studying the differences between the preterite anything that could/should be added I will put in and imperfect tenses (as in mudamos/ mud - CAPITAL LETTERS in the place they should abamos.

Diane and Jenny. appears to support this. pp 49-72. and that he was now consciously look. This feeling of isola- number of comments I feel are worth making tion may also be a contributing factor to are as follows: the attitudes of the participants in our pro- ject. classrooms: ing for ways to help improve his mastery of Spanish. partner to correct them but did not offer to ● All three are also integratively motivated to or did not correct their partner. Their messages appeared ● Although three students initially had no unplanned. When asked to clarify. ing abroad . notes that with real-time network-based guage. two reported problems at the start and only one reported the use of (viii) This particular student (Niall) did not report email as a hindering factor in his com- having had difficulties with using email until municationviii. this. Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 27 . The results of Andrew’s questionnaires reveal particularly in the case of Andrew.” (I).. Andrew’s comment Andrew. I). It is (vii) For an analysis of research on motivation. Although both partners in this group. puter. The increase in the number of forget that there is someone else at the questions he asked in class would seem to other end of the computer. language was at times ungram- email skills. in your private social space. the third week of the project. Email tandem learning: J Woodin could try to write in both languages. ● All three of these have had considerable ● Two of these participants asked for their experience of living abroad. Batson (1993)8 indicate a heightening in awareness of lan. out in public space. it would appear that it is easy to practice (Q. A with on-line classes. This may learn Spanish. It appears that email was a contribut. he gained more repeated that “a computer is not respon- concrete support than anyone else in the sive. particularly given that the time lapse ● The three participants who appear to have for email is so much greater than with real- had the most successful experience are time communication. and did not take steps to rectify it until the fourth week. concerning information about Spain case were clearly expressing interest in and military service and also with writing each other. not with a person many feet distant. “communication is with the screen in front of ing factor in this process.. whose that his experience was more positive than he messages clearly showed his awareness of had expected (Q). may have been a contributory ● The two participants who felt that working factor in their success and may have with tandem partners was like working equipped them better for dealing with the with a person rather than with a machine lack of paralinguistic aids in email com. Figure 2 provides an between the roles of teachers and learners overview of some of the data collected. Although one cannot be further evidence of the “dehumanis- assume that they will therefore be more ing” effect of communicating via com- successful language learnersvii.03. you.“ ● Four participants said they felt as though Andrew’s email 15. I found this highly surprising.” Other Participants Batson uses this observation as a possible Whilst a presentation of all participants’ data reason for the apparent loss of distinction is not possible here.. A competent communicator his partner. or lack of experience with this together with first-hand experience of liv. medium. see interesting to note that his reason for learning Skehan (1989).95) they were working with a machine and not a person.. Andrew and committed negotiator. wrote emails which most resembled spo- munication. Spanish was “an option I could choose”. ken discourse.

Email tandem learning: J Woodin 28 ReCALL .

minded and stop cutting it down. all people the others found some parts of the experience have different tastes and everybody should useful and other parts problematic. Par- be typographic and contain similar features ticipants need to form a relationship with a of spoken discourse. write in the foreign language without the support of non- “maybe i will speak to you again!” verbal clues and maintain the relationship (From Wesley’s email 21. It may however be of inter. is that not music.02. It is widely accepted that email discourse is a after all. “I speak to my sister on it” They need to be more explicit than in face-to- (Diane’s response to the interview question face conversations and yet be tactful so as not “Had you used email before?”) to offend. Both Wesley and native speaker they have never met and cannot Diane use the word “speak” with reference see. Two stu- dents (Hilda and Diane) stated how pleased “hello they were that a “real” Spaniard could under- another little thing about music. Email Tandem and the Communicative Curriculum (ix) Thanks to Josip Korbar of the University of Sheffield for his help on this issue.02. support from their partner (3 students). Murray (1991)11 points out that we are provid- est to investigate whether attitudes to email ing learners with another mode of communi- affect the language of the electronic message. our learners are involved in speaker and writer whereas strategies associ. the forum. Canale and Swain (1980)13 describe commu- Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 29 . unusual contractions were made standing”. They contain The skills required for a successful email numerous errors some of which appear to partnership must not be underestimated.95) once the initial excitement has disappeared. Both received a slight increase in and there was less use of punctuation than overall ratings between Week 3 (“How much one normally finds in written discourse. a truly communicative activity. “Given me more confidence in the language” and “Helped my cultural under. Email tandem learning: J Woodin matical. 22. not being able to under- (From Wesley’s email to stand the language in the forum (2 students). [Murray (1991)]ix 9. and not receiving enough Wesley’s messages to his partner in Span. Examples accept these tastes even if they are not the of the kinds of difficulties stated were lack of sameas their own!!!!” IT skills (2 students). ish are of a similar nature. have been more helpful than they had expected in two areas. still learning the language of email combination of written and spoken discourse and conventions are not yet clearly laid down. cation and Moran (1993) 12 likens the situation They may well corroborate Tannen’s (1985)10 to having to adjust to using the language of the claim that strategies associated with orality telephone. Through using electronic mail for grow out of focus on personal involvement of language learning. CALL. It is clear that ated with literacy grow out of focus on content. To do you think email exchanges could help you cite one of Wesley’s messages to the forum with the following?”) and Week 7 (“How much as an example: do you think they have helped you?”). All of this must take place using the language which they are learning! We are. negotiate a series of exchanges and obtain to email: information of interest to them. if you Only one participant other than Andrew do not like it fair enough but be more open rated her experience as “extremely useful”. has rythem and noise. there seems stand them (I) and Spanish partners in four to be alot of dissing going down about if cases provided large amounts of information techno is music or not. well what is it then? it for the British students’ presentations.95) the sheer quantity of messages from the forum (3 students). the use of the computer in this way is vastly Students found the email experience to different from tailor-made software.

they maintain.. lexical ing of CALL and opening up new horizons and phonological forms in a language. (1995)18].. “In fact. only be developed in situations where interac- [as cited in Tarone and Yule (1991)]14 tion is unpredictable. which were barely conceivable at the time of Phillips’ article. and Story . (Members of the English-Spanish 30 ReCALL .firstly. which offer tence. to communicate. guage learning syllabi [Canale and Swain Figure 3 is an adaptation of Phillips’ three (1980)]15. the gap between munication. with different qualities from other uses of ages such as Prospector. it is happening in a manner different from require consideration when designing lan.Email tandem learning: J Woodin nicative behaviour in terms of at least three recently brought with it a wide variety of interrelated dimensions: opportunities for exploitation in the language learning field [Tillyer (1995)17. Electronic mail communica- Sociolinguistic competence: The ability to use tion provides the opportunity to use language a language appropriately in sociocultural con- for communication purposes and so therefore texts. tor’s knowledge.. This is contributing to the redefin- duce and understand correct syntactic. The classroom lated by programs within this approach. the expert systems paradigm (pack. necessarily requires the user to make use of all Strategic competence: The ability to effectively dimensions of communicative competence. and then to use one’s linguistic claiming it is more powerful than the first two system in accordance with that assessment. The is relatively safe when compared to the danger model derives much of its power from this of real communication where an error in capacity to generate valid learning tasks. It can be seen that the com- lowing the lines of space invaders.. Vilmi Grammatical competence: The ability to pro. including the including strategic competence. designed to aid CALL. it has been seen how a wide variety of ing the results of his or her successful or language learning activities can easily be stimu.”16 understanding or expression can lead to misunderstandings and at times even The expansion of the Internet has more offend..” models mentioned here: Whilst the communicative classroom can offer “. closely fol. ability to assess the relationship between one’s He advocates the prosthetic paradigm as the own knowledge in that area and the interlocu- most useful application for language learning. unsuccessful communication. Because ability to use communication strategies to solve strategic competence can by its very nature problems which arise in this process. and more recently learner the chance to develop strategic compe- Triple Pla y and Triple Play Plus. transmit information to a listener. where the com- describing CALL activity: the games model. strategic competence must involve the ing databases. its development in a lan- guage learner requires a situation where com- These.. happening in the case of email exchanges. but together with an analysis of learners’ needs. puter is being used as a vehicle for two people (examples cited are Letter Hunt. munication model offers a learning experience board). because it exploits the computer in a vast range of activities designed to develop ways which correspond exactly with real world all areas of competence needed for real com- applications: in consequence. are the minimal compo. it cannot normally provide the real and realistic use of language is narrowed. learner with the authentic experience of feel- Secondly. and is the only model which gives the geological investigations. As explained by Yule and Tarone the learner a wealth of activities aimed at a (1990)19: variety of levels) and the prosthetic paradigm (examples Phillips uses here are word-process. concordancing and teletexting). munication is occurring. Not only is this nents of communicative competence and. models with the addition of the “communica- Phillips proposes three potential models for tion” model for CALL as well. classroom learning.

based on Lightbown and Spada’s Conclusion (1991)20 discussion of the features of natural and instructional settings. There is the opportunity for coast of Newfoundland or discussion regard. It is undoctored. Participants can ask their vides a useful tool for language learning. Email tandem learning: J Woodin Features Games model learner involved & active language unrealistic and not necessarily transferable Expert system paradigm computer is all-knowing “magisterial” relationship little chance of increasing learner autonomy Prosthetic paradigm realistic use of language learner autonomy can be encouraged “Communication” model real use of language real communication learner autonomy encouraged/required development of full range of communicative competence. (A it may be difficult for them to understand. Figure 4. exchanges bring another dimension to the It would appear. Brammerts (1995)22]. is likely to differ from the corrections received It appears that email communication pro- in the classroom. Although cult for language learners to understand. that there is a place experience together with their own challenges Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 31 . particularly through the forum. authentic language. acting as a particularly over sensitive issues such as the bridge between the language classroom and capture of the Spanish fishing fleet off the the natural setting. at times diffi. including strategic competence new form of email discourse Figure 3 Four possible models for CALL (adapted from Phillips 1987 to include the “communication” model) forum Eng-Esp have known problems to arise. partner to correct them but the criteria for cor. (1995)21. then. ing the forum. not graded or vetted by a tutor first. teacher. contact with a variety of native speakers. offers a comparison Communication between native speakers for between some features of approaches to lan.) Unmodified input is available to the Email exchanges also offer exposure to learner. the purposes of mutual language learning and guage learning and teaching with the kind of cultural interchange is nothing new [Lewis et language learning that is available through al. occupying a unique position in the commu- rection are not always the same as those of the nicative curriculum. for communicating via email. The outcomes from within the safety of one’s own environ- ranged from open apologies to members leav. Email email tandem learning. but ing the role of Francis Drake. it student of mine in another group recently could well prepare learners for the initial feel- commented that he found magazine articles ing of confusion when first visiting a foreign easier to read than some of the messages sent country and trying to understand the wide to the forum. ment.) variety of speakers (and writers) they will hear Error correction between tandem partners and read. Neither is it usual for a partner to receive explanations of errors.

152. Cambridge University Press. 1. M. ‘We write. of communicative approaches to second lan- 32 ReCALL . guage. T.). but do we read?’ Com - Acquisition. Oxford University Press.cit. and Hildyard. Ontario Insti. D. 51-61. J. A. 11. Dublin. Pica. Murray. D. Individual Differences in Second- albeit in a form we are inexperienced in using. cit. focus on knowledge learners must use learners must often use their limited but no “real” negative of language limited language use their limited language to consequences of failure to get information language to respond respond to to communicate to questions/ get questions/ get information information Figure 4 Some features of approaches to language learning. C. P. Tannen. Oxford. Batson. 8. Edward Arnold. Moran. op.. 1991. L. Autentik. T. Research in Education series 7. Learning. (eds. 13. The Good language Learner. Conversation for action: the com - Todesco. op. Understanding Second Language 12. 1989. ‘Relative focus on involvement in 2. 1992. London. and Learning. Language Learning. Network- References Based Classrooms – Promises and Realities. Lan - ships’. 7.. ‘Classroom Interaction. computer because it is communication itself. 1985. p. 437-492.. Dickinson. pp. H. Amsterdam.. puter terminal as a medium of communication. Ellis. D. H. 1993.. Literacy. and 9. 10. Cambridge. Naiman et al. M. R. ‘The origins of ENFI’. and Swain. Naiman. 1978. Negotiation oral and written discourse’. Canale. A. 4. 8(3) 1993. T. puters & Composition. N. Frolich. Stern. B. M. and Peyton. N. Adapted from Lightbown and Spada (1991: 69- 73) and extended to include electronic communication and offer a truly communicative use of the 6. tute for Studies in Education. op. Dickinson. Skehan.. (eds.Email tandem learning: J Woodin natural setting communicative approach “traditional” email learning email learning (focus on message/ approach (focus on (forum) (partners) information carried in the language itself) language) meaning all meaning emphasised over form often meaning all depends on important form emphasised important learners’ wishes over meaning (accuracy) errors rarely error correction limited errors frequently errors rarely errors corrected if corrected corrected corrected (native requested errors!) (hopefully!) variety of native limited or no native limited or no native variety of native one-to-one native speaker contact speaker contact speaker contact speaker contact speaker contact modified input modified input modified input X modified input (one-to-one) unmodified input modified input modified input unmodified input X (in groups) learners must often focus on use of language. ‘Theoretical bases 5.). System. 1986. John Benjamins. Murray. in Bruce. 19(4) 1991. pp. Cambridge University 3. cit. Learner Training for Language Press. K. Tor- and Comprehension: Redefining Relation. in Olson. rance. Batson.

pp. Brammerts. CILT. l’ordinateur. Focus on the Lan . and Krashen. E. Oxford University Press. 1991. Letter Hunt: British Council Software Series (CUP) Spain. Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 33 . Proceedings of EUROCALL 95. R. Tillyer. Etudes de Linguistique Appliquée. 1990. 27. cit. Lewis. 1-47. Canale and Swain. Paper 22.. E. 100. are Learned. Triple Play &Triple Play Plus: Syracuse Language mance of Strategic Competence’. M. 1993. Software gration’. 15. p.-M. Uni- versidad Politecnica de Valencia. 15(3) 1987. ‘Tan- 16. ‘Helsinki University of Technology E-Mail Writing Project’. A Simple Classroom Internet Guide’. pp. S. How Languages Oxford. Oxford University Press. and Yule. 1995. and Tarone. N. Valencia. R.Anderson. A. Phillips. E. in Scarcella. 1995. ‘Potential paradigms and possible dem Learning: Independence through Partner- problems for CALL’. P. Systems. (eds. 20. Spain. in Broady. pp. and Kenning. Promoting Learner Autonomy in University 17. New York. Storyboard: Chris Jones (Wida Software) 19. (eds. 18. John. E. Lightbown. J. 67-77. London. H. 1996. M. ‘Eliciting the Perfor. Valencia. Email tandem learning: J Woodin guage teaching and testing’. F. G.). Yule. oping Communicative Competence in a Second 14. Woodin. 1995. in Technology Enhanced Language Learning: Focus on Inte. and Spada. op. L’approche communicative et presented at EUROCALL 95 Conference. Devel - tics 1(1) 1980. Tarone. and St.). System. guage Learner. ship’. Language. Applied Linguis . E. T. ‘Cyberspace as a Second Language: Language Teaching.. Newbury House. Vilmi. 275-287. 21.

Some of the early. be useful and more applicable to their own eral purpose software such as word processors learners. it was seen as skills. successfully incorporated into language learn. sound clips. be favourably disposed to learning with multi- man Interactive English Dictionary media: (Longman.g. 1993) and the English for Business series (University of Wolverhampton. Examples of such DIY multimedia learning materials are shown. Computers which deliver multimedia which are aimed specifically at the level. via a CD-ROM are now becoming the stan. e. Fun with Texts program’s learning tasks in ways which may (Camsoft. their method of creation described and possible benefits of their use for CALL and self-access put forward. Introduction traditional language learning tools of audio. to develop their own multimedia applications 1989). 1986). Long . Many teachers would like to be able and spreadsheets (Windeatt and Hardesty. Commercially produced multimedia CDs ing for many years. own learners. and graphics. text teachers to adapt the materials or to add to the reconstruction software e. useful specifically for language learning do not usu- and creative applications were concordancers ally have an authoring facility that may allow for language analysis (Johns. needs. Such multimedia applications allow the more effective for language learning and embod- 34 ReCALL .g. learning styles.ReCALL 9:1 (1997) 34–42 Do-it-yourself multimedia Paul Brett University of Wolverhampton This paper describes how teachers without specialist computing skills can create their own computer delivered multimedia learning applications using a word processor and digital information from a vari- ety of sources. 1992) and the exploitation of gen. of their dard and multimedia language learning soft. especially as learners appear to ware is appearing on CD-ROMs. 1994). interests etc. a “As a learning tool it was received more Business English application for listening favourably than traditional tools. video. texts and feedback to the learner to be Computers and computer software have been located in one place. animations. These home-made multimedia applications can exploit video. the computer screen. photos.

understanding of the learners’ needs. It the teacher classroom functions to be taken shows how DIY computer-based multimedia over by the computer. authentic real-world language in that it was Secondly. interests etc. ation and finally explains how they were used A final rationale was to trial such multime- with learners. to engineer appropriate and teachers generally do not have such skills and targeted learning opportunities. In conclusion. and some of the then discusses their content. Fourthly. and used for a number of reasons. 1989). although the computers in our not written for language learning. It is also unfortunate by language users in the course of their every- that some of the language learning CDs are of day lives for some communicative purpose questionable pedagogic value. 1990. The tasks were to ware. pic. DIY Multimedia Worksheets enabling it to be spent with individuals. such CALL laboratory have a multimedia capacity authentic language input is seen as beneficial: there was only a limited variety of commer- cially produced EFL CDs available. block (Nunan. dia learning materials and delivery method for gogic advantages of such multimedia materi. This sessions with learners attending a pre-ses. The content of the worksheets Rationale Figures 1 and 2 show sample pages from some The CBMMWs shown in Figures 1 and 2 were of the DIY multimedia computer based work- created for and used during supervised CALL sheets used in supervised CALL sessions. It tasks. 1989.” (Brett. some of the peda.0 (Asymetrix). als for CALL and self-access are put forward. audio lingual methodology and based around 1996:206). This paper provides these CBMMWs were used to allow some of a possible solution to these dilemmas. The listening skills work used a pre-. Do-it-yourself multimedia: P Brett ied more effective self-study qualities. 5). They were created media that were used in the worksheets.and post-listening sequence (Under- fore expand the range and nature of learning wood. threes. the language input. relying on an external to language teaching. their suitability in self-access. I wished to add a multimedia dimension to the Pedagogy CALL sessions and to incorporate video. Firstly. p. method of cre. Exam. computer housed and delivered the learning ples of these are shown in Figures 1 and 2. puters to exploit video and sound and there. The material for input was tasks offered in CALL sessions. and text to provide CALL learning vidualising learning within large classes and materials can be created. the use of the computer to take over some teacher roles such as giving instructions. play- ing video and tapes aimed to free teacher time. At present the development software used A third reason was to provide more indi- for creating multimedia applications such as vidualised learning activities by using an Multimedia Toolbook 4. while. p. The use of paper-based worksheets that combine video. sound. feedback. or the time to learn them. and not simply Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 35 . These CBMMWs were designed and written to This section firstly outlines the rationale for resemble the tasks and stages that might have the creation of these DIY computer-based been used in a class-based session but the multimedia worksheets (CBMMWs). worksheets has long been one method of indi- tures. contrived and artificial dialogues (Sinclair. This software fails to exploit the new be completed by learners working in twos or possibilities created by more powerful com. 5). section describes the pedagogic design and the sional university course. and few “By ‘authentic’ texts we meant those produced for advanced learners. The worksheets were written using sequences sound and text into the sessions which had of communicative tasks as the basic learning mostly been conducted with text-based soft. requires specialist programming knowledge strengths.

this symbol means make a note in your books of any new words or grammar . F.this symbol means double click using the mouse to start the video J. Kenedy and Martin Luther King? b) what aspects of their life and death do they have in common? c) which photos below (A and B) do you associate with each -why? A. B. .Do-it-yourself multimedia: P Brett American Heroes of the 1960s Aims of this worksheet are :- .to focus on the uses of the Present Perfect Before you start . Watch these 2 video clips of their famous speeches and note down their famous phrases. Video A Video B Figure 1 36 ReCALL . F. .CHECK ANSWERS TASK 2 Double click ( ) on first Video A below and then on Video increase vocabulary in the area of politics and government .click on Window and file name Answers . Kennedy and Martin Luther King TASK 1 Decide together a) who were provide problem solving tasks to develop speaking develop listening skills using video of three famous speeches .this symbol means compare your answers with those in file .

The western is the one cinematic genre in which the scenery and location functions almost like a character in the film.: hanging.First Scene Figure 2 Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 37 . The two classic scenarios with a western are the shoot-out and the chase across the land on horse- back. Do-it-yourself multimedia: P Brett Task 3 . Watch this famous scene and note down the number of ways of dying that the cowboys talk about.Vocabulary This is a short article about westerns (Article A ) below – look at the article with your friend and decide which of these 3 titles (a. Within the formula of westerns high excitment and danger are essential. Compare your list with the list in the answers Task 5 Double click on the photo below (Western First Scene) . b. b) Westerns are usually all continuous action c) The characters in westerns often communicate without speaking.Further recurrent symbols of the western's preoccupations with the violent world of nature are the cowboys' horses and their cattle rearing occupations.before you watch work together with a friend and note down as many different ways of dying that you can think of e. Look at Article A again and decide together if these sentences (a–f) are True or False. Very often the central players are pioneers and they use primitive. Western .g. e) Death and pursuit are two frequent parts of Westerns - Follow up Which words in Article A above mean the same as the ones below (i-vii). wordless communication. d) Horses and cattle are used symbolically in Westerns.The plots are often characterized by alternat- ing sequences of action and contemplation. a) Westerns are popular with many different people.Reading. c) is the best. i) changing ii) thought iii) crucial iv) without speech v) occurs over and over again vi) a violent confrontation with guns - Task 4 .Vocabulary You are going to watch a dramatic concentration from a famous western . a) Oscars for a Western b) The genre of the western c) The death of the western Article A From the beginning of cinematic history the appeal of the western has been universal and cut across many boundaries of taste and expectation.

was built into the topics and lan.voa. In the making of the 38 ReCALL . charts. The final timedia is usually a 486 machine with a mini. mum speed of 33 MHz.avi for video or *. photos. is embedded within the word 1990:195 ) and tasks that followed up skills processed document. audio and video files and that there was deliberate selection of the whole are also copyright free. Figure 1 is the first page of a be linked and embedded in a word processed CBMMW that includes links to photos and to document using Media Player (as described two video clips of famous speeches by Martin above). their interests and lan. Such video files can word processors. There are three possible sources of digital guage awareness tasks in an attempt to information – commercially produced share- individualise learning. e. 1990. and home produced (please see Note 1 about copyright). Word 2 (and all the later ver. plify areas of language. “Note down all the creation of links to video clips. tal video. sounds. Lan. into digital form through scanning and a mouse. source is to convert one’s own video. Such CD-ROMs often appear on the sound files etc. news and are updated regularly. This was done video or animation files use Windows File with Word 2 and accompanied by a CD-ROM Manager. pictures etc. They were material and can allow the movement of digi- also displayed in full colour. In addition the computer or digitising video. equipment and>. sound.” (Willis. the Internet. Informa- tion about the learners. Media Player work by focusing on some grammatical areas (Microsoft) is the Windows application that is exemplified by the input were included. ware CDs. ing language in the variety of media that sions of Word) allows you to create documents would serve to develop skills and also exem- that include links to data such as pictures. speed. These are called share- variety of media e. The World Wide Web on more condensed than those used on the com. across the inter- net. Try the Voice of America news broadcasts Constructing the worksheets which can be downloaded copyright free from Hardware <gopher. A double mouse click on these files will to a video clip from a famous western movie. document and these other media so that the ful in instructed language learning (Ellis. p. graphics. and speakers or head- phones. Sources of digital information guage needs. with a SVGA monitor photos etc. start the video or animations and their content The samples presented in figures 1 and 2 are is instantly apparent.g. automatically offered through Word to allow guage learning advice. have been created in other applications. selected CD drive and the directory with the original video data which was placed with such files (which usually have the exten- in the CD-ROM drive. video etc. that can be used within modern cover of PC magazines. a sound card. and spreadsheets which language teaching. To be able to search the CD for usable Luther King and John Kennedy. sound. new vocabulary” was also included.mmm for anima- authentic reading text and was similarly linked tions). How the computer-based multimedia work- sheets were created using Word 2 Software The aims of each of the CBMMWs were These examples were created and delivered decided first and then various media sources using Windows and the word processor Word were searched to find interesting and motivat- 2 (Microsoft).g. the Internet is another source of audio or video puter (for illustrative purposes). There are Media a variety of CD-ROMs available that have pic- The worksheets were to be multimedia and so tures. These are audio files of the The computer hardware needed to deliver mul.Do-it-yourself multimedia: P Brett produced to illustrate some generalisation about video. Links can be created between the word processing Language awareness activities are seen as use. ware. video clips. but this requires more spe- requires a CD-ROM drive which runs at dual cialist expertise. 74). Figure 2 shows an sion *.

be and were embedded in the word processed together with the connected answer sheet. guage aims of each activity on offer and they The first task is to select the video clip you chose the ones that they wished to work with. and also access basis would be productive and that describes the sessions and learners’ reactions. To create a permanent Student responses to the DIY worksheets link in the Word 2 document you then need to The evaluation of these sessions was done select File on the Media Player menu bar and informally. Observation of the sessions and then Update Document. were very much enjoyed and that the inclusion Screen instructions for the tasks as in all of audio and video clips made the worksheets self-access materials need to be especially more compelling.avi file that I wanted to ceeded with the learning tasks at their own include. with the Windows environment. The finished ciated the freedom to engage with the learning CBMMWs were saved on floppy disks for tasks in their own time and at their own pace transport to the CALL room in conjunction rather than in the lockstep teacher-led class- with the CD-ROMs which contained the room sessions. I then needed move between pairs and answer individual to decide whether I wished learners to be able questions. The feedback also suggested that This section describes how these CBMMWs making such CBMMWs available on a self- were presented to the learners. Video for Widows. Some learners chose to answer the to start and stop their video with buttons or tasks in the worksheets and typed in answers. Learners were selected Media Clip to embed the video – given information about the topics and the lan- Media Player appears with its own menu bar. Do-it-yourself multimedia: P Brett CBMMWs. It was also clear that learners appre- than reading from paper. After teacher explanation of the were then written in the word processor. learners were keen to use the materials again. and I needed to select the CD-ROM drive and grammar and phrases. sound files and pictures can opened their worksheets from Word 2. A lot of white space was these multimedia CALL activities were more used. wish to embed and this is done by clicking on They were encouraged to work in pairs. Select Insert both in a Read Only format. This allows from the menu bar and then Object.wav file and there ROMs with the necessary . My expertise and time during the sessions was focused on Using the multimedia computer-based individuals and their particular needs and worksheets queries. The creation of each worksheet tered by two learners who were not familiar took about 2 hours. Some difficulties were encoun- source media. document in the following way. Having selected this file the first image pace and in their own manner and I was free to from the video appears on screen. Media Clip allows you to closed at the end of use. whether a double click on the picture would be others used pen and paper. Sound allows a . learners various video clips. because read. Having placed in the CD-ROM drive. the tasks. sufficient. The relevant CD- insert video. Having selected the aims and The sessions were carried out in a multimedia the media clips to be used. the double click option has been used. You are answers to be typed into the document but then presented with a list of media types that these cannot be saved when the document is can be inserted. The operation of the learning materials. interesting than the traditional text-based ing from the computer screen is more tiring activities. video was deliberately included as Presentation and use of the worksheets were sound clips. share Device on the menu bar and then selecting in headphones and to discuss and cooperate on this case.avi files were are also a range of options for graphics. You are then pre. They were also asked to keep their sented with the usual menus for opening files own paper-based records of new vocabulary. The learners reported that simple and clear. The first image of the the informal feedback gained by talking to the video scene remains on-screen and it can be groups after the sessions suggested that they played by double clicking on it. Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 39 . Learners then pro- the name of the . the learning tasks CALL room. together with large fonts. In figures 1 and 2.

whole class situations. exploit the potential of multimedia but do not need specialist computer programming skills. p. the array of easily manipulated digital data Traditionally much home-produced self- available from a variety of sources are almost access material has consisted of typed. However these CBMMWs (1977. structive learning tasks that cannot be hensible in this way might serve to encourage achieved within any other media. Learners are free to puter form can make listening comprehension choose their own speed and style of working. higher levels of comprehension and lan. The media: text.Do-it-yourself multimedia: P Brett The pedagogic advantages of DIY unlimited multimedia learning opportunities multimedia without buying in any computer programming The contributions that such home made multi. Using the deliver sound and video we extend the poten. There has until now been no tool to be tailored to particular learners and therefore enable the provision of such combinations of maximise efficiency of learning time. levels and tasks can skills. Preparation of such mate- 40 ReCALL . and books are necessary.. Motivation ingful learning sequences via multimedia Language learning delivered by multimedia should prove to be extremely useful and also may have some more attractive elements than to motivate learners. procedures described above topics. guage learning such media are vital tools and the opportunities to juxtapose them in mean. There is some evidence to that delivered by books. In lan. 1989. exposure rials of books. tapes and video or in show that this juxtaposition of media in com. more accessible. The possibilities for Multimedia has uses and advantages for the creating one’s own learning materials using delivery of self-access learning opportunities. Therefore. 49) took over some teacher classroom roles such as playing tapes and videos. Individualised multimedia Like textbooks. sounds. contact with learners. errors are private and the learning decisions parative study of the effectiveness of multime. allowed a more flexible role for the teacher to sion of instant feedback and economy of hard. video. Brett (1997) sums up a com. and of giving Multimedia which is used in a self-access instructions and providing answers.g. learning materials.” replace teachers. ity for learners to proceed with the proffered activities in the their own time at their own Expertise pace and in their own ways. Sheerin. Computers within language learning provide guage recall were achieved while listening in the an alternative to the traditional learning mate- multimedia environment. cassettes.. They do not language recall and subsequent acquisition. 1988). also heighten learner motivation. language tial of CALL to include material for aural input. dia: Learner and teacher flexibility “ . Multimedia in self-access only word processing. Motivated teachers should be able to create Dickinson. although teachers should ensure that based worksheets with sequences of learning they are not infringing copyright (see Note 1). tapes etc. photographs etc. paper infinite. are made by the learner. media materials may make in CALL and self- access learning are now briefly discussed.. and generate con- to language input that has been made compre. This form gives such study mode the added dimen. expertise. tasks and their answers (e. making their own DIY multimedia computer-based worksheets decisions about their learning.. commercially produced EFL Multimedia CALL multimedia CDs may not cater directly to the By using the new potential of computers to needs of specific groups of learners. obvious relevance of such materials should that are flexibly under learner control. monitor closely and to have more individual ware as no combinations of paper. It also allowed flexibil- TV..

able comments on earlier materials and ver- pictures. cueing up tapes etc. The author would like to thank Susan Brett. dia language material to be read. feedback is tions can be created and presented to learners. for their valu- this can be supplemented with relevant maps. media will increase with time. charts etc. only a mouse click away on the other Read Worked examples of DIY multimedia were Only document. CD-ROMs and the World Wide allows the whole variety of input sources for Web can provide a large range of high quality language learning to be provided by the same supplementary sources of information and lan- tool and allows the learners time that would guage for skills work and input for materials have been used in manipulating cassette play. Although they cannot sim. used. discussed. books. research. to be spent learning. Multimedia delivery may provide a more efficient delivery than traditional tools. noted. resource bank from which learners access and process information for completion of mini project work. Acknowledgements ulate real life contacts and purposes they can provide easy access to high quality multime. requiring not ing materials and situations that specifically only the preparation of the learning accommodate their own learners. texts. to provide the back. A computer-based delivery opportunities. for example munity and environment to plan. ground information for lively and illustrated oral. Notes 1. for traditional lessons ers. documents comprising the variety of media 1986). the ability to compile language learning activity (Fried-Booth. pictures and any accompanying ing. sions of this paper. Some of the Exploiting digital information in other pedagogic advantages of such multimedia lan- ways guage learning materials were put forward and This section briefly puts forward two other sug. It must be stressed that those following these Materials preparation procedures must be extremely careful not to Teachers have always sought to supplement infringe copyright laws in any way and to textbooks with their own materials. his colleagues and his students. together with selected. poster or even computer based presenta- tions (see Note 1). Do-it-yourself multimedia: P Brett rials has been time-consuming. interest- of texts. other areas in which these technological gestions for exploiting the vast amount of infor. The World Wide Web and ‘edutain. to create learn. elements and using the techniques discussed ment’ CD-ROMs can be used as part of a above will become even easier. This is gen- sequences but also selection and organisation erally done to provide more relevant. pic. finely tuned and individualised learning tapes or video. listened to. Summary Commercial language learning CD-ROMs generally provide instantaneous feedback on This paper has explored some ways in which the tasks and although the applications DIY multimedia language learning applica- described here are not interactive. through the use of digital television. There can be no doubt that the range and variety of authentic language in dig- Learner research – mini projects ital formats and in the whole spectrum of Projects during which students use the com. obtain the necessary clearances for all materials tures. provided along with details of how they were created and presented to learners. Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 41 . used as dictation and all of ReCALL’s anonymous reviewer. advances may benefit language learning were mation available in digital format (see Note 1). Likewise organise and finally present the results of as computers grow more powerful and soft- their investigation have been seen as a useful ware more sophisticated. diagrams etc. pop music.

Longman. fax +44 (0)1482 473816. Press. 1986. 1989. ‘Micro-concord – A Language Learner’s Longman Interactive English Dictionary (Long- Research Tool’. tel +44(0)1482 465872. Oxford. Windeatt. Oxford. Word 2 (Microsoft). A. versity Press. S. CTI Centre for Modern Languages. System. Cambridge University Press. Cam. Software Ellis. 1996. FOREIGN LANGUAGE MATERIALS FROM THE TELL CONSORTIUM NOW AVAILABLE! ‘Encounters’ multimedia CD-ROMs GramEx and GramDef TransIt-TIGER packages Medialogue InterprIt Ça sonne français On-line Dictionaries French Periodicals Database The first batch of 16 packages is now on sale from Hodder & Stoughton and other suppliers. Oxford. 1993). the TELL Consortium.hull. contact Jo Porritt. Multimedia Toolbook 4 (Asymetrix). Cambridge University Press. Johns. Oxford University Press. the use of multimedia on listening comprehen. D. Cambridge. ‘A compar ative study of the effects of London. 1987.hull. man.htm 42 ReCALL . 1989. Designing Tasks for the Communicative Media Player (Microsoft). Self-instruction in Language Learn - ing. P. L. System. 9(2). Oxford University ton. 25(1). and Hardesty. 1994). Willis. Self Access. The Lexical Syllabus. Corpus. Oxford University Press. 1986. learners’ attitudes’. J. Harlow. 1990.Do-it-yourself multimedia: P Brett Bibliography Sinclair.v. Computer Assisted Lan . Brett. 1989. R. Brett. Concordance. 1989. or visit the TELL web site at http://www. Oxford. 14(2). Teaching Listening. Instructed Second Language Acquisition. University of Hull HU6 7RX.porritt@langc. For full details. D. WordPerfect (WordPerfect Corporation).ac. 1997. ‘Using multimedia: an investigation of Underwood. guage Learning Journal. A. T. email j. M. Project Work. Blackwell. Fun with Texts (Camsoft. Collocation. 1992). Oxford. 1991. Collins Cobuild. English for Business (University of Wolverhamp- Fried-Booth. D. Dickinson. D. S. 1990. Oxford Uni- sion’. bridge. Sheerin. Nunan.

graphs and pie charts. The paper provides a rationale for the inclusion of an IT component on an EAP course. Book appropriate language and study skills so that searches and reser vations are now made using they can operate successfully when they go on a library database rather than the old cards in to attend their main course. become the norm. Introduction than more conventional paper-based form. students can now present The role of university pre-sessional Eng- statistical data using an appropriate spread. lish for Academic Purposes (EAP) courses in sheet software package rather than hand. Very often these cabinets. and considers why a number of IT areas are not yet being fully exploited by EAP units at British Universities. assignments have important aspect of university academic life. This relationship is examined in the context of pre-sessional summer courses at British Universities. very short period of time word-processed. The Internet is coming of age with courses are common core as opposed to sub- some lecturers encouraging students to submit ject specific1 and as such they “will be con- work in electronic text through email. is that IT is already an rather than hand-written. with its vast quantity of The importance of information technology information. is likely to become an important (IT) for university students in many countries reference source for lecturers and students has increased significantly over the last few alike. Where these technological innovations years and this trend is likely to continue. and the World Wide Web. In a will eventually lead is open to speculation. rather cerned with general academic language and Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 43 .ReCALL 9:1 (1997) 43–51 The role of IT in English for Academic Purposes: a survey of provision on pre- sessional courses at British universities Huw Jarvis University of Salford This paper examines the relationship between Information Technology (IT) and an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) course. Britain is to equip non-native speakers with drawn tables. what is clear however.

researching and organising an under-standing of the new opportunities of ideas. Hamp-Lyons and Heasley (1987)5 and olds. is usually at the centre of a course. The following examples illustrate only just begun to specify its role in relation to this point – Lynch (1983)4 for academic listen.”12. a very recent the publications focus on one specific EAP development. by contrast. Providers of EAP of IT on a pre-sessional EAP course at a courses wishing to include IT as a course com. ences in the requirements in different parts of however. An published text book material for guidance on a IT in EAP component. about IT applications including: timetabled input will therefore focus on areas such as cause and effect. first and foremost. general English arrive at university with previous experience and special interest classes are also frequently of the technology.. For 15–16-year- ing. Internet IT Jordan (1980)6 for academic writing. the UK. this will then be followed by plan. Although there are differ- included on many courses.. IT tools such as word description. are now exposed to IT and should therefore demic speaking. i. In Britain one option is to examine sional course at a British university will run the National Curriculum specifications. the National Curriculum has component. process and procedure. writing a draft. Information technology. retrieve and develop all four skills. skills include: electronic publishing and distri- ning and Holmstorm (1992)7 for academic bution via the Internet. students “who and the academic writing syllabus is often possess IT capability will have knowledge defined in terms of discourse functions. can 44 ReCALL . tute. collecting and com- academic speaking. the brainstorming. during the summer months for anything from 4 to 13 weeks. academic listening and aca. IT provides. in very general terms. The National Curriculum These courses are usually broken down into various components such as academic reading. The connection between the IT specifica- nent. and this is reflected in a regrettable lack tions in the National Curriculum and the role of literature on the subject. see provided a framework for a very successful IT for example Smith (1988)9 or Heaton and in EAP component at the International Insti- Dunmore (1992)10. Native speakers at British secondary schools academic writing. British university goes beyond the former pro- ponent will need to look elsewhere. will tend to the skill to use appropriate information focus on the writing process and encourage sources and IT tools effectively. framework. processors.2 A typical pre-ses. dents “to become more competent and fluent grated skills approach. The University of Salford in 1995 and despite its widespread prevalence and clear 1996 (Appendix 1 gives an indication of the relevance at universities world-wide. and Lynch and Anderson (1992)8 for investigation.13 well established with a number of publications National Curriculum guidelines of this type designed to deal specifically with this area. Project work. narrative.. etc. the intention is to in using IT to: communicate. spreadsheets. pus English (Forman et al.. conducting on-line reading. many of In terms of the Internet. etc.. i. (see for example Cam. Academic writing.e.. subjects and age groupings.The role of IT in EAP: H Jarvis will focus on study skills”. requiring stu- Whilst some of the publications take an inte. databases. Project classes. Glendin. 1990)3. editing of work. Study skills in EAP is also paring software. information sources. browsing.e. analyse information. on a pre-sessional course.”11 ning. across a range of subjects. and will consist of approxi- mately 20 hours of timetabled input per week. has not syllabus items for this course).. beyond viding a guiding framework for the latter. yet established itself as a major EAP compo. A plethora of EAP published text book A more specific requirement of the National material is now available at various levels and Curriculum serves as a useful guide for what these publications are frequently used to can be included on an IT in EAP component define the syllabus on many EAP courses. classification.

With a number of cen- opments in the field of EAP in Britain. Sec. Although not all institutions providing pre. there is a study forms a part of on-going research at the recognition by EAP units of the importance of International Institute. and others offering IT as an option. with its professional interest weeks. and with sessional EAP courses are necessarily mem. component. at the (pre-sessional) EAP courses. which intends to establish a clear peda. of these 34. extremes. However. It is also highly probable that units tive and efficient use of which is going to be who offered an IT component on their 1995 vital to students throughout their period of courses were more likely to return the ques- study (in this case at British universities). the effec. institutions would be more likely be done on a networked computer. Each BALEAP member per week. it can help bridge any possible gap only obtain data. Clearly. IT is now an important and relevant the national picture. IT on courses of this type. every week. the member institu. If tionnaire than those who did not and this is EAP courses in general and pre-sessional another reason why the results are likely to courses in particular are to adequately fulfil give an above average positive indication of their role. to be considerable variation on the amount of gogical framework for the inclusion of IT on timetabled input allocated to IT. The questionnaire was in fact It should be noted that a number of EAP units Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 45 . twenty-nine centres The aim of the study was to establish the reported that IT did form a part of their pre- extent to which the potential offered by IT was sessional EAP course. one EAP unit reported giving a two The study method was to contact the 62 to three hour introduction to word-processing other member institutions of the British Asso. two taught in: centres did not run pre-sessional summer EAP courses in 1995 and two centres failed to fully 29 → a university networked computer room complete the questionnaire. struct. most centres appear to offer tions can be considered the main providers of an average of about one-and-a-half hours of IT courses of this type. whilst another unit reported giving four hours ciation which furthers knowledge and devel. Purposes (BALEAP) – the professional asso. The role of IT in EAP: H Jarvis help develop language and study skills. variation in the length of courses from 3 to 13 bers of BALEAP. control) Because of the way the questionnaire was 4 → a multimedia centre framed it is inevitable that the results will give 2 → others (the library) an above average positive indication of the national picture. at the University of Sal. The Results The Study In response to question 1. on future EAP courses at their institutions. There does appear ford. tres offering IT support in guided self-study. taught the totals were as follows. It This development of language and study skills was felt that by giving. with only one centre being realised by British universities This reporting that it did not. to respond. session per four week course. IT was ber institutions 34 responded. The collated 3 → a computer laboratory (like a language results are therefore based on 30 returned laboratory – allows for master console questionnaires. as well as asking for and the equipping of non-native speakers can information. per week. a generalised picture is difficult to con- and its national network. but also to inform EAP units between the skills of native and non-native of what IT items they might wish to include speakers entering onto a university course. making a ciation of Lecturers in English for Academic weekly average of little over half an hour. (including Salford) was asked to complete a When asked to comment on where IT is questionnaire (Appendix 1). Of the 63 mem. deliberately framed in this way so as to not ondly.

It is worth noting that cases respondents did indicate that an item only one institution mentioned conventional was not available either on a taught (A). EAP CD-ROM software still appears to be non-existent. given that pre-sessional EAP networked computer room is the normal venue courses are frequently income generating. B = This item was available to students for self-access use but did not form part of the taught course. this assumption may lack of CD-ROM multimedia. Whether this is because EAP alarm bells for Heads of Departments and Pro- units are unwilling (due to technophobia?) or Vice Chancellors alike. the lack of state-of-the-art that only four out of 30 EAP units use a multi. High quality language unable (due to finance constraints?) to invest support provision must surely be at the fore- in multimedia. facilities on courses of this type should ring media centre. despite Analysis this expansion. Not surprisingly. ponent of this. teen months the number of language learning An itemised breakdown of what IT compo- CD ROMS has expanded considerably.16 Whatever the reasons for this belong to category (C). As the respondents had indi- aware of only one dedicated EAP CALL cated (A) or (B) for the other items. over twenty titles are now available. a university and tutors. In the nents are being taught is detailed in Table 1. It may and the role of new technology. it was English as a Foreign Language (EFL). and there is every sign that this will continue over the coming years. package available on the market in Britain. media is. increasingly important in times of cuts from dents’ education”14. Netscape/WWW 56% 24% 20% The University Library catalogue 46 ReCALL . thus the total cally at meeting the needs of EAP students equals 38 not 30. this unfor. such as multi- also be a question of CD-ROM software. not merely supplementing. that the finances that overseas students attend- With the advent of CD-ROMS in computer ing these courses bring to British universities assisted learning and “the great promise for as they enter their departments is becoming transforming. (in terms of time for staff front in the drive to recruit overseas students development and hardware) is unclear. or for self-access use Key IT item A B C 83% 10% 7% Word Processing 56% 27% 17% Basic File Management 20% 50% 30% On-line IT tutorials 13% 43% 44% Spreadsheet and Database 24% 50% 26% The Internet (a).”15 However. I am simply left blank. Indeed. either as part of their taught course. stu. therefore assumed that these blank items CALLEAP. in a minority of cases in the ‘Other’section of the questionnaire. marginally distort the percentages for this col- Table 1 Role of IT items on pre-sessional EAP courses A = This item was taught on the course. and for this component of the course. aimed specifi. (taught meaning formal time-tabled input was given). or a computer assisted language learning (CALL) self-access (B) basis. East. I would have thought. I have. a central com- ment has observed that. C = This item was not available to students.The role of IT in EAP: H Jarvis teach IT in more than one place. and (five of the returned questionnaires in total) despite a well established CALL tradition in option C was never actually selected. Let us begin by looking at the table in column tunate picture of a lack of dedicated software C and noting that although in the majority of is not a new one in EAP. Email 13% 47% 40% The Internet (b). UK alone. it is perhaps surprising central government. “Over the last eigh.

These study skills include: beyond the scope of this paper. basic in the classroom. taught IT component. are clearly much broader ones and in academic study. on another level it time.17 However. much to gain hard statistical data as to gain an and to many subject-specific academic disci- impression of what role IT is currently playing plines.equip learn. creating directories and sub. the fact that years there has also been a growing interest in many EAP units are in Arts Faculties where the area of study skills”. (ideally on a sepa. on-line tutorials as timetabled input. nent will increase over the next few years. reported that this item formed part of their cal suggestions of some possible ways for. EAP course at Salford University did include cance since our discussion will focus on col. and the basic or self-access at tertiary and vocational institu- competence to make intelligent decisions tions. the picture for the Internet is mixed. The observation four percent of institutions reported that this made by Ellis and Sinclair that. this potential for error in this reason the 1995 and 1996 pre-sessional the survey is not considered of major signifi. Email putting disks through an anti-virus check and appears to be slowly coming of age and is now regularly backing up work. although on one level this is conducted six years ago. which “. on-line tutorials are available for of education technology in modern languages. the purpose of the survey was not so graphs to both EAP projects based on surveys. “in recent item was not available to students. does suggest some EAP ably do make use of the word-processor in units may be focusing exclusively on word. appropriate email as part of students’ timetabled input and naming of files and numbering versions of yet only 13% including the World Wide Web. ence (particularly with non-native speakers versity network but that EAP tutors were sim. I suspect that considerably fewer processing and language work and not on the tutors actually need to use spreadsheets. It is my experi- were actually available to students on the uni. These issues. spreadsheets are much less likely to be on the ers with the skills required in order to succeed network is a likely explanation for this. In With clear applications of spreadsheets and any case.. therefore. saved work. at that clearly appropriate. It is not surprising to see that for the major. in a comprehensive study into the role ity of units. The role of IT in EAP: H Jarvis umn because it is possible that these items individual needs and levels. One possible reason for ward. And yet applicability to EAP project work does war- it needs to be recognised that such study skills rant EAP units requesting that the software is are essential in developing efficient and effec. their work. widely available to students for self-access. copying files. left the assumptions cannot always be made. I rate disk since it is often the disk and not the would anticipate that email as a taught compo- file which gets damaged). and for item blank. However. email was not. “only instructors who use computers established in EAP units. it is extremely surprising that only 14% on EAP courses and to then offer a few practi. made available on the network. With 24% of institutions now including directories .places to keep files. the in their own work make dynamic use of them slightly lower statistics for column (A). going on to undergraduate study). Indeed.20 Furthermore. umn (A) – those items which were taught. Forty- related study skills elements. this could be that the tutors’ own skills are The role of word-processing in yielding insufficient – Davidson and Tomic have both quantitive and qualitive improvement to observed that there is some evidence to sug- texts appears to be widely recognised and well gest that. tive strategies when using the word-processor however.. the deleting of early draft files. that these ply not aware of this and.”19 Whilst many tutors prob- file management. Its word-processing as one might expect. in a particular study environment”18 appears The importance of this item does deserve not to be as widely applied to study skills in appropriate staff development and training. the institutions surveyed about which lessons are appropriate for their had extremely low expectations regarding its Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 47 . found to be a widely used educational assumes learners have the basic accessing technology application for classroom teaching skills to get into the tutorials. self-access use.

and Net Search facilities in Netscape. tional innovations. item may eventually be included on courses ground. Despite a very positive contribution from in fact. the World Wide Web is to be used effectively dent writing tasks. the study course through focusing on the Net Directory skills element appears to be largely neglected. appreci- Bee-Lay and Yee-Ping (1991) who describe an ate this point. When using these searching tools in the class- cessing). 486 or Pentium computers and a fast. exploited. This create at least one bookmark.The role of IT in EAP: H Jarvis promise for the future. They also look at the Net Direc- indeed this is an important principle which tory and click on news. Against this back. item was available for self-access. ful. I am sure. Markee (1994) comments as a taught component. gave them a sense of pride in their upon in our discussion of multimedia). This who has observed how engrossed even the coming of age of email is reflected in a num.”21 Email has also been dis. access the information.23 ● something relevant to their academic study. selected for their relevance for an EAP stu- ing a log folder so as to keep a record of what dent: language studies. Students do a Net short. take heart in the fact ● something useful on English grammar. it may be that initially the various applications of the For each of these items they are encouraged to technology will actually be student-led. We can. improved their command relate to the finance question (already touched of English. Ethernet switching system is essential if cussed in terms which go beyond pen-pal stu. Having been introduced to the massive amount of information not being fully basic mechanics of the two searching tools. the picture appears to have changed simply because of student demand. this paper. 48 ReCALL .”22 Given appropriate hardware. However. with guidance. they follow various applies to all the IT applications discussed in steps through hypertext which. can eventually lead to the Electronic Telegraph The World Wide Web appears to be an – an on-line quality daily newspaper provided underused resource on EAP courses. that the implications of the technology are ● news from their country. perhaps it is because this is the newest of upon and students can be instructed to use the all the IT items and. Anyone considerably in the intervening years. possible applications of the technology find: have not yet caught up with the EAP class- room. with a free of charge. another reason for its email project which. Unlike own work and enlarged their awareness of all the other IT items. without this up-to-date that “it represents an important new resource technology it is simply too time-consuming to for managing the implementation of educa. and with 47% of institutions reporting that this ● what was on in Manchester that weekend. putting messages in appropriately room I have identified three thematic areas. creat. newer more powerful themselves as members of an international. “developed the students’ low percentage as a taught component could grasp of technology. There may be several reasons for the three thematic areas can then be expanded this. regrettably. power- global community. the item can. most demotivated student can be when using ber of publications on the subject including the World Wide Web will. however. be very successfully brought into a the current literature. conventions. named folders or deleting the message. directories and sub-directories with word-pro. In try and in this country). like email a few years Net Search or Net Directory to (additionally) ago. a student’s academic students are sending out and a draft folder so (subject) studies. beginning to be discussed in the literature. and the news (in their coun- as to return to an incomplete message. which Such skills include: creating and managing are searching tools in the World Wide Web to folders (parallels can be drawn with creating assist students in finding relevant information. the effective and efficient management Search for “academic writing” (language ref- of email needs to be included on courses erence work) and create a bookmark (study because without this a student can waste a skills) when they find a guide to referencing great deal of time when working with email.

There may be good rea.24 In this con- study skills applications and their importance. is the contention that IT With an established IT item such as word. From the applications of these sional EAP course. the potential of the medium logical. stand why they are not used. and the and all students. mon core of skills needed by all departments Thus. applications are pedagogical and not techno- processing. ously vary considerably there may be a com- ogy the greater its recognition appears to be. return the questionnaire. i. We have mentioned that this study. The role of IT in EAP: H Jarvis Looking at the data for the library cata. Uni- Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 49 . Central to the the findings. Crucial to such a framework World Wide Web the least. This is illustrated by the fact that all units ing and applications of the software programs said that they would like to receive a copy of or “how we use the boxes”. we are not con- tionnaire are interested in the potential of the cerned with computer programming or “what medium and of trying to find their role within goes in the boxes”. as the role of IT at universities increases It is suggested that as EAP providers begin to and as many EAP providers find their role incorporate some of the newer IT items onto within this. word-processing is the most. Students may get an orientation once in tive exploitation. it is rather surprising that 20% of insti. ‘feeds into’ their acade- access the resources for their projects without mic studies and where possible this fact needs exposure to the library computer database to be mirrored on pre-sessional EAP courses. Davidson and Tomic (1994) comment appears to be introduced exclusively at the that teachers who can see computers as a ped- level of language applications. one subject. this study skills element should in terms of ‘Information Systems for academic not be overlooked. the effi- cient and effective management of the infor- mation – the study skills element – cannot be Acknowledgements ignored. Gary Motteram. All the EAP units who returned a ques. At British universities aimed at meeting not only student but also this role would seem to be only partially departmental needs . IT. using graphs in EAP projects tutions do not appear to include this crucial and doing relevant searches on the World ‘equipping’ element as part of their pre-ses. giving us an indication of the picture in Britain. is not the subject IT as such. EAP class. tance of language exploitation tasks. Irrespective of the impor. With valuable and yet underused IT items The 33 of the member institutions of such as spreadsheets and databases and the BALEAP who took the time to complete and World Wide Web. crucial to its effec- (C). The nological one.e. framework. we have attempted to under. rather than ‘IT in EAP’. Such a frame- Information technology can play an important work will also need to consider a syllabus role on an EAP course. text.although these will obvi- recognised. the more established the technol. our concern is the access- it. search facilities. and brief ly dis. detailed some without having to be an expert. taught of the IT is the view that the role of IT on EAP courses items. however. can use the computer creatively analysis section has. is part of on-going research aimed at establish- Conclusion ing a clear framework for the provision of IT on pre-sessional EAP courses. lecturer at CELSE. in my view. therefore. items we can see how IT in EAP is an inte- sons for this and we have already noted the grated component of a whole course and this need for caution when considering column integration is. assuming that going on to study a computer-science related project work on these courses is the norm. therefore. After all unless a student is their departments. rather than in agogical innovation and not primarily a tech- language in conjunction with study skills. study’. Wide Web. cussed how such items might be applied in an logues. it is perhaps more helpful to think their courses. for the vast majority of students at wonders how students are expected to actually British Universities.

Kenning. 50(1). 45(4). ELT Journal. G. Ellis. 22(3). A. A.’. pp. op. ‘State of the art article. and Kidd. S. M. 1995. 23.. ELT Jour - 1. and Yee-Ping. p. ‘Removing com- 1987. BT. Lynch. Prepared for the Learning bridge. 1989. 22(3). Language Macmillan. 1990. 11. 18. Marcus. System.. McAleese. 14. B.. 1992. Forman. Heaton. C. 379. 17. R. 287. 9.The role of IT in EAP: H Jarvis versity of Manchester for his specific com. pp.).70. Jordan. Cambridge University Press. p. E. Cambridge. Computer 2. ‘Survey review: CD-ROM mate- rials for English langua ge teaching’. Donoghue. 5. ref: TE/95/158. Matthews. D. English. Cambridge University Press. 1995. 1990. cit. p. Appendix 1 THE ROLE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON PRE-SESSIONAL EAP COURSES AT BRITISH UNIVERSI- TIES (SUMMER 1995) Name of Institution: ____________________________________ Contact Name: ___________________________________________ 1. Intellect Books: Exeter. 1994. K. ‘English by University Press. and Holmstrom. 13. Newcombe House. Davidson C. ments on this paper and his general encourage. N. _____________________________________________ 50 ReCALL . R. Collins. Learning to Learn sity Press. guage learning. Study Speaking. in Montieth. and Dunmore. (ed. 1989. 69-60. pp. Bradford & Ilkley Community 150-151. S. T. Computers and Language. Eastment. F. 21-43. p. hypermedia and the ment in pushing me to get my work published. 3. S. Smith. 23(2). ibid. J. 4. 1992. D. B. Hypertext Theory into Practice. Com- Cruden. Lynch. and Tomic. 1996. School Curriculum and the implementation of innovations’. A. 20. 1994. 48(3). 24. References 15. ing. B. Education technology in modern lan - Reading. and Heasley. M. Training Cambridge University Press. Press: Cambridge. Hamp-Lyons. p. and Tomic. Cam. B. Campus English. G. B. 1993. A Study Skills Handbook. L. 1990. S. teaching of English’. C. R. email: creating a global classroom via the 10. R. 12.Cambridge. A. B. Matthews. puter phobia from the writing classroom. 1991. demic Purposes. 205. 17(1). Technology Unit by the University of East 8. p. Academic Writing Course. 1988. Study Listening. puter-assisted language learning’. I. Teacher’s Book. Exeter. M. nal. guage Teaching. Fox. College. Agency. Cambridge University 5. Glendinning. Macmillan. ‘Multimedia. SCAA Key sta ge 3 information technology: the 22. Assessment Authority. Study in English. and Sinclair. ‘Using electronic mail to manage new requirements. Teaching and learning with the Internet. Language Teaching. 19. 205. Study Writ . 1984. 16. Intellect Books. Study Rope. 1994. Sibbons. 1980. and Motteram. R. Teaching.. Oxford.. S. p. D. T. Abbey. 4. Jordan. Oxford 21. 4. 1993. Davidson. British Telecommunications plc. Journal. T. Did Information Technology form a part of the 1995 pre-sessional EAP course(s)? ____ No ____ Yes → Please specify the length of course(s) + number of weekly hours allocated to IT. Anglia and the Bell Educational Trust. ‘English for academic purposes Assisted Language Learning – English for Aca - (EAP)’. Cambridge. H. Cambridge Univer. Learning to medium of computer technology’. Bee-Lay. Lan . and 7. and Anderson. Markee. 1983. 1992. ‘English for specific purposes’. M. ELT 6. Coffey.

copying files etc. ____ Spreadsheet and Database Setting up and plotting graphs. ____ The Univ. ____ The INTERNET Searches. Please use the key to indicate the role of each IT item on your 1995 Pre-Sessional EAP Summer course(s). Thank you for completing this questionnaire. Email messages etc. Windows Tutorial. ____ On-line IT tutorials At Salford = Word Please specify which: Perfect & DOS tutors. ____ Other (specify) ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ I would/would not like to receive a copy of your findings. C = This item was not available to students. bookmarks b.a. ____________________ Typing tutor.jarvis@cit. ____ Basic File Management Creating directories. A = This item was taught on the course. ____ The INTERNET Sending and receiving Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 51 . formulae etc. A. (taught meaning formal time-tabled input was given). The role of IT in EAP: H Jarvis _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ 2. Huw A Jarvis Director of Summer Courses & IT Courses Co-ordinator International Institute (Special Studies Unit) The University of Salford The Crescent Salford Tel: 0161 745 5751 M5 4WT Fax: 0161 745 5135 Email: h. Netscape/WWW “surfing” etc. sub-directories. manipulating text etc. B = This item was available to students for self-access use but did not form part of the taught course. B or C IT ITEMS EXAMPLE TASKS ____ Word Processing Opening. closing files. either as part of their taught course. making reservations etc.Library catalogue Doing searches. keyboard skills.salford. Please return it to me by 22 March 1996. or for self-access use. IT was taught in: ____a university networked computer room ____ a computer laboratory (allows for master console control) ____ a multimedia centre ____ others (please specify) → _________________________ 3.

Participants in the groups of remote learners. Imogen Arnold. based ‘Pathway’. Nicolette Ellis. Steve Malcom In September 1995 the Language Institute at MERLIN is currently being developed to the University of Hull and British Telecommu. ing. Language Internet and a separate voice telephone line development is supported by the use of com- (i. English was first trialled with a group of non- ing an environment to support distance teach. A virtual class of 17 EFL learners and ing the latest communications technologies to one tutor followed the initial six weeks of a support interaction and collaboration between complete 15-week course. dynamic information on: the system’s reliability and HTML and the integration of specifically capacity. The course is under- 52 ReCALL . 1996. These technologies UK. MERLIN uses two existing global net. To access MERLIN. in addition to a modem line) adjacent to puter based and more traditional resources the computer. a connection to the ial.e. native speakers from September to November ing and learning.ReCALL 9:1 (1997) 52–54 U P D AT E Project MERLIN A learning environment of the future Project Development Team – Debra Marsh. gogy behind MERLIN. Julian Halliwell.2 and content for implementation of the peda- The first fully operational version of MER. This Pathway has been works: the Internet and the POTS (Plain Old designed to involve the learners themselves in Telephone System). and the appropriacy of the design facilities with the World Wide Web interface. and between these trial were based in one of two locations in the learners and their tutor. and collaborating with peers. support an intermediate level English as a For- nications plc began working together on a eign Language course. between the learners. The system is cross-platform which feed into a series of communication but requires a multimedia PC or Powermac tasks involving meaningful interaction which runs Windows 95. The purpose of this trial was to gather include: computer conferencing. the usability of the system and its designed database and telephone-conferencing components. Project MERLIN1 is explor. Clare Hodgins. there making independent choices about their learn- are three basic technical requirements: a net. LIN was released at the end of September MERLIN Intermediate English is a task- 1996. using on-line and off-line practice mater- worked personal computer. MERLIN Intermediate major research project with the aim develop.

A Resource Centre provides a bank of The evaluation of the Beta trial has been additional learning material which is not tied used to inform subsequent development of the to the course Pathway. pictures and of the tutor and in collaboration with his or her sound can also be included. ing Place. another. This Gamma MERLIN provides the student with access trial constitutes the first 15-week MERLIN to a number of different features which Intermediate English course. There is one help support this virtual learning centre. This means rial during the course (and not just during new topical material and announcements to the preparation for it). Students can submit both work to be visible to the tutor only. The Resource Centre also provides guided access ● a completely revised user interface and beyond the MERLIN firewall and to the vast navigational design to provide a more resource of the Internet itself. the role of the returned as a sound file using voice synthesis. Their brief has been and the pedagogic structure in readiness for to produce pedagogically sound material the next major trial.U P D A T E · U P D A T E · U P D A T E · U P D A T E · U P D A T E pinned by on-going learner training which all participants in the current MERLIN course. trial began on March 26 1997. and teaching and a number written by a team of professional EFL writers of significant improvements are currently known for their work in the field of classroom being made to the design both of the system based learning material. This is an audio. content. tance learning and teaching of EFL. it will be possi- browser which enables learners to talk to each ble to evaluate more comprehensively the effi- other in small groups over the telephone. coherent course metaphor. and 40 students Meeting Place is the central focus for recruited world-wide. Learners pendent approach to their language learning. may enter written text which is then sent to Although adequate learning support is a key and parsed by the program before being feature of the methodology. and enabling col- ers can also share and discuss Internet sites laboration and interaction between a tutor and which appear on each person’s screen simulta. promoting and develop- make recordings. The tutor based in the UK. with Results of the Beta trial indicated that the learner and the learner’s interaction with MERLIN had the potential to support the dis- peers taking a more central place in the learn. text and audio work to the Workbook where it ● a cross time-zone Diary function to pro- is then available to others for comment and mote good planning for learning and facili- comparison and to the tutor for monitoring tate on-line meetings. During conversations. learn. learners who are physically remote from one neously. encourages the learner to work independently In addition to biographical text. tutor becomes more that of a facilitator. A Workbook facility allows work to be ● a redesigned Workbook which encourages shared using a database and dynamic search collaboration. A ‘to-do’ list allows the tutor ● a greater emphasis on allowing the tutor to set deadlines and post hyperlinks to Internet control of and input into the learning mate- sites at any time during the course. The next ing process. the group can be introduced as appropriate ● enhanced recording facilities in the Meet- throughout the course. using cacy of MERLIN for: effective language the window to control participation and also learning and teaching. oped by BT Research Laboratories. A People page contains information about ● a privacy feature allowing learners to Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 53 . These enhancements which promotes authentic and meaningful include: communication between learners. virtual class peers. ing learner independence. By creating the same oral/aural communication. and assessment. but also allows for private and display facility. This material has been platform. conditions as those which will exist when conferencing facility linked to the Web MERLIN is widely available. MERLIN Intermediate Laureate is a text-to-speech utility devel- English encourages students to take an inde.

will provide important data on which further 2.hull. Leader.a. train- If you would like further details. duce a generic platform for educational.U P D A T E · U P D A T E · U P D A T E · U P D A T E · U P D A T E choose not to be disturbed while they are site which can be found at: working on-line. The Gamma trial ends on July 4 1997 and we hope to have initial trial analyses ready for the Notes end of July. up-to-date ing and other social applications to be known as information regarding the project is also avail. UK (email: d. Multimedia Educational Research into Learning 40 remote students from all over the world via an Information managing the group. RISE (Real-time Interactive Social Environ- able on the Project MERLIN World Wide Web ment).hull. Language The Gamma trial with its class of 1. 54 ReCALL . ● an improved recorded sound quality. University of Hull ● an administration tool for setting up and HU6 7RX. MERLIN Project broader learner responses. http://www. ● modified self-assessment to allow for Or contact Debra Marsh. Fax: +44 (0)1482 466180. The development of this ‘back end’technology is research and development of this innovative part of a broader BT research initiative to pro- learning environment can be based. ● improved network and server

Oxfordshire OX14 4TD. and and gimmicky. but no more than 7AE. half a dozen had used the World Wide Web or Price £6. levels of postgraduates and staff . or slightly unnerved by it. NISS Bulletin Board is a useful first place to Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 55 . a show of hands revealed that. The lan- For some time a book like this has been guage the authors use is clear and direct.Book Review The Student’s Guide to the ductory talk to the 1996–97 intake of under- graduate students in the Faculty of Modern Internet and Medieval Languages in the University of Cambridge.99. Even at the Park. and a more down-to-earth publication. they frequently overstate the members of staff turn up with minimal experi- possibilities of Internet use. Available from Bookpoint. especially in may have used to communicate on this sub- humanities subjects such as language learning ject: US addresses don’t mention the US and literature. forting echoes of thoughts and phrases they cious. Library Association an audience of more than 200 students. Though the Internet enjoyed its early anyone who has talked to students and acade- growth and development in academia. rooted in the lack of reliable academic information for the life and work of the UK academic commu. cially-produced Internet guides are. This book with more curiosity and interest than ever. deserves the attention of students and staff in Given the worries that many staff have UK further and higher education because it is about learning the Internet’s new tricks. just as and colleges don’t seem to be as experienced UK postage stamps don’t mention the UK and well-informed about computing and the because they were first used in the UK. £1. Tel: 0171. most Publishing.50 have had opportunities to learn Internet skills p&p) for longer – there are many who still need gen- tle instruction of the kind this book offers. it is clearly the work of people is sober and down-to-earth. in Ian Winship and Alison McNab. They Computing and the Internet for the last four are aimed mostly at people whose interests are years. suspi. At an intro. First published 1996. as so many of the commer- in teaching its use to others.people who 636-7543 (credit card/cheque acceptable. Humanities staff at Oxford University Com- puting Services have been providing popular Huge numbers of commercially-oriented day-long introductory courses to Humanities Internet guides are available nowadays. Abingdon. London WC1E had heard of the Internet. and usually have a ence – but thankfully they are also turning up strong bias towards USA readers. Students arriving at universities because the Internet originated there. the Internet as we think they might be. Moreover. ISBN 1-85604-207-3. students. there mic staff in this field will doubtless find com- remain many staff who are sceptical. It nity. 7 Ridgmount Street. not over-flashy well-practised both in using the Internet. the style of this book is a good one. and needed. and still postgraduates and academic not academic. 39 Milton electronic mail for themselves.

Book review look. gests some crucial style guidelines. There are chapters explaining basic skills For most there is of course more to student life such as the use of electronic mail and mailing than this. presented in a compact manner. announcements. espe. the Arts and Humanities Data Ser. Overall. A chapter entitled ‘Help and informa- address when subscribing to an email list as tion for your coursework’covers a wide range that is extracted automatically. articles. ject-specific information that students and spe. email message reveals that Alan Shearer is an 56 ReCALL . And as there are selves and their work. A subsequent chapter. maps. using the tools we all have in course especially useful for language students common. of course. This is mic network SURFnet. a similar but more wide-rang. research papers. useful list which sum. (Of course. of subject-specific starting points. ing a good web page can seem formidable. There are so many local vari. plete beginners come up with always have to students can publish information about them- be sorted out at a local level. that some of the questions com. numerical data. includes helpful advice on addition of some illustrations. fellow students and to interest prospective the book will not have answers to some ques. searches (such as Yahoo!) and web text marizes its contents. both subject tree ter starts with a short. effectively. though. and that. The book con. It goes on to explain some observation that what is learnt for academic important JISC-funded UK information ser. and book of this kind. ting students and staff involved with the Inter- cially as the target audience are specifically net is convincing them that they can do some- students. vide reading lists. using Internet search engines. ing the book realistic. student web publishing tions which will occur to subject specialists depends on the local computing service having while reading it. both the financial means and the courage to let cific to language students and staff. the basics can be mastered quickly. and job-hunting and counselling. is that it must necessarily result in useful on-line pages. and introducing telnet. newspapers. overseas study and travel (this is of cialists want. is hi-tech web sites around that the idea of creat- what matters most. and any in fact. and staff). ject. employers. with examples. The students explore and learn these skills for authors know this. which covers topics such as grants and loans. It contains a description of a bit bolder and more appealing. and so quite reasonably this themselves. including tains wisdom distilled from teaching the sub.) book sticks to what it can usefully deliver: Student concerns are addressed in a chapter instruction on how to go about finding the sub. images. There are so many helpfully and clearly. it is certainly not a book spe. placement. effectively. for the benefit of their students. use will be useful for leisure interests also vices (such as BIDS. (HTML) conventions. explaining the reassuring for longer-established academic boolean logic and wildcards which can be staff. with the for information’. Perhaps though the There is a good chapter explaining how to design and layout of the book could have been create web pages. you do not need to include your email vice). but One of the drawbacks of this book. since part of the problem in get- the high-quality content of the work. This conventional tone is searches (such as Alta Vista). ‘Tips on searching ventional by academic standards. ants in the use and configuration of hardware background information and so on easily and and software. and each chap. but the authors confine their com- lists. on. and sug- ing publication dealing with the Dutch acade. the Bath Information and (though a few passing references to Newcastle Data services. dictionaries. and straightforward for students – in used to search many Internet resources more keeping with the authors’ stated aim of keep. Staff can pro- remain general. like the some simple Hypertext Markup Language SURFnet Gids. FTP and the ments on the recreational side of the net to the World Wide Web. both for the benefit of so many different subject areas to be covered. the authors write thing useful for themselves. journals and so The layout and typography are fairly con. without compromising good to see. and the newly-established United slip in from time to time – an example AHDS.

Such a task is no mean tion. System Committee). Gavin Burnage cation of the book. to keep pace with the changes and ing the hard-sell hype. and another looking at local sup. is available both in print and on-line. And it is realistic also. setting out what is pos- improvements that go on. However. with a and this is evident in many places in the book. Concise guidelines such as are pro. as the authors book is written from a British viewpoint. undertaking. and books and maga. Again. along with URLs for further printed journal – and this is not least because reading on the web. vided here help remedy this credibility prob. and of course there is an no one knows how to refer to an exchange of index of the book’s contents. a textbook to accompany an Internet induction port. just a well-exemplified introduc- ing from the book. Some tutors hoped that they manage to do so: the provi- undoubtedly will be impressed to see such sion of good. Certainly the dealing with the Internet is that. it would be very useful to to grips with the computational skills they have a web site specifically to accompany the should be using. stating clearly that the book cannot be useful reference point for those actively learn. Certainly it is invaluable for stu- guarantees that all the URLs in the book will dents and staff in universities in colleges – it remain valid. in print and on-line. the example of University of Cambridge Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 57 . The authors have achieved their aims. miss- book. exhaustive. work. Most chapters views made on a mailing list. specifically sources. say for newly-arrived students getting zines. of course. further details. technical terms. Perhaps In particular. others may equally be confused. on-line guides.citing future. Amongst many academic staff neglect. and may also impress upon tutors the what makes this book different is the fact that importance and usefulness of electronic it is aimed at a British audience. and would doubtless and can be pleased with the results of their require further hard work from the authors. or tion on Internet practice is too important to dismissive. If not. SURFnet is a good one: their network guide Both the authors have library connections. the ever-changing out compromising the international nature of nature of the Internet means there can be no the Internet. or an article on a provide URLs to on-line guides and sources of web page. and could well be used as resources. students and others working in higher educa- One last limitation of any printed book tion. with- say in their introduction. ideas for keeping the book up-to-date in the Its full title is ‘Impressing your tutors . they have produced a very useful all concerned have already formulated some chapter on the citation of electronic sources. and to provide a sible. it is to be electronic sources in your work’. and written to be realistic. will prove so to new and more experienced there is a chapter on how to keep up with new users as individuals. To overcome this limitation. course. there seems to be a reluctance to venture into A four-page glossary is provided at the rear net-based electronic publishing. The authors say at the start of the book that lem. revised edition published every year. who supported the Library Association Publishing in their publi. since it often of the book to help understanding of the many seems to lack the credibility of an established. Book review expert in multimedia packages for Physics). I warmly recommend the book to stu- and backing from JISC (the Joint Information dents and staff alike. up-to-date academic informa- citations.

00 each for 20 copies or more.Software Reviews Télé-Textes & Télé-Textes Author Version 2 Authors.3 or later.1 or later. media within the software. These clips are to courseware materials. Interactive Multimedia Limited and Elspeth Broady. £25. Each sions in different teaching situations. Contact Andy Mc Keown at Wild Strawberry for further details. due primarily to the written for use with the chosen subject and are flexibility and ease of use of the combined geared towards deepening the user’s under- 58 ReCALL .00 each for 10 copies or more.00 single CD-ROM (+VAT) and £55. System requirements: multimedia PC 486 SX or higher. 4 Mb of memory (or more recommended). Télé-Textes Author Version 2. Note: Also available is the Télé-Textes 640 x 480 (TT640) pixel version which is almost exactly the same as the original 600 x 800 pixel version. The content and ROM-based language learning package for exercise materials were collected.00 each for 5 copies or more. Tel/Fax: +44 (0)1743 236624. produced advanced level students of French. designers and distributors: Wild Strawberry. (all +VAT). The CD-ROM version is intended eighteen varied and short video news clips by the authors to complement the original from TF1. DOS 3. £40. SY3 7WJ. UK. displaying a fair range of contem- videocassette and workbook Télé-Textes porary and cultural subjects. be found within seven themed Dossiers. Télé-Textes Author requires Télé-Textes to be already installed on the hard disc and will operate at both 640 x 480 and 800 x 600 video resolution. Windows 3.00 (+VAT) single floppy disk installation. PO Box 193. Having used both ver. we have Dossier has at least two video clips and a found that the software very often surpasses number of exercises and tasks specifically the video and book media. £26. Also available from Oxford University Press. Other languages available: German (TV und Texte) which is an older version of the product and Spanish (Tele con Textos) which is the newest version. The singular difference being the larger size of the video display window which is one quarter the size of the screen in the TT640 version. and minimum 8Bit sound card with headphones or amplified speakers. Télé-Textes is a multimedia self-access CD. and a mouse. It is highly and scripted by Elspeth Broady. mini- mum 256 colour SVGA video at 600 x 800 pixel resolution. Shrewsbury. They include interactive. Price: Télé-Textes: £75.

Other stratégies offer discursive questions and Tourisme. Manifestations and here the issue of transferable skills. in the envi- ronment Dossier. card displa y. This option was recurrent news item. TT Author 2 allows short introductions. Apart from the ubiquitous Guillaumin’s of a television journalist. This ‘video-reading’ is generally welcomed by users.. as indeed are the news clip sec- dia role-playing with the learner in the guise tions. around the different sections and exercises. uncluttered. the Télé-Textes workspace also offers Indeed. the video scrollbar under the video not been achieved – an important point con. l’environnement”. with users reporting no prob- of the true interactivity of Télé-Textes. out and design which are consistently clear However. Loisirs et Culture. Guillaumin gives the user a locale concernée. each screen including the users’ work- excellent control over the video clip with spaces is well structured and thankfully optional transcripts.. ticular news items. lems in successfully navigating their way Designed for individual or small-group learn.les reportages . nent souvent dans l’actualité”. Ces Télé-Textes begins with a video introduction reportages analysent les arguments pour et by Sophie Guillaumin whom readers may contre les projets potentiellement nuisibles à recognise as being a main newscaster on TF1 l’environnement et les réactions de la population a few years ago. The Dossiers are listed in a file dio facility for voice recording and multime. echoed in the exercises and tasks sections eral exposures to the program. For example. Our présentatrice also returns at tant now in language learning. It quickly where the four language skills are thoroughly becomes clear during Guillaumin’s initial tested. every news section offers the tutor or teacher to build their own specific a concise written introduction and a stratégie sets of exercises and tasks and is designed for on how to approach and use the following par- use with the original Télé-Textes video clips.. but are users with powerful and faster PCs. we are told: Overall Design and Screen Layout “La stratégie du dossier: reconnaître la structure typique d’un reportage. ing. form part of the already mentioned stratégie. Of course. the programmer of Télé-Textes. dans d’autres reportages où il est question de sont classés selon des rubriques qui revien . are pertinent to the particular news item and Mc Keown. The audio quality of the clips ings per news clip. versions of Télé- Textes with full lip synchronisation using the The language skills are tested by a set of tasks normal 25 frames per second are available to classified under twelve headings. a user notepad and a Stu. from the invariably limited to a choice from six head- designers. the fault of the designers as they have been restricted to using 12 frames per second in their clips by the current state of the general Pedagogical Content PC users’market. window is an indispensable tool and proved to sidering the heavy use that is made of video in be totally glitch free during heavy trials of the this current version of Télé-Textes. The seven Dossiers are categorised thus: Intempéries. so impor- Faits Divers. Software reviews standing of the material and confidence in this fact is apparent in the excellent screen lay- using the language on an independent basis. C’est une présentation rundown of the main themes in the seven typique de l’information que vous retrouverez Dossiers. where the user the start of each news clip offering an optional is expected to analyse a news report on a shorter introduction to a clip. even after sev. The six offered headings remains high throughout. Environnement. …volutions group debate material. is originally a graphic designer by trade and The general set of twelve include: Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 59 . It is interesting to note sociales. remarking that : “ . This is not software. the tasks represent only a small part and easy to use. Given the large amount of video work introduction that full lip synchronisation has involved..

the notepad. in the conventional fashion for their students here. This WP file can be saved to clip without the sound and answer ques. simply clicking on a particular part of the text ● Les témoins: is quite new. TT Author Version 2 enables the able are the Restaurer box for deleting any author to do several things. It provides num. Conclu . En particulier. for this task the seri- using the different answer boxes by clicking ous tutor should invest in the Télé-Textes on them when the cursor is placed in the cor. It is accessed from the responses. allowing the user to match up the pho. cut. The Afficher box is ● to edit / create tasks for use with the video then clicked again to remove the pre-pro. them using the Visionner tout button. to have the audio sion and Vocabulaire are variations on the on or off and to view the clip on the full screen traditional gapfill and resequencing themes size. Author Version 2 software. this box may be disabled by menubar and which may be password pro- tutors when they come to author their own tected against student access to the tasks and exercises based on the original video answers. may take notes. replay the user’s chosen section of the video by sonal responses. to have the video on or off. menubar (Transcription) and will highlight the ● Description: offers additional questions relevant parts of the text as the video displays and answers. and by using the Visionner sélection button. e. L’essentiel. bered photographs of various interviewees in The TV Studio option (Ouvrir Studio in the a small window separate from the video win. A small investment rect blanked area of the question. The video transcript can be used in a num- Users also have the option of using the cut ber of interesting and useful ways including the and paste facility here to help them in their one already mentioned. It did appear rather daunting at first to certain students during trials. a Vrai answer box and Designed to be used in conjunction with a Faux answer box are available. Expressions. and tutor alike to build their own video and tograph with the section on the video using sound clips from the original video clips and the scrollbar operating buttons. hard disk and used later by the learner within tions on it. Tutors may create their own exercises by typing them in. there is a character be later accessed from the on screen ouvrir bar always available on the screen). Télé-Textes or elsewhere. in the for such a tool. There is a learners. clips by using the password protection option. the workspace and the transcript ● Les images: the user is asked to view the of the video clip. paste and copy between ceptions concerning the subject at hand. However. saving them to a file to (for accented characters. Télé-Textes. menubar) can be used quite easily by learner dow. Vérification. pressing the spacebar will return the often accompanied by questions and video to its normal window. ● to edit / create a task resource list which is Beneath the video scrollbar there are two very useful for indexing a set of tasks for important and helpful worktools. tion of viewing options which include: either clé.g. and asks the add their own voice-overs and typed com- user various questions on that section. There is also a selec- ● Vrai ou faux. the Answers to the many questions and exercises learning curve proved not to be a steep one for presented to the student may be entered either them. Avoiding temptation on the from the Ouvrir Supplément option on the part of the learner. or by menu option. however. and/or is customised from the menubar) where the user prompted for their opinions and precon. again without answers or work done in the workplace and much real effort: restoring the original text and the Afficher box for checking the answers. clips which are then accessed by the user grammed answers. Also avail. 60 ReCALL . ments. prompts for longer answers from the user. It can also ● Vos réactions: prompts the user for per.Software reviews ● Préparez-vous: the user is invited to study small word processor notepad (which can be various photographic images. True or False exercises.

a 3. impressively designed workspace. Télé-Textes has proven to be rectly through asking users to build their own remarkably robust and bug free after several Studio productions but a recorded progress months of student and tutor trialling sessions. each time actively engaging the user. This method engages the targeted advanced student In addition to the ease of use of the program the of French early on with interesting subjects. apparently. To some. Some tutors may feel that the inclusion of a perfunctory grammar section or help files should be a necessity here. Quality of Documentation and Help However. Admittedly. four language skills comprehensively within an ing in the use of Windows applications. concise and offers various learning strategies to the user for very easy to follow as can be seen in the printed absorbing and using the language effectively Help and the on-line Aide option. The Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 61 . and independently. to set a default task resource and pedagogically-sound disponibilité on the list. 5Mb of hard disk space is required. in my teaching environment. assume a certain basic level of understand. It manages to surpass them with the large range of the tasks Liam Murray and options and their simple to use. a User’s Guide and a Quick Reference Card and currently costs £129.00 + VAT + postage & packaging. These products. along with 2Mb of RAM. i. It does not. Collins Cobuild English Usage and Collins Cobuild English Grammar. although 4Mb RAM is recommended. Minimum system requirements: IBM PC 386 computer with SVGA monitor.5” disk drive and a CD-ROM drive. involve full hypertext The authors have made a false claim in stating glossaries and multi-language support on the that the CD-ROM version of Télé-Textes is Web. It does. documentation itself is well-written. and also manages to test all ever. this is already done indi- resolution. this is to misunderstand the nature of Facilities the Télé-Textes learning methodology.2) Published by Harper Collins as part of the large and successful series of Cobuild publications.The search results for each sec- The navigation software allows simultaneous tion are displayed and one can then view the searches to be made in the four sections. at this level. The package comprises a single CD-ROM. one at a time. functional University of Warwick Collins Cobuild on CD-ROM (V 1. although the planned updating of the video Overall value / Conclusion material will. As a tutor wishing to use Télé-Textes with larger groups of students I would welcome the devel- Technical Performance opment and inclusion of some form of user self- evaluation and progress checks for the tutor to Once up and running with the correct pixel evaluate. Grammar and Word Bank sections.e. Description of the Software the Dictionary. a grammar section may seem superfluous. screen. for these pur- meant to complement the original video and poses are currently the best available. In addition. there is a word bank of 5 million words from the Cobuild Bank of English corpus. workbook materials. report on identified users would be very useful both on an individual and small-group basis. the CD-ROM brings together Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary. Usage. which are already available as paper publications. how. in results from each section. Software reviews ● or failing that.

The tion of any word in the dictionary via CD- layout is simple and unpretentious. In my experience learners ples of the word or expression in context. The rationale behind ● There is no concordancer. Long- bucket’ and found a satisfactory definition man’s Interactive English Dictionary has together with grammatical information and a over 600 illustrative graphics. synonym which would be useful to learners. Weak Points Intended Users and Areas of Application My major criticisms of this package are as fol- lows: At this point the problems inherent in the package become evident. Cobuild on to test the coverage of the package. Now the Word Bank exhibited the new additional the whole point of having corpora on CD- 62 ReCALL . pronunciation model as many times as the age. and I can ple should buy the CD-ROM rather than three think of no good reason for the omission of far cheaper paper volumes. CD-ROM. but I did not see might find and might wish to keep. line tutorials or notes for teachers. OR. and I think quality sound. nel. Again I that as a problem. NOT). one finds authentic exam. tions (AND. so the package appears to be reasonably using wildcard characters and Boolean func. All we learn from the accompany. For example. since when I subscribed to “stick all the products we already have on a Collins Cobuild Direct. an on-line Internet CD-ROM and let’s hope somebody can find a service for accessing the same (Bank of use for it”. Longman’s system is quick that even learners with no computer experi. ● There is no facility for printing from screen The idiom was not found in the Usage. from text (KWIC) concordancer. usage. makes no use of ducted a search for the idiom to kick the graphics whatsoever. and find it very useful to reinforce their learn- often there are a large number of examples ing of lexical items via the auditory chan- from many different genres of written or spo. There is are widely used in language research and little in the way of explanation as to why peo. Concordancers beginners to experienced researchers. paper dictionaries now use graphics to I tried out searches on more obscure items illustrate tricky lexical items. Gram. also to some extent in CALL. but two examples from results straight onto my own printer. this very useful tool in the package. Here. together with a phonemic Word Bank. Again I find this surprising. I find this very this package seems to have been roughly: surprising. since the technology is available. I con. since when I sub- ‘wicked’ with the new youth slang usage scribed to Collins Cobuild Direct I was meaning ‘good’ or ‘excellent’. This did not able to conduct searches and print the occur in the dictionary. up to date. The navigation software worked quickly and Longman’s Interactive English Dictionary efficiently on my computer. There is no facility for learners to hear how the words are pronounced via multimedia Strong Points speakers. I conducted a search for find this very surprising. and easy to use and provides an accurate ence should quickly be able to use the pack. transcription. ● There is no use of multimedia possibilities. There are no on. By contrast. one of the main means of ing material and the publicity material is that it data presentation was a key word in con- is for teachers and learners of English.Software reviews standard complex searches can be conducted. The vast majority of learners’ English ken discourse. I found the most useful feature to be the learner wishes. however. and I was able to has the facility to replicate the pronuncia- find satisfactory answers to my searches. English) corpus. any useful information which a learner mar or Word Bank sections.

So although the booklet accom. able to work autonomously. let for Cobuild on CD-ROM. used to I was looking forward to trying out Cobuild on printing out masses of free data straight CD-ROM. Longman Interactive English certainly have thought it was most impressive. I would not buy it for students this deficiency. as a needs. given the current possibilities ers’ needs. For a product which would prefer to subscribe to the Collins advertises itself as “helping learners with real Cobuild Direct on-line Internet service which English” there is a real lack of pedagogical has access to a 20 million word Bank of Eng- design or consideration of the learners’ lish corpus and a concordancer. search results onto scrappy bits of paper or alternatively copying and pasting your results page by page into the clipboard and Conclusion then over into a word-processor so you can print it? Present-day consumers. I root of the problem. If I ful to someone. University of York Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 63 . multimedia features. because of the lack of pedagogical design: there are better products available to assist stu- The advertising for Cobuild on CD-ROM dents with English language learning. I can see very little evidence of you then have to waste time copying your pedagogical design at all. will not be impressed b y final product. given what was then available and possible. by contrast. but was very disappointed with the from the Internet. Temporal perspective is important here. However. The library and video library together with a most publicity I received with the package says that useful dictionary of common errors. agogical design and consideration of the learn. reference tool for high-level learners who are marily publisher-driven: four already avail. Cobuild on CD-ROM wish to enrich their knowledge of the English does do this.” I beg to differ: it is with a word-processor. gives no ideas for how the package might be used Paul Seedhouse for learning. I would By contrast. Dictionary clearly does show evidence of ped. However. More. “Cobuild on CD-ROM is just what learners over. every screen can be printed straight out and teachers of English need – a shot in the and the dictionary can be used in conjunction arm. whether native able products are put together on a CD-ROM speaker or foreign learner. The pronunciation dictionary has offered by multimedia. and this seems to me to be the has a quarter of the Bank of English corpus. the vague hope that the package will be use. and there is a picture appears unattractive and old-fashioned. Longman Interactive Cobuild on CD-ROM that needs a shot in the English Dictionary comes with a booklet arm. Software reviews ROM is to enable learners and researchers panying Cobuild on CD-ROM claims that it is to “retrieve the information you want “designed for both learners and teachers who swiftly and easily”. and I hope that future releases will com- explaining how learners and teachers can use bine pedagogical design with some exciting the package for language learning. but what is the point of this if language”. I think this could be together with some navigation software and a very useful product. had seen this product five years ago. The package seems to me to be pri. you might say. The book. this package now already been mentioned. I would stresses that the compact disc integrates three not buy it for my own research because it does separate Cobuild works together with a large not have a concordancer and because it only word bank.

scroll bars. Other Features easily identifiable conventions and controls. it must. More ing its now familiar screen display with its Complex Searching Modes. These include search facilities on the left-hand side whilst Preferences. Conventionally. MS-DOS Version 5. Microsoft Windows Version 3. and Troubleshooting. menus and sional translators. The space below is Clear instructions are provided for a full and a split vertically providing two self-contained partial installation.00 Description of Software sured against criteria such as learnability. Lookup and Ease of Use Replace functions can be found on the right- Installation hand side of the screen. Its default set- French verbs.Software reviews Collins French Dictionary on CD-ROM (French-English and English-French) Minimum requirements: IBM PC or compatible with 4Mb of RAM (8Mb recommended). 8Mb of hard disk space. a copy and paste function allowing the form of a French or English flag which potential interaction with a word processor when clicked on displays the static introduc- and supplementary conjugation tables for all tory window of the application. Depending on Overall Collins French Dictionary (CFD) is the selected search mode. Therefore. According to its authors the greatest strength. effi- ciency to deliver. the word scan in the very easy to use. Installation standard Windows-based application present- Instructions. but its database and built-in interaction are immediately recognizable by anyone with a Intended Use / Area of Application minimum of experience with paper-based dic- The Collins French Dictionary on CD-ROM tionaries. For speed and sheer practi. Installation itself is whilst the larger window on the right shows easy and trouble-free. However. 20Mb of hard disk space. Not only is it a sections on Getting Started. It is essentially designed as a ting shows a screen divided into three clearly convenient. Using the Application. predictability and the plea- The software package provided consisted of a surability of the interface design. screen. uncluttered and enhanced by additional facilities such as a functional. and a mouse.000 words and phrases in French and Screen Layout English”. this direct association represents the electronic version of the between the system image and the mental Collins-Robert French and English Dictionary model of the user must be the application’s (fourth edition). students and teachers of functions are grouped along the top of the French”. by CD-ROM and a 30-page booklet including all account. be rated highly. windows complete with title bars and vertical cability the full installation is recommended. program “gives immediate access to over 300.1.0. referential database for “profes. defined areas. this on-line sibling is The screen layout is simple. The narrow window on the left dis- although the user is warned that it will require plays the list of words presently scanned. Indeed if its usability is mea. a CD-ROM drive. apart from the displayed logo in search tool. left-hand window provides the complete word 64 ReCALL . The title bars indicate the search mode on the left Application and the selection on the right. the definition of the highlighted selection. Price: £49.

this can (French-English or English-French) in the X- easily be time-consuming as the interaction Ref menu. there is appropriate word. search can be further refined by selecting pounds. any displayed word within the processor’s tool bar. A dedicated button next to rately recalled or when looking for a group of verbs can be activated in order to call up the words with common letters. Compounds. it is possible to com- users might generally prefer to search for a bine it with a word processor. ence search can be enabled across sides. Nevertheless. Similarly. will scan the whole text of the the display of the logo and the choice of dictionary to highlight all the entries related to colours used in the definition window. any dictionary entry flexibly within its comput. can within the Find window. More interestingly. reflexive verbs. default hot pressing the Return key. such a cross-refer- Looking up a word can be achieved in sev. can be usefully expanded with the use of wild- English dictionary is the conjugation table card characters (*. Software reviews list in alphabetical order but also pre-defined recognized in such a mode. highlighting it and selecting the other side lation or sub-entry is found. It is advisable to keys are provided to facilitate access to the select the Headword Search from either the dictionary when in word processing mode. triggered. the whole dis. Furthermore. In practice. indicators enable users. dow. Phrasal Verbs (English-French) or Sub- are used in the right-hand window to help entries in the Find window. In order to complement the no default mechanism to customise the word search facility. or their customised versions. ?) when spelling is inaccu- pop-up window. Edit menu. that particular search. users need to on-going search can be highlighted and open both applications and toggle between entered by clicking on the Lookup button or them as required. French-English) or tive is to find it as efficiently. especially if the word noticeably speed up the toggling process. In the case of the former. As a result. one useful addition to the French. the lists presenting specific entries such as: com. fore look up a word whilst working within As the word is being typed. Reflexive verbs (French-English words only. word within an entry can itself be selected to erised environment such as an appropriate replace the original word in the left-hand win- word processing facility. Users can there- specific word by typing it in the Find window. However. Its objec. Alternatively.e. a definition or a translated word can played word list. Eng- conveniently as possible and to use the found lish-French). to search for a word within a larger play and ‘environment’ can be customised by entry without having to resort to the time-con- users according to individual preferences. Windows environment. example. the word scan is their word processing environment. select the chosen word and be double checked or cross refer red by simply scan the definition until the appropriate trans. sub-entries. within the same side (i. Finally. searching window with the conjugation of the verb in can be customised according to specific crite- question. Search Type menu or from the combo box These. The to be found is in an inflected form as it can be highlighted word for which a dictionary entry Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 65 . sub-entries or head. when selected for a given between horizontal and vertical window splits. Other searching users read definitions and differentiate facilities include a ‘Find within Entry’ which between headwords. refining the search until it finds the with the exception of WordPerfect 6.1. word or phrase. when choosing Find from the and translations. however. will also be dependent on the speed and Once the dictionary is opened within the capacity of the computer used. Different default colours and fonts only). a search Finally. accurately and the opposite side of the dictionary (i. ria with the Define Search mode so as to better delimit the database to be scanned and to User Interaction speed up the process. the facility includes the possibility to choose Full Text Search. Interestingly. The purpose of the user interaction is to look Words can also be cross-referred either up a word in this on-line dictionary. For eral ways: users could simply scroll the dis.e. This suming use of the scroll bar.

uncluttered interface design present- 120 with 24Mb of RAM. The processor and ing a fully compatible and adaptable Win- capacity meant that several applications dows-based application. details). However. visually limited linguistic quest. pleasant to use and. recommended. jugation tables in the French-English side. should suit inevitably undermine the performance of both most target users. as ● easy installation. These comprise a powerful and ● overall. For the pur- pose of this review it was fully installed. to known functionality of the dictionary. additional and easily words not found in database. CFD’s potentiality would seem Technical Performance to rest on the following points: Overall. a different league of on-line dictionaries. attention should be drawn to the somewhat Three potential improvements to the existing disappointingly limited functionality of such functionality immediately spring to mind: an on-line dictionary which. CFD performed well. Nev- ertheless. a useful free. rate synonyms and antonyms. nary. CFD presents a processing environment once hot keys are number of clear advantages over its traditional properly set up. applications in terms of response time and ● easy access to additional data such as con- ultimately speed. accrued electronic access facilities. thus adding an attractive multi- in CFD can be used to replace the original media dimension and helpful oral support to a word with an alternative found in the dictio. potential users should be warned hence that a lower processor such as a 386 or 486 ● easy to learn and use. if version of each headword could have been the word is not found a pop-up window expected to be supplied with its pronunciation appears to this effect and the Replace function on sound file. in view of the existing and well Weak Points proven functionality of dictionaries. thereby increas- ing considerably the potential of this referen. virtually error accessed data (conjugation tables). parallel with a word processor as it would when customised or refined. on the hard disk of a Pentium ● clear. if found.Software reviews is requested will appear. in a dedi. tial tool. one would have expected or liked a greater use of Although weak points essentially stem from a the technology to design and clearly establish small number of minor design problems. secondly. However. including the on-line dictionary and Microsoft ● easy identification with system image due Word 6 could easily be run simultaneously. hypertext anchors and links (refer to ‘functionality’section above for more could have been usefully exploited to incorpo. finally. aside from its firstly. switching facility between sides and full com- patibility with word processing facilities. Functionality ● attractive and efficient when used in a word As previously pointed out. apart from flexible search tool. the opportunity to provide a meatier. is not fuller database on CD-ROM could have been really different from its paper-based version seized. which is only used as logo with 66 ReCALL . with 8Mb of RAM might not be appropriate if ● easy and fast access to the database with a the dictionary is to be installed and used in flexible and versatile search tool which. the phonetic text when the hot key is activated. ● The flag. Strong Points Overall Performance Summing up. if this on-line dictionary is cated pop-up window superimposed onto your seriously catering for students. book version. ● easy cross-referencing between sides.

Software reviews no function other than triggering the intro.wmin. more than just an electronic version of an choosing Find. In other words. up window. it desirable to be more innovative so as to design becomes necessary to operate several an on-line dictionary which would have been generate greater efficiency. to enter the word and get to it without having to resort to the scroll bar. you’ve guessed it. CFD’s a unit on the left-hand side of the screen. However. themselves part of the quately passed the test as a well designed and search facility. Antonio Borraccino University of Westminster Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 67 . existing dictionary. London Guildhall University Correction The savaging review of Italiana Interattivo (CD-ROM for teaching . it is ity does not allow for a word within an regrettable that it was not felt possible or entry to be entered directly.html.. it overall strength by far outweighs its weak- is difficult to see why the Lookup and nesses. in ReCALL volume 8 number 2. properly installed. such as opening the Edit menu. when right-hand side. typing sub-entry into pop. As a result. ductory window of the application.. users Conclusion have to open a menu. Dominique Hémard This process was felt to be time-consum. ing and unnecessarily Ital- ian). has an incorrect address for my department’s home page. Those interested in finding out more about Italiano Interattivo please point your browser to http://www. should be placed on the potentially valuable application which. ● Whilst the search tool is clearly situated as As can be seen from the above review. it more than ade- Replace buttons. As it stands. should give satisfaction and ● On a more important note. the search facil. could have been put to better use as a device to switch between sides. EUROCALL 97 SALIS Dublin City University Dublin 9 Ireland Tel: +353-1. EUROCALL 97 CONFERENCE Dublin City University 11-13 September 1997 WHERE RESEARCH AND PRACTICE MEET Early registration: 31 May 1997 Late registration: 31 July 1997 Registration form and further details are available from: 68 ReCALL .704 5809 Fax: +353-1-704 5527 Email: eurocall@dcu.

de 18-19 September 1997. Writing for the Future The Language Adviser: A new type of teacher Information: Lyn 25 June Lille. Project Officer. Fax (0331) 2605576. Ireland. Brighton. Germany. Fax: +44 (0)1273 @langc. 18 June 1997. puters 10. guage Institute. School of Information Management.fu-berlin. USA CTICML / EUROCALL Open Day CALICO'97 Information: Jo Porritt. Loughborough LE11 3TU. UK Conference ALT-C 97 Virtual Campus. UK 466180. Conference.hull. Email Email j. London Information: Prof D Z van der Berg. CTI Centre for Modern Information: 3-5 July 1997. CTI Centre for Modern CTICML / EUROCALL Open Day Languages.hull.unp. UK Information: Jo Porritt. Languages.v. UK Email FLEATIII@CALL. Fax +353 1 704 5527. UK 1st Annual Computer Assisted Assessment 12-16 August 1997. Email j. UK 7-9 July Tel +353 1 704 5809. Email Fax +44 (0)1482 Brighton BN1 4GJ. ALT-C 97.porritt@langc.v. University of Hull. Tel +44 (0)1482 465872. UK Information: Françoise Blin or Jane Fahy. Private Bag X01. UK Information: Jo Porritt.CA Tel +44 (0)1509 223765. South Africa CILT Conference: Open and distance approaches The South African Association for Language to language learning Teaching 25th Annual Conference Information: CILT. Tel 919 660 France European Languages Council Launching 15-17 September 1997.hull. Email: WandC10@brighton. Email j. sität UK 660 Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 69 . University of Hull. 20 Bedfordbury. Hull HU6 7RX. UK Email secret@afrik. University of Hull. UK Writing and Computers 10. 18 June 1997. Tel (604) Support. Ireland Information: Jo Porritt. Telford.duke. SAALT WC2N 4LB. 4504). Hull. Telford TF2 9NT. Zentraleinrichtung Sprachlabor. Hull HU6 7RX. UK. Hull HU6 7RX. UK. Dublin. Writing and Com- Information: Marina Mozzon-McPherson. UK CTICML / EUROCALL Open Day 11-13 September 1997. CTI Centre for Modern Tel +44 (0)1482 465872. Dublin 9. CAA Information: The University of Victoria. Email calico@acpub. Fax +44 (0)1482 473816. Fax 919 Languages. Fax +44 (0)1482 473816. Habelschwerdter Allee 45. UK. SALIS. University of Hull. Dublin City University. Tel +44 (0)171 379 5101. Email Freie Univer. Shropshire Tel +44 (0)1482 465872. Email ough University. Hull. UK Email j. Dept of Afrikaans. CTI Centre for Modern EUROCALL 97 Languages. 642405. West Point. UK 7-9 July 1997. Hull HU6 7RX. 721 8291. University of Brighton.porritt@langc. Fax +44 (0)171 379 5082 Scottsville 3209. Lan. University of Wolverhampton. Fax +44 (0)1482 473816. Information: John O’Donoghue. UK 23-28 June McPherson Tel: +44 (0)1273 642916. Tel +44 (0)1482 Tel +44 (0)1482 465872. Canada Conference FLEAT III at UVIC Information: Janine Mascia.UVIC. Victoria.v. Tel +49-30-838 4501 or +49-30-838 Fax +44 (0)1902 3 September 1997. South Africa Tel (0331) 2605562. Diary 14 June 1997. Flexible Learning Initiative. University of Hull. D-14195 Berlin. CTICML CALL Workshop: Question Mark for Language Learning 23 July 1997. Hull.hull. Fax +44 (0)1482 473816. Real Learning Information: Wolfgang Mackiewicz.odonoghue@wlv. Fax +49-30-838 5671. Lewes Road. Hull. Fax (604) 721 8778.hull. Loughbor. Hull HU6 7RX. Tel +44 (0)1902 Email caa@lboro. VA.

University of Plymouth. Melbourne. Centre for Centre. UK. 70 ReCALL . Email June_Gassin@ Circus. Exeter. Fax +44 (0)1482 473816. Belgium CALL'97 Theory and Practice of Multimedia in EUROCALL 98 CALL Information: CTI Centre for Modern Languages. UK. Horwood Language Information: CercleS Secretariat. Email cercles@plym. Tel/Fax +44 (0)1392 264222 Email 21-23 September 1997. University of Melbourne. UK 10-12 September 1998. Hull HU6 7RX. Tel/Fax +44 muwayF. Drake ria 3052.unimelb. EX4 4QH. Modern Languages. Exeter Tel +44 (0)1482 465872. Dept of French. Leuven. UK Conference. The 13-17 July 1998. Plymouth PL4 8AA. CALL'97 University of 1752 232249. Australia 17-19 September 1998. Information: Mrs Daphne Morton. Parkville. Italy WORLDCALL Conference 5th CercleS International Conference Information: June

5” disk in Word for Windows 2. evaluative studies of courseware use in the teach- ing and learning process. Please label your disk with your name.5” disk in Rich-Text-Format (RTF). Biographical information: Brief. exploitation of on-line information systems. practical applications at developmental stage. Authors should be aware that editorial licence may be taken to improve the readability of an article. The language of ReCALL is normally English.5” disk in ASCII format. assessment of the potential of technological advances in the delivery of language learning materials. except at the beginning of the title and for proper names. institution. Survey papers are welcome provided that they are timely.0 format or higher (please state version). last name. In languages other than English. the titles of files stored on the disk and the name of the word-processor you have used. However. Author: First name. (b) providing a European focus for the promulgation of innovative research.5 with a point size of 12 (please indicate word-count at the end of your text). Make sure that graphics and screen dumps are also available on disk and are of sufficient size and quality to be reproduced in a reduced format. development and practice in the area of computer-assisted language learning and technology enhanced language learning in education and training. Typical subjects for submissions include theoretical debate on language learning strategies and their influence on courseware design. ReCALL: Notes for Contributors ReCALL. ● On 3. up-to-date and well-structured. seeks to fulfil the stated aims of EUROCALL as a whole.They are accepted for consideration on the assumption that they have not been previ- ously published and are not currently being submitted to any other journal. Submission of documents: ● Hard copy: preferably laser-printer output. Copyright is assigned to the publisher. and discussions of policy and strategy at institutional and disci- pline levels. Papers may also be submitted in MIME-encoded format by email. Three free copies of the journal are sent to contributors in lieu of offprints. no more than 50 words.000 words: line spacing 1. Your text should be laid out as follows: Title of article: Do not use capital letters. use standard conventions. ● On 3. but the right to reproduce the contribution is granted to author(s). which are to advance education by: (a) promoting the use of foreign languages within Europe. the journal of CTI Modern Languages in association with EUROCALL. Text of article References If your article includes numbered sections and paragraphs. Vol 9 No 1 May 1997 71 . (c) enhancing the quality. provided that the contribution is not offered for sale. papers in French or German will be considered. Please indicate which graphics package you have used to produce them.1. Abstract: No more than 100 words. use the following system: 1. ● On 3. date. Texts should not exceed 5. 1. All submissions are refereed. diffusion and cost-effectiveness of relevant language learning materials. The text should be left-aligned only.

Articles in books Johns T. “. (eds.. Use bulleted lists within above system or i. (1991) ‘Data-driven learning and the revival of grammar’.. University of Hull Hull HU6 7RX.C.. Thereafter refer to ICI. (1994) ‘Learner autonomy:a theoretical construct and its practical application’.. etc. & Wolff D. (1995) Telekommunikation im Fremdsprachenunterricht. When referring to the title of an organisation by its initials. D. . Dual-author books Davies G.B. Helsinki: Helsinki School of Economics.... Your text will be returned for re-editing if you do not adhere to the prescribed system.. 1.. Die neueren Sprachen 93 (5).. 2.3. 12-22. Articles in journals.). OBE not I.I. Szombathely: Berzsenyi Dániel College. EUROCALL 91: Proceedings. vi. b.. (eds. References at end of the article Please pay particular attention to the use of full-stops after initials and the use of commas.2. colons. & Telenius J. 2. No brackets. Legenhausen L. Email: cti. or eurocall@hull. & Higgins J. see also Ahmad et al. iv. Underlining Don’t underline. Edited books Rüschoff B. Single-author books Davies G. ii. thus: Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI). and any queries.E.1. (1985) Using computers in language learning: a teacher’s guide.In Savolainen H. as was stated in a recent study (Davies 1995:65) . to: June Thompson Editor. 430-442. ReCALL CTI Centre for Modern Languages. iii. magazines.. Use italics or bold for emphasis. London: CILT.” (Davies 1985:15) Please avoid using footnotes. Bochum: AKS-Verlag. Little D..2. Contact address Please address your manuscript. quotation .uk 72 ReCALL ... O. 2. UK. then a. Multiple-author books Eck A.) (1996) Technology-enhanced language learning in theory and practice:EUROCALL 94: Proceedings. Above all. brackets.lang@hull. (1985) Talking BASIC: an introduction to BASIC programming for users of language. ii. Abbreviations Don’t use full stops in abbreviations: ICI... Bibliographical referencing within the article .ac. D. c. (1985:123-127) . J. Eastbourne:Cas- sell. v. first spell out the title in full followed by the abbreviation in brackets. i. & Wolff D.1. be consistent.