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CDMA Basics Technology

Basic CDMA Concepts

© 2006, ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved.

ZTE Corporation. . Main Content  Definitions of CDMA & How to realize ?  Spread Spectrum Modulation  Spreading Codes in CDMA system  Vocoding in CDMA systems © 2006. All rights reserved.

.There are 3 basic techniques in Multiple Access Systems: FDMA TDMA CDMA AMPS GSM IS 95 A GPRS IS 95 B EDGE CDMA 2000 EVDO All the three techniques allow the users to share the same physical channel © 2006. All rights reserved. ZTE Corporation.

. All rights reserved. ZTE Corporation.Different Multiple Access Techniques © 2006.

ZTE Corporation.Evolution of TDMA and CDMA © 2006. All rights reserved. .

ZTE Corporation. Why CDMA?  Greater capacity  Equal or greater coverage  Superior Voice Quality  Provides Soft Handoff  Superior Security and Privacy  In-band evolution to 3G  Roaming  Advanced Power Control Algorithm © 2006. All rights reserved. .

. All rights reserved.Definitions of CDMA & How to realize ? © 2006. ZTE Corporation.

ZTE Corporation. . All rights reserved. Definitions of CDMA & How to realize ?  Spread Spectrum Modulation  Spreading Codes in CDMA system  Vocoding in CDMA systems © 2006.

employ a transmission bandwidth that is several orders of magnitude greater than the minimum required signal bandwidth. . uses the same spreading sequence to extract original data © 2006. transmits spread data stream  Receiver intercepts the stream. All rights reserved. ZTE Corporation. What is Spread Spectrum Modulation ORIGINATING SITE DESTINATION Spread Data Stream Input Recovered Data Data Spreading Spreading Sequence Sequence Definition: Spread spectrum technique .  Sender combines data with a fast spreading sequence.

Two Types of CDMA © 2006. ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved. .

ZTE Corporation. .Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum © 2006. All rights reserved.

• S/N is the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) or the carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the communication signal to the Gaussian noise interference expressed as a straight power ratio (not as decibels). meaning the theoretical tightest upper bound on the rate of clean (or arbitrarily low bit error rate) data that can be sent with a given average signal power S through an analog communication channel subject to additive white Gaussian noise of power N. • B is the bandwidth of the channel in hertz. ZTE Corporation. • N is the total noise power over the bandwidth. All rights reserved. measured in watt. measured in watt. is: where • C is the channel capacity in bits per second. • S is the total signal power over the bandwidth. Shannon Theorem  Shannon–Hartley theorem states that the channel capacity C. . © 2006.

. CDMA is a spread spectrum TRADITIONAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM  Traditional technologies try to squeeze Spread Spectrum the signal into the minimum required Narrowband Slow Signal Slow bandwidth Information Information Sent Recovered TX RX  Direct-Sequence Spread spectrum systems mix their input data with a SPREAD-SPECTRUM SYSTEM fast spreading sequence and transmit a wideband signal Wideband Signal Slow Slow Information Information Sent Recovered  The spreading sequence is TX RX independently regenerated at the receiver and mixed with the incoming Fast Fast wideband signal to recover the original Spreading Spreading data Sequence Sequence Spread Spectrum Payoff: Processing Gain © 2006. All rights reserved. ZTE Corporation.

Relationships between Eb/No & SNR © 2006. All rights reserved. ZTE Corporation. .

 Above 32 users . Processing Gain  In a spread spectrum system.the S/N become undesirable and the ultimate capacity of the sector is reached © 2006. All rights reserved. . the process gain (or 'processing gain') is the ratio of the spread (or RF) bandwidth to the un- spread (or baseband) bandwidth. It is usually expressed in decibels (dB). ZTE Corporation.  If one CDMA user is carried alone by a CDMA signal the processing gain is large( roughly 21 db for an 8 k vocoder)  Each doubling of the no of users consume 3 db of the processing gain.

ZTE Corporation. . All rights reserved. Definitions of CDMA & How to realize ?  Spread Spectrum Modulation  Spreading Codes in CDMA system  Vocoding in CDMA systems © 2006.

ZTE Corporation.Forward Link  Long PN Codes --. .Reverse Link Spreading Rate : 1.2288 Mcps © 2006.Forward Link  Short PN Codes --. All rights reserved. Spreading Codes used in CDMA Different Types of spreading codes used in CDMA systems :  Walsh Codes --.

t). © 2006. The CDMA system of IS-95 is differentiated with the Walsh function. the mathematician who proved it an orthogonal function in 1923. n for the serial number. Walsh Codes  The Walsh function is named after Walsh. It is just composed of +1(0) and –1(1)  Each row of an Hadamard matrix is mutually orthogonal to other rows and each row is represent Walsh codes. All rights reserved. It is expressed as Walsh (n.  Walsh codes are based on Hadamard matrix which is an orthogonal square matrix. . ZTE Corporation.

Short PN Sequence vs. Orthogonal: 16. they can be considered a two.768 Short PN Sequence vs.384 1’s + 16. .768 chips long I Q  Together. All rights reserved. Itself @ 0 Offset chips long. any sequence) correlates Q 100% Correlation: All bits = 0 with itself perfectly if compared at a timing offset of 0 chips.384 0’s © 2006. Short PN Sequences 32. as a I matter of fact.768 chips long 26 2/3 ms. each 32. ZTE Corporation. I and (75 repetitions in 2 sec. I Q  Each Short PN Sequence (and. Unique Properties: dimensional binary “vector” with distinct I and Q component sequences. Itself @ Any Offset  Each Short PN Sequence is special: I Q Orthogonal to a copy of itself that has been I offset by any number of chips (other than Q 0).) Q. The two Short PN Sequences. are 32.

4 seconds to complete. based on its 32-bit ESN. to the 42-bit Long Code Generator which was synchronized with the CDMA system during the mobile station initialization.  Generated at 1. 10 hours.2288 MCPS) Modulo-2 Addition  Each mobile station uses a unique User Long Code Sequence generated by applying a mask. All rights reserved. Long PN Sequence Long Code Register (@ 1. © 2006.2288 MCPS) AND 1100011000 P E RMU T E D ESN Public Long Code Mask (STATIC) = S UM User Long Code Sequence (@1.  Portions of the User Long Codes generated by different mobile stations for the duration of a call are not exactly orthogonal but are sufficiently different to permit reliable decoding on the reverse link. 12 minutes and 19. . ZTE Corporation. this sequence requires 41 days.2288 Mcps.

32. Summary of codes used in CDMA  Each CDMA spreading Type of How Special Forward Reverse Link sequence is used for a Length Link Sequence Many Properties Function Function specific purpose on the forward link and a different purpose on the User reverse link.200 Orthogona within (information  The sequences are sec. l cell’s carrier) used to form “code signal channels” for users in both directions. Scramblin chips Distinguish Sequences 1 orthogonal g to avoid ~41 users if shifted strings of days 1’s or 0’s © 2006. ZTE Corporation.768 Orthogona chips l with itself Distinguis Quadrature Short PN 26-2/3 2 at any time h Cells & Spreading Sequences ms shift value Sectors (Zero offset) 75x in 2 except 0 sec. Data 242 Long PN near. All rights reserved. Orthogonal 64 chips Mutually identity Modulation Walsh Codes 64 1/19. .

ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved. . Definitions of CDMA & How to realize ?  Spread Spectrum Modulation  Spreading Codes in CDMA system  Vocoding in CDMA systems © 2006.

 Coding must also ensure reasonable fidelity. time or frequency domain).  Coding can be performed in a variety of ways (for example. Variable Rate Vocoder A-to-D C V O O “Codebook” N C 64 Kbps 64 Kbps Instruction V O MSC 8Kbps E D R E T R E R  Speech coding algorithms (digital compression) are necessary to increase cellular system capacity and secure the transmission. that is.  Vocoders transmit parameters which control reproduction of voice instead of the explicit. . © 2006. a maximum level of quality as perceived by the user. waveform. ZTE Corporation. All rights reserved. point-by-point waveform description.