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5/16/2018 Christian Rakovsky - Wikipedia

Christian Rakovsky
Christian Rakovsky (August 13 [O.S. August 1] 1873 – September 11, 1941)
was a Bulgarian socialist revolutionary, a Bolshevik politician and Soviet
Christian Rakovsky
Кръстьо Раковски, Христиан
diplomat; he was also noted as a journalist, physician, and essayist.
Георгиевич Раковский,
Rakovsky's political career took him throughout the Balkans and into France
and Imperial Russia; for part of his life, he was also a Romanian citizen.
Християн Георгійович
Раковський, Cristian Racovski
A lifelong collaborator of Leon Trotsky, he was a prominent activist of the
Second International, involved in politics with the Bulgarian Social
Democratic Union, Romanian Social Democratic Party, and the Russian Social
Democratic Labour Party. Rakovsky was expelled at different times from
various countries as a result of his activities, and, during World War I, became
a founding member of the Revolutionary Balkan Social Democratic Labor
Federation while helping to organize the Zimmerwald Conference.
Imprisoned by Romanian authorities, he made his way to Russia, where he
joined the Bolshevik Party after the October Revolution, and, as head of the
Rumcherod, unsuccessfully attempted to generate a communist revolution in
the Kingdom of Romania. Subsequently, he was a founding member of the
Comintern, served as head of government in the Ukrainian SSR, and took part
in negotiations at the Genoa Conference.

He came to oppose Joseph Stalin and rallied with the Left Opposition, being
marginalized inside the government and sent as Soviet ambassador to London
and Paris, where he was involved in renegotiating financial settlements. He 1st Chairm. of the Council of
was ultimately recalled from France in autumn 1927, after signing his name to People's Commissars of the
a controversial Trotskyist platform which endorsed world revolution. Credited Ukrainian SSR
with having developed the Trotskyist critique of Stalinism as "bureaucratic In office
centrism", Rakovsky was subject to internal exile. Submitting to Stalin's January 16, 1919 – July 15, 1923
leadership in 1934 and being briefly reinstated, he was nonetheless implicated
Preceded by Georgiy Pyatakov
in the Trial of the Twenty One (part of the Moscow Trials), imprisoned, and
Succeeded by Vlas Chubar
executed by the NKVD during World War II. He was rehabilitated in 1988,
during the Soviet Glasnost period. Soviet Ambassador to France
In office
October 1925 – October 1927
Preceded by Leonid Krasin
Contents Succeeded by Valerian
Names Dovgalevsky
Biography Personal details
Revolutionary beginnings
Born August 13, 1873
Military service and first stay in Russia
România Muncitoare Gradets, Ottoman
1907 expulsion Empire (now
PSDR and Zimmerwald Movement Bulgaria) 1/19

[3] Biography Revolutionary beginnings Christian Rakovsky was born to a wealthy Bulgarian family in Gradets—near Kotel—at the time still part of Ottoman-ruled Rumelia.[5] that side of his family also included Georgi Mamarchev. the nephew of Georgi Sava Rakovski. Ryabova Rakovsky's original Bulgarian name was Krastyo Georgiev Stanchev (desc. including patronymic. or Rakovski. an antiquated hypocoristic—he was known as such to his Signature acquaintance. Romanian.[8] https://en.[6] Rakovsky's father was a merchant who belonged to the Democratic Party. Racovschi. after organizing a riot. at age 5.[1] In Russian. as used by Rakovsky 2/19 . he completed his education in newly emancipated Bulgaria. whom he aided in printing works by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (at the time.[5] It was around that time that he became a Marxist. who had fought against the Ottomans in the Imperial Russian Army. Rakovsky and Sava Balabanov also published their own newspaper.Wikipedia October Revolution Died September 11. the clandestine Zerkalo). Christian (as well as Cristian and Kristian) is an approximate rendition of Krastyo (the Bulgarian for "cross"). Insarov and Grigoriev. which he used in signing several articles for the Russian-language press. Rakovsky's name is rendered as Християн Георгійович Раковський. Soviet Union Persecution and internal exile Submission to Stalin and the Show Trial Nationality Bulgarian. was Khristian Georgievich Rakovsky (Христиан Георгиевич Раковский). the writer Ion Luca Caragiale. Russian. his full name. he had felt a special admiration towards Russia. he was also known under the pseudonyms H.5/16/2018 Christian Rakovsky . The usual form his first name took in Romanian was Alexandrescu Cristian (occasionally rendered as Christian). on his mother's side. and began collaborating with the socialist journalist Evtim Dabev. the Russo-Turkish War and Russian presence (he claimed to have met General Eduard Totleben during the conflict). and that he had been impressed by witnessing. a revolutionary hero of the Bulgarian National Revival. His given name was occasionally rendered Profession physician. Ukrainian Footnotes Political party Communist Party of References the Soviet Union External links Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Ukraine Names Spouse(s) E. journalist as Ristache.) (Кръстьо Георгиев Станчев). P. Russian Trotskyist opposition and ambassadorship SFSR.[6] He later stated that. Legacy and rehabilitation Soviet.[2] In Ukrainian. settling in Gherengic (Northern Dobruja). in 1890).[6] Although his parents moved to the Kingdom of Romania in 1880.[7] Rakovsky was expelled from the gymnasium in Gabrovo for his political activities (in 1887 and then again. and usually transliterated as Khrystyyan Georgiiovych Rakovsky.[4] He was. During his lifetime.wikipedia. as early as his childhood years. while his last name was spelled (Ileana Pralea) Racovski. which he himself changed to Krastyo Rakovski Alexandrina (Кръстьо Раковски). 1941 Second Ukrainian government (aged 68) Reinstating of Soviet dominance and international conferences Oryol.

[8] As a Bulgarian delegate to the Second International Congress in Zürich. he was the Bulgarian representative to the Second International's London Congress (part of his speech was published in Karl Kautsky's Die Neue Zeit).[2] He was a founding editor of the Geneva-based Bulgarian-language magazine Sotsial-Demokrat and later a major contributor to the Bulgarian Marxist publications Den'.5/16/2018 Christian Rakovsky .[8] Unable to attend the First International Congress of Socialist Students in Brussels (1892). which. prior to 1917 Rakovsky's focus remained on the Balkans and especially on his native country and Romania. he publicly criticized Russia's policies towards Romania and in Bessarabia[12] (describing Russia's rule over the latter as "absolutist conquest". "Russophile papers" in Bulgaria had begun to target him as a consequence. at a time when Stefan Stambolov organized a crackdown on political 3/19 . where he hoped to settle down and engage in revolutionary activities (he was probably expelled after an initial attempt to enter the country.[10] Rakovsky became close to Georgy Plekhanov. Dobruja (1899–1900). In 1897 he published Russiya na Istok (Russia in the East). he was arrested and expelled from the German Empire for maintaining close contacts with the Russian revolutionaries there. and Drugar. Ryabova. he could not complete his education in Bulgaria. and served as a medic in the 9th Cavalry Regiment stationed in Constanţa. "mischievous action". but was allowed to return). and "abduction"). Bulgaria. with Plekhanov's encouragement. submitted in 1897). followed one of Georgy Plekhanov's guidelines ("Tsarist Russia must be isolated in its foreign relations"). from Germany.[15] Rakovsky. Rakovsky enrolled in a medical school in Berlin. eventually writing a number of articles and a book in Russian.[11] According to his own testimony.[8] At the time.[8] While in Switzerland. he became active in supporting the Anti-Ottoman upsurge in Crete and Macedonia. Pavel Axelrod and Vera Zasulich.[6] he became acquainted with. held in Geneva during the fall of 1893.[2] Later in 1893.[16] Rakovsky subsequently rejoined his wife in Saint Petersburg. at different times.[2] was summoned to Romania in order to be drafted in the Romanian Army.[6] On several occasions. which was largely composed of non-Swiss youth.[9] in September 1890 Rakovsky went to Geneva to begin his studies and become a physician. he joined the Socialist Student Circle at the University of Geneva. Nancy and Montpellier.Wikipedia Since.[6] In 1896.[13] According to Rakovsky. https://en. Rakovsky and Balabanov.[15] He rose to the rank of lieutenant. contributing articles for Vorwärts and becoming close to Wilhelm Liebknecht (the two corresponded regularly for the rest of Liebknecht's life). his activities in support of the international socialist movement led to his expulsion. as well as Dashnak revolutionary activities.[2] Six months later. he also met with Engels and Jules Guesde. according to Rakovsky. after having ultimately been banned from attending any public school in the country. the founder of Russian Marxism. stressed the importance for moderation in socialist policies—Sotsial-Demokrat rallied with the Bulgarian Social Democratic Union and rejected the more radical Social-Democratic Party of Bulgaria.[8] Military service and first stay in Russia Although actively involved in many European countries' socialist movements.[8] He also briefly worked with Rosa Luxemburg. maintaining a friendship with Guesde and becoming an opponent of Jean Jaurès' reformist views.wikipedia. France and Russia. Romania. and his circle. P.[5] He finished his education in 1894–1896 in Zürich. a book sharply critical of the Russian Empire's foreign policy. he became involved in organizing the Second Congress.[6] After completing his education as a physician at the University of Montpellier[14] (with the thesis L'Éthiologie du crime et de la dégénérescence – "The Cause of Crime and Degeneration". Rabotnik. who had married the Russian student E. where he wrote for La Jeunesse Socialiste and La Petite République.[8] A polyglot.[16] An adversary of Peter Berngardovich Struve after the latter moved towards market liberalism.[2] He soon became involved in distributing socialist propaganda inside Bulgaria.

Haute-Loire. where he followed developments of the Russo- Japanese War and spoke out against Russia.[8] According to his own account.[22] carried out a relief operation for the Potemkin crew as their ship sought refuge in Constanţa. Rakovsky was expelled from Russia and had to move back to Paris. and started an intense activity as a journalist.[14] He was usually present in Bucharest on a weekly basis. a special issue of România Muncitoare. the Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin was initially hostile to Rakovsky.[23] while recovering.Wikipedia among others.[6] he asked French officials to review his case for naturalization. doctor and lawyer. according to Rakovsky himself.[18] România Muncitoare He ultimately settled in Romania (1904) having inherited his father's estate near Mangalia.[6] His head was injured during street clashes with police forces over the Potemkin issue.[8] Returning to the Russian capital in 1900. the entirely dedicated to criticism of the Imperial Russian defunct journal of the Romanian socialist group. one he kept from 1903 to 1917. ("Down with correspondent for L'Humanité. while authoring articles for Nashe Slovo and helping distribute Iskra..[20] Christian Rakovsky also traveled to Bulgaria.[19] In 1913. attracting. his property. but was refused. Nikolay Mikhaylovsky and Mikhail Tugan-Baranovsky. who indicated that the weapons on board were to be used in Batumi. responsible for reviving România Muncitoare.000 United States dollars at the time. based on his recollections from the early https://en.[14] and at one point wrote to Karl Radek that "we [the Bolsheviks] do not have the same road as his kind of people".[10] and attempted to determine them to set sail for Batumi and aid striking workers there. who were publishing works under a common signature—one of the two authored a sympathetic portrait of the socialist leader.[15] The Balkans Front page of Jos Despotizmul!. valued at some 40. the criticism of both Plekhanov and Jules Guesde. a parallel scandal occurred when an armed Bolshevik ship was captured in Romanian territorial waters.[15] In 1903.wikipedia. Rakovsky again lived in Paris. when he organized rallies in support of the Battleship Potemkin revolt (the events worsened relations between Russia and the Romanian Kingdom). following the death of his father. faced allegations in the Romanian press that he was preparing a Dobrujan insurrection.5/16/2018 Christian Rakovsky . Rakovsky befriended the Romanian poets Ştefan Octavian Iosif and Dimitrie Anghel.[8] Working for a while as a physician in the village of Beaulieu.[17] Initially.[2] he was also personally Despotism!!!").[16] was home to Leon Trotsky—when the latter visited the Balkans as a press envoy in the Balkan 4/19 .[5] His close relationship with Plekhanov led Rakovsky to a position between the Menshevik and Bolshevik factions of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party. he remained there until 1902.[21] In 1904. when his wife's death and the crackdown on socialist groups ordered by Emperor Nicholas II forced him to return to France. he was present at the Second International's Congress in Amsterdam. Rakovsky.[6] He voiced his opposition to the concession made by Karl Kautsky to Jean Jaurès. where he gave a speech celebrating the assassination of Russian police chief Vyacheslav von Plehve by Socialist-Revolutionary Party members.[6] Rakovsky became noted locally especially after 1905. authorities (February 1905) provoking successful strike actions which brought him to the attention of officials. where he eventually sided with the Tesnyatsi in their conflict with other socialist groups. one which had allowed socialists to join "bourgeois" governments in times of crisis.

[36] The event. Rakovsky. L'Humanité. C.[33] In exile.[34] According to his recollections.[32] The local socialists organized several rallies in his support. and contended that his father had settled in Northern Dobruja before the Treaty of Berlin that had awarded the region to Romania. the Conservative-Democratic Party. among others.[27] He became close to the influential dramatist Ion Luca Caragiale. having profited from the early antisemitic message of the revolt.[28] 1907 expulsion After repeatedly condemning repression of the revolt. Rakovsky was especially vocal: he launched accusations at the National Liberal government.000 peasants killed. an essay titled 1907. be it in Brăila. only to be arrested upon his transit through Brăila County. officially accused of having agitated rebellious sentiment.[25] Rakovsky was drawn into a polemic with the Romanian authorities. always preaching with the same undaunted fervor and fanatical conviction his social credo".[6] The action itself caused protests from leftist politicians and sympathizers. From Spring to Autumn").[16] During the 1920s.[26] Upon the outbreak of Romanian Peasants' Revolt of 1907.[15] in return.[16] the plea was rejected by the Court of Appeal. C. and consequently expelled from Romanian soil (late 1907). if patriotism meant "race prejudice. whereas the government data counted only 421.[5] Eventually. together with other socialists. and the return of his citizenship was also backed by Take Ionescu's opposition group. and Brătianu's statement that he would "rather destroy [Rakovsky] than let [him] back into Rumania". which. Rakovsky authored the pamphlet Les persécutions politiques en Roumanie ("Political Persecutions in Romania") and two books (La Roumanie des boyars – "Boyar Romania". the situation had to be settled by negotiations between the two countries.5/16/2018 Christian Rakovsky . be it in Galaţi.[2] Rakovsky was also one of the journalists suspected of having greatly exaggerated the overall death toll in their accounts: his estimates speak of over 10. Brătianu cabinet until it leaked to the press—this.[37] caused a clampdown on România Muncitoare (among those socialists arrested and interrogated were Gheorghe Cristescu.[30] He decided not to recognize it. the influential Marxist thinker Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea (whose appeal in favor of Rakovsky was described by Iosif and Anghel as evidence of "an almost parental love"). he refused to be identified with it. was. "continuously bustling. Vorwärts and others). adopted some of Rakovsky's suggestions.[6] Also according to Rakovsky.Wikipedia 1900s. the arrest was hidden by the Ion I. and Dumitru Marinescu). I. Frimu. din primăvară până în toamnă ("1907. who was living in Berlin at the time. Rakovsky was. in its final version.[31] including. according to Iosif and Anghel. which was attributed by Rakovsky to support for his return[6] and by other sources to government manipulation. arguing that.[8] Supportive of the thesis according to which the peasantry had revolutionary importance inside Romanian society and Eastern Europe at large. as a Bulgarian. Rakovsky was still viewing the incident as a "blatantly illegal act". he traveled back into Romania in October 1909. political tyranny and plutocratic domination".[35] caused a series of important street clashes between his supporters and government forces.[24] Throughout these years. and that Rakovsky himself used a Bulgarian passport when moving across borders.[29] He received news of this action while already abroad. and the since-lost From the Kingdom of Arbitrariness and Cowardice). be it anywhere.[2] Rakovsky publicized his perspective in the socialist press (writing articles on the subject for România Muncitoare. international and civil 5/19 .[6] On December 9. in Stuttgart (at the Seventh Congress of the Second International). disappearing and appearing in workers' centers.[1] Caragiale authored his own virulent critique of the Romanian state and its handling of the revolt. 1909. a Romanian Railways employee named Stoenescu attempted to assassinate Brătianu.[37] https://en. he lacked patriotism. he commented that. be it in Iaşi. based on evidence that Rakovsky's father was not in Dobruja before 1880. coupled with rumors that he was about to be killed. it had violently repressed it from the moment peasants began to attack landowners. as officials in the latter country refused to let him pass. he was for long left stranded on the border with Austria-Hungary. facing public accusations that. Avanti!.

Rakovsky was married a second time. Carp Conservative cabinet agreed to allow his return to Romania.[6] He unsuccessfully ran for Parliament during the elections of that year (and several others in succession).[16] being fully reinstated as a citizen in April 1912.Wikipedia Rakovsky secretly returned to Romania in 1911.5/16/2018 Christian Rakovsky . during a meeting in Bucharest In 1913. he was among the most prominent socialist pacifists of the period. Radu.[18] and adhered to Trotsky's vision of a "Peace without indemnities or annexations" as an alternative to "imperialist war".org/wiki/Christian_Rakovsky 6/19 .[6] He subsequently left for Sofia. to Alexandrina (1913 drawing) Alexandrescu (also known as Ileana Pralea).[44] Heavily critical of the French Socialist Party's decision to join the René Viviani cabinet (deeming it "an abdication").[5] Alongside Frimu. and called on Romanian authorities not to annex Southern Dobruja. Leon Trotsky. Elena. and a son. Rakovsky later indicated that he had been purposely informed of the controversial pro-war stance taken by the Social Democratic Party of Germany by the pro-Entente Romanian Foreign Minister Emanuel Porumbaru.[42] Rallying with the left wing of international social democracy during the early stages of World War I.[44] According to Rakovsky. giving himself up in Bucharest. Rakovsky was one of the founders of the Romanian Social Democratic Party (PSDR). Rakovsky expressed criticism of Romania's invasion of Bulgaria during the Second Balkan War.wikipedia. with whom she had a daughter.[7] notably.[43] She had previously been married to Filip Codreanu. Duca himself had argued that Rakovsky was developing a "hatred for Romania". following pressures from the French Premier Georges Clemenceau (who answered an appeal by Jean Jaurès). he helped organize a mourning session for the centennial of Russian rule in Bessarabia.[42] Alexandrescu was herself a friend of Dobrogeanu- Gherea and an acquaintance of Caragiale.[16] He was afterwards involved in calling for peace during the Balkan Wars. the new Petre P. the leading National Liberal politician Ion G. who taught mathematics in Ploieşti.[2] According to Rakovsky. serving as its president.[6] Romanian journalist Stelian Tănase contends that the expulsion had instilled resentment in Rakovsky.[6] According to Rakovsky. and authored numerous new articles on the matter.[46] https://en.[39] PSDR and Zimmerwald Movement Alongside Mihai Gheorghiu Bujor and Frimu. and Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea. he was again expelled. a socialist militant and intellectual. holding a Romanian passport. but major ideological differences.[18] he stressed the responsibility of all European countries in provoking the war. Ecaterina Arbore and others. a Narodnik activist born in Bessarabia. he lectured at the PSDR's propaganda school during the short period the latter was in existence (in 1910 and again in 1912–1913). to Istanbul.[38] earlier.[6] Ultimately. Bujor.[44] With staff of the Menshevik paper Nashe Slovo (edited by Leon Trotsky).[40] In May 1912. where he was swiftly arrested by the Young Turks government but released soon after. where he established the Bulgarian socialist journal Napred.[41] From left: Rakovsky. tensions between the French SFIO and the German Social Democrats were reflecting not just context. this was also determined by the Conservative change in policies towards the peasantry. România Muncitoare's title was changed into Jos Răsboiul! ("Down with war!")—it was later to be known as Lupta Zilnică (the "Daily combat").[45] Reflecting his ideological priorities.

[47] Held until after the February Revolution. he identified the two main pro-Entente political forces of the moment. 1917. causing him to temporarily leave the hall in protest).[56] October Revolution Rakovsky moved to Petrograd (the new name of Saint Petersburg) in the spring of 1917.Wikipedia Present in Italy in March 1915.[38] and that he was being subsidized with German money. with.[51] Again arrested in 1916. with Karl Radek.[18] Suspicions also rose that he had been contacted by German intelligence. he continued to mediate between Lenin and the Second International. he was taken by Romanian authorities to their refuge in Iaşi. and Rakovsky was elected first secretary of its Central Bureau. during which he attempted to persuade it to condemn irredentist goals. he was freed by the Russian Army on May 1. based on the belief that he was acting as a German spy.5/16/2018 Christian Rakovsky .[38] His independence was consequently challenged by the interventionist paper Adevărul.[48] Subsequently. "under the mask of Advertising. and was present in Stockholm for the Third Zimmerwald Conference.[44] His anti-war activism almost got him arrested. according to his own account. and immediately left for Odessa. freed by a general strike which constituted "an outburst of indignation among the workers".[44] In October 1915. and Angelica Balabanoff among them). independence". Parliamentary elections. he joined the Bolsheviks in December 1917 or https://en. a situation from which emerged a circular letter that complemented the Zimmerwald Manifesto while being more radical in tone.[53] Rakovsky himself alleged that. he and Vasil Kolarov established the Revolutionary Balkan Social Democratic Labor Federation (comprising the left-leaning socialist parties of Romania. issued propaganda material in support of the Russian revolutionaries. Rakovsky reportedly lost his temper and grabbed Lenin. he reportedly did not protest Bulgaria's entry into the war[16]—this information was contradicted by Trotsky. "corruption" and "reaction".wikipedia.[55] As Bucharest fell to the Central Powers during the 1916 campaign.[18] After Romania's entry into the conflict on the side of the Entente in August 1916. that his 1915 trip to Italy had served German interests. after convening the Bucharest Conference. Serbia and Greece). and viewed him as employed by Parvus and other German socialists. he came into open conflict with Lenin.[52] Rakovsky also drew attention to himself after welcoming to Bucharest the pro-German maverick socialist Alexander Parvus. who also indicated that the Tesniatsy had been the target of a government crackdown at that exact moment.[49] During the congress.[50] Rakovsky ran for Parliament for a final time during 1916. he remained there and.[38] Later. a former socialist venue. after the latter voiced the Zimmerwald Left's opposition to the resolution (at one 7/19 .[6] Evaluating the situation in Romania. Rakovsky was instrumental in convening the anti-war international socialist Zimmerwald Conference in September 1915. respectively. he was.[47] In July. Rakovsky managed to flee in August. after being accused of planning rebellion during a violent incident in Galaţi. he attended the Milan Congress of the Italian Socialist Party.[54] he was placed under surveillance and ultimately imprisoned in September. the groups led by Take Ionescu and Nicolae Filipescu. Bulgaria.[54] Present in the internationalist faction of the Mensheviks. together with the Italian Socialist delegates (Oddino Morgari. Adevărul and its editor Constantin Mille were in the pay of 1916 Take Ionescu. having failed to attend the Kienthal Conference due to the closure of borders. who called Rakovsky "an adventurer without scruples". Giacinto Menotti Serrati. and again lost when contesting a seat in Covurlui County.

according to the claims of Stelian Tănase. which was by then giving in to the German advances and preparing to sign its own peace. he caught news of the collapse of the German Empire and was selected as a delegate to the German workers' councils. Lenin decided in favor of a unified project. he was probably responsible for ordering the arrest of Romania's representative to Petrograd.[38] On March 9.[60] Soon after.[38] Initially stalled by a much-criticized temporary armistice with Romanian Army leader Alexandru Averescu.[38] At the same time. and sent to Minsk.[59] As Russia negotiated the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany. then with the Hetmanate of Pavlo Skoropadsky. 1919 the https://en. C. Lenin appointed Rakovsky as the Chairman of the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Workers and Peasants of Ukraine. when.[38] Eventually. pending the release of prisoners taken in Iaşi). called on the Romanian government of Ion I. indicating that he would otherwise encourage the communist activities of Romanian refugees on Russian soil. being received by Foreign Minister Victor Adler (a member of Karl Renner's Social Democratic Party of Austria cabinet). 1919 due to the latter's argument with Fyodor Sergeyev for excessive interference in Ukrainian affairs. after the October Revolution[54] (although he was occasionally listed among the Old Bolsheviks). On March 29. and issued agitprop literature in Romanian.wikipedia.[58] As the coup was under preparation in December 1917. to the German-aligned Belarusian National Republic.Wikipedia early 1918.[57] Rakovsky later stated that he had friendly relations with the Bolsheviks from early autumn 1917. 1918). he ordered Rumcherod troops to march towards Romania. who was by then Russia's People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs (Foreign Minister). a group of one hundred Russian Bolsheviks had infiltrated Iaşi with the goal of assassinating King Ferdinand I and organizing a 8/19 . Diamandy.[6] Second Ukrainian government After the subsequent Soviet offensive in Ukraine. before making their way to Moscow.[38] Trotsky. Rakovsky regained Odessa.5/16/2018 Christian Rakovsky . but he was expelled upon arrival to that country. at a time when a similar attempt was being made by the Odessa-based Romanian Social Democratic Action Committee. as well as with German forces (see Ukraine after the Russian Revolution). Rakovsky signed a treaty with Romania regarding the evacuation of troops from Bessarabia. but had to retreat when the Central Powers.[38] In April–May 1918.[6] He and all other envoys were arrested by German soldiers in Kaunas. Constantin I. Rakovsky ordered a fresh offensive in Moldavia. replacing Georgy Pyatakov on January 16. and. he negotiated with the Ukrainian People's Republic Tsentral'na Rada. where he became a leader of the Bolshevik administrative body (Rumcherod). Rakovsky left for Austria (where the First Republic had been proclaimed). Romania conceded to the demands of the Central Powers (see Treaty of Bucharest. Rakovsky was present on the border and waiting a signal to enter the country.[6] Escorted. ordered violent reprisals to be aimed at Romanian nationals present in the city. In May. Brătianu to hand in persons captured.[6] Rakovsky's real goal was to reach Germany and negotiate the situation in Ukraine. then to Homyel. and receiving a reply according to which no such arrests had occurred.[6] His rise in influence and his approval of world revolution led him to seek Lenin's support for a Bolshevik government over Romania.[47] Stelian Tănase claims that during the period. under the guidance of Mihai Gheorghiu Bujor. confronted with Trotsky's refusal to accept their version of a Russo-German peace. he was hidden by these in Sestroretsk. which Stelian Tănase claims allowed for the Moldavian Democratic Republic to join Romania. during the attempted putsch of Lavr Kornilov. began their own military operation and occupied Odessa (setting free Romanians who had been imprisoned there). and his entire staff (all of whom were used as hostages. together with Adolph Joffe and Nikolai Bukharin.[47] When Bolsheviks were arrested and the move was overturned. 1918. and called on Bujor and Rakovsky to form a single leadership (which also included the Romanian expatriates Alecu Constantinescu and Ion Dic Dicescu).

was calling for increased Ukrainianization. he subordinated the Ukrainian Communists to the Russian Communist Party and argued that a separate Central Committee was "luxury" for such a small grouping. Rakovsky and Georgy Chicherin received harsh criticism from the Hungarian communist leaders Béla Kun.[68] On 13 February 1919 at the session of Kiev city council Rakovsky as a head of Ukrainian government stated following: "Decreeing the Ukrainian language as a state language is reactionary and unnecessary". a program requested by Lenin himself. the leadership of Rakovsky. "It had been found that the views of the Pyatakov government were further left than those of its supporters. as a camp of countries dissatisfied with policies of the Allied Powers. Rakovsky eventually subscribed to the Bolshevik condemnation of Greater Romania. his appointment and policies were evidence of Russification. Rakovsky assessed the situation created by the Treaty of Versailles. as Rakovsky reportedly urged Lenin to finance the Kun even as the latter faced the intervention of troops from both Romania and Czechoslovakia.Wikipedia government was reorganized as the Soviet of the People's Commissars. for allegedly refusing aid to the Hungarian Soviet Republic and thus contributing to its fall. he expressed his support for the Yekaterinoslav wing of the Ukrainian Communist Party—following its wishes.[62] During those months. as Rakovsky's government briefly lost control of Ukraine. the Romanian delegation attributed the shortage in supply in Bessarabia and Transylvania a Bolshevik conspiracy centered on Rakovsky. Rakovsky's view contrasted with that supported by Stalin.[70] https://en.[67] Rakovsky's presence was also decisive in rallying the dissident Borotbists to the Bolshevik faction's central bodies—he was subsequently confronted with a degree of Borotbist opposition inside his government. during which pro-autonomy opposition was removed from its ranks and the former leaders were reinstated. who held a conference in Homyel (one which Rakovsky did not attend). as Lenin himself sided with Rakovsky.[66] various French reports of the time gave contradictory assessments (while some credited Rakovsky with direct influence on Soviet foreign policy. the Ukrainian Party was subjected to a major purge. present in Moscow during early that year.5/16/2018 Christian Rakovsky .[62] While in office.[70] Lenin wrote back to Kun informing him that the Central Committee was satisfied with the way in which Rakovsky and Chicherin had carried out their mission. contributing to the defeat of the White Army and Ukrainian nationalists during the Russian Civil War. Lev Kamenev and Adolph Joffe left for Kiev to discuss the matter with local leaders. his policies became hotly contested by partisans of Ukrainian autonomy inside the Party. Christian Rakovsky was one of the founding members of the Comintern.[63] In order to curb the crisis. who. while theorizing that "Ukraine was a laboratory of internationalism" and "a decisive factor in world revolution".[63] At the Fourth Congress of the Ukrainian Party (March 1920). Hough.[65] During the Paris Peace Conference. considering Ukraine and its language merely "an invention" of intellectuals. Stanislav Kosior.[63] According to American politologist Jerry F.[63] At the time.[69] In March 1919. others dismissed the notion that Russia had any such projects).[63] Attacks on them caused problems with the Russian Party. and advised his superiors to build warm relations with both Mustafa Kemal's Turkey and the Weimar Republic. when control over the entire Ukraine was made possible by the offensive against Directorate forces. Rakovsky totally ignored Ukrainian issues. and Dmitry Manuilsky was not reelected.wikipedia. a delegation comprising Trotsky.[61] According to the British author Arthur Ransome.[70] This appears not to have been true.[63] At the time. where he represented the Balkan Communist 9/19 .[64] Reviewing his previous stance on Bessarabia. at the time.[66] Rakovsky simultaneously served as Soviet Ukraine's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and a member of the South West Front's Revolutionary Military Council. and so Pyatakov had given way to Rakovsky who was better able to conduct a more moderate policy".[67] Christian Rakovsky in Ukraine 1920 In summer.

and advocated both Ukrainization through the complete integration of Borotbists into Party structures and a slower pace in communization.[64] As the Soviet Union was being created. he evidenced a "permanent struggle which the so-called independent and autonomous republics had to carry out to safeguard not only their prerogatives but their very own existence". as well as Iosif Jumanca and Leon Ghelerter).[71] He was sentenced to death in absentia (1924). Totsky and Kamenev. Rakovsky cited concerns that centralism was placing Soviet influence in peril. a move which may have been prompted by the similar verdict given by a Soviet Court to Ion Inculeţ (who had led the Moldavian Democratic Republic's Legislative Assembly that voted union with Romania). according to his biographer Gus Fagan. as they returned from Genoa. and called for "carrying out a correct theoretical and practical solution to the national question within the boundaries of the Soviet Union". and indicating his belief that the peasantry was being alienated by internationalist messages. and. Constantin Popovici. Zinoviev.[63] He continued to pressure for a measure of Kiev Offensive independence in Ukrainian economy. and.Wikipedia Reinstating of Soviet dominance and international conferences After dealing with the common offensive of the Directorate and Polish forces—the Kiev Offensive (see Polish-Soviet War in 1920)—. he discussed the matter with the pro-Soviet Ago von Maltzan. Eugen Rozvan. the leadership of the Georgian SSR (see Georgian Affair). managed to obtain from Germany promises of cooperation (see Treaty of Rapallo.[67] In November https://en. and. during the early 1920s. and urged his delegation not to abandon policies over promises of deescalation and trade.[74] In November 1922. Rakovsky became opposed to the new central leadership over the issue of self- determination for the Soviet republics and autonomous republics.[64] he was also charged with renewing contacts with Germany—together with Adolph Joffe. 1922). Joseph Stalin. and. David Fabian.[63] He notably came into conflict with the Russian Party after his second executive had its independent Commissariat of Foreign Trade replaced with an office under the control of central 1920 theater of war: farthest advances of Polish and Ukrainian People's Republic Directorate forces during the authorities. Rakovsky attended the Conference of Lausanne. he was officially summoned to be tried by a court- martial for "crime against the security of the Romanian state". when captured by the Bolsheviks. Ioan Flueraş. on the other.[73] In February 1922. Rakovsky's government took measures regarding collectivization.[67] Arguing in favor of extending the revolution from Ukraine to the Balkans. This followed the dispute between.[60] Rakovsky himself was virulently opposed to any stalemate with the Allies. was part of the official delegation to the Genoa Conference—under the leadership of Georgy Chicherin.[63] Rakovsky remained a Romanian citizen for the entire period.5/16/2018 Christian Rakovsky . in March.wikipedia. he became himself a proponent of greater Ukrainian autonomy. as Russia failed to reach an agreement with the Allies. Rakovsky and Grigory Zinoviev pressured the group to expel those of its members who supported Greater Romania (including Flueraş and Popovici. on one side. he was sent to Berlin in order to negotiate with German officials.[64] A leader of the delegation's commissions on economic aid. In 10/19 . loans and government debt.[64] At the time. the republic sealed its own trade agreements with other European countries.[64] Two years later. Eser conspirator Boris Savinkov allegedly confessed that he intended to have both Rakovsky and Chicherin killed in Berlin.[72] As the Socialist Party of Romania delegation (Gheorghe Cristescu. and Alexandru Dobrogeanu-Gherea) voted to adhere to the Comintern. where he was confronted with the assassination of his fellow diplomat Vaslav Vorovsky by the émigré Maurice Conradi.

replaced with Vlas Chubar.[64] Although declining. Rakovsky and his wife were joined by Elena Codreanu. officially defined as the Soviet diplomatic delegation. and.[79] Doumergeue resisted. whom they had adopted.[64] Eventually. who aimed for a "solidarity of foreign creditors" in respect to the Soviet state. published by The Times. textiles. Prime Minister and French governments.[68] In London. he had begun negotiations with France's Raymond Poincaré. after being revived by the short-lived cabinet of Édouard Herriot. during and after the incident. and other commodities with British manufacturers: worth 75 million US$ on paper. these failed to attract attention after he announced that the Soviet government did not intend to pay in cash.[78] Rakovsky served as the Soviet ambassador to France between October 1925 and October 1927. came to represent UK and Christian Rakovsky.[64] Chubar.[79] Time described it as a "deafening blast". a group of Komsomol leaders.[63] his arguments in favor of reducing the number of representatives of Russian SFSR and barring the total number of envoys from any republic at one fifth of the total were dismissed after being criticized by Stalin. and France remained committed to the Locarno https://en. talks ended without any result. during which he was confronted with the vocal campaign of creditors. he successfully proposed the formation of a Soviet of Nationalities to double the Soviet of the Union inside the supreme legislative body.[75] In early July 1923.[64] In parallel. brought an end to all further talks. an ethnic Ukrainian. Rakovsky also played a hand in motivating Stalin's decision to marginalize Comintern leader Zinoviev. refusing to be received at the Élysée Palace by French President Gaston Doumergue for as long as the state authorities would not allow The Internationale (a revolutionary song which was at the time the Soviet national anthem) to be played on the occasion. and various officials involved in economic planning.5/16/2018 Christian Rakovsky .[60] One of his last tasks involved placing Soviet orders for machinery.[64] The scandal which erupted when the Zinoviev Letter was publicized.wikipedia. and. 1924.[79] His first task involved renewed negotiations with the cabinet of Aristide Briand (February 1926). alongside sections of the Red Army. He did not take hold of his office until 50 days after his official appointment. allowing for commerce to be normalized between the two countries. in the end. after being isolated inside the Ukrainian leadership.Wikipedia 1922.[77] According to the American magazine Time. Rakovsky was received to the sound of an improvised arrangement of bugles. which demanded that the Soviet Union abandon nationalizations and return to private property. "nativization". Ramsay MacDonald and Rakovsky negotiated de jure recognition and agreed on possible future Anglo-Soviet treaty and a British loan for the Soviet 11/19 . Rakovsky joined Leon Trotsky's Left Opposition and came into conflict with Stalin.[80] Poincaré returned to power.[76] and who agreed to recognize the latter on October 28.[42] In 1924. by complaining that the latter's foreign policy was needlessly radical. as the Labour Party minority cabinet came to power. Head of Stalin's view on nationality issues in the region.[64] Early results achieved in discussions with Anatole de Monzie were dismissed by the opposition rallied around Poincaré. two treaties were signed.[63] Trotskyist opposition and ambassadorship After Lenin's illness and incapacitation. and sent to London to negotiate a formal recognition of the Soviet regime by the British Ramsay MacDonald. Willerton. the more discreet part of which may have been based on The Internationale. replacing Leonid Krasin.[60] Negotiations were tested by the so-called Bankers' Memorandum. and reflecting Rakovsky's views that private complaints of creditors against the Soviet state were to be settled outside the conference. one of Trotsky's main bases of support. Rakovsky repeatedly cited evidence that the Letter was a forgery. according to political scientist John P. his influence in Ukraine was. rekindling suspicions against the Soviet government and provoking the fall of MacDonald's cabinet. he was removed from his Ukrainian post.

due to Rakovsky's political opinions. President Plutarco Elías Calles chose to deescalate the conflict. Rakovsky and Lev Kamenev held brief speeches in front of the Soviet Communist Party's Fifteenth Congress. and which they reviewed before it was published.5/16/2018 Christian Rakovsky . Mar 1924 Together with his second wife. although he was scheduled for a meeting at the Élysée. who had observed Rakovsky's career ever since his presence in Romania. France's decision was tacitly welcomed by Foreign Affairs Commissar Georgy Chicherin. he was joined by Istrati.[87] https://en.[83] He also maintained friendly contacts with Marcel Pauker. a Trotskyist platform deemed unfriendly by the French government (it stressed support for revolutions and mutinies in all capitalist countries). who. former French Communist Party member and anti-Stalinist Paris. he used the occasion to appeal for reconciliation.[86] Rakovsky left without presenting his letter of recall to President Doumergue.[85] According to Time. unlike Rakovsky.[81] On the front: Christian Rakovsky on the left. Rakovsky gave full approval to Max Eastman's volume Since Lenin Died.[87] The former was interrupted fifty-seven times by his opponents—Nikolai Bukharin. American agents reported that Rakovsky was instructed to threaten with publicizing correspondence between former President Álvaro Obregón and Soviet authorities (which had occurred before diplomatic links were established).Wikipedia Treaties (which had isolated the Soviet state on the international stage). whose activities were denounced by the Comintern in 1930.[84] Rakovsky was eventually declared a persona non grata in France and recalled after signing the Declaration of the Opposition. which centered on heavy criticism of Soviet realities.[83] Persecution and internal exile In December. and Lazar Kaganovich. and Yevgeni Preobrazhensky in the middle and Grigori Sokolnikov on the right during Soviet UK negotiations in London. Martemyan Ryutin.[64] During the same 12/19 . soon became a noted opponent of Stalinism. a prominent but independent-minded member of the Romanian Communist Party. Kamenev was himself interrupted twenty-four times by the same group.[64] Over the following year.[86] He was initially scheduled to serve as Ambassador to Japan.[82] He became acquainted with the Rakovsky with Leonid Krasin and Charles Rappoport. partly owing to his witnessing of the Rakovsky's downfall. as well as with the Romanian writer Panait Istrati. advertising Soviet concessions and speaking directly to the public.[87] Although.[86] On his trip back to the Soviet state. 1924 journalist Boris Souvarine.[81] Since this could endanger Mexico's relations with the United States. Christian Rakovsky continued to attempt a détente with France.wikipedia. as tensions grew between Mexico and the Soviet government over the latter's support for a Mexican railway workers' strike.

they only managed to meet Gorky's son. he assigned Ukrainian campaigning to Voja Vujović.[93] In another critical letter to the Party leadership (April 1930).[89] He was also active as a writer. suicide. and became notorious as a critique of Stalinism (under the title "Professional Dangers" of Power). December 1927. together with his fellow activist Pierre Frank. Committee. the moment when he was allowed a medical leave.[89] Instead. Vikenty Veresaev. which he called a "hole in the barren cold ground". He was exiled.[88] With Nikolai Krestinsky (who split with the group soon afterwards) and Kamenev.[89] Towards the end of the same year.[93] As his health deteriorated. and his supporters were beaten up by the Militsiya.[96] According to Heijenoort.[96] https://en. and an end to forced collectivization. in March 1933. to the Moscow Komsomol). and eventually from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Rakovsky was employed by the Regional Planning Committee (Gubplan). and. and Zaporizhia (he was assisted by. the restoration of civil liberties. In November 1927. But in both cases they let me keep the jacket".org/wiki/Christian_Rakovsky 13/19 . and boarded the ship he was traveling on near Istanbul. he was sent to Barnaul. the Central Fedor Gladkov.5/16/2018 Christian Rakovsky . Aleksandr Voronsky. following this. Kharkiv. Vasily Lvov- Rogachevsky. Rakovsky incited further resistance to Stalinism. Mikhail Gerasimov. and returned to standing left to right: Ivan Moscow. Nov Jun 1926. he attempted to organize a substantial opposition.[89] Answering Trotsky's request. the French mathematician and Trotskyist Jean Van Heijenoort.[90] Christian Rakovsky.[89] Little is known of Rakovsky's life between that moment and July 1932. and continued to criticize Stalin's leadership as "bureaucratic socialism" (see Bureaucratic collectivism) and "social fascism". Mykolaiv. Rakovsky was ousted from the Comintern.[83] and corresponded with Trotsky (who had himself been exiled to Almaty).Wikipedia After that moment. Georgy Chulkov. although branded "enemy of the people".[91] Abram Ėfros and Isaac Babel. Trotsky was informed that he had attempted to flee the Soviet Union. but the letter on Soviet "bureaucratism" he addressed to Nikolai Valentinov survived. the Secretary of the Central Committee. Odessa. starting work on a volume detailing the sources of Utopian socialism and the thought of Saint-Simon. he commented to his visitor. sitting left to right: Yuri Kotsubinsky). after receiving news that Adolph Joffe had committed Karl Radek and Pavel Sakulin. as well as to the writer's close surveillance by OGPU agents. visiting Ukraine for this purpose. he was allowed to move to Saratov upon requests addressed by Krestinsky to Kaganovich. Saratov. French writer Pierre Naville: "The French expelled me from Paris for having signed a declaration of the opposition.[93] While in Astrakhan. but promised to pass on their request. Alexander Beloborodov and Ivar Smilga). Vyacheslav Polonsky. he called for. Boris Pilnyak.[89] He was visited by Louis Fischer.[89] He was persistently heckled during public appearances.wikipedia. Five year anniversary of Krasnay Dnipropetrovsk. Rakovsky was still occasionally allowed to speak in public (notably. a reduction in the party apparatus. who recorded Rakovsky's determination not to submit to Stalin (contrasting his option with those of Radek. was contacted by Panait Istrati and the Greek writer Nikos Kazantzakis.[92] Shortly before the decision. it was announced that he had been deported to Yakutia. together with Kamenev and Karl Radek. among other things. he foresaw the renewed moves against the Left Opposition (inaugurated by Trotsky's 1929 expulsion).[95] Mistrusting Stalin's new leftist policies. first to Astrakhan.[96] Researcher Tova Yedlin proposed that the problem was caused by Gorky's distress over having recently separated from his mistress Moura Budberg. among others. Stalin expelled me from the [Foreign Affairs Commissariat] for having signed the same declaration. and then to Barnaul.[90] Following the defeat of the Left Opposition in November– Evdokimov. Petr Oreshin. who reportedly told them that his father was indisposed. Yevgeni Preobrazhensky. the return of Trotsky. and issued a declaration of the united opposition. hosting public meetings and printing manifestos addressed to the workers in Kiev. unsuccessfully called on the influential Soviet author Maxim Gorky to intervene in favor of Christian Rakovsky. Kherson.[93] Most of his writings were confiscated by the State Political Directorate. Maxim Peshkov.[94] Rakovsky remained involved in Trotskyist politics.

Istrati. Rakovsky was shot on Stalin's orders outside Oryol[89]—along with Olga Kameneva. Genrikh Yagoda. rejoining her brother. Elena Codreanu-Racovski. and deported to Siberia. before being himself purged in 1940. and settled in Communist Romania after 1975.[97] Rakovsky formally "admitted his mistakes" in April 1934 (his letter to the Pravda.[99] Cited in allegations involving the killing of Sergey Kirov. Brătescu. Rakovsky's name was frequently invoked in the heated debate involving Panait Istrati and his political adversaries. he admitted to all the charges—including having been a spy (for Japan)[99] and a landowner.[89] according to Trotsky. having returned to Romania in disillusion over Soviet realities. he consequently became the target https://en.Wikipedia Submission to Stalin and the Show Trial Rakovsky was one of the last leading Trotskyists to break with Trotsky and surrender to Stalin. writing for the former. Alarmed by Adolf Hitler's rise to power in Germany and under intense pressure from Stalin.[105] By 1932. Nikolai Krestinsky and other Old Bolsheviks. After the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union (Operation Barbarossa). 1934).[89] Trotsky declared the dissociation statement to be "purely formal". Rakovsky was arrested in autumn 1937. probably owing to suspicions she had in respect to the Romanian communist regime. whom he encouraged to join the Romanian socialist movement before World War I.[89] While Rakovsky was allowed to return to Moscow. was expelled from her job as secretary of the Mossoviet Theater. who persistently referred to Rakovsky as "a counterrevolutionary". he was forced to wait without food or rest for 18 hours. on charges of conspiring with Trotsky to overthrow Stalin. he was sentenced to twenty years of hard labor.[83][104] It was compiled from personal notes and dialogs with physician and former communist militant G. who noted that. Legacy and rehabilitation Rakovsky's second 14/19 .[106] Having published To the Other Flame. the third Moscow Show Trial—known as the Trial of the Twenty One. the biologist and academic Radu Codreanu. later became a general secretary of the Romanian Communist Party. after Stalin's death. Elena Codreanu refused to talk about Rakovsky's trial and her own persecution. Pamfil Şeicaru defined Istrati as "the servant of Racovski".[103] She later authored a memoir which included recollections of her father (it was published in Romanian as De-a lungul şi de-a latul secolului.wikipedia. was initially attacked in the local right- wing newspapers Curentul and Universul. This execution was one of the many massacres of prisoners committed by the NKVD in 1941.[93] Unlike most of his co-defendants.[89] He made attempts to point out that his revenue had been used to support socialism. where she suffered a series of heart attacks. and that he had a grasp of "revolutionary practices". and is known to have been held in Butyrka prison. during which time his house was being searched. Alexandrina Alexandrescu. Rakovsky argued: "from my young days I honestly.[89] His adoptive daughter. depicted Trotsky and his supporters as "agents of the German Gestapo"). he announced his submission to the Party through a telegram he sent Izvestia (February 23. during the Great Purge. Alexei Rykov. who were immediately executed.[101] In 1941 he was in Oryol Prison.[89] also serving as Soviet ambassador to Japan in 1935.[97] Shortly thereafter. was herself arrested. in March 1938.[104] Rakovsky's nephew Boris Stefanov. Maria Spiridonova and over 150 other political prisoners in the Medvedev Forest massacre. the period of my criminal deeds".[102] She returned to Moscow in the 1950s.[89] In his final statement.[98] He was appointed to high office in the Commissariat for Health and allowed to return to Moscow. titled There Should Be No Mercy. in which he exposed Stalinism. After this bright period a dark period set in. he was put on trial along with Nikolai Bukharin. but was attacked by Vyshinsky. truthfully and devotedly performed my duty as a soldier of the cause of the emancipation of labor.[100] In his forced confession to Andrey Vyshinsky.5/16/2018 Christian Rakovsky . "The Length and Breadth of the Century").

Frunză. Rakovsky's fate was a possible direct influence: "Rubashov might be called Trotsky.Wikipedia of intense criticism and allegations from various pro-Soviet writers. and was himself a victim of the Great Purge in 1938. Upson Clark 13. «Because these people had been rotted by the Revolution which they served». "An Autobiography". Rakovsky ("An Autobiography") stated that his birthplace was Kotel 5. Fagan. Tănase. Fagan. 110 ani de social-democraţie. 246–248 2. Rakovsky. the Romanian communist writer Alexandru Sahia speculated. p. Fagan. Socialist leader in the Balkans.5/16/2018 Christian Rakovsky . 46.92. Marcel Pauker was disavowed by the Romanian and Soviet communist parties. Upson Clark https://en. Socialist leader in the Balkans.[84] She allegedly refused to criticize him for anything other than his association with Rakovsky. in part. Upson Clark 6.[84] The Hungarian-born author Arthur Koestler. Socialist leader in the Balkans 3. on his friendship with Rakovsky. "An Autobiography". coinciding with that of Bukharin.wikipedia. p. Fagan.28. Socialist leader in the Balkans. "Cristian Racovski" 10.[108] Bukharin. Upson Clark 8. Tănase.13. and Chernov were posthumously reinstated to the Communist Party on June 21. Upson Clark 17. and in doing so he comes near to claiming that revolutions are of their nature bad". Fagan. Fagan. Tănase. in Tănase. "Cristian Racovski" 15. his wife. "An Autobiography". in effect. "An Autobiography" 9. based Rubashov. Rakovsky. Fagan. Lenin. the Soviet government cleared Rakovsky and his co-defendants of all charges. Socialist leader in the Balkans. among other things. Socialist leader in the Balkans. Socialist leader in the Balkans. Fagan. Fagan. 15/19 . Fagan. Socialist leader in the Balkans. faced pressures to denounce her husband. the main character in his 1940 novel Darkness at Noon. "Cristian Racovski" 18. Christian Rakovsky et Basile Kolarov 4.257. "An Autobiography". Rozengolts.[84] At various intervals between 1930 and 1952.[110] Footnotes 1. Socialist leader in the Balkans. Upson Clark 16. "Cristian Racovski". led by the Frenchman Henri Barbusse. Rakovsky. 1988. Rakovsky. Rakovsky. Rakovsky.[83] Based on his independent opinions and.[83] During this period. Rakovsky. "An Autobiography". "An Autobiography". and other five officials. Rakovsky. Cioculescu. Socialist leader in the Balkans. in Frunză.[109] His works were given imprimatur. while a favorable biography was published by the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (late 1988). Fagan.[107] His rehabilitation came in February. Rakovsky. Koestler answers. on victims of the Moscow Trials. Anghel & Iosif. former People's Commissar for Foreign Trade Arkady Rosengolts. the Romanian communist leader Ana Pauker. "An Autobiography" 7. If one writes about the Moscow trials one must answer the question. Rakovsky or some other relatively civilised figure among the Old Bolsheviks. and to admit that Marcel Pauker had been guilty of all the charges brought against him. Socialist leader in the Balkans. Socialist leader in the Balkans.92 14. as well as with those of Ukrainian official and former People's Commissar for Agriculture Mikhail Alexandrovich Chernov. Rakovsky. Rakovsky. «Why did the accused confess?» and which answer one makes is a political decision. Bukharin. Fagan. according to George Orwell. himself a former communist. Les socialistes et la guerre 12. Socialist leader in the Balkans 11. p. p. Fagan. Trotsky. during Glasnost. that Istrati had been in the pay of Rakovsky and Trotsky for a sizable part of his life.[57] In 1988. Les socialistes et la guerre 19. Upson Clark 20.

"An Autobiography". "An Autobiography". "An Autobiography". C.514 34. Socialist leader in the Balkans. Christian Rakovsky et Basile Kolarov 51. 46 29. "An Autobiography" 55. October 1971.256. Tismăneanu. p. Torrey. Ornea. p. rendered in Tă 16/19 . Anghel & Iosif.257 24. "1871–1971. p. p. p. "An Autobiography" 36. Regroupment of the socialist movement 45.25 54.521-522. p. Rakovsky. 110 ani de social-democraţie. Regroupment of the socialist movement. Tănase. "An Autobiography".28. "Cristian Racovski". Regroupment of the socialist movement. p.258 26. p. Trotsky. George Orwell.42 23. p. Cioculescu. Socialist leader in the Balkans. Trotsky. Brătianu. Rakovsky. p. 2007. Trotsky. p. passim 25.425 43. February 2. 110 ani de social-democraţie. Brătescu. Anghel & Iosif.15. p. Upson Clark 52.6 44. 58. Ornea.256 33. Fagan. Regroupment of the socialist movement. Rakovsky. 110 ani de social-democraţie. p. Fagan. Anghel & Iosif. Christian Rakovsky et Basile Kolarov 22. Tănase. C. Ornea. "Cristian Racovski" 48. Fagan. p. Rakovsky. Tănase. Frimu" ("We Have Loved and Admired the One Named I. Rakovsky. Rakovsky. Florian Tănăsescu. Les socialistes et la guerre. p. Fagan. "Cristian Racovski" 40. Christian Rakovsky et Basile Kolarov. p. Anghel & Iosif. Upson Clark https://en. Rakovsky. nu 11. "Cristian Racovski". "Cristian Racovski" 39. p. "Cristian Racovski" 56. in Upson Clark 27.247. Trotsky. Anghel & Iosif. p.3 41. Fagan.wikipedia. Editor's note in Anghel & Iosif. "Cristian Racovski" 59. Rakovsky. "An Autobiography". Upson Clark 30. p.514. Christian Rakovsky et Basile Kolarov 50. "Cristian Racovski". Ornea.514 Essay". "Cristian Racovski". Frimu"). Fagan. p.23.14. Rakovsky.256. Marian Ştefan. "An Autobiography" 35. Cioculescu. Cioculescu. Rakovsky.257. "An Autobiography" 49. "421.256. Fagan. Rakovsky. Retrieved July 19.zf. (in Romanian) Ion Bulei. Tănase. Fagan.521-522 38. Tănase. Christian Rakovsky et Basile Kolarov 47. Cioculescu. p. in Magazin Istoric.15. Ornea. Tănase. Trotsky. in Ziarul Financiar. p. Socialist leader in the Balkans. Anghel & Iosif. Valeria Stan. Ornea. 110 ani de social-democraţie. 110 ani de social-democraţie.14 42. p.Wikipedia 21. p. Anghel & Iosif.000" (http://www. "Arthur Koestler. Regroupment of the socialist movement. Fagan. Trotsky. Socialist leader in the Balkans.146-247. 2007 28. Tănase. Christian Rakovsky et Basile Kolarov 46.247 32. 25 53.514. Am iubit şi am admirat pe cel care se chema I.5/16/2018 Christian Rakovsky . Regroupment of the socialist movement. in Fagan. Duca. p. "An Autobiography" 37. p. Regroupment of the socialist movement. Torrey. in Rakovsky. Regroupment of the socialist movement. Tănase. p. Fagan. Upson Clark 57.

Patronage and Politics in the USSR. Duke University Press. Fagan. Cambridge. p.250 67. Frunză.1. in Time. Daniela Spenser. in Fagan.61-62 https://en. New Jersey. Soviet State and Society Between Revolutions. July 27. Opposition and Exile. 1924 75.28. p. University of California Press. Frunză. Opposition and Exile. Brookings Institution Press. Munich-London-New-York: "Ukrayinske vydavnytstvo". p. Opposition and Exile 94.61-62 89. p. in Time. Democratization and Revolution in the USSR. "The Renegade Istrati". Tănase. Fagan. 17/19 . "An Autobiography" 62. p. Russia in 1919 (http://home. disk/exlibris/insurgent/narys_oun/soviet. Opposition and Exile. Arthur Ransome. Jerry F.wikipedia. p. Cambridge.189-190. Upson Clark 66. Frunză. "Battle for Life". Retrieved July 19. Poincaré.61-62 93. Theodore Draper. ISBN 978-0-8223-2289-4 82. 2003. in Fagan. Tismăneanu. "The Renegade Istrati" 86. p. December 21. p. American Communism and Soviet Russia. 1992. Fagan. Rakovsky. "Faux Pas". ISBN 978-0-521-39288-4 76. Fagan. 1992. Opposition and Exile. Tănase. May 18. ISBN 978-0-521-36987-9 88.64-66. Soviet Diplomat (1923–7) 81. 1925 78. 1925 80. "Bugle Blast". in Time. March 22. 70. Rakovsky. p. p. Fagan. Tismăneanu. Medvedev. 1918–1929. Rakovsky and the Ukraine (1919–23). Livezeanu. 1925 79. in Time. Berkeley. Vol.freeuk.51-52. D.html).Wikipedia 60. "The Renegade Istrati" 91.45-47 74. October 17.250. Tismăneanu. "The Renegade Istrati" 92. 1968.44-45. and the United States in the 1920s. Fagan. Soviet Diplomat (1923–7). September 8.60. Fagan. Willerton. Tănase. ISBN 978-0-7735-0828-6 71. "Rakovsky's Recall". Hough. Impossible Triangle: Mexico. p. Rakovsky.117.93 72. 1999. I Chose Freedom. "The Little Corporal". in Time. Transaction Publishers. Opposition and Exile. Soviet Diplomat (1923–7) 77. Cambridge University Press. Fagan. ISBN 978-0-7658-0531-7 83. "Notes". in Fagan. Tănase. p. 1988. Washington. 2001. p. Richard Kent Debo. John P.105-106.archive..93.95 73. Tănase. 1926. p. New Brunswick. ISBN 978-0-88738-754-8. Fagan. 360. Soviet Russia. Rakovsky and the Ukraine (1919–23) 64. Tănase. Ana Pauker: The Rise and Fall of a Jewish Communist. p. Victor Kravchenko.C. Somerset. 1918–1921. Opposition and Exile. Rakovsky. Lewis H. 1927 87. p. Opposition and Exile 90. Soviet Diplomat (1923–7) 65. Fagan. Survival and Consolidation: the Foreign Policy of Soviet Russia. ISBN 978-0-520-22395-0 85. 1997. P. p. Durham. Rakovsky and the Ukraine (1919–23) 68. "The Renegade Istrati" Cambridge University Press. in Fagan. Rakovsky. October 31. Robert Levy. Mirchuk. Livezeanu. in Time. Transaction Publishers. Tismăneanu. Fagan.223-224.5/16/2018 Christian Rakovsky . Siegelbaum. 1985–1991. 1927.html). in Time. Outline of the history of OUN (https://web. p. "Sneaked Away". Soviet Diplomat (1923–7). in Fagan. "The Renegade Istrati" 95. Tismăneanu. Montreal. 2007. McGill-Queen's University Press. 63. ISBN 978-0-8157-3749-0 69. "An Autobiography" 61.

186. O. p. 2. Drama. "An Autobiography". C. Soviet Panel Clears Bukharin". p. retrieved July 19. "The Prophet Returned? A Survey of Recent Works by and about Trotsky in the Soviet Union" (https:// web. 1974. 2003. June 7.marxists. Opposition and Exile.. "The Renegade Istrati" 107.426 104. 1995. at Irina Livezeanu. National Council for Soviet and East European Research and Lehigh utobiog. p. Prose.pitt. Social Democratic Party. Editura Eminescu. Cartea Românească. proză. Shapiro 108. Washington.5/16/2018 Christian Rakovsky . Bucharest. 1995. 1989. 1918–1930.htm). July g/ 6890267) Yuri Feofanov.50. 1915 (http://www. Vol. 1980 ( at Marxists. February 6. Philip Taubman. Donald Barry. 2007 (in Romanian) 110 ani de social-democraţie în România ("110 Years of Social Democracy in Romania") ( Şeicaru. Shapiro References Christian Rakovsky Internet Archive (http://www.178 102. retrieved July 19. Ce-a fost să fie. https://en. Viaţa lui C. 2005 106. 175–176. Tova Yedlin. Granat. Ornea. p. 2. 2003. in Fagan. p. p. Stere"). No. in The New York Times. Iosif. Trotsky. p.pdf). in Tănase. 1926 (http://www. ISBN 978-973-23- 0099-2 (in French) Christian Rakovsky.a rchive. Allison & Gus Fagan. 1988 110. OCLC 2598894 (https://www. in Jurnalul Naţional. Humanitas. New York City.201-202. Autobiographical Notes"). Nation Building and Ethnic Struggle. Feofanov & Barry.pdf). (French edition). Philip Taubman.22 100. in Cireşul lui Lucullus. Biographical Introduction to Christian Rakovsky. Brătescu. Vol. Medvedev. p. in The New York Times.marxists. Arbitrary Justice: Courts and Politics in Post-Stalin Russia (http://www. ISBN 978-0-8014-8688-3 Roy Teatru. org/francais/rakovsky/works/soc_guerre/reponse.htm). 2007 Stelian Tănase. "Racovski". Opposition and Exile. "Bukharin Status in Party Restored". Nottingham. London & New York.marxists. retrieved July 19.fisd. Translations"). 1992. 2007 G. "50 Years After His Execution. 1976. 2007 Victor Frunză.co. Medvedev. Brătescu. translated by Gus Fagan. Ovidiu Şincai Social Democratic Institute. Notaţii autobiografice ("That Which Was Meant to Be. Bucharest. p.Wikipedia 96. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-85124-150-0 Z. OCLC 6890267 (https://www. Maxim Gorky: A Political Biography. Brătescu. D.425-426 103.html). Caragialiana. 2007 Judith Shapiro.worldcat.archive. Opposition and Exile 98. Stere ("The Life of C.worldcat. retrieved July 19.htm). Humanitas. Ilarion Ţiu. p. Bucharest.169 99. Les socialistes et la guerre ("The Socialists and the War"). July 9. retrieved July 19.34. D.wikipedia.marxists. Selected Writings on Opposition in the USSR 1923– 30 (editor: Gus Fagan). 1990. I. 1988 109. Tismă er/1995-808-02-9-Feofanov. Fagan. Let History Judge. Spokesman Books. 1976. Praeger/ 18/19 . ISBN 978-0-275- 96605-8 97. Medvedev. retrieved July 19. Bucharest. in Revolutionary History. Fagan. Westport. ISBN 978-973-28-0177-2 Şt. "Aliatul lui Stalin" ("Stalin's Ally").revolutionary-history. Editura Minerva. Feofanov & Barry. traduceri ("Lucullus' Cherry Tree. Istoria stalinismului în România ("The History of Stalinism in Romania").ucis. 2007 Christian Rakovsky. Cultural Politics in Greater Romania: Regionalism.426-427 105. Summer 1989. ISBN 978-973-50-0425-5 Şerban Cioculescu. 74 101. Bucharest. Brătescu.

at the University of Washington. in Archipelago.ecn. a non-profit (French edition).ru/TROCKIJ/Trotsky.html) Retrieved from "https://en. 1971–1972. Stalinism for All Seasons: A Political History of Romanian Communism.txt) (in Italian) Panait Istrati's testimonies on Rakovsky (http://www.htm). in Magazin Istoric. ISBN 978-90-04-03639-0 (in French) Leon Trotsky.magazinistori c.PortretyRev. retrieved July "Rakovsky's Roumanian Career" (http://depts. https://en.washington. translated by Alistair Ian Blyth.Wikipedia (in Romanian) "Cristian Racovski" (Part I) (https://web. at 17:20. retrieved July 19. p. 2007 Vladimir Tismăneanu. Leiden. Brill Publishers. Bessarabia. April 2004.itcnet. in Keith Hitchins (–12. 2007 Charles Upson Clark.htm).org/balkan/0009marxismorakovsky. 19/19 .). retrieved July 19. Torrey. 3-29. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. additional terms may Russia and Roumania on the Black Sea: Chapter XXI. Vol. June–July 1916". Vol. ISBN 978-0-520-23747-6 Glenn Christian Rakovsky .php?title=Christian_Rakovsky&oldid=841034553" This page was last edited on 13 May 2018. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike excerpt from Auntie Varvara's Clients (http://www. 1973. 1915 (http:// By using this site. Berkeley. "Rumania's Decision to Intervene: Brătianu and the Entente. at Marxists.wikipedia. University of California Press.. 2007 "The Renegade Istrati". Christian Rakovsky et Basile Kolarov ("Christian Rakovsky and Vasil Kolarov"). Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. Inc. 2.archipelago. 2007 External links (in Russian) Trotsky's unfinished biography of Rakovsky (http://lib. Romanian Studies.shtml). retrieved July 19.wikipedia.archive.