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# Understanding the Kellogg Equivalent Pressure Method for piping flanges

M M

F F Remarks
2. This paper counts the gasket load in terms of force per unit
length of circumference, as this approach is usual in the circular plate
a theory.
3. For calculation of the reaction on free-to-rotate edge, the
circular plate theory gives results that are quite insensitive vs. variations
G G
of plate rigidity.

The theory assumes that the flange is a circular plate.

F
∑ Fbolts
bolts

H G0 = is the gasket load for the case no pressure, no
2π a
a

G

Fpressure
F bolts
H G ( p) = H G0 −
2π a
HG (p) Fpressure HG (p) Fpressure = π a 2 p
and
ap
G=2a H G ( p) = H G 0 −
2

F
F bolts
F
H G ( F) = H G0 −
2π a
HG (F) HG(F)
is the gasket load for the case no pressure, external tensile force.
Remarks: - A tensile force F > 0 is decreasing the gasket load.
G=2a - A compressive force F < 0 is increasing the gasket load.

No pressure, external tensile force

-1-

It results: 4M p= 3 πa pa 4 M a M Vmax = = = 4 πa 3 4 πa 2 M H G ( M ) = H G0 + Vmax cos θ = H G 0 + cos θ πa 2 M min H G ( M ) = H G0 − θ πa 2 is the minimum gasket load for the case no pressure. but H G ( M ) is variable F bolts along the gasket circumference. The gasket load can be described by the following model. paragraph 63 “Circular Plates under Linearly Varying Loads) and π 2  pa  πa 3 p M=4   ∫4 cos θ  (a cos θ) adθ =  4 0 is the moment equation. based on the theory of circular plates. external bending moment. Timoshenko and S. -2- . 1959. Woinowsky-Krieger. Second edition. Understanding the Kellogg Equivalent Pressure Method for piping flanges M A bending moment is changing the gasket load. maxHG (M) minH G(M) G=2a M -p No pressure. external bending moment p a -V V (Vmax) (Vmin) G ds=adθ dθ θ a cosθ G=2a pa V= cos θ is the evaluation of the edge reaction 4 following the circular plate theory (see “Theory of Plates and Shells” by S.