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Understanding the Kellogg Equivalent Pressure Method for piping flanges

M M

F F Remarks
1. This method is a gasket load calculation.
2. This paper counts the gasket load in terms of force per unit
length of circumference, as this approach is usual in the circular plate
a theory.
3. For calculation of the reaction on free-to-rotate edge, the
circular plate theory gives results that are quite insensitive vs. variations
G G
of plate rigidity.

The theory assumes that the flange is a circular plate.

F
∑ Fbolts
bolts

H G0 = is the gasket load for the case no pressure, no
2π a
HG0 HG0 external loads.
a

G

No pressure, no external loads

Fpressure
F bolts
H G ( p) = H G0 −
2π a
is the gasket load for the case internal pressure, no external loads.
HG (p) Fpressure HG (p) Fpressure = π a 2 p
and
ap
G=2a H G ( p) = H G 0 −
2
Internal pressure, no external loads
Remark: A pressure load is decreasing the gasket reaction.

F
F bolts
F
H G ( F) = H G0 −
2π a
HG (F) HG(F)
is the gasket load for the case no pressure, external tensile force.
Remarks: - A tensile force F > 0 is decreasing the gasket load.
G=2a - A compressive force F < 0 is increasing the gasket load.

No pressure, external tensile force

-1-

It results: 4M p= 3 πa pa 4 M a M Vmax = = = 4 πa 3 4 πa 2 M H G ( M ) = H G0 + Vmax cos θ = H G 0 + cos θ πa 2 M min H G ( M ) = H G0 − θ πa 2 is the minimum gasket load for the case no pressure. but H G ( M ) is variable F bolts along the gasket circumference. The gasket load can be described by the following model. paragraph 63 “Circular Plates under Linearly Varying Loads) and π 2  pa  πa 3 p M=4   ∫4 cos θ  (a cos θ) adθ =  4 0 is the moment equation. based on the theory of circular plates. external bending moment. Timoshenko and S. -2- . 1959. Woinowsky-Krieger. Second edition. Understanding the Kellogg Equivalent Pressure Method for piping flanges M A bending moment is changing the gasket load. maxHG (M) minH G(M) G=2a M -p No pressure. external bending moment p a -V V (Vmax) (Vmin) G ds=adθ dθ θ a cosθ G=2a pa V= cos θ is the evaluation of the edge reaction 4 following the circular plate theory (see “Theory of Plates and Shells” by S.

F ) = H G 0 + 2 − πa 2πa G=2a No pressure. i. F ) = H G 0 − 2 − F πa 2πa bolts The maximum gasket load is M F max HG(M.F) max H G (M . Feq pressure F bolts The equivalence is considered in terms of “pressure that gives the same effect as Feq ”. no external loads . F ) = H G ( Feq ) or  M F  Feq H G0 −  2 +  = H G0 − G=2a  πa 2πa  2πa That means: Feq M F No pressure. p eq πa 2 = Feq HG (peq ) HG (peq ) 1  2M  F 2M 4 F 16M 2  = 2 + 3 or p eq = F+ = + πa  a  πa πa a= G πG 2 πG 3 2 G=2a -3- Equivalent pressure. external bending moment and external tensile force IS EQUIVALENT WITH Feq The equivalence is considered in terms of “tensile force that gives the reaction on F bolts gasket equal to the minimum gasket load given by the external loads”: HG (Feq ) HG (Feq ) min H G ( M .e. i. equivalent tensile force = 2+ . 2 πa πa 2 πa 2M 4M Feq = F + =F+ a G Remark: This equivalence is conservative made and is really true just for a point. Understanding the Kellogg Equivalent Pressure Method for piping flanges THE FOLLOWING EQUIVALENCES CAN BE WRITTEN: F The minimum gasket load is M M F min H G (M . not for the entire gasket IS EQUIVALENT WITH circumference.F) min H G(M.e.

The condition H G ( p eq . the minimum gasket load is: F bolts Fpressure + Feq pressure πa 2 (p + peq ) H G (peq . πa 2 πa 1 M F  This load gives a compressive stress for the gasket:  H G0 + 2 −  that may be limited to a b πa 2 πa  maximum stress on the gasket. Internal pressure. This condition is not covered by limiting p + p eq ≤ p RATING . For the compressed loaded part of the flange. F < 0 is a compressive force. the maximum gasket load is: M F max H G ( M .p) HG (peq . F ) = H G0 + 2 − . -4- . Understanding the Kellogg Equivalent Pressure Method for piping flanges GASKET LOAD LIMITS Fpressure Feq pressure For the tensile loaded part of the flange. equivalent pressure versus the limit given by the rating pressure FRATING pressure F bolts πa 2 p RATING H G ( p RATING ) = H G0 − 2π a HG (pRATING ) HG (pRATING ) G=2a The gasket tightness condition means to accept for the gasket load only values that are greater than the value corresponding to the rating pressure. where F > 0 is a tensile force. p) ≥ H G ( p RATING ) means p + p eq ≤ p RATING .p) = H G 0 − = HG0 − 2π a 2π a HG (peq .p) This load must be limited to the value corresponding to G=2a the rating pressure.