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Introduction

• Name of Trainer : Keng Tan


• Email address : keng@altec.vic.edu.au
• Training Days
– Wed (9 – 5:00 pm)
– Thu (9 – 3:00 pm)
– Sat (9 – 5:00 pm)
– Classes to start at 10 am to 12 pm. Tutorial
– Classes continue from 1:00 – 3:00 pm. Research
BSBRES401 - Analyse and present research
information
BSBRES401 - Analyse and present research
information

At the end of this presentation, you will be able to:

1. Gather and organise information

2. Research and analyse information

3. Present information
Introduction
• Organisations rely on a wide range of
information to assist decision-making.
Decisions directly affect the operations or
structure of a team or department; the goals
and objectives of an organisation and its
success or failure.

• It is vital that businesses and their staff have


access to the information they need in order
to make sound decisions. To make informed
decisions, it is essential that businesses have
access to information that is relevant, accurate
and current.
1. Gather and organise information

1.1. Gather and organise information in line with


established organisational requirements
1.2. Access information held by the organisation
1.3. Ensure that methods of collecting information are
reliable
1.4. Identify research requirements for combining online
research with non-electronic sources of information
1.5. Use business technology to access, organise and
monitor information
1.6. Update, modify, maintain and store information, in
accordance with organisational requirements
1.1 Gather and organise information

Organisational requirements may include:


– information protocols
– legal and organisational policies,
guidelines and requirements
– management and accountability channels
– WHS policies, procedures and programs
– procedures for updating records
– quality assurance and/or procedures
manuals
– security and confidentiality requirements
1.1 Gather and organise information

Organisational requirements may include:


– anti-discrimination and related policy
– business and performance plans
– Code of Conduct/Code of Ethics
– defined resource parameters
– ethical standards
– goals, objectives, plans, systems and
processes
1.1 Gather and organise information

Legal & Organisational Requirements

• Laws providing a range of grounds for an individual to


Anti-
lodge a complaint if they feel they have been
Discrimination
discriminated against on the basis of age, race, sex or
Law
disability

• Ethical principles are focused on values such as trust,


Ethical good behaviour, fairness and kindness. Organisations
Principles set their own standards which apply to the way
information is collected.
1.1 Gather and organise information

Legal & Organisational Requirements

• Many organisations comply with international or industry


quality standards, such as ISO 9001
Quality
• The focus is on continual improvement and involve
Standards
reviewing and monitoring work processes in order to
improve the efficiency of the organisation.

• Under these laws, you will need to be careful how you


Privacy handle, store and dispose of personal information.
Law • You may be required to keep certain information
confidential
1.1 Gather and organise information

Legal & Organisational Requirements

• Set of ethical principles guiding the way the


Codes of
organisation operates. This will affect how you would
Practice
go about collecting your information.

• Each workplace have its own policies and procedures


Workplace
on how information is collected and stored, security
Policies /
and confidentiality of information, and disposal of
Procedures
information etc

• Business plans will provide you with guidance on your


Business
key objectives and targets. Eg. Goals, strategies,
Plans
resource plan, key performance indicators, budgets
1.1 Gather and organise information

Information types
• Before you can analyse and present
information, you first need to find the
information.

• The type of information you are looking for


depends on your organisation and its
particular research requirement.

• Your role – especially its level and focus –


may also influence the kind of information
you need to collect.
1.1 Gather and organise information
Here are examples of the types of information required for
different areas of an organisation
1.1 Gather and organise information

• To stay competitive, business need to gather


information about their performance, staff,
customers, competitors and technology.

• Information may include:


– demographic data
– service delivery records
– computer databases (library catalogue, customer
records, subscription database, internet)
– computer files (letters, memos and other
documents)
– correspondence (faxes, memos, letters, email)
– financial figures
1.1 Gather and organise information

Information may include:


– forms (insurance forms, membership
forms)
– information on training needs
– invoices (from suppliers, to debtors)
– marketing reports/plans/budgets
– personnel records (personal details, salary
rates)
– production targets
– sales records (monthly forecasts, targets
achieved)
1.1 Gather and organise information

Types of Data
• Primary and Secondary data

• Primary Data
– Collected first hand
– Eg. Notes from observations, interviews, surveys,
questionnaires

• Secondary Data
– Someone else has collected the information
– Eg. Published articles, newsletters, journals,
magazines, published statistics and books
1.1 Gather and organise information

Qualitative & Quantitative data

• Qualitative Data
– Information regarding opinions and beliefs
– Provides detailed description of how things are perceived
– Hard to turn into statistics

• Quantitative Data
– Information expressed in figures and amounts
– Explains how many people share a view or do something
– Does not provide detail such as why.
1.2 Access accurate and relevant
information

• Your workplace will have a lot of information

• Finding the appropriate information that is


relevant to your research topic might be
challenging

• Be clear about the type of information you are


looking for.

• This will help you to sort through all the data


available and make decisions about what is
relevant.
1.2 Access accurate and relevant
information
Check Information
• Once collected, you need to check the validity of
it, including the clarity, accuracy, currency and
relevance.

• Consider the following questions:


– Who is the author? And credentials?
– What information is available from source?
– Where did author get their information?
– Are they any references? Date? Reason for document?
– Does the resource provide all the information you
need?
1.3 Reliable methods of collecting
information
Conducting extensive surveys and holding
interviews can become costly. Similarly, any
length of time spent researching is going to
cost the organisation money.

Checklists:
• Plan your research carefully
• Be clear of research topic up front
• Have a clear question in mind will enable
you to quickly determine what information
is relevant and what can be ignored.
1.3 Reliable methods of collecting
information

Methods of collecting information includes:

– checking research provided by others

– checking written material including


referrals and client files

– individual research

– information from other organisations

– interviews with community members,


colleagues/customers
1.3 Reliable methods of collecting
information

Methods of collecting information includes:


– observation and listening
– previous file records
– questioning (in person or indirect)
– recruitment applications and other forms
1.4 Requirements for combining online research
with non-electronic sources of information

• When gathering information the sources that you use


will likely call for a combination of online research with
non-electronic sources of information.

• Internet Research
– Provides a great avenue for finding information
– Must be aware, it is a public domain
– Anyone can post information
– You must investigate the source to ensure it is valid and
reliable
1.4 Requirements for combining online research
with non-electronic sources of information

• Internet Research
– Check Author
• Be wary of sites that do not list an author
• Difficult to validate the source
• If author is listed, check the following:
Verify their experience and educational
background
Check that they have had previous publications
Verify that they are employed by a research
agency or educational facility
1.4 Requirements for combining online research
with non-electronic sources of information
• Internet Research
– Check URL / Web Address
• Provides information about the source
• Address ending with .edu is most likely from an
educational institution. Information should be
accurate but may have political bias

• Address ending with .gov are mostly


government websites. Information are reliable
and often provide accurate links.

• Sites ending with .org are usually not-for-profit


organisations. Information is useful but may
have distinct agendas or political bias.
1.4 Requirements for combining online research
with non-electronic sources of information

• Online Journals or Magazines


– There are many online journals or magazines
– Reputable ones should provide references or
bibliographies for their articles
– These should refer to non-online sources

• Non-electronic sources of information


– Print books
– Print journals
– Scientific and scholarly research
– Leaflets and brochures
– Knowledgeable people
1.5. Use business technology to access, organise
and monitor information

Most Organisations use business technology to organize and


store their information.
Some systems used include:
– Database tools

– Web-based tools

– Customer analysis tools


1.5. Use business technology to access, organise
and monitor information
Database tools
– Used to organise information so that it can be easily accessed,
managed and updated
– Eg. Database that stores all clients’ contact details and
purchases made
– Data Warehouse
• Used as a central storage area if a business has a wide variety of
information systems or information in different digital formats
• Useful for businesses selling products online
– Data Mining
• Used to sort through information in a database into patterns
• Eg. To determine which customers are most likely to purchase a
particular product
– Reporting Tools
• Used to pull information from the database to interpret in a
particular way
• Eg. Create reports on number of products in a stock
1.5. Use business technology to access, organise
and monitor information

Web-based tools
• An application that is usable only with an active Internet
connection and that uses HTTP as its primary
communications protocol. Also called web application.
• Eg. Email, webmail, online retail sales, online auction, IM services
• Business Intelligence Portal
– Websites that bring together potentially useful information
– Eg. Legal information or details of new research
• Internet
– Internet and search engines provide excess to a wealth of knowledge
• Intranet
– Computer network using internet protocol technology to securely share
information within an organisation
• Extranet
– Internet that allows extended use to customers and stakeholders
outside of the organisation
1.5. Use business technology to access, organise
and monitor information

Customer analysis tools


• Customer analytics is a process by which data from customer
behavior is used to help make key business decisions via market
segmentation and predictive analytics.
• Eg. Tools involve credit card purchases, magazine subscriptions,
loyalty card membership, surveys, and voter registration.
• Call centre systems
– Telephone systems that enable the organisation to communicate
with a large numbers of customers
• Website Log file analysis
– Helps to analyse how your customers use your website to gauge
effectiveness of website
• Other systems
– Helps to analyse and file customer correspondence, suggestions,
emails, responses and phone calls.
– Spot trends, improve customer service and develop new products
and services
1.6. Update, modify, maintain and store
information

• Information that has been collected and


assessed for relevance to the organisation’s
activities is usually stored for future use, or
passed on to another person for use within the
organisation.

• These records must be stored in their correct


place directly after using them, so that they
can easily be located when needed again.

• Records are often stored for many years, so the


storage system needs to keep records in good
condition, secure and accessible.
1.6. Update, modify, maintain and store
information

Your organisation may have different systems for storing:


• print documents
• electronic documents
• confidential documents
• archive documents.

• Archives are old documents that are kept in long-term


storage. These documents cannot be destroyed, for
legal or other reasons, before a specified date.

• Much of the stored information should be kept


confidential, and your organisation will have developed
policies and procedures relating to storing and
disclosing of information, based on privacy legislation
and regulations
1.6. Update, modify, maintain and store
information

• Most organisations have a system in place to


manage their information. These systems
monitor the information and its uses.

• Systems may include:


– File movement registers to track files
– File movement “Out cards”
– Barcode systems : who borrowed and when
– Intranet system to search for files
– Extranet where clients can access company
information
– Directories and sub-directories within company’s
network where information is stored
1.6. Update, modify, maintain and store
information

• File security
– This protects stored information from
unauthorized access, misuse, disclosure,
disruption, modification, perusal, recording or
destruction
– Includes administrative controls, such as
policies and procedures
– Logical controls such as software to monitor
access
– Physical controls to protect workplace and
infrastructures
– Network security / Application security
– Access control
– Encryptions
2. Research and analyse information

• 2.1. Clearly define objectives of research

• 2.2. Ensure that data and research strategies used are


valid and relevant

• 2.3. Identify key words and phrases for use as part of


any online search strategy, including the use of Boolean
operators and other search tools

• 2.4. Use reliable methods of data analysis

• 2.5. Ensure that assumptions and conclusions used in


analyses are consistent with research and business
objectives
2. Research and analyse information

• 2.1. Clearly define objectives of research ensuring consistency


with organisational requirements

• Objectives of research includes:


– comparative analysis
– hypothesis testing
– identification of trends
– industry pricing policies
– process mapping
– situational diagnosis
2.1 Objectives of research

Comparative analysis
• The item-by-item comparison of two or more comparable
alternatives, processes, products, qualifications, sets of data,
systems, or the like.
• In accounting, for example, changes in a financial statement's items over
several accounting periods may be presented together to detect the
emerging trends in the company's operations and results.
2.1 Objectives of research

Hypothesis testing
• A process by which an analyst tests a statistical hypothesis.
The methodology employed by the analyst depends on the
nature of the data used, and the goals of the analysis. The
goal is to either accept or reject the null hypothesis.

Example of a null hypothesis:


There is no statistically significant relationship between the
type of water I feed the flowers and growth of the flowers.

A researcher is challenged by the null hypothesis and usually


wants to disprove it, to demonstrate that there is a
statistically-significant relationship between the two
variables in the hypothesis.
2.1 Objectives of research

Identification of trends
• Trend analysis is the process of comparing business
data over time to identify any consistent results or
trends. You can then develop a strategy to respond
to these trends in line with your business goals.

• You can use trend analysis to help improve your


business by:
– identifying areas where your business is performing well
so you can duplicate success
– identifying areas where your business is underperforming
– providing evidence to inform your decision making
2.1 Objectives of research

Pricing strategy
• Refers to method companies use to price their
products or services. Almost all companies, large or
small, base the price of their products and services
on production, labor and advertising expenses and
then add on a certain percentage so they can make
a profit.
2.1 Objectives of research

Process mapping
• A workflow diagram to bring forth a clearer
understanding of a process or series of parallel
processes.
2.1 Objectives of research

Situational diagnosis
A systematic collection and evaluation of past
and present economical, political, social, and
technological data, aimed at:

(1) identification of internal and external forces that


may influence the organization's performance and
choice of strategies, and

(2) assessment of the organization's current and


future strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and
threats. Eg. PEST analysis and SWOT analysis
2.2. Use valid and relevant data and
research strategies

• Clear research objectives help you decide


what type of information you need to
gather, where to look and the information
collection methods to use.

• The data you collect must be valid and


relevant to your research task.

• Information is valid if it is sound,


acceptable and defensible.
2.2. Use valid and relevant data and
research strategies

Use appropriate data


• To ensure you use relevant and valid
information, you need to involve a
number of factors. Here is an overview of
the importance of using appropriate data.
2.2. Use valid and relevant data and
research strategies
2.2. Use valid and relevant data and
research strategies
2.2. Use valid and relevant data and
research strategies

• Research strategies includes:


– data analysis
– documentation reviews
– focus groups
– interviewing colleagues and clients
– online searching
– product sampling
– subscription databases
2.2 Research strategies

Data analysis
Analysis of data is a process of inspecting, cleaning,
transforming, and modelling data with the goal
of discovering useful information, suggesting
conclusions, and supporting decision-making.
2.2 Research strategies

Documentation reviews
Document review is an important business process, requiring
considerable resources. It is often a bottleneck in the
overall document production lifecycle.

Some reviews are simply achieved- for example, if the content


is simple and short and also if only a couple of reviewers are
involved. However, in many cases, the review requires the
input of several others who provide specialist knowledge
and other important input.

This is often referred to as peer review whereby the content is


evaluated by those of similar competence to enhance the
document’s quality, check for accuracy, grammar and so
forth.
2.2 Research strategies

Focus groups
A focus group is a form of qualitative research in which
a group of people are asked about their perceptions,
opinions, beliefs, and attitudes towards a product,
service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging.
2.2 Research strategies

Interviewing colleagues and clients


• An interview is a conversation where questions are
asked and answers are given. It refers to a one-on-
one conversation with one person acting in the role
of the interviewer and the other in the role of the
interviewee.
2.2 Research strategies

Online searching
• Online search is the process of interactively searching
for and retrieving requested information via a
computer from databases that are online
2.2 Research strategies

Product sampling
• Product sampling methods generally
involves products being given away as
freebies to customers to attract the
customer and build trust on the product.

• There are various kinds of product


sampling. Dry sampling as well as Wet
sampling are basically methods which
invite a customer to test the product.

• Dry sampling mainly addresses the mass


market through super markers and events.
Wet sampling is more specific.
2.2 Research strategies

Subscription databases
A database is a collection of information that is
organized so that it can easily be accessed, managed,
and updated. In one view, databases can be classified
according to types of content: bibliographic, full-text,
numeric, and images.
2.3 Identify Key Words & Phrases

Key words and phrases


– American spellings when searching online
– cultural or geographic terms
– using different thesauri in different databases
2.3. Use Boolean Operators
Enable you to narrow or expand your Keyword results.
– exclude - / NOT
• Narrows discards any record containing the NOT word you specify

– include +/ AND
• Narrows the terms you use must both occur in the same work,
although they can occur in different fields (such as in Author and
Subject fields).
– Or
• Expands the terms you use can occur in the same or different
works

– phrase searching " "/( )


• search on a phase and have the words be immediately next to one
another and in the order you type them if you place the words in
double quotes
2.3. Use Boolean Operators
2. Research and analyse information

• 2.4. Use reliable methods of data analysis that are


suitable to research purposes
– Methods of data analysis
• data sampling
• feedback on results
• peer review
• review of previous research
• statistical analysis
2.4 Methods of data analysis

Data sampling
• Data sampling is a statistical analysis technique used
to select, manipulate and analyze a representative
subset of data points in order to identify patterns
and trends in the larger data set being examined.
2.4 Methods of data analysis

Feedback on results
Information about reactions to a product, a person's
performance of a task, etc. which is used as a basis for
improvement
2.4 Methods of data analysis

Peer review
• Evaluation of work by one or more people
of similar competence to the producers of
the work (peers).

• It constitutes a form of self-regulation by


qualified members of a profession within
the relevant field.

• Peer review methods are employed to


maintain standards of quality, improve
performance, and provide credibility
2.4 Methods of data analysis

Review of previous research


• A literature review is a critical and in depth
evaluation of previous research.

• It is a summary and synopsis of a particular


area of research, allowing anybody reading
the paper to establish why you are pursuing
this particular research program.

• A good literature review expands upon the


reasons behind selecting a particular
research question.
2.4 Methods of data analysis

Statistical analysis
• Statistical analysis is a component of
data analytics.

• It involves collecting and scrutinizing


every data sample in a set of items
from which samples can be drawn.

• A sample, in statistics, is a
representative selection drawn from a
total population.
2.5 Ensure that assumptions and conclusions used
in analyses are consistent with research
and business objectives
• Business objectives include:
– community capacity building
– community development
– service provision
– business planning
– financial performance
– flexibility, responsiveness
– interpersonal communication
– marketing and customer service
– organisational values and behaviours
– people management
– work procedures and quality assurance manuals
3. Present information

3.1. Present recommendations and issues in an appropriate


format, style and structure using suitable business
technology

3.2. Structure and format reports in a clear manner that


conforms to organisational requirements

3.3. Report and distribute research findings in accordance


with organisational requirements

3.4. Obtain feedback and comments on suitability and


sufficiency of findings in accordance with organisational
requirements
3.1 Format, style and structure
• Headers and Footers
– Include these in your report
– Add words or pictures to header or footer
– Add page numbers

• Graphics and Pictures


– Helps illustrate your point
– Break up text to make it more readable
– Pictures chosen must be relevant and serve a purpose

• Symbols and Legends


– Include legends to explain symbols representing words or ideas
– Box up your legends usually placed in a corner

• Tables and Charts


– Present complex information in a readable way
3.2 Structure the report
A general research report should be divided into the following
broad divisions:
 Preliminary material
• Report title
• Contents page – Major headings with page numbers

 Body of the report


• Introduction
– Describe briefly what report is about
– Describe objectives and a reason for the research
• Literature review
– Provide an overview of other research conducted in this
field or of relevance
• Methodology
– Explains how you conducted the research. Include all
methods used
3.2 Structure the report
• Results
– Provide an overview of your results containing your raw
data and highlight the key findings
• Discussion
– Explain the relevance of your results
– Explain how your results compared with the other research
• Conclusion
– Summarise your key findings
• Recommendations
– Explain what needs to be done as a result of your findings

 Supplementary material
• Include a bibliography or references page
• Include appendices such as raw data or transcripts from
interviews
3.3 Distribute research findings

• Once your report is finished, you will need to present it.


• Some examples may include:

 Making a presentation to key stakeholders


 Making copies of your report available to all
relevant staff members
 Providing the report to your manager
 Preparing a summary of your report for
publication in a newsletter or on the
organisation’s website
3.4. Seek feedback
Once you have presented your research, it is important
to seek feedback on your research in order to:
– Plan for the future
– Make better decisions
– Measure performance
– Identify new opportunities

Types of Feedback
– audit documentation and reports
– comments from community, board members, clients and
colleagues
– customer satisfaction questionnaires
– quality assurance data
– returned goods
Assessment Plan