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Project report on

Measurements and Control



Submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of

Akhil Sodani
Under the supervision of
Mr. H.K.Gupta
Manager, Instrumentation
Hindustan Zinc Ltd., Dariba



It’s a great pleasure to present this report of summer training in HINDUSTAN ZINC LIMITED
(DARIBA) in partial fulfillment of B-TECH Program under Jaipur Engineering College and
Research Centre, affiliated to Rajasthan Technical University, Kota. At the outset, I would like to
express my immense gratitude to my training guide Mr. H.K.Gupta. For guiding me right from the
inception till the successful completion of the training.
I am falling short of words for expressing my feelings of gratitude towards him for extending his
valuable guidance about technology, equipments and support for literature, critical reviews of
project and the report and above all the moral support he had provided me with all stages of this
I would also like to thank my friends and all my group members for their help and cooperation
throughout the training.

Akhil Sodani
(IV year, ECE Dept)
(JECRC, Jaipur)

The summer training of a engineering student pays an important role in developing has as a well-
groomed professional. It allows a student to give theoretical concepts a practical stand in the
field of application. It gives the candidate an idea of dynamic & versatile professional world as
well as exposure to the intricacies and complexities of corporate world.
Doing the summer training at HINDUSTAN ZINC LIMITED was a great experience. An
opening experience to the concepts of engineering which helped me lot in understanding the
concepts that are applied in the organization. This organization since its inception has progressed
a lot & is walking on the guidelines of success .As the organization is marching with the
tenacious speed towards the horizon.
In a period of 45 days exposure to the corporate environment, I got a learning of organizational
structure, its protocols, etc. Real learning places its worth only when it gives sweet fruits in
future. Summer training is one way to learn at work. I enjoyed the interesting experience and
every part of it.

1. Introduction
2. History
3. Market strength
4. About Hindustan Zinc Limited, Dariba
5. Zinc Plant
 Roasting Plant
 Leaching Plant
 Cell House
6. Instrumentation
 Temperature Detectors
 Pressure Transducers
 Level Detectors
 Flow Detectors
7. Level Transmitter
 Principle of operation
 Specifications of level transmitter
 Lab Results
8. Industrial Automation
9. Conclusion
10. References

India is a country of large dimension. It spreads over a geographical area of 3.29 million Square
Kilometers, which is about 2.5% of the globe and makes the country the seventh largest in the
world. India is Asia’s third and worlds eleventh largest economy.
India produces as many as 84 minerals compromising 4 fuels, 11 metallic, and 49 non-metallic
industrial and 20 miner minerals. Their aggregate production in 2004-2005 as about 600 million
tones, contribution by over 3,100 mines (reporting mines) producing coal, lignite, limestone, iron
ore, bauxite, cooper lead, zinc etc. the aggregate value of mineral production in 2004-2005 was
more than Rs. 450 billion ( app. $10 billion ).
The minerals policy opened the gates of Indian minerals industry to domestics and foreign
investment, much of which was earlier reserved for the public sector. It aims to boost the
country’s exploration and mining efforts and render the mineral industry more competitive.
There are following player’s deals in mineral and mining sector-

Hindustan Zinc Limited was incorporated from the erstwhile Metal Corporation of India on 10
January 1966 as a Public Sector Undertaking.
In April 2002, Sterlite Opportunities and Ventures Limited (SOVL) made an open offer for
acquisition of shares of the company; consequent to the disinvestment of Government of India's
(GOI) stake of 26% including management control to SOVL and acquired additional 20% of
shares from public, pursuant to the SEBI Regulations 1997. In August 2003, SOVL acquired
additional shares to the extent of 18.92% of the paid up capital from GOI in exercise of "call
option" clause in the share holder's agreement between GOI and SOVL.
With the above additional acquisition, SOVL's stake in the company has gone up to 64.92%.
Thus GOI's stake in the company now stands at 29.54%.

Our sustainable strategy aligns with the overall business strategy and reflects a clear
understanding of the needs and expectations of our key stakeholders.
The key drivers of our approach are: proactive engagement with our stakeholders; attracting and
retaining the best talent; our provision of a safe and healthy working environment; focus on
using environmentally friendly technologies and drive to conserve natural resources. We have a
set of ambitious targets to optimize our natural resources usage. Water and energy conservation
performance has been promising and has exceeded our targets in some instances.
Our people are our valued asset and our vision is to build a flexible, agile and flat organization
with world-class capabilities and a high-performance culture.
We are committed to achieving the best practices in health safety and environment at all of our
sites. Our systems are well established and are regularly reviewed and monitored taking into
account our own experiences and industry best practices. We believe we have a responsibility to
engage with the communities in which we operate and to foster their social and economic
development. These principles are embedded across the organization and are a key element of
our employee training, development and performance at all levels.
Through this strategy we are dedicated to meeting our sustainable development challenges. We
have a well defined sustainable development framework that comprises of governance structures
and policies, that act as pillars and supports our sustainable development endeavor.

Hindustan Zinc Limited (HZL) is an integrated mining and resources producer

of zinc, lead, silver and cadmium. It is a subsidiary of Vedanta Resources PLC. HZL is the
world's second largest zinc production.
HZL operates the world's third largest open-pit mine, and World's largest Zinc Mine in Rampura,
Agucha in Rajasthan. Other mines with HZL are located in Sindesar Khurd, Rajpura, Dariba,
Kayar and Zawar, all in Rajasthan. HZL is also the world's lowest cost zinc producer. HZL
operates Zinc and Lead smelters and refineries at Chanderiya (Chittorgarh), Debari (Udaipur) &
Dariba (Rajsamand) in Rajasthan and at Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh.
Hindustan Zinc Limited was incorporated from the erstwhile Metal Corporation of India on 10th
January 1966 as a Public Sector Undertaking. In April 2002, Sterlite Industries (India) Limited
made an open offer for acquisition of shares of the company consequent to the disinvestment of
Government of India’s stake (26%) including management control to Sterlite and pursuant to the
regulations of SEBI Regulations 1997 acquired additional 20% of shares from public.
HZL is India’s only integrated Zinc Company, operating from mine to finished metal and
supplied around 73% of India’s zinc requirements in 2005-06. At the base of the company is the
Rampura Agucha mine with its low cost and consistently high grade ore. The Smelter complex in
Dariba was started in 2009.
Dariba smelter Complex (DSC) is divided as following
1. Zinc Plant
2. Lead Plant
3. Captive Power Plant(CPP)

Zinc Smelter Complex (Zinc Plant) is further divided into three areas:
• Roaster
• Leaching
• Cell House

In Roasting Plant, oxidation of zinc sulfide concentrates at high temperatures into an impure zinc
oxide, called "Calcine". The chemical reactions taking place during the process are:

Approximately 90% of zinc in concentrates is oxidized to zinc oxide, but at the roasting
temperatures around 10% of the zinc reacts with the iron impurities of the zinc sulfide
concentrates to form zinc ferrite. A byproduct of roasting is sulfur dioxide, which is further
processed into sulfuric acid. Zinc oxide obtained is then sent in leaching plant for further
Firstly, zinc sulphide after ore concentration process is sent to furnace .There at 920-950 degree
temperature zinc sulphide combustion takes place producing calcine. Further oxidation of SO 2
maintains the temperature range, and then SO 3 is sent to acid plant for production of sulphuric
acid. HZL, Dariba has 2 roaster units R4 and R5. Zinc Sulphide Concentrate is introduced
directly into the roaster and roasted in a turbulent layer, largely consisting of roasted material
especially Zinc Oxide (ZnO). This layer has been heated to ignition temperature by thee
preheating device. The desired reaction is maintained by an exothermic reaction of Sulfide
Concentrate and air in the turbulent layer.
The surplus reaction heat is taken out of the roaster bed by cooling elements installed in the
turbulent layer in the form of evaporator heating surfaces connected to the Waste Heat Boiler.
The waste heat is further utilized to generate electricity of about 9.6MW which is used in the
Roaster part of plant also divided as follows:
1. Raw Material Handling (RMH)
2. Roaster
3. Waste Heat Recovery Boiler (WHRB)
4. Hot Gas Precipitator (HGP)
5. Gas Cleaning Plant (GCP)
6. Sulphuric Acid Plant (SAP)
7. Acid Loading Plant
The utilization of sulphur containing gases after zinc concentrate roasting is carried out at the
sulphuric acid plant resulting in marketable sulphuric acid.
For the treatment of Sulphur Dioxide (SO 2 ) in the roasting off-gas, by passing through the Gas
Drying Tower, the Sulphur Dioxide (SO 2 ), cooled and saturated with water vapor, comes in
direct contact with concentrated acid. Sulfuric Acid (H2 SO 4 ) of this concentration is very
hygroscopic (absorbs waters) and the gas is practically free from water vapor after leaving the
Drying Tower.
After the Drying Tower, the Sulphur Dioxide (SO 2 ) has to be converted into Sulfur Trioxide
(SO3 ) to allow the production of Sulphuric Acid (H2 SO4 ) according to the following reactions:
SO2 + 1/2 O2 → SO3
SO3 + H20 → H2SO4
Gas coming out of hot gas precipitator has 7-8%of SO 2 at 330 degree Celsius.SO 2 gas is passed
through scrubbing tower, which has sedimentation tank and SO 2 stripper & wet gas precipitator.
In presence of V2 O5 , oleum is formed which further gives H2 SO 4 .

The calcine is first leached in a neutral or slightly acidic solution (of sulphuric acid) in order to
leach the zinc out of the zinc oxide. The remaining calcine is then leached in strong sulfuric acid
to leach the rest of the zinc out of the zinc oxide and zinc ferrite. The result of this process is a
solid and a liquid; the liquid contains the zinc and is often called leach product. There is also
iron in the leach product from the strong acid leach, which is removed in an intermediate step, in
the form of jarosite. Jarosite is a waste therefore it is sent to Effluent treatment plant. There is
still cadmium, copper, arsenic, antimony, cobalt, germanium and nickel in the leach product.
Therefore it needs to be purified.
The basic leaching chemical formula that drives this process is:
ZnO +H2SO4→ZnSO4 + H2O
MeO + H2SO4→MeSO4+ H2O
Me→ Metals other than Zinc present in concentration
Leaching Area is distributed in following buildings:
1. Weak acid leaching building
2. Jarosite precipitation building
3. Purification building
4. Gypsum removal building
It uses zinc dust, Potassium Antimony Tartarate (PAT) and steam to remove copper, cadmium,
cobalt, and nickel, which would interfere with the electrolysis process. After purification,
concentrations of these impurities are limited to less than 0.02 milligram per liter Purification is
usually conducted in large agitated tanks called Pachukas. The process takes place at
temperatures ranging from 40 to 85 °C (104 to 185 °F). The zinc sulfate solution must be very
pure for electrolysis to be at all efficient. Impurities can change the decomposition voltage
enough to where the electrolysis cell produces largely hydrogen gas rather than zinc metal.
That’s the reason zinc sulphide is passed through various thickeners and then hot filter beds
where the zinc sulphate goes with the solution as it is soluble. This ZnSO 4 solution has pH of 5
which is then sent to electrolysis process.
Zinc calcine, leach solutions and cell house acid are mixed in 11 agitated tanks which are
controlled to varied pH, from 2 to 5, by additions of cell house acid or calcine. Continuous pH
monitoring is facilitated by submerged pH cells in controlled tanks.
After leaching, the acid leach slurry is distributed to four 24-m thickeners where the leach
residues are separated from the clear zinc sulphate solution. The residues are filtered and washed
before being pumped to the Lead Smelter for further processing to recover zinc and other metals.
These recovered metals are recycled as a fume to the zinc circuit through the Oxide Leach Plant.
Clear zinc sulphate solution flows continuously from the thickeners to the zinc dust purification
circuit. Solution flow rate from this circuit is approximately 450 m/h. An increase in acid
concentration from 3 to 4% resulted in a 5% increase in recovery. The higher the concentration
of the acid the better the dissolution of the zinc, so zinc is recovered mostly.

Zinc is extracted from the purified zinc sulfate solution by electro winning, which is a
specialized form of electrolysis. The process works by passing an electric current through the
solution in a series of cells. This causes the zinc to deposit on the cathodes (aluminum sheets)
and oxygen to form at the anodes. Every 24 to 48 hours, each cell is shut down, the zinc-coated
cathodes are removed and rinsed, and the zinc is mechanically stripped from the aluminum
A portion of the electrical energy is converted into heat, which increases the temperature of the
electrolyte. A portion of the electrolyte is continuously circulated through the cooling towers
both to cool and concentrate the electrolyte through evaporation of water. The cooled and
concentrated electrolyte is then recycled to the cells. This process accounts for approximately
one-third of all the energy usage when smelting zinc.
Zinc contained in the purified Zinc Sulphate (ZnSO 4 ) is recovered as metal in the Electrolysis
Plant. Zinc Electro-Winning is a method of depositing Zinc Metal (Zn) on the surface of
Aluminum Sheet (Al) in cell by passing electric current through the cell. The thickness of Zinc
Plating depends on the time spent in the electrolysis cell, the amount of current, and the chemical
composition of the cell.
The electrolysis cells are arranged in one electrical circuit of two rows of cells each. The circuit
is serviced by two transformer rectifiers that are connected in parallel by Aluminum (Al) and
Copper (Cu) bush bars. The cells are connected in series while the Anode/Cathode System in
each cell is in parallel.
Principle electrolysis reaction:
ZnSO4 + electricity →Zn++ + SO4 --
Zn++ + 2e- →Zn

Temperature Detectors
The hotness or coldness of a piece of plastic, wood, metal, or other material depends upon the
molecular activity of the material. Kinetic energy is a measure of the activity of the atoms which
make up the molecules of any material. Therefore, temperature is a measure of the kinetic energy
of the material in question.
Resistance temperature detectors (RTD)
The resistance of an RTD varies directly with temperature:
- As temperature increases, resistance increases.
- As temperature decreases, resistance decreases.
RTDs are constructed using a fine, pure, metallic, spring-like wire surrounded by an insulator
and enclosed in a metal sheath.
A change in temperature will cause an RTD to heat or cool, producing a proportional change in
resistance. The change in resistance is measured by a precision device that is calibrated to give
the proper temperature reading.

Thermocouples will cause an electric current to flow in the attached circuit when subjected to
changes in temperature .The amount of current that will be produced is dependent on the
temperature difference between the measurement and reference junction; the characteristics of
the two metals used; and the characteristics of the attached circuit.
Heating the measuring junction of the thermocouple produces a voltage which is greater than the
voltage across the reference junction. The difference between the two voltages is proportional to
the difference in temperature and can be measured on the voltmeter (in mill volts). For ease of
operator use, some voltmeters are set up to read out directly in temperature through use of
electronic circuitry.
Pressure Transducers
Bellows-Type Detectors
The need for a pressure sensing element that was extremely sensitive to low pressures and
provided power for activating recording and indicating mechanisms resulted in the development
of the metallic bellows pressure sensing element. The metallic bellows is most accurate when
measuring pressures from 0.5 to 75 psig. However, when used in conjunction with a heavy range
spring, some bellows can be used to measure pressures of over 1000 psig.

Basic Metallic Bellows

The bourdon tube consists of a thin-walled tube that is flattened diametrically on opposite sides
to produce a cross-sectional area elliptical in shape, having two long flat sides and two short
round sides. The tube is bent lengthwise into an arc of a circle of 270 to 300 degrees. Pressure
applied to the inside of the tube causes distention of the flat sections and tends to restore its
original round cross-section. This change in cross-section causes the tube to straighten slightly.
Since the tube is permanently fastened at one end, the tip of the tube traces a curve that is the
result of the change in angular position with respect to the center. Within limits, the movement of
the tip of the tube can then be used to position a pointer or to develop an equivalent electrical
signal to indicate value of the applied internal pressure.
Level Detectors
Gauge Glass
Gauge glasses made from tubular glass or plastic are used for service up to 450 psig and 400°F.
If it is desired to measure the level of a vessel at higher temperatures and pressures, a different
type of gauge glass is used. The type of gauge glass utilized in this instance has a body made of
metal with a heavy glass or quartz section for visual observation of the liquid level. The glass
section is usually flat to provide strength and safety.

Gauge Glass

Ball Float
The operation of the ball float is simple. The ball floats on top of the liquid in the tank. If the
liquid level changes, the float will follow and change the position of the pointer attached to the
rotating shaft.
Ball Float Level Mechanism

Flow Detectors

Head Flow Meter

Head flow meters operate on the principle of placing a restriction in the line to cause a
differential pressure head. The differential pressure, which is caused by the head, is measured
and converted to a flow measurement. Industrial applications of head flow meters incorporate a
pneumatic or electrical transmitting system for remote readout of flow rate. Generally, the
indicating instrument extracts the square root of the differential pressure and displays the flow
rate on a linear indicator.

Electromagnetic flow meter

The electromagnetic flow meter is similar in principle to the generator. The rotor of the generator
is replaced by a pipe placed between the poles of a magnet so that the flow of the fluid in the
pipe is normal to the magnetic field. As the fluid flows through this magnetic field, an
electromotive force is induced in it that will be mutually normal (Perpendicular) to both the
magnetic field and the motion of the fluid. This electromotive force may be measured with the
aid of electrodes attached to the pipe and connected to a galvanometer or an equivalent. For a
given magnetic field, the induced voltage will be proportional to the average velocity of the
fluid. However, the fluid should have some degree of electrical conductivity.

Level measurement technology based on the non-contacting ultrasonic principle is especially

suited for applications where, for any reason, no physical contact can be established to the
surface of the material to be measured.
Such reasons may include corrosive attack by the process medium against the measuring device
material (acids), possible contamination (sewage) or particles of the process medium adhering to
the measuring device(adhesive materials).

Principle of Operation
The ultrasonic level metering technology is based on the principle of measuring the time required
for the ultrasound pulses to make a round trip from the sensor to the level to be measured and
back. The sensor emits an ultrasonic pulse train and receives the echoes reflected. The intelligent
electronic device processes the received signal by selecting the echo reflected by the surface and
calculates from the time of flight the distance between the sensor and the surface which
constitutes the basis of all output signals of the EchoTREK.
The beam angle for level transmitter is 5° to 7°.

Ultrasonic Level Transmitter

Data logger of Level Transmitter
The logger of the device can store 12288 events. The registry is in a non-volatile (FLASH)
memory, so the registry will retain its contents even in case of a power failure. The on-board
clock of the device is protected against short power-outs, and keeps working for at least 15 days
after the device is switched off. The battery protecting the clock needs at least two hours to be
The logger operates in two basic ways.
Linear logging, where by an entry is logged after every time period is configured.
Event-controlled logging, where by an entry is logged after an internal event occurs or condition
is fulfilled.

Specifications of EchoTREK SBB-49N-1 level transmitter:

Power supply: 85.255V AC
Output: 4 to 20mA
Ambient temperature: -25 °C to +75°C
Medium temperature: -30°C to +90°C
This level transmitter can be calibrated to output 4mA to 0% level of tank and 20mA to when
100% tank is filled and all corresponding values are calculated according to level of tank.

Lab results of ultrasonic level transmitter (LT)

This lab test is done considering ground level as level of liquid and moving the LT on the 2m
scale and measures the distance, level of liquid and current output. This study is about the
ultrasonic Level Transmitter and uses it in the 2 meter long tank for level measurement, distance
and output current according to the level of tank.
Power Supply →110 volts
Maximum measuring distance of device → 2.0 meters
Maximum measuring range of device →1.8 meters
Blocking distance →0.2 meters*
Damping time → 60 seconds
Minimum measuring distance →0.2 meters
Lab results of SBB-49N-1 level transmitter

Distance (m) Level(m) Current(mA)(output)

1.196 0.605 8.06
1.101 0.698 8.99
1.001 0.798 9.97
0.901 0.898 10.99
0.803 0.996 11.96
0.798 1.001 12.01
0.607 1.192 13.92
0.402 1.397 15.97
0.300 1.499 16.99
0.297 1.502 17.02
0.258 1.541 17.41
0.203 1.696 17.96
0.200 1.601 18.01
0.191** - FAIL
0.150** - FAIL
0.102** - FAIL

*after this distance i.e. 200mm no result is found out as shown in table.
**these distance are measured mannually.
When this level transmitter is touched to ground LCD displays no Echo and FAIL.
All these results are taken in the lab.

PLC (Programmable Logic Controller)

Digital electronic device that uses a programmable memory to store instructions and to
implement specific functions such as logic ,sequencing, timing etc to control machine and
Salient features
• Cost effective for controlling complex systems.
• Flexible and can be reapplied to control other systems quickly and easily.
• Computational abilities allow more sophisticated control.
• Trouble shooting aids make programming easier and reduce downtime.
• Reliable components make these likely to operate for years before failure.
Step 1- CHECK INPUT STATUS-First the PLC takes a look at each input to determine if it is on
or off. In other words, is the sensor connected to the first input on? How about the second input?
How about the third... It records this data into its memory to be used during the next step.
Step 2- EXECUTE PROGRAM-Next the PLC executes your program one instruction at a time.
Maybe your program said that if the first input was on then it should turn on the first output.
Since it already knows which inputs are on/off from the previous step it will be able to decide
whether the first output should be turned on based on the state of the first input. It will store the
execution results for use later during the next step.
Step 3- UPDATE OUTPUT STATUS-Finally the PLC updates the status of the outputs. It
updates the outputs based on which inputs were on during the first step and the results of
executing your program during the second step. Based on the example in step 2 it would now
turn on the first output because the first input was on and your program said to turn on the first
output when this condition is true.

DCS (Distributed Control System)

A distributed control system (DCS) refers to a control system usually of a manufacturing
system, process or any kind of dynamic system, in which the controller elements are not central
in location (like the brain) but are distributed throughout the system with each component sub-
system controlled by one or more controllers. The entire system of controllers is connected by
networks for communication and monitoring.
DCS is a very broad term used in a variety of industries, to monitor and control distributed
 Electrical power grids and electrical generation plants
 Environmental control systems
 Traffic signals
 radio signals
 Water management systems
 Oil refining plants
 Metallurgical Process Plants
 Chemical plants

It stands for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. It generally refers to an industrial control
system: a computer system monitoring and controlling a process.
Features of SCADA
1. Supervisory Control-Generally speaking, a SCADA system usually refers to a system that
coordinates, but does not control processes in real time.
2. Redundancy-When any device turns out to faulty the SCADA software will automatically
transfer the control to the redundant systems
3. Historical and Real Time Trends
4. Alarm-Alarms can set when a particular hi or low value is breached.
5. LAN Connectivity-It should have good LAN connectivity as it is necessary for connecting to
the ERP.
6. Dynamic Process Graphic-This has brought about revolution in automation as previously
people would not what was going in the system visually.

It was a great experience to be there in HZL for my practical training. During training period, I
certainly learnt a lot about every aspect of this field, right from the working environment to
the technical details of various equipments and process. Every industry functions with the help of
every branch individual whether computer science, mechanical, electronic etc. Relating to my
branch, I certainly learnt a lot about the instruments like ultrasonic level transmitter,
thermocouples, electromagnetic flow meters, pressure transmitters, etc and control systems like
DCS and PLC. To conclude, I would say that it actually showed the practical side of what I have
learnt in my curriculum. Also, it has helped to enhance my sense of professionalism and team

 Training material provided by the Hindustan Zinc limited