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English for Communication 1

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SBLE1032
 

English for Communication 1


Noor Allam Wan Chek
Eni Haziany Hamzah
Norbaizura Baharom

Centre for Professional and Continuing Education (PACE)


Universiti Utara Malaysia
Sintok • 2009

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ISBN 978-967-5311-27-7

First Published, 2009


© Centre for Professional and Continuing Education (PACE)

All right reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced ortransmitted


in any form or by any means, electronically or mechanically, including
photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without
permission in writing from the Centre for Professional and Continuing
Education (PACE), Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 UUM Sintok, Kedah
Darul Aman.

The Self Module Series is one of the teaching and learning mode under the Off-
Campus Studies of Universiti Utara Malaysia. This Self Module Series is to be
improvised and revised during every teaching activity and the distribution of
this Self Module is restricted within the campus of Universiti Utara Malaysia.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface ix
Explanation of Icons xi
Course Description and Objectives xiii

CHAPTER 1

Chapter Objectives 1
1.1 Reading 1
1.1.1 Reading 1 1
1.1.2 Reading 2 4
1.2 Grammar – Present Tense: Using ‘Be’ Verbs 8
1.2.1 Uses of ‘Be’ 8
1.2.2 Sample Writing Using ‘Be’ Verbs 9
1.2.3 Contractions with ‘Be’ 10
1.2.4 Negative Statements with ‘Be’ 11
1.2.5 How the ‘Be’ Verbs are Used 12
1.2.6 Yes/No Questions with ‘Be’ 17
1.3 Subject Pronoun and Object Pronoun 18
1.4 Wh-Questions with ‘Be’ 20
1.5 This, That, These, Those with ‘Be’ 22
1.6 Using Have and Has 23
1.7 Using There + Is/Are 24
1.8 Question and Short Answers Using There 25
1.9 Writing 27
1.9.1 Essay Writing 27
1.9.2 Elements of Good Writing 28
1.9.3 Writing The Simple Sentence 29
1.9.4 Subject-Verb-Complement 31

CHAPTER 2

Chapter Objectives 35
2.1 Reading 35
2.1.1 Reading 1 35
2.1.2 Reading 2 40
2.2 Grammar: The Simple Present Tense 44
2.2.1 Spelling of The –S Form 45
2.3 Comparing Affirmative Statement ‘Be’ Verbs and Action
Verbs 47
2.4 Negative Statements with The Simple Present Tense 48
2.5 Comparing Negative Statements with ‘Be’ and Other
Verbs 49

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2.6 Yes/No Questions and Short Answers with The Present
Tense 50
2.7 Wh-Questions with The Simple Present Tense 52
2.8 Comparing Wh-Questions – ‘Be’ and Other Verbs 55
2.9 Frequency Words with The Simple Present Tense 59
2.9.1 Position of Frequency Words and Expressions 59
2.10 Prepositions of Time 62
2.11 Question with Ever 63
2.12 Questions with How Often and Answers with Frequency
Expressions 65
2.13 The Simple Present Tense and The Present Continuous
Tense 67
2.14 Questions with The Present Continuous Tense 69
2.14.1 Affirmative Statement and Questions 69
2.14.2 Negative Statements and Questions 69
2.15 Contrast of Present Continuous Tense and Simple Present 71
2.16 Forms of The Simple Present and the Present Progressive 71
2.17 Writing – Topic Sentence 73
2.17.1 The Topic Sentence 73

CHAPTER 3

Chapter Objectives 77
3.1 Reading 77
3.1.1 Reading 1 77
3.1.2 Reading 2 81
3.2 Grammar – Simple Past Tense 86
3.2.1 Using Be: Past Tense 86
3.2.2 Past Time Words: Yesterday, Last, and Ago 88
3.2.3 Past of Be: Negative 90
3.2.4 Past of Be: Questions 90
3.2.5 The Simple Past Tense Using –ed 92
3.2.6 The Simple Past Tense of Irregular Verbs 94
3.3 The Use of ‘There’ 96
3.3.1 Negative Form of ‘There’ 98
3.3.2 Question Form of ‘There’ 99
3.4 The Simple Past Tense Using Where, When, What Time and
Why 100
3.5 Past Progressive Tense 102
3.5.1 Using While with the Past Progressive 104
3.6 Writing 109
3.6.1 Transition Signals 109

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CHAPTER 4

Chapter Objectives 117


4.1 Reading 117
4.1.1 Reading 1 117
4.1.2 Reading 2 120
4.2 Grammar – The Simple Future Tense: Will 123
4.2.1 The Interrogative or Question Form of the Simple
Future Tense 124
4.2.2 Future with ‘Be Going To’ 126
4.2.3 Questions with ‘Be Going To’ 128
4.3 Making Comparisons: Comparative and Superlative Forms 129
4.3.1 Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adjectives
and Adverbs 129
4.3.2 Comparative Adjectives 130
4.3.3 Making Comparisons: As (Adjective) …As 134
4.4 Superlative Adjectives 135
4.5 Writing 138
4.5.1 Sentence Connectors: Using And, But, Or, So,
Because 138
4.5.2 Writing a Complete Essay 140

ANSWER KEY 143

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PREFACE

This course module is prepared for students taking English for


Communication 1- a basic English course. It has three main
components:
• Reading
• Grammar
• Writing

The module has four chapters and each chapter includes the three
components. Each chapter will be covered during each of the four
meetings.

The materials have been prepared to meet the proficiency levels of the
students. For each item, there are exercises for students to practise their
language skills.

The main aim of the course is to enable students to practise their English
language skills in a wide variety of social contexts and situations.

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EXPLANATION OF ICONS

You will notice that there are a number of icons used in this module.
They are there to highlight specific information for you. Each icon has a
purpose:

Exercises
This icon highlights the various exercises of the unit.
These activities have answer keys at the back of each unit
  for you to check your answers against.

Check your answer


This icon highlights the various practices of the unit.
These activities have answer keys at the back of each unit
  for you to check your answers against.

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SYNOPSIS AND COURSE OBJECTIVES

This is a pre-intermediate proficiency course which introduces students


to basic communication skills in an integrated manner, using the four
modes of listening, speaking, reading and writing. The grammar and
vocabulary aspects of the language is given emphasis throughout the
course. It provides varieties of language tasks and activities to develop
students’ interpersonal communication skills. Students will have a lot of
opportunities to practise the language in a wide variety of social contexts
and situations.

Upon completion of the course, students are expected to:

1. Understand the principles and strategies of using English for reading


and writing purposes.
2. Acquire knowledge and skills in communicative purposes.

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CHAPTER 1

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES

At the end of this chapter, you should be able to:


1. Read, comprehend and retrieve information from selected texts.
2. Use the Simple Present Tense of the verb “be” in its
(a) affirmative
(b) negative, and
(c) interrogative forms.
3. Understand how the “be” verbs are used.
4. Identify and use Pronouns as
(a) subjects
(b) objects
5. Form WH Questions.
6. Use “this” , “these” ,” that” and “ those” with “be” verbs.
7. Use “has” and “have” in a sentence.
8. Use “there” in a sentence.
9. Write at sentence and paragraph level.

1.1 READING

1.1.1 Reading 1

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

THE PETAI

Few things taste as good as ‘sambal tumis petai’ with hot rice.
Petai is a bean which grows on trees. Each pod contains twelve or
eighteen seeds and each seed is covered with a thin layer of pulp.
The scientific name for the petai is Parkia Speciosa.
The petai is like the durian – you either love it or hate it. 5
The petai seed adds flavour to food, especially rice. Some people
compare it to garlic since it also has an unpleasant smell.
Although some may hate it many people seem to love it.
Although some petai trees are planted and cared for in
villages in rural areas, the majority of the petai trees grow wild in 10

 
the deep jungles of Malaysia. As a result, the petai is rather
expensive. The pods are usually picked by the villagers who climb
the tree and use a long pole to twist the stalks off the branches.
Today petai is planted all over the country and some can even be
found planted in housing areas. 15
It is only in recent years that the locals began cultivating the
petai. However, it is not known whether anyone grows petai
commercially in plantations. The trees take about seven to eight
years to mature while bud-grafted ones take one or two years less.
The petai pods grow all year round but there are more pods in 20
August and September.
Very little is known about the petai. Research has shown
that it is as nutritious as any other vegetable especially in protein
content. It also has a high content of Vitamins A and C but it is
very low in Vitamin B. Extracts from the petai can help control 25
ailments like diabetes and high blood pressure. Toxic substances
in the petai can be used to poison fish.
Petai lasts only for three days. However, to preserve it the
stalks are dipped in hot water, slated and kept in a bottle.
Preserved in this manner the petai seeds can be used over a long 30
period of time in countless enjoyable meals.

EXERCISE 1.1

What do the following words/phrases in the passage refer to?

1. ‘which’ in line 2

2. ‘it’ in line 7

3. ‘who’ in line 12

4. ‘ones’ in line 19

Check your answer.

 
EXERCISE 1.2

Answer the questions below in complete sentences. Your answers should


be based on the passage.

1. What is the scientific name for the petai?


_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

2. Why do some people compare the petai with the durian fruit?
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

3. How is the petai generally eaten?


_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

4. Why do some people dislike the petai?


_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

5. When does the petai produce the most number of pods?


_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

6. What vitamins are found in the petai?


_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

7. What are the toxic substances in the petai pods used for?
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

8. How is the petai preserved?


_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

Check your answer.

 
1.1.2 Reading 2
Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.
PHOBIAS

Phobias are fears that disturb a person and make him behaves in
ways that are not normal. Many people suffer from them despite
the fact that successful treatment has become available in recent
years.
From time to time we all experience fears and anxieties. A 5
phobia, however, causes unreasonable panic when there is no real
danger. For example, a person who has a fear of swallowing will
be afraid. To eat thinking that he may get choked. One with a
phobia about caterpillars may be unable to go outdoors. The
individual is generally aware of the unreasonableness of his fear, 10
but he can’t control it. Eventually the phobia becomes the victim’s
main concern in life and he cannot think of anything else. As a
result unusual kinds of behavior will develop. A man with a fear
of bridges could cross them only if he was driven by someone else
while he kept his eyes closed. 15
Phobias can be about anything: people, animals, blood,
water, heights, closed spaces, the dark and speaking in public. So
far the most common is agoraphobia, a Greek word meaning fear
of being in crowded open spaces. In this complex disorder, a person
tries to look for what is a safe place or the protection of another 20
person.
The real cause of phobias is unknown. However, recent
research shows that agoraphobia can be passed down from
generation to generation. The first person to develop successful
treatment for phobias was Dr. Joseph Wolpe. He discovered that 25
phobics (people who suffer from phobias) could be cured if they
were trained to relax and gradually face up to the phobias in
their mind.
The first clinic to help these patients was started by Dr.
Manuel Zane. He taught them to stop thinking about their fears 30
by doing such things as counting the numbers on car license
plates. Furthermore, he asked them to practice talking out loud.
He discovered that phobics recover more quickly when a
sympathetic person helps them to get through panic by being
kind and caring. 35
The vital stage is for the phobic to face up to his or her fear.
An old woman, for example, was afraid of using an escalator
whenever she went to a shopping mall. First, she and her doctor
stood watching people, especially children, going up and down

 
the escalator. The next week, he held her hand and encouraged 40
her to step on the escalator as he did. This went on for a week.
By the third week the woman got over her fear and stepped on
and off the escalator without any help.
There are many methods of treatment. But whatever the
variations in treatment this mental illness can be reliably and 45
effectively treated nowadays. The tragedy is that not many people
know this. As a result unnecessary suffering continues.

EXERCISE 1.3

What do the following words/phrases in the passage refer to?

1. ‘the fact’ in line 3 ______________________________________

2. ‘One’ in line 8 ______________________________________

3. ‘he’ in line 11 ______________________________________

4. ‘them’ in line 14 ______________________________________

5. ‘this complex disorder’ in line 19 __________________________

6. ‘their’ in line 30 ______________________________________

7. ‘he’ in line 32 ______________________________________

8. ‘The vital stage’ in line 36 ________________________________

9. ‘she’ in line 38 ______________________________________

10. ‘The tragedy’ in line 46 _________________________________

Check your answer.

 
EXERCISE 1.4

Answer the questions in complete sentences. Your answers should be


based on the passage.
1. According to the passage, what does the word ‘phobias’ mean?
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

2. What is the difference between fear and phobia?


_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
3. According to Dr. Manuel Zane, what are the three ways to
overcome phobias?
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
4. Why does the writer say that people suffer unnecessarily from
phobias?
_____________________________________________________

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 1.5

Answer the questions in complete sentences. Your answer should be


based on the passage.

1. The word ‘however’ in line 6 contrasts two ideas. What are they?
(a) _________________________________________________
_________________________________________________

 
(b) _________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
2. ‘For example’ in line 7 is followed by two examples of phobias.
They are:
(a) _________________________________________________
_________________________________________________
(b) _________________________________________________
_________________________________________________

3. ‘Eventually’ in line 11 is followed by a conclusion. What is the


conclusion?
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
4. ‘As a result’ in line 13 tells us of a particular result. What is the
result?
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
5. ‘Furthermore’ in line 32 links two ideas. They are:
(a) ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
(b) ________________________________________________
________________________________________________

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 1.6

Match the words in Column A with words of the same meaning in


Column B.

Column A Column B
1. anxieties (line 5) A. become better

 
2. unusual (line 13) B. not normal
3. gradually (line 27) C. that can be depended upon
4. recover (line 33) D. step by step
5. reliably (line 45) E. fears and uncertainties

Check your answer.

1.2 GRAMMAR - PRESENT TENSE : USING ‘BE’ VERBS

Forms of ‘Be’ - am , is , are


am; use ‘am’ with I
e.g. I am a student at UUM.

is; use is with he, she, it and singular subjects such as boy, cat, and
Malaysia
e.g. He is a student.
Malaysia is a beautiful country.

are; use are with we, you, they and plural subjects such as the boys, the
cats and the countries
e.g. We are from Kedah.
The teachers are very busy.

1.2.1 Uses of ‘Be’

1. To describe a subject
e.g The restaurant is clean.
The neighbours are very friendly.
The lecture halls are well lit.

2. To classify or define a subject


e.g. UUM is a public university.
Alor Setar is a city.

3. To describe the location of the subject


e.g. UUM is in Sintok, Kedah.
Kangar is in Perlis.

4. To describe the place of origin of the subject.


e.g. I am from Kuala Lumpur.
They are from Chicago.

 
5. To describe the age of the subject.
e.g. He is 24 years old.
My uncle is 50 years old.

6. To describe the weather. The subject is it


e.g. It is cold in Melbourne in the winter.
It is hot and humid in Malaysia all year.

7. To tell the time. The subject is ‘it’


e.g. It is late.
It is 8.30 am now.

1.2.2 Sample Writing Using ‘Be’ Verbs

Read the following composition. Look at how the ‘be’ verbs are used in
the sentences.

My name is Abdullah. I am from Alor Setar, Kedah.I am a student at


UUM. My major is Business Administration. I am married . My wife is
also a student here. My classes are on Fridays and Saturdays. The
programme is a good place for me to start my education because the
tuition is low and the attention to students is high. My plan is to take
three or four courses every semester.I like it here because the lecturers
are friendly and helpful.

EXERCISE 1.7

Fill in the blanks with ‘is’, ‘are’ or ‘am’.

1. I _______ from Jasin, Melaka.

2. My neighbour _____ from Kota Baru, Kelantan.

3. My classmates _____ from many different states.

4. We _____ late for class.

5. The lecturers at my college ______ friendly and helpful.

6. The semester ________ 14 weeks long.

 
7. She _____ busy all the time.

8. Our cars ______ in the workshop.

9. Students ______ free to choose their courses.

10. Some of my classmates _____ already retired.

Check your answer.

1.2.3 Contractions with ‘Be’

I am – I’m
You are- You’re
She is – She’s
He is- He’s
It is- It’s
We are- We’re
They are- They’re
*We don’t make a contraction with ‘is’ if the noun ends in these sounds: s, z, g, sh, or
ch.

The United States’s a big country. The United States is a big country.
College’s different here. College is different here.
English’s the language of many countries. English is the language of
many countries.
Rich’s my English teacher. Rich is my English teacher.

*We don’t make a contraction with a plural noun and are.


Books’re expensive. Books are expensive.
The classroom’re small. The classroom are small.

EXERCISE 1.8

Complete the sentences. Use contractions (Pronoun + be).

1. Sarah is a student. She’s a student.

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2. Jin Li is in my class. _________ in my class.
3. I have one sister. __________ twenty five years old.
4. I have two brothers. __________ both students.

5. I have three pencils. ________ on the desk.

6. My cousin is twenty-five years old. _____ married.

7. I like my neighbours. _________ friendly.

8. I like grammar. ________ easy.

9. Jim and I live in an apartment. ______ roommates.

10. Kim and Ali are students. _______ in my class.

Check your answer.

1.2.4 Negative Statements with ‘Be’


We put ‘not’ after a form of ‘be’ to make a negative statement.
e.g. I am not married.
Peter is not at home.
We are not students.

We can make contractions for the negative.


e.g. I’m not late.
English isn’t my native language.
My friends aren’t here now.

EXERCISE 1.9

Fill in the blanks with a form of “be” to make a negative statement.

1. My brother _______ a good football player.


My brother is not a good football player.

2. I ____________ a full-time student.

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3. They __________________ from Malaysia.

4. She _____________ in my English class.

5. My neighbour __________ at home today.

6. My brother-in-law _________ in the country right now.

7. The teachers ______________ in their classrooms.

8. The post office ___________ open after 5 p.m.

9. Baseball _____________ popular in Malaysia.

10. English ___________ easy for me.

Check your answer.

1.2.5 How the ‘Be’ Verbs are Used

1. Be with descriptions

Subject Be (very) Adjective


My teacher is young.
The tables are very dirty.
The car is very expensive.
The school is big.
The boys are very noisy.
It’s cold.
I’m thirsty.
We’re afraid.

EXERCISE 1.10

Complete each statement with a subject and the correct form of ‘be’.
Make as true statement. Use both singular and plural subjects.

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Examples
________________________ intelligent.
My parents are intelligent.
_________________________ patient.
The doctors are very patient.

1. __________________________________________expensive.

2. ____________________________________________ cheap.

3. ____________________________________________ new.

4. ____________________________________________ big.

5. ____________________________________________ dirty.

6. ____________________________________________difficult.

7. ____________________________________________ narrow.

8. ____________________________________________ old.

9. ____________________________________________ fresh.

10. ___________________________________________ beautiful.

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 1.11

Write a form of ‘be’ and an adjective to describe each of the following


subjects.

Example.
This classroom _______________________________.
This classroom is clean.

1. Kuala Lumpur

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2. UUM

3. The students in my class

4. My cats

5. The people in Malaysia

6. My car

7. My neighbour

8. The food in UUM

9. Changloon

10. The food court in my neighbourhood

Check your answer.

2. ‘Be’ with definitions

Subject Be a/an Noun


I am a student.

You are an army officer.


Malaysia is a country .
You and I are friends.
They are Indonesians.
Johor Bahru is a big city.
We are hardworking students.

EXERCISE 1.12

Fill in the blanks with a form of be and a definition of the subject. You
may add an adjective.

Example
Kedah __________________________

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Kedah is a state.

1. August ____________________________________________

2. A rose _____________________________________________

3. I’m _______________________________________________

4. English and Spanish __________________________________

5. Georgetown and Alor Star______________________________

6. UUM______________________________________________

7. The hibiscus ________________________________________

8. Durians ___________________________________________

9. Penang ____________________________________________

10. Sabah and Sarawak ___________________________________

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 1.13

Complete each statement. Give a subject and the correct form of ‘be’.
Add ‘a’ or ‘an’ for singular nouns only.
Example
_________________________ a big country.
Russia is a big country.

1. _______________________________ nice and friendly person.

2. ___________________________________ expensive item.

3. ____________________________________ Malaysian cars.

4. ____________________________________ famous writer.

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5. ____________________________________ big cities.

6. ____________________________________ blue in colour.

7. _____________________________________ my neighbour.

8. ________________one of the most beautiful cities in the world.

9. _________________________________a poor country.

10. ________________________________ a famous football club.

Check your answer.

3. Prepositions – we use prepositions to show location and origin

Preposition Examples
On The cup is on the table.
At I am at school.
My sister is at home.
They are at work.
In The boys are in the garden
The chairs are in the corner.
In front of The computer is in front of the students.
In back of /Behind The teacher is in back of the desk
The blackboard is behind the teacher.
Between The girl is between the two boys.
Over/Above The no-smoking sign is above the door.
The warning sign is over the door.
Below/Under The switch is below the table.
The dictionary is under the textbook.
Next to My house is next to the police station.

EXERCISE 1.14

Use a form of ‘be’ and a preposition to tell the location of these things or
people in your classroom or school.

e.g. My accounting book _______________________.


My accounting book is in my bag.

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1. My classroom _________________________________________

2. I __________________________________________________

3. The library __________________________________________

4. The cafeteria ________________________________________

5. The parking lot ______________________________________

6. The teacher _________________________________________

7. The sports complex __________________________________

8. The clinic _________________________________________

9. The swimming pool __________________________________

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 1.15

Fill in the blanks with the correct ‘be’ verbs to complete the paragraph.

My name _________ ____________________________. I ________


from ____________. I ________ a student at UUM. I _______ in my
English class now.The class _________ big. My teacher _______ a
man/ lady. He/She ________ very young. The classroom _____ very
nice. It ______ clean. My classmates ______ all working. We _______
all very happy to be here.

Check your answer.

1.2.6 Yes/No Questions with ‘Be’

Anna is a student. Is Anna a student?


They are friendly and helpful. Are they friendly and helpful?

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I am a student. Am I a student?
Are you a student?
It is cold today. Is it cold today?
We are here. Are we here?

EXERCISE 1.16

Make questions for the given answers.

e.g A: Is Mr. Low a teacher?


B: Yes, Mr. Low is a teacher.

1. A: __________________________________________________
B: Yes, my hometown is big.

2. A: __________________________________________________
B: No, Spanish is not my first language.

3. A: __________________________________________________
B: Yes, they are at work.

4. A: __________________________________________________
B: Yes, durians are very delicious.

5. A: __________________________________________________
B: No, she is not here today.

Check your answer.

1.3 SUBJECT PRONOUN AND OBJECT PRONOUN

Subject Object Examples


I me You love me.
you you I like you.
he him They call him every night.
she her He loves her.
it it We like it.
we us She knows us.

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We can use an object pronoun after the verb or after a preposition.

I have a notebook. I use it every day.


He loves his wife. The children loves her too.
I know his son. His friends call him Jim.
We have three children. We love them very much.
I need my books. I use them in class.
I have two cars. I drive both of them every day.
My brother has a son. He always talks about him.

EXERCISE 1.17

Fill in the blanks. Substitute an object pronoun for the underlined words.

1. I look like my father, but my brother does not look like ________ .
I look like my father, but my brother does not look like him.

2. My sister’s name is Alia but we call ________ Rose.

3. I use the computer when I work, but I don’t use ______ at home.

4. I like this campus? Do you like ______ too?

5. I talk to the foreign students, but I don’t always understand


_________ .

6. We listen to our teachers, and we talk to __________ .

7. When we make mistakes, the instructor corrects _________.

8. The Chairman has three assistants. They help ________ run the
company.

9. You like me and I like _________.

10. My friends sometimes visit me, and I sometimes visit __________.

Check your answer.

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EXERCISE 1.18

Complete the conversation with the correct pronouns.

Mother: The phone is ringing. Could you answer ________?


_______’s probably for _______ .
Heng: Sure. _______ will get ______ . … Hello?
Cob: Hi, Heng. It’s _________.
Heng: Hi, Cob. How are ________?
CoB: Fine. And _________?
Heng: Good. That was a great party. I really enjoyed it. ____ was a lot
of fun.
Cob: _______ want to thank _______ again for the shirt.
Heng: ______ love ______.
Cob: You’re welcome. _____________ looks great on ________.
Are _________ busy Friday night? Gan and _________ are
going to the movies. Would ________ like to come with
_________?
Heng: Sure. What time does ______ start?
Cob: _________ starts at 10.
Heng: What about Salleh and Siva? Can we invite _______ too?
Cob: Sure, but ________ think _____ are busy Friday night.
Heng: _____ will call ______ and ask _______. Maybe _________
am wrong.
Cob: OK. Call ______ again after _____ talk to ________.
Heng: OK. ________ will call ______ later. Bye.

Check your answer.

1.4 WH- QUESTIONS WITH ‘BE’


Wh-Word Be Subject Complement
Where is Ali?
Why are they sad?
How old am I?

Question Words

Question Answer
Where is your course mate from? He is from Seremban.

20

 
Where are your grandparents? They are at their fruit orchard.
Why are they worried? They are worried because the exam
is tomorrow.
Why is she not in her room? She is not in her room because she
is in the library.
Who is your roommate? Ahmad is my roommate.
Who are these people? They are my neighbours.
When is your quiz? It is tomorrow.
When is the class over? It is over at 9 p.m.
How are you? I am fine.
How is the campus? It is huge!
What is a verb? It is an action word.
What is the money for? It is for the trip to Kuala Lumpur.
What time is it? It is 4.30 p.m.
How is your new class? It is very interesting.
How old is your brother? He is ten years old.
How much is a litre of petrol? It is RM1.80 per litre.

EXERCISE 1.19

Fill in the blanks with the correct question word and a form of ‘be’.

Example:
_______ your name?
What is your name? My name is Siva.

1. ____________________________ Kota Belud. It is in Sabah.

2. _____________________ your birthday? It is in November.

3. __________________________________ your classmate?


My classmate is Victor.

4. ________________________ a crocodile? It is an amphibian.

5. ______________________ you late? I am late because of traffic.

6. _______________________ your parents? They are in London.

7. ____________________________ you? I am fine.

8. ___________________ the teacher’s office? It is on the third floor.

21

 
9. ______________________ your test? It is at two o’clock.

10. _______________________ the soup? It is very tasty.

Check your answer.

1.5 THIS, THAT, THESE, THOSE WITH ‘BE’

Use this and these to identify near objects and people.


This is an expensive car.
These are imported fruits.

Use that and those to identify far objects and people


That is a small table.
Those are plates and bowls.

After we identify a noun, we can use subject pronouns.


This is fried mee. It is a popular food in Malaysia.
Those are frozen fish from Japan. They are very expensive.
That is my brother. He lives in Ipoh.

A noun can follow this, that, these, those


That car is for the foreign students.
Those houses are for sale.

EXERCISE 1.20

Use this, that, these and those and a form of ‘be’ to complete each
statement. The word in the bracket indicates whether the item is far or
near.

Example _________________________ the school hall. (near)


This is the school hall.

1. __________________________are my socks. (near)

2. __________________________ Ali’s books. (far)

22

 
3. __________________________a pen. (near)

4. __________________________ my dictionary. (far)

5. __________________________ his boots. (near)

6. __________________________my books. (near)

7. __________________________your hats. (far)

8. __________________________her jacket. (near)

9. __________________________ his car. (far)

10. _________________________ my car. (near)

Check your answer.

1.6 USING HAVE AND HAS

Have is used with plural subjects and I.


I have a pen.
You have a pencil.
They have three sons and two daughters.
His brothers have three notebooks.

Has is used with singular subjects.


He has a red car.
She has a house in Kuala Lumpur.
It has blue ink.

EXERCISE 1.21

Complete the sentences. Use have or has.

1. They _______________ many houses in Alor Setar.

2. The student _____________ two computers in his room.

23

 
3. My roommates ___________ their own cars.

4. Jim is not here today because he ___________ the flu.

5. He ____________ a toothache.

6. Kim ______________ a pen in his pocket. Susan and Sam


_____________ an expensive handset.

7. Salleh ____________ three brothers and two younger sisters.

8. The cat is sick. It ___________ a fever.

9. Do you ___________ a car?

10. Does he ___________ a hobby?

Check your answer.

1.7 USING THERE + IS/ARE

We use “there + is” or “there + are” to introduce a subject into the


conversation when we show location or time.

Singular There is a man in the building


There is a washing machine in the basement.
There is a table in the room.
There isn’t a back door in my apartment.

Plural There are several windows in our flat.


There are two cats in the building.
There are many children at the playground.
There aren’t any cars at the parking lot.

24

 
EXERCISE 1.22

Complete the sentences with there is or there are.

1. There __________ too many mistakes in this report. Please correct


them.
2. Here is today’s paper. There _______ an interesting story on page 6.
3. I have to finish the homework today. _____________ ________
enough time to do it tomorrow.
4. ____________ ___________ twenty students in my English class.
5. ____________ ________ no microwave oven in my house.
6. Look! _________ _____ a tiger on the tree.
7. ___________ _____ many students who are sick today.
8. It’s very quiet today. _______________ ___ a single bird in the
trees.
9. In my room, ______________ ___ a table and a chair.
10. _____________ ___ many interesting places to visit in Changloon.

Check your answer.

1.8 QUESTION AND SHORT ANSWERS USING THERE

Statement: There is a computer room in Kolej Perwaja.


Question: Is there a computer room in Kolej Perwaja?

Statement: There are no apples in the refrigerator.


Question: Are there any apples in the refrigerator?

EXERCISE 1.23

Ask and answer questions with there.

1. a tennis court/in your apartment


A: Is there a tennis court in your apartment?
B: Yes, there is
No, there isn’t.

25

 
2. tree/in front of the building
A:________________________________________________
B: ________________________________________________

3. a food court/at the mall


A:________________________________________________
B: ________________________________________________

4. many people/at the market every morning


A:________________________________________________
B: ________________________________________________

5. many animals/at the zoo


A:________________________________________________
B: ________________________________________________

6. a man selling traditional food/at Pekan Rabu


A:________________________________________________
B: ________________________________________________

Check your answer.

REVIEW

A. Find the mistakes with the underlined words and correct them. Not
every sentence has a mistake. If the sentence is correct, write C.

Example
She is’nt in the kitchen.
She isn’t in the kitchen.

1. Kuala Lumpur and Jakarta are a big cities.


2. The girls they are very beautiful.
3. These is a good school.
4. December a wet month.
5. My mother is a tall.
6. Manila it’s a busy city.
7. Those cats are cute. Its friendly.
8. It’s 4.30 now.
9. Why you are late?
10. I amn’t from Indonesia. I am from Thailand.

26

 
B. Fill in the blanks to complete this conversation. Not all blanks need
a word. If the blank doesn’t need a word, write X.
A: Hi, Kim. How’s your English class?
B: Hi, June. It ______ ok. I _________ very happy with it.
A: I ______ in Level 2. What level ________ you in?
B: I _______ level 3.
A: My teacher _____ Ms. Azizah. She _____ a very teacher. Who
______ your teacher?
B: Mr. Samy ____ my teacher. He _____ very good, too.
A: ________ he an old man?
B: No, he ___________. He ______ a young man. He ______
about 25 years old. How old _____ Ms. Azizah?
A: She _____ about 50 years old.

C. Complete the conversations with ‘am’, ‘is’, or ‘are’.

1. A: Hi Mas, How _____ you?


B: Fine. thanks . ____________________ I late?
A: ________________. You are early.

2. A: _____________ you OK?


B: ___________. I am sick.
A: Oh, sorry! Speak to Halim.
B: Halim? ________ a doctor?
A: ________. He ______ a great doctor. Call him!

3. A: What _____ your apartment number?


B: 25-E
A: ________ it on the 25 floor?
B: ________. Why? _________ you afraid of high places?
A: _________. My apartment _____ on the 24th floor.
1.9 WRITING
1.9.1 Essay Writing
Introduction
Good writing should be the goal of every student. Unless a reader can
easily understand what a writer has written, he cannot judge the value of
either the writer’s ideas of his work. Thus, the student who can write
well has a great advantage over the student who cannot.
The good paragraph
A paragraph is a unit of information unified by a controlling idea.The
paragraph is a good one only if the reader completely understands the

27

 
unit of information it contains and if its controlling idea is completely
developed.

The controlling idea


The controlling idea is the central idea that is developed in a paragraph.
Therefore, the controlling idea is the summary of all the information
contained in its paragraph. Consequently, no information that cannot be
summarized by the controlling idea can be included in a paragraph.
Thus, the controlling idea is a restricting idea because it limits the
information that can be included in the paragraph.

1.9.2 Elements of Good Writing

The three important elements of good writing are:


a) Subject
Choose a topic that interests you and that you know and
understand.
b) Purpose
Determine your purpose, you should ask yourself the question,”why
am I writing”.The three most important purposes for writing are to
entertain, to inform, and to persuade.
c) Audience
Keep your audience in mind.

EXERCISE 1.24

Determining Subject, Purpose and Audience


Choose one of the following general subjects to write a paragraph about
• Your hometown
• Your job
• Your family
After you have chosen your subject, decide on a specific focus that
interests you. Then determine your purpose and identify your audience.
Subject: __________________________________________________
Focus: ___________________________________________________
Purpose: _________________________________________________
Audience: ________________________________________________

Check your answer.

28

 
1.9.3 Writing The Simple Sentence

A basic sentence contains a subject and a verb.

Example
Subject verb
The girl cried.
He is tired.
It is hot.

Transitive and Intransitive verb


A complete sentence should have a subject and a verb. However, only
some words require an object.

1. Transitive verbs
When a verb requires an object, it is called a transitive verb. It
usually answers to the question “what”.
Example:
Siva buys a pen. (The sentence “Siva buys.” Is incomplete because it doesn’t
answer the question what does she buy? She must have bought something.)
My mother bakes a cake.
The technician repairs electrical appliances.

2. Intransitive verbs.
When a verb doesn’t require an object, it is called an intransitive
verb.
Example:
The bus stops.
The girls laugh.
Monkeys swing.

EXERCISE 1.25

Transitive verbs

A. Add a direct object to each word group fo form a complete


sentence. The object will answer the question “what” or “who”.

1. The floods destroyed ______________________.


The floods destroyed the village.
2. The box contained __________________________.

29

 
3. Your brother needs _________________________.
4. Bing ordered ____________________________.
5. John found _________________________.
6. Fiaz saw __________________________.
7. Gill dropped ______________________.
8. The cat ate ______________________.
9. Vince called _______________________.
10. Kamal hit _____________________.

B. Add a transitive verb and a direct object to each subject to form a


complete sentence.

1. Our cat chases (verb) mice(object).


2. My instructor ______________________________________.
3. The officer _______________________________________.
4. Jim _____________________________________________.
5. The singer ________________________________________.
6. The swimmer _____________________________________.
7. The bus driver ______________________________.
8. The policeman ___________________________________.
9. They ___________________________________________.
10. We ____________________________________________.

Intransitive verbs

A. Add an intransitive verb to each subject.


1. The singer ________________.
The singer sings.
2. A radio ___________________.
3. A tree ___________________.
4. A jogger _________________.
5. An airplane _______________.

Use each verb

A. Add a direct object after the verb.


1. Her secretary reads __________________.
Her secretary reads the letters.
2. The student began _______________________.
3. Rozairi broke __________________________.
4. My teacher underlined ___________________.
5. Some shops sell ______________________.
6. Mike sent __________________________.
7. The baby drinks ______________________.

30

 
8. The artist paints _____________________.
9. The security guards open ______________.
10. She irons _________________.

B. The following sentences contain transitive and intransitive verbs.


State whether they are transitive or intransitive.

1. I remember his name. (transitive : what do you remember: his


name)
2. The students sleep. ( )
3. Ali opens the durians. ( )
4. The referee raises his hand. ( )
5. My father hangs the picture on the wall. ( )
6. The sun shines brightly. ( )
7. The dog barks all night. ( )
8. Sue sends a message to her roommate. ( )
9. The neighbour stands outside his house. ( )
10. I know a good restaurant in town. ( )

Check your answer.

1.9.4 Subject-Verb-Complement

Subject verb Complement


My mother is a traditional Malay woman.
The clown is funny.
The complement means that this word refers to the subject and
completes the meaning of the verb.

EXERCISE 1.26

Complete the sentences below with a complement.


1. Malaysia is _______________________________.

2. This book is ______________________________.

3. Amin was _________________________________.

4. The champion was __________________________.

31

 
5. The sky became ___________________________.

6. Music is __________________________________.

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 1.27

Writing exercise

The following are notes about Jamal’s family. Using the Simple Present
Tense join the notes with suitable words to form a complete sentence.

JAMAL’S FAMILY

1. Jamal ________ a happy family. Jamal has a happy family.

2. There __________ seven members – family, including his parents.


_____________________________________________________

3. He – two older brothers – two older sisters.


_____________________________________________________

4. Jamal – the youngest – the family.


_____________________________________________________

5. Both – older brothers – married


_____________________________________________________

6. One – them - (work) as- engineer.


_____________________________________________________

7. The other – a businessman.


_____________________________________________________

8. Only one –Jamal’s sisters –married


_____________________________________________________

32

 
9. She (live) with – husband – son – Jitra.
_____________________________________________________

10. Jamal –(like) – visit – sister – Changloon.


_____________________________________________________

11. Either his sister – her husband often (give) Jamal pocket money.
_____________________________________________________

12. Jamal always (buy) toys- his young nephew.


_____________________________________________________

13. Jamal’s other sister-studying accountancy – UKM.


_____________________________________________________

14. Taxation – her favourite subject.


_____________________________________________________

15. Jamal’s – computer science student – UiTM.


_____________________________________________________

16. This – second semester .


_____________________________________________________

17. He – complete – studies in 2011.


_____________________________________________________

18. Jamal – (hope) to continue –studies – Australia.


_____________________________________________________

19. When – he –(finish) –studies, he – (work) in Kuala Lumpur.


_____________________________________________________

20. Right now, Jamal – (want) – concentrate – studies.


_____________________________________________________

33

 
CHAPTER 2

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES

At the end of this chapter, you should be able to:


1. Read, comprehend and retrieve information from selected texts.
2. Use the Simple Present Tense in its:
(a) Affirmative
(b) Negative, and
(c) Interrogative forms.
3. Use of frequency words with the Simple Present Tense
4. Use of the preposition of time
5. Make questions with “ever”
6. Make questions with “how often”
7. Use the Present Continuous Tense in its:
(a) Affirmative
(b) Negative, and
(c) Interrogative forms.
8. Use the Simple Present Tense and the Present Continuous Tenses
correctly in a single sentence or a series of sentences.
9. Identify topic sentence and write supporting sentences.

2.1 READING
2.1.1 Reading 1
Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.
SIMPLE TIPS TO AVOID FROM BEING AN
EASY CRIME TARGET
Other than the current economic situation, crime continues to
be the second biggest concern for Malaysians, according to the
Malaysian Crime Prevention Foundation (MCPF) vice chairman,
Tan Sri Lee Lam Thye. He further stated in a recent report that
“Crime prevention is a collective responsibility and it is 5
important to know how to mobilize the entire Malaysian
community to fight crime. People have to adopt an anti crime
culture and not take safety for granted. When this is drilled into
our minds, then we will automatically be more aware and
conscious.” 10

35

 
Practicing vigilance in one’s daily life can help to safe one
and one’s family from being an easy crime target. Here are some
practical and simple dos and don’ts that could be useful in
saving one’s life from crime.
The dos 15
Do trust your instincts. Your five senses are your best tools.
Stop, listen and run if you see, hear, smell or feel that things are
not right. For example, listen carefully for noises or sounds
especially when you are alone and walking in deserted areas, in
case someone is following you. Keep yourself alerted for 20
unfamiliar smells like cigarette smoke when you enter your
home or car.
Do stay connected. Always tell someone where you are
going, especially if you will be driving alone. This makes it faster
for people to help you in the event of an attack. Always keep 25
your cell phone batteries charged for emergencies. If you need
to answer incoming calls or text messages while driving, stop
and park your car in a safe place before doing so. Furthermore, if
you are walking, stand against a wall so that you have a 180-
degree view of the people around you. 30
Do role-play sessions with your children. For parents, it is
advisable to have regular pretend sessions with your children,
where someone plays a role as a criminal, to teach them how to
react when facing a potential criminal. Changing the dialogue
and story lines regularly could teach children new things and 35
could help maintain your children’s interest in the role-play
sessions.
Have age-appropriate expectations of your children. Parents
should give responsibilities to children when they are mature
enough to handle them and are mature enough to sense danger. 40
Giving children responsibilities they are not ready for like
babysitting their younger brother or sister or trusting them with
the house keys, could put your family in danger.
The don’ts
Don’t be too lazy to be vigilant. Doesn’t matter how tired or 45
busy you are, never forget to lock up your car, home doors and
windows before you go to bed.
Don’t leave your valuables in sight. When you are driving or
waiting for someone in your car, make sure no valuable items
like your cell phones, laptop bags, handbags, and even your 50
shopping bags are placed in places like the back seat, passenger
seat or the dashboard. These attract petty thieves who are
looking for a quick gain. Placing them at the places mentioned
provides easy access as criminals could easily smash the car

36

 
windows-at traffic junctions, car parks, petrol stations or even in 55
front of your home, just to grab your belongings. As a result,
you could easily lose your valuables and even injuring yourself.
Don’t leave keys in ignition. Never leave your car with key
in ignition unattended. Not even when it is parked in your house
compound. Most crimes happen when there is an opportunity. 60
Your responsibility is to make sure that you don’t give criminals
that opportunity.
Don’t trust easily. Always remind yourself that people in
uniforms can be impostors sometimes. If stopped or
approached by a uniformed person always ask for his or her ID 65
and be alert. You have the right to refuse to follow someone if
you suspect something is not right. Go straight to the police
station instead.
Always remember that crime has no boundaries. Crime
fighting involves both individual and collective awareness. 70
Prevention is always better than cure. In combating crime, one
small step, if taken collaboratively could eventually help to
decrease the chances of crime occurring or being repeated.
Adapted from: The Malaysian Women’s Weekly, May 2009.

EXERCISE 2.1

What do the following words in the passage refer to?

1. ‘he’ in line 4 __________________________________________

2. ‘this’ in line 8 _________________________________________

3. ‘we’ in line 9 __________________________________________

4. ‘doing so’ in line 28 _____________________________________

5. ‘them’ in line 33 _______________________________________

6. ‘them’ in line 40 ________________________________________

7. ‘these’ in line 52 ________________________________________

8. ‘them’ in line 53 ________________________________________

37

 
9. ‘it’ in line 59 ___________________________________________

10. ‘his or her’ in line 65 ____________________________________

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 2.2

Answer the questions in complete sentences. Your answer should be


based on the passage.

1. According to the passage, what are the simple yet practical ways to
adopt to avoid being a victim of a crime?

2. According to the Malaysian Crime Prevention Foundation (MCPF)


vice chairperson, Tan Sri Lee Lam Thye “People have to adopt an
anti crime culture and not take safety for granted”. Why is this
necessary?

3. What are the safety measures that one can take to ensure the safety
of one’s children?

4. What can be done to avoid from being tricked by an impostor?

Check your answer.

38

 
EXERCISE 2.3

Answer the questions in complete sentences. Your answer should be


based on the passage.

1. The word ‘other than’ in the first line of the text link two ideas. What
are they?
(a) _________________________________________________
(b) _________________________________________________

2. ‘For example’ in line 18 is followed by two examples on how one


can use one’s senses to protect oneself from danger. They are:
(a) _________________________________________________
(b) _________________________________________________

3. ‘As a result’ in line 56 tells us of a particular result. What is the


result?

4. ‘Furthermore’ in line 28 links two ideas. They are:


(a) _________________________________________________
(b) _________________________________________________

5. ‘Eventually’ in line 72 is followed by a conclusion. What is the


conclusion?

Check your answer.

39

 
EXERCISE 2.4

Match the words in Column A with words of the same meaning in


Column B.

No. Column A Column B


1. collective (line 5) A learning activity in which you behave
in the way somebody else would behave
in a particular situation.
2. mobilize ( line 6) Watchfulness
3. vigilance ( line 11) People who pretend to be somebody
else in order to trick people
4. role-play (line 31) Done or shared by all members of a
group of people; involving a whole
group or society.
5. impostors (line 64) To work together in order to achieve a
particular aim

Check your answer.

2.1.2 Reading 2

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

USEFUL TRAVEL ITEMS

Going on a holiday is one of the best ways to relax and enjoy


quality life. Whether holidaying on your own or with family, you
can’t deny the fact that going on a dream holiday is a joy when you
are thoroughly prepared. However, this could turn into a bad
experience if you don’t plan your travel carefully. This includes, 5
among other things, knowing what to do and what to bring with
you. On that note, here are some items that one must bring along
to ensure a hassle free holiday.
Travel-sized goods are very useful as they take less space in
your luggage, especially if you don’t want to carry extra bags. As 10
many people are frequently travelling every day, all these items are
easy to get. Some examples of items that come in travel sizes are
shampoo and deodorant, first-aid kits, baby wipes, hairbrushes,
toys etc. Pack all these things in one bag that is easy to handle and
you will save both your time and energy. 15

40

 
Security tags are other important items that one should have
while travelling, especially if one travels by airplanes. These could
prevent bag loss. To avoid revealing your home address and phone
number (as some people are not very comfortable doing that), you
could use your business address or business card in your luggage 20
tags. In addition to that, taping a card with your name and address
inside every bag you use could help you identify the bag if the
outside tags get lost.
One should never forget to bring the legal documents while
travelling or going on a holiday. These includes driving license, 25
identity card, insurance card, emergency assistance cards like the
AAA card, credit card (if you have one) and of course cash. You
will need them especially in the case of an emergency.
If you suffer from any illnesses that require prescribed
medicines, make sure you bring these along on your trip. If you will 30
be travelling on winding roads, a supply of over-the-counter
motion sickness medication is very helpful. Other than that, getting
yourself medication for flu, cold, and diarrhea could save you a lot
of precious travelling time too as you don’t have to worry about
spending money on medical treatments if you suffer from mild flu, 35
cold or diarrhea while vacationing.
Another item that is often useful but rarely being paid
attention to is the detailed maps of the places you are going. These
could really be useful as they could show you where you are in case
you are lost. Some will also highlight features along the route and 40
the all-important rest stops and petrol stations.
Next to the maps, people often forget the benefits of having a
small notebook (not a laptop ok!) and a pen or pencil. They come
in handy when you want or need to write something down, like
directions, contact number, important information etc. 45
Last but never the least, bring along some snacks. There is a
variety of snacks out there, which includes bottled water/mineral
water, individual packets of crackers, fruits, muffins, chocolates etc.
To make carrying easy, place them into disposable containers and
resealed plastic bags as you can throw them away once they are 50
empty.
Going on a holiday should be a celebrated affair as it helps one
to refresh one’s mind and body. However, to make that happen,
attention should be paid to the items necessary for the vacation as
these could help make things much better for you especially in an 55
event of an emergency in foreign places.

Adapted from: The Malaysian Women’s Weekly, June 2009.

41

 
EXERCISE 2.5

What do the following words in the passage refer to?

1. ‘This’ in line 4 _________________________________________

2. ‘This’ in line 5 _________________________________________

3. ‘They ‘in line 9 _________________________________________

4. ‘These’ in line 17 _______________________________________

5. ‘That’ in line 19 ________________________________________

6. ‘That’ in line 21 ________________________________________

7. ‘Them’ in line 28 _______________________________________

8. ‘These’ in line 30 _______________________________________

9. ‘Some’ in line 40 _______________________________________

10. ‘Them’ in line 49 _______________________________________

Check your answer

EXERCISE 2.6

Answer the questions in complete sentences. Your answer should be


based on the passage.

1. According to the article, to ensure a hassle-free holiday, travelers


need to bring along some groups of items. What are they?

42

 
2. Of all the groups of items mentioned, which is the most important?
Why?

3. Some travel items are important and useful while some are not.
Based on your understanding of the article, what item(s) you think is
the least important? Why?

4. In your opinion, what is the reason behind the writing of this article?

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 2.7

Answer the questions in complete sentences. Your answer should be


based on the passage.

1. The word ‘however’ in line 4 contrasts two ideas. What are they?
(a) __________________________________________________
(b) __________________________________________________

2. The phrase ‘on that note’ in line 7 is referring to an idea. What is it?
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

3. ‘Some examples’ in line 12 is followed by examples of travel-sized


products available for travelers. Some of them are:
(a) __________________________________________________

43

 
(b) __________________________________________________
(c) __________________________________________________

4. ‘Next to’ in line 42 tells us of two linked ideas. What are they?
(a) __________________________________________________
(b) __________________________________________________

5. The word ‘like’ in line 26 and 44 is used to show


____________________________________________________.

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 2.8

Match the words in Column A with words of the same meaning in


Column B.

No. Column A Column B


1. hassle (line 8) Recommended
2. prescribed ( line 29) (of drugs and medicines) that can be
obtained without a prescription
3. over-the-counter A situation that is annoying because it
(line 31) involves doing something difficult or
complicated that needs a lot of effort
4. handy ( line 44) An event that people are talking about
or describe in a particular way
5. affair (line 52) useful

Check your answer

 
2.2 GRAMMAR: THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

The (a) Sarah eats breakfast every The SIMPLE PRESENT is used
Simple day. to talk about daily habits or usual
Present (b) I usually go to work at 7.30 activities, as in (a) and (b).

44

 
a.m. The SIMPLE PRESENT
(c) Cats meow. Dogs bark. expresses general statements of
(d) NEGATIVE: It doesn’t fact, as in (c).
snow in Malaysia. To sum it up, the SIMPLE
(e) QUESTION: Does the PRESENT is used for events or
teacher like to ask questions? situations that exist always,
usually, or habitually in the past,
present, and future.

2.2.1 Spelling of the -S Form


 
Rule Base Form -s Form
Add s to most verbs to make Hope Hopes
the-s form. Eat Eats
Show Shows
When the base form ends is ss, Miss Misses
sh, ch, or x, add es and Catch Catches
pronounce an extra syllable. Mix Mixes
When the base form ends in a Carry Carries
consonant + y, change the y to i Worry Worries
and add es.
When the base form ends in a Pay Pays
vowel + y, add s. Enjoy Enjoys

Write the -s form of the following verbs.

1. try ____________ 2. play _________ 3. go ______


4. worry __________ 5. finish ________ 6. do _________
7. push ____________ 8. think _________ 9. say ________
10. change __________ 11.brush _________ 12. reach _______
13. fix ______________ 14. raise _________ 15. charge ______
16. see _____________ 17. hope _________ 18. read _______
19. dance ___________ 20. watch_________

EXERCISE 2.9

Complete the following sentence with the correct form of the Simple
Present Tense.

1. Betty ________ (like) to eat durians.

2. She usually _______ (eat) durians with her parents and sister.

45

 
3. They usually _______ (buy) durians at a night market near their
house.

4. Sometimes, their family friends _______ (give) them durians taken


from the orchard.

5. Local fruits like papaya and mango are good for health. Many
people _______ (like) to eat them.

6. People usually _______ (get) their supply of fresh local fruits from
the supermarket or night market.

7. Supermarkets usually __________ (open) at 10 in the morning.

8. It _________ (sell) a variety of household items.

9. One ________ (get) to choose the things that they want to buy
since there are many selections of brands sold there.

10. I _______ (like) to buy fruits and vegetables sold at the


supermarket because they are fresh and cheap.

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 2.10

Below is a list of professions. Write a sentence describing what someone


in this profession does.

1. mechanic - A mechanic repairs cars.

2. secretary - _____________________________________

3. teacher - _____________________________________

4. writer - _____________________________________

5. cook - _____________________________________

6. bus driver - _____________________________________

46

 
7. pilot - _____________________________________

8. student - _____________________________________

9. architect - _____________________________________

10. salesman - _____________________________________

Check your answer.

2.3 COMPARING AFFIRMATIVE STATEMENTS ‘BE’


VERBS AND ACTION VERBS

Examples Explanation
I am a student Don’t use the ‘be’ with the action
I study English verb.
You are clever. I am study English.
You know the answer. You are know the answer.
He is busy. He is works hard.
He works hard.
 

EXERCISE 2.11

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the underlined verb.

My friend and I are very different.

1. I get up at 7 o’clock. He gets up at 10.

2. I am a good student. He is a lazy student.

3. I study every day. He __________ only before a test.

4. I always get A’s on my tests. He _________ C’s.

5. I have a scholarship. He ________ a bank loan.

6. I am a good student. He ________ an average student.

7. He lives in a college. I _________ in an apartment.

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8. He is from Penang. I _______ from Johor.

9. He studies with the computer on. I __________ in a quiet room.

10. He watches a lot of TV. I _________ TV only when I have free


time.

11. He eats a lot of meat. I _______ a lot of fish.

12. He uses a notebook. I _________ a desktop computer.

Check your answer.

2.4 NEGATIVE STATEMENTS WITH THE SIMPLE


PRESENT TENSE
 
Examples - Singular Subject Use does not + the base form with he,
The man lives with his daughter. she, it or a singular noun.
The man does not live with his
daughter. e.g.
She has a fever. lives - does not live
has - does not have (have NOT has)
She does not have a fever.

Examples - Plural Subject Use do not + the base form with I,


Many tourists visit the National you, we, they, or a plural noun.
Museum.
Many tourists do not visit the e.g.
National Museum. visit - do not visit
We live in the city. live - do not live
We do not live in the city.
 

EXERCISE 2.12

1. You need to buy a ticket to visit the museums. You do not need to
buy a ticket to visit the stadium.

2. Penang has many old buildings. It _________________ the twin


towers.

3. I buy the newspaper every day. I _________________ ______ any


magazines.

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4. She goes to Ipoh every month. She ________________________ to
KL.

5. Malaysia has a Prime Minister. It _________________________ a


President.

6. Most Malaysians works for the government. They _____________


for companies.

7. My friend lives in Kuantan. He ____________________________


in Kulim.

8. You need a car in many cities. You _________________________ a


car in KL.

Check your answer.

2.5 COMPARING NEGATIVE STATEMENTS WITH ‘BE’


AND OTHER VERBS
 
Examples

I am not from Taiwan. Don’t use be to make the negative of


I do not speak Mandarin. a simple present tense – verb.
You are not sick.
You do not need a doctor. e.g.
He is not hungry. I am do not speak Mandarin.
He does not want to eat. You are do not need a doctor.
He is not want dinner.
 

EXERCISE 2.13

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb.

Halimah __is__ a 30-year old woman. She _________ (live) in Bangi,


Selangor. She ___________________ (not/live) in Kuala Lumpur
because rent is cheaper in bangi. Bangi ______________ (be/not) far
from Kuala Lumpur. Halimah ___________ (not/need) a car because
her apartment ________ (be) near the LRT station. She _________
(use) the LRT to go to work every day. Halimah works in Kuala Lumpur,
but she ______________ (not/work) for the government. She

49

 
_________________ (be) a tour guide. She ____________
(take) groups on tours of the capital city. Tour groups ____________
(not/need) to pay to visit the interesting places in the capital, but they do
__________________ (need) a reservation. Halimah _________ (is/not)
married. She _____________ (has) two roommates. They ______ (work) for
the government. Halimah and her roommates ___________ (work) hard. So
they _______________ (not/have) much time to visit all the interesting places
in the capital city. When Halimah’s friends and relatives ____________ (visit
from out of town, Halimah _________ (take) them to museums and other
tourist attractions.

Check your answer.

2.6 YES/NO QUESTIONS AND SHORT ANSWERS WITH


THE PRESENT TENSE
 
Examples
Singular Subject

Does Halimah work in Kuala To form questions with he, she, it,
Lumpur? everyone, family or a singular noun, use:
Yes, she does. Does + subject +base form

Does she work for the e.g


government? Does Halimah work in Kuala Lumpur?
No,she does not. NOT Does Halimah works in Kuala
Lumpur?
Does everyone sleep at 10?
Yes, everyone does. We usually answer a yes/no question
with a short answer.
Does your family call you?
No, they do not. Does she use the LRT to go to work?
Yes,she does.
No, she does not.

Plural Subject
Do you drink coffee every To form a question with I, we, you,
morning? they, or a plural noun, use: Do
Yes, I do. +subject+ base form

Do they watch TV every evening?


No, they do not.

Do all Malaysians like durians?


Yes, they do.

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Compare statements and questions.

Do/Does Subject Verb Complement Short Answer

Halimah works as a tour guide.


Does Halimah work as a tour guide? Yes, she does.
They cook every Saturday.
Do they cook every Saturday? Yes, they do.

EXERCISE 2.14

Answer with a short answer.

1. Do you go to Changloon every Wednesday?


__________________________________________________
2. Does she drive to work?
__________________________________________________
3. Does he live alone?
__________________________________________________
4. Do your neighbors swim every day?
__________________________________________________
5. Do the boys play hockey?
__________________________________________________
6. Does your father allow you to drive his car?
__________________________________________________
7. Do your classmates smoke?
__________________________________________________
8. Does your housemate clean his room often?
__________________________________________________
9. Do all Malaysians pay taxes?
__________________________________________________
10. Do they work for the government?
__________________________________________________

Check your answer.

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EXERCISE 2.15

Two students are comparing teachers. Fill in the blanks to complete the
conversations.

A: Do you ___________________ your English class?


B: Yes, I _________________. I __________ (have) a very good
English teacher. Her name is Lola.
A: ___________________________________________ Spanish?
B: No, she does not. She comes from Singapore. She ____________
(speak) English and Mandarin.
A: My teacher is very good too. He _________ (talk) fast, and
sometimes I ________________ (not/understand) him. He
____________ (give) a lot of homework.
B: _____________________________________ a lot of homework?
A: Yes, she does. And she _________________(give) a test once a
week. My teacher ________________ (wear) T-shirt to class. He’s
very informal. ____________________________ T-shirt to class?
B: No, she doesn’t . She always wears a dress.
A: My teacher always ___________ (talk) to us about the importance of
the English language. ______________ your teacher
______________ to you about it?
B: Yes, she _____________________________________________

Check your answer.

 
2.7 WH-QUESTIONS WITH THE SIMPLE PRESENT
TENSE

Singular Subject
Wh-word Does Subject Verb Compliment To form a question with he,
Where does Vera work? she, it, everyone, family, or a
When does she do her homework? singular subject use:
How does Ahmad go to school? Wh- word + does + subject
What time does Haman eat dinner? +base form
Who does she live with? (When does the show begin?)
What floor does your brother live on? NOT
(When does the show begins)

52

 
Plural Subject
Wh- word Do Subject Verb Compliment To form a question with I, you,
Where do they work? we, they, or a plural subject use:
When do they do their homework? Wh- word + do + subject
How do they go to school? +base form
What time do they eat dinner? (When do the shows begin?)
Who do they live with? NOT
What floor do your brothers live on? (When do the shows begin)

Preposition Wh-word Do/does Subject Verb


With whom does she live?
On what floor do you live on?

EXERCISE 2.16

Write out the Wh- questions for the following statements.

1. Where do you live?


I live near the stadium.
2. ___________________________________________________
I live with my parents.

3. ___________________________________________________
I bring my books to class.

4. ___________________________________________________
The teacher brings his computer to class.
5. ___________________________________________________
I walk to school.

6. ___________________________________________________
I live in the city.
7. ___________________________________________________
On weekends, I usually spend my time with my friends.

8. ___________________________________________________
The teacher gives homework every day.
9. ___________________________________________________
The teacher gives homework because he wants us to remember the
lessons.

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10. ___________________________________________________
I have six classes every day.

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 2.17

Fill in the blanks in the conversation below with the missing words.

A: What __________________ (be) your name?

B: My name is John Fernandez.

A: How _________________________ spell Fernandez?

B: FERNANDEZ. It’s a Spanish name.

A: Are you _______________________ Spain?

B: No, I ___________________ Spain.

A: What country __________________________________?

B: I come from Chile.

A: __________________________________ in Chile?

B: They speak Spanish and a little bit of English.

A: _____________________________________ your family here?

B: No. My family is still in Chile. I call them once a week.

A: Isn’t it expensive.

B: No, it ___________________________. I use a phone card.

A: How much ____________________________________ cost?

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B: It _______________________ five ringgit. We can talk for 35
minutes.

A: How _________________________ “hello” in Spanish?

B: We say “hola”. Please excuse me now. I’m late for my class. See you
later.

Check your answer.

 
2.8 COMPARING WH-QUESTIONS – ‘BE’ AND OTHER
VERBS

Examples With the action verbs, use do or


does in a question.
Who is he?
Where does he live? Where she lives? (Where DOES she
How are your parents? live?)
How do your brothers go to work How you feel? (How DO you feel?)
every day? What am I do every morning?
Where am I? (What DO I do every morning?

EXERCISE 2.18

Complete the questions with is, are, does or do.

1. A: What time ______________ the show start?


B: Four –thirty. __________________ you want to go with us?
A: Yes. What time ______________ it now?
B: Almost three o’clock. _________________ you ready to go?
A: Yes, let’s go.

2. A: Where ___________ my books?


B: I don’t know. Where ___________ you usually keep them?
A: On my study table. But they are not there.
B: ________ you sure?
A: Yes. They ___________ there this morning.
B: They should be there!

55

 
3. A: _______________________ you go to school?
B: Yes.
A: _______________________ your brother go to school too?
B: No. He quit school last semester. He has a job now.
A: _________________ it a good job?
B: Not really.
A: Where ______________ he work?
B: At a restaurant. He helps in the kitchen.
A: ______________ he live with you?
B: No, he lives with my parents.
A: ______________________ your parents unhappy when he quit
school?
B: They are unhappy about it.
A: __________________ they want him to return to school?
B: Of course. They have dreams for him and his future.

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 2.19

A. Find the mistakes with the underlined words and correct them.

1. My mother washs my clothes every Sunday.( ___________)

2. Where you live? (_________________)

3. He no need help from you.(______________)

4. You are not need to study for the test. (_______________)

5. My brother attendes a private university. (___________)

6. Does your brother has a car? (___________)

7. What kind of computers has this school? (___________)

8. How spell “mosque”?(___________________)

9. What do the teacher wants?(_____________________)

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10. Why you don’t want to see the dentist? (______________)

11. How many children do your sister has? (______________)

12. How much costs a stamp? (______________)

13. I am not like to use the public toilet? (_____________)

14. How say “good morning” in your language? (___________)

15. What means “rescue”? (_________________)

B. Fill in the blanks with the affirmative form of the verb in bracket.
Then write the negative form of the verb.
1. A monkey lives in a warm climate.
It doesn’t live in a cold climate.

2. The English language ____________ (use) the Roman


alphabet.
The Japanese language _________________ the Roman
alphabet.

3. We speak English in class.


We ________________________ French in class.

4. Brazil _____________ (be) a big country.


Iceland __________________ a big country.
5. March _____________- (have) 31 days.
February _________________ 31 days.

6. English _______________(be) hard for me.


My language ________________ for me.

C. Read each statement. Then write a wh- question about it.

1. January is the first month of the year.


What is the first month of the year?

2. They live in the city.


Where __________________________________________

3. John is the Vice-President of the company.


Who ___________________________________________

57

 
4. The CD costs me RM18.
How much ______________________________________

5. You spell “dilemma “D-I-L-E-M-M-A.


How ___________________________________________

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 2.20

Johan, a reporter for Music News, is interviewing LULU, who writes


song and sings for a pop group. Fill in the blanks in the questions Johan
asks.

Johan: Tell me, Lulu, where DO you WRITE (write) your songs?

Lulu: Well, I write a lot of them at home and almost anywhere.

J: ________ any other members of the group ________ (write)


songs?

Lu: Yes, Jake, the drummer also write some.

J: And how ___________ you ____________(know) if a song is


good enough?

Lu: We decide together after we have tried it out.

J: How long ____________ it _______ (take) you to write a song?

Lu: It depends. Sometimes it takes only a few minutes, but


sometimes it takes days and days.

J: And where ________ the ideas for your songs


_________(come) from?

Lu: Often they come from the things around me, the newspapers
and things I read about.

58

 
J: _____ the members of the group _________ (spend) much time
together?

Lu: No, we don’t really spend much time together. We like to be on


our own when we can.

J: What __________ your parents ____________(think) of your


success?

Lu: Oh, they are happy for me.

J: ________ they _______(like) your songs?

Lu: Not really. They listen to other kinds of music.

Check your answer.

2.9 FREQUENCY WORDS WITH THE SIMPLE PRESENT


TENSE

Frequency words Frequency Examples


Always 100% We always go to class together.
Usually I usually take my wife out to dinner.
Often He often visits his uncle.
Sometimes She sometimes drinks soda with lunch.
Rarely/Seldom Jones rarely cooks dinner.
Never 0% My roommate never goes to class late.

2.9.1 Position of Frequency Words and Expressions

I usually drink coffee in the The frequency words comes


morning. before other verbs.
They never walk to school.

He is always on time. The frequency words comes after


They are often late for class. the verb be.

Sometimes she watches TV in the Sometimes, usually, and often


evening. can come at the beginning of the
Usually the weather is nice in sentence.
December.
Often we saw them together.

59

 
EXERCISE 2.21

Fill in the blanks with an appropriate frequency word about your class or
this university.
1. The male students _______________ wear a tie when attending
lectures.

2. The students __________________ ask questions in class.

3. The windows of the classrooms are _________________ open.

4. The door ________________ closed.

5. We _____________ write a composition in class.

6. The teacher is ____________ late for class.

7. We __________________ write on the whiteboard.

8. The teacher _____________ wears a coat to class.

9. We are ________________ early for class.

10. We ____________have classes on Fridays and Saturdays.

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 2.22

Add a frequency word to each sentence to make a true statement about


yourself.

1. I eat fish.
I usually eat fish on Sundays.

60

 
2. I cook the meals in my house.
__________________________________________________

3. I stay home on weekends.


__________________________________________________

4. I use the campus bus to go to class.


__________________________________________________

5. I am active in class.
__________________________________________________

6. I read the newspaper.


__________________________________________________

7. I use the dictionary to check my spellings.


__________________________________________________

8. I watch TV after I have done my homework.


__________________________________________________

9. I go to the sports complex.


__________________________________________________

10. I study in the library.


__________________________________________________

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 2.23

Add a verb to make a true statement about the subjects.

1. Malaysians/often
Malaysians often spend their weekends window shopping.

2. My neighbour/ometimes
________________________________________________

61

 
3. The boys in my class/never
________________________________________________

4. The girls in my class/always


________________________________________________

5. My father/usually
_________________________________________________

6. My eight o’clock class/rarely


__________________________________________________

Check your answer.

2.10 PREPOSITIONS OF TIME

Preposition Examples Explanation

in We iron our clothes in the morning. Use in with morning,


I do my homework in the afternoon and evening.
afternoon.
They exercise in the evening.

My parents plan to do the Haj Use in with years.


in 2012.

They often visit their grandparents Use in with seasons:


in the summer. summer, spring, winter,
We seldom go out in the winter. fall.
We celebrate Merdeka on 31 Use on with dates and
on August. days.
This year my birthday is on
Wednesday.

We start class at 8 every morning. Use at with a specific


They come home at noon. time of day.
at
My sister goes to bed at midnight. Use at with night.
The show starts at night.

I usually work in the garden from Use from … to with a


five to seven o’clock. beginning and an ending
from … to
time.

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EXERCISE 2.24

Answer these questions. Use the correct preposition.

1. What time does your brother get up in the morning?


__________________________________________________

2. What time do you go to bed at night?


__________________________________________________

3. What time does your English class begin?


__________________________________________________

4. What days does your computer class meet?


__________________________________________________

5. When is your semester break?


__________________________________________________

6. From what time to what time, do you do your homework?


__________________________________________________

7. When is your birthday?


__________________________________________________

Check your answer.

 
2.11 QUESTION WITH EVER

We use ever in a question when we want answer that has a frequency


word.

Do/Does Subject Ever Verb Complement Short Answer

Do you ever sleep in the afternoon? Yes, I sometimes do.


No, I never do.
Does your sister ever cook? Yes, she often does.
No, she never does.
 

63

 
Be Subject Eve Verb Complement Short Answer
Is the shop ever open on a holiday? Yes, it sometimes is.
No, it never is.
Are the boys ever been to the library? Yes, they always are.
No, they never are.

EXERCISE 2.25

Add ever to ask questions.

1. Do you eat in a restaurant?


Do you ever eat in a restaurant?
Yes, I often do. OR No I never do.

2. Do you speak English with your friends?


_______________________________________________________

3. Does it snow in your country?


_______________________________________________________

4. Are you late for your co-curriculum classes?


_______________________________________________________

5. Do you drink coffee before you go to bed?


_______________________________________________________

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 2.26

Fill in the blanks with a frequency word to make a statement. Then ask a
question with ever.

1. I never exercise in the morning.


Do you ever exercise in the morning?
No, I never do.

2. I always listen to the radio when I am driving.


__________________________________________________

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3. I sometimes check my mailbox in the morning.
__________________________________________________

4. I often take a nap in the afternoon.


__________________________________________________

5. I never buy the newspaper on Sunday.


__________________________________________________

6. I usually wear a suit and tie.


__________________________________________________

Check your answer.

2.12 QUESTIONS WITH HOW OFTEN AND ANSWERS


WITH FREQUENCY EXPRESSIONS

We ask a question with how often when we want to know the frequency
of an activity.

How often do they eat out? Expressions that show frequency


Once a month. are:
every day, every week, every
How often does he call his month, every year
parents? every other day (week, month,
Every day. year)
from time to time
How often do your parents go to once in a while
Penang?
Once a week.

EXERCISE 2.27

Ask a question with “How often do you …? And the word given.

Shave
1. How often do you shave?
I shave every morning.

65

 
2. Wash your clothes
__________________________________________________

3. Consult your lecturer


__________________________________________________

4. Use the campus bus


__________________________________________________

5. Visit your parents


__________________________________________________

6. Go to the gym
__________________________________________________

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 2.28

Read the composition below about a teacher. Find the mistakes with the
underlined words, and correct them.
My English teacher are Jo Ann. She teach speaking and listening. She
very nice but she are very strict.She usually give a lot of homework and
we takes a lot of tests. I sometimes fail the test. I sad. English hard for
me.
Every day, at the beginning of class, she take attendance and we hand in
our homework. Then she is explain the grammar. We are do the
exercises in the book. The book have a lot of exercises. Most of the
exercises is easy, but some is hard.
Sometimes, she askes us to answer out loud, but most of the time we
writes the answers. Once in a while, she askes one of the students to
write the answer on the whiteboard.
We likes our teacher because she make the class interesting. She sings
sometimes in class and we learns new words. Once a month, we watches
a movie in class. Always I enjoy her lessons.
After class, I sometimes going to her office if I wants more help. She
very helpful and try always to help me.
Jo Ann dresses always formally. She usually wears a skirt and wears never
pants. She is about 30 years old but she is looks like a teenager. I

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very happy with my teacher. She understands the problems faced by her
students. Her first language is not English but she speak English very
well. She is knows it is hard to learn another language.

Check your answer.

2.13 THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE AND THE PRESENT


CONTINUOUS TENSE

THE SIMPLE (a) Sarah eats breakfast The SIMPLE PRESENT is


PRESENT every day. used to talk about daily
(b) I usually go to work at habits or usual activities, as
7.30 a.m. in (a) and (b).
(c) Cats meow. Dogs bark. The SIMPLE PRESENT
expresses general
NEGATIVE: statements of fact, as in (c).
(d) It doesn’t snow in To sum it up, the SIMPLE
Malaysia. PRESENT is used for
events or situations that
QUESTION: exist always, usually, or
(e) Does the teacher like to habitually in the past,
ask questions? present, and future.
THE (a) Maree can’t talk to you THE PRESENT
PRESENT right now because she is CONTINUOUS talks
CONTINUOUS preparing dinner. about an activity that is in
(b) Aini is doing her progress (is happening)
homework right now. right now. The event is in
(c) Hanan and Hanin are progress at the time the
laughing. I can hear speaker is saying the
them right now. They sentence. The event began
are probably listening in the past, is in progress
to Yusuf’s funny stories. now, and will probably
continue into the future.
NEGATIVE: Form of present
(d) It isn’t raining right progressive: am, is, are + -
now. ing.

QUESTION:
(e) Are the students
listening to the lecture
right now?

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EXERCISE 2.29

Complete the sentences with the Present Continuous Tense.

1. Right now I _____________________ (listen) to a lecture on


present continuous tense.

2. Shhh. Your grandparents ______________________ (sleep). We


don’t want to wake them up.

3. Ahmad __________________________ (speak) to a customer right


now. He told me that he does not want to be disturbed.

4. Excuse me, I __________________ (look) for the Department of


Human Resources. Do you know where it is?

5. You _______________ (act) rather strange. What is wrong? Do you


have a problem?

6. Right now they _________________ (buy) some pizzas for Alya’s


birthday party.

7. I ________________________ (think) about what to wear for


tonight’s dinner party.

8. My sister and I _____________________ (cook) spaghetti and


meatballs for dinner.

9. Right now I _______________ (try) to finish my assignment.

10. I can see them. Right now, Alina and Sara _____________ (walk)
quickly toward me.

Check your answer.

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2.14 QUESTIONS WITH THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS
TENSE

2.14.1 Affirmative Statements and Questions

Wh-word Be Subject Be Verb + ing Complement Short Answer

She is drawing.
Is she drawing a picture? No, she is not/isn’t.
The boys are singing.

Are the boys singing? Yes, they are.


What are the boys singing? Their school song.
 
2.14.2 Negative Statements and Questions

Wh-word Be Subject Be Verb + ing Complement Short Answer

The teacher is not helping the students.


Why aren’t the teacher helping the student?
My brother is not studying in his room?
Why isn’t your brother studying in his room?

EXERCISE 2.30

Use the words given to ask question about what your class is doing now.

1. we/use the textbook now.


A: Are we using the textbook now?
B: Yes, we are. (No, we aren’t)

2. the teacher/ write on the whiteboard


A: _____________________________________
B: _____________________________________

3. the teacher/ sit at his desk


A: _____________________________________
B: _____________________________________

4. the teacher/ explain the tenses


A: _____________________________________
B: _____________________________________

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5. the teacher/ help
A: _____________________________________
B: _____________________________________

6. the teacher/ take attendance


A: _____________________________________
B: _____________________________________

7. the teacher/help the students


A: _____________________________________
B: _____________________________________

8. we /practice the present continuous


A: ____________________________________
B: ____________________________________

9. we /review Unit 10
A: ____________________________________
B: ____________________________________

10. what exercise/ we. Do


A: ____________________________________
B: ____________________________________

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 2.31

Change the verbs into the Present Continuous tense and make necessary
changes to the time phrase.

1. The bus leaves the station at 11.15 p.m.


The bus is leaving the station now.

2. My parents usually visit my sister during the holidays.


____________________________________________________

3. We wash our hands before every meal.


____________________________________________________

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4. The mechanic services our car every 5000 km.
____________________________________________________

5. Every month, my roommate cleans his fish tank.


____________________________________________________
6. I lay the table and serve the food every night.
____________________________________________________

7. In the evening, Joe plays futsal with his friends.


____________________________________________________

8. Every Saturday, they run around the campus.


____________________________________________________

9. Miss Hani plans her lessons every Saturday afternoon.


____________________________________________________

10. My friend’s mother seldom scolds her children.


____________________________________________________

Check your answer.

2.15 CONTRAST OF PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE


AND SIMPLE PRESENT
 
Simple Present Present Continuous
Kim sometimes wears a suit. He is wearing jeans now.
He doesn’t usually wear shorts. He is not wearing a belt.
Does he ever wear a hat? Yes, he does. Is he wearing a T-shirt? No, he isn’t.
When does he wear a hat? What is he wearing?
Who wears a hat? Who is wearing a T-shirt?
 
2.16 FORMS OF THE SIMPLE PRESENT AND THE
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
 
SIMPLE PRESENT PRESENT
PROGRESSIVE
STATEMENT I-You –We-They talk. I am talking.
He-She-It talks. You-We-They are talking.
He-She-It is talking.
NEGATIVE I-You-We-They do not I am not talking.
talk. You-We-They are not

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He-She-It does not talk. talking.
He-She-It is not talking.
QUESTION Do I-you-we-they talk? Am I talking?
Does he-she-it talk? Are you-we-they talking?
Is he-she-it talking?

EXERCISE 2.32

A. Complete the sentences by using the simple present or the


present progressive.

It is 8 p.m., and Mr. Aziz and his family are in their living room.
Mrs. Aina, Mr. Aziz’s wife (1) ______________________ (sit)
on the sofa. She (2) _____________ (read) a newspaper. She
(3) ______________ (read) the newspaper every day. Mr. Aziz
(4) ________________ (watch) television. He (5)
_______________ (watch) television every night. He (6)
_______________ (like) to watch the news. Their children, Zeti
and Salman (7) _____________ (not, watch) the news on TV.
They(8) _______________ (play) with their toys. They usually
(9) _______________ (play) with their toys before they (10)
_______________ (go) to bed every night.

B. Complete the sentences by using the simple present or the


present progressive.

1. Right now, my friends and I are in class. I (sit)


_______________ at my desk. My friends (sit)
__________________ at their desk. We usually (sit)
_______________ at the same desk in class every day.

2. Ryuta (speak) _____________ Japanese. Japanese is his first


language, but right now he (speak) _______________
English.

3. A: (it, snow) ___________________________ in Kuala


Lumpur?
B: No. It never (snow) _________________ in kuala
Lumpur.

4. A: Look. (it,rain) __________________ out there. Are we


still going out?
B: I guess not.

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5. At the moment I (eat) ______________ chocolates with my
sister. We (like) _______________ chocolates. We (eat)
________________ them once a week.

6. A: Look. It’s Hanna.


B: Where?
A: There. She (cross) _____________________ the street.

7. My wife Sara usually (go) _____________________ to work


at 7.30 a.m. Before she goes out to work, she usually
(prepare) ________________ breakfast. Right now she
(prepare) _____________________ breakfast for our
children.

8. Every day I (go) ___________________ to work with my


colleague. We usually (take) ____________________ my car
but today, my colleague (want) ____________ to drive her
car. Right now she (drive) ________________ her car with
me (sit) ____________________ next to her.

9. Mr. Roberts (like) ____________________ to buy red roses


for his wife. He (buy) _______________ them every month.
Right now he (buy) __________________ a bouquet of red
roses for her.

10. Tina (like)________________ to bake. She (bake)


________________ cakes and muffins for her family every
week. Right now she (bake) _________________ a cake for
her daughter’s birthday.

Check your answer.

2.17 WRITING - TOPIC SENTENCE

2.17.1 The Topic Sentence

If the controlling idea is contained in one sentence, that sentence is


called the topic sentence. It is called the topic sentence because it
contains the idea or topic that is developed and explained in the rest of
the paragraph. The sentence may be found in any position in a
paragraph: at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end.

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Whenever possible, the topic sentence should be placed at the beginning
of a paragraph. In that position, it is very a helpful guide to both the
writer and the reader. The writer can more easily see what information to
include in the paragraph, and what information to exclude.

Study each of the following paragraphs. Underline the topic sentence in


each one. Then cross out any sentences that do not relate to it.

(i) Students who prefer to work alone often have trouble concentrating when other
students are nearby. They try to find quiet places to study .Coffee shops are
noisy. They can study effectively in libraries, study rooms , or alone at home.
Sometimes they use ear plugs to find quiet and to concentrate. They wear head
phones to listen to music. These students do best when there are no distractions.
(ii) Hobbies are activities that we do during our free time. For most of us, we do it
not so much for financial rewards but more for interest and enjoyment. The
more familiar hobbies are stamps collecting, painting, or simply cooking for
others. By having a hobby, one acquires substantial skills, knowledge, and
experience. Above all, a sense of satisfaction and accomplishment is normally
gained by involving oneself in a hobby.
(iii) The three main ethnic groups in Malaysia are the Malays, Chinese and
Indians. There are also various non-Malay people who are designated as
indigenous. Non-Malay indigenous groups like the Muruts, Ibans. Kadasans
and Dusuns make up more than half of the population of Sabah and
Sarawak. They also exist in much smaller numbers on the Peninsula, where
they are collectively called Orang Asli. Nevertheless, they share some general
cultural similarities. Other races in Malaysia include those of European,
Middle Eastern, Cambodian, Thai and Vietnamese descent. All these ethnic
groups have historically played an important role in trade and business.

EXERCISE 2.33

Write three supporting sentences for each of the following topic


sentences.

Example:
I am terrible at doing the laundry.
a) I forget to separate the colored clothes from the white ones and
sometimes end up with gray t-shirts and underwear.
b) I rarely read the cleaning instructions and have ruined clothes by
putting them in the washing machine instead of dry-cleaning them.
c) I often shrink my favourite shirts because I leave them in the dryer
for too long.

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1. It is almost impossible to study in my room.
a) __________________________________________________
b) __________________________________________________
c) __________________________________________________

2. There are several ways to save water.


a) __________________________________________________
b) __________________________________________________
c) __________________________________________________

3. UUM has brought many economic benefits to the surrounding


community.
a) __________________________________________________
b) __________________________________________________
c) __________________________________________________

Check your answer.

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CHAPTER 3

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES

At the end of this chapter, you should be able to:


1. Read, comprehend and retrieve information from selected
texts.
2. Express past actions and events by using the Simple Past Tense
and Past Continuous.
(a) Using Be : Past Tense
(b) Past Time Words: Yesterday, Last, And Ago
(c) Past Of Be : Negative
(d) Past Of Be : Questions
(e) The Simple Past Tense Using –Ed
(f) The Simple Past Tense Of Irregular Verbs
(g) The Use Of “There”
(h) Negative Form Of “There”
(i) Question Form Of “There”
(j) The Simple Past Tense Using Where, When, What Time and Why
(k) Using While with The Past Progressive
(l) While vs When
3. Use Transition Signals correctly.
4. Write a complete paragraph.

3.1 READING

3.1.1 Reading 1

THE MONKEY-EATING EAGLE

The monkey-eating eagle is considered by birdwatchers


to be a very rare bird. It is slowly becoming extinct.
Birdwatchers warn that unless real efforts are made to
protect the endangered eagle, it will certainly disappear from
the face of earth within a few years. Over the years, due to 5
the negative effects of man’s activities, such as the
destruction of the eagle’s natural breeding places, the
numbers of the monkey-eating eagles have dwindled greatly.
In Mindanao, there remain about 114 birds of this
species. A campaign to save these birds was launched in 10

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1972. Unfortunately, the campaign failed because man
continued to cut down trees and destroy the birds and their
natural habitat. Another reason for the campaign’s failure
was the lack of support from the government. It was mainly
carried out by environmental groups which lacked money to 15
carry out well-organised campaigns.
Despite its name, the monkey-eating eagle eats not only
monkeys but flying lemurs, flying squirrels and other small
animals. Although the bird is enormous in size, it has a
surprisingly soft call which is long, low-pitched whistle 20
rather than the typical eagle shriek.
The monkey-eating eagle hunts for most of the day. It
hunts with extreme speed and is capable of great flexibility
in its movement. The male eagle attracts the attention of the
female with a great display of its ability in flight. It 25
sometimes demonstrates its ability in the air by making a
series of loops, diving, turning and climbing back like an
arrow, with powerful strokes. At the top of each loop, the
eagle spreads its wings and dives.
The female eagle lays only one egg a year. It makes its 30
nest about 30 metres above the ground. The monkey-eating
eagle has a lifespan of about 40 years. The female begins to
lay eggs in her fifth year. It has a reproductive span of about
15 years.

EXERCISE 3.1

What do the following words/phrases in the passage refer to?

1. ‘it’ in line 2 _________________________________________

2. ‘this’ in line 9 ______________________________________

3. ‘their’ in line 13 ______________________________________

4. ‘it’ in line 15 ________________________________________

5. ‘its’ in line 18 _______________________________________

6. ‘its’ in line 27 _______________________________________

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7. ‘it’ in line 31 ________________________________________

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 3.2

Answer the questions in complete sentences. Your answers should be


based on the passage.

1. According to the passage, why are the monkey-eating eagles slowly


becoming extinct?
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

2. Why did the campaign that was launched in 1972 failed?


_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

3. How does a male eagle attract a female bird?


_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

4. Why are the monkey-eating eagles considered to be a rare species?


_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

5. What can be done to prevent the monkey-eating eagles from


becoming extinct?
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

Check your answer.

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EXERCISE 3.3

Answer the questions in complete sentences. Your answer should be


based on the passage.

1. The word ‘such as’ in line 6 is followed by one example. It is:


__________________________________________________

2. The word ‘unfortunately’ in line 12 is followed by two contrasting


ideas. It is:
_________________________________________________

3. The word ‘another’ in line 14 is followed by one example. It is:


__________________________________________________

4. The word ‘although’ in line 20 is followed by one contrasting idea. It


is:
__________________________________________________

Check your answer.

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EXERCISE 3.4

Match the words in Column A with words in of the same meaning in


Column B.

COLUMN A COLUMN B
1. rare (line 2) A. huge
2. endangered (line 4) B. damage that is so severe that
3. disappear (line 4) something stops existing
4. destruction (line 7) C. the process of mating and producing
5. breeding (line 7) young animals
6. dwindled (line 8) D. a type of animal or plant that may
7. habitat (line 13) soon become extinct
8. enormous (line 19) E. a round shape or curve
9. loop (line 28) F. not happening very often
10. reproductive (line 33) G. no longer seen
H. to become gradually less until little
remains
I. the type of place that an animal
normally lives
J. relating to the process of having
babies or producing young animals
or plants

Check your answer.

3.1.2 Reading 2

THE BENEFITS OF HONEY

Honey is a golden, sweet substance produced by bees


from the nectar of flowers. It can help protect and maintain
good health. For centuries, traditional medicine men have
used honey to both prevent and treat diseases. Today,
doctors also recognize honey’s impressive healing powers 5
although they are still unclear as to how it works. This is
due to the fact that the syrup is quite a complex mixture
of enzymes, plant pigments, organic acids, esters, antibiotic
agents, vitamins and trace minerals. Many studies

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undertaken on honey, however, have proven that the 10
benefits of this wonder liquid are genuine enough.
To begin with, it is a valuable addition to one’s daily
diet. Being a good source of energy, honey is nourishing
and helps prevent dehydration when exercising heavily.
Besides that, honey-flavoured tea is also a wonderful 15
drink to reduce stress and relax the mind. It is prepared by
making a cup of chamomile tea with some fresh or dry
mint leaves as well as a teaspoonful of honey. The same tea
taken just before bedtime will also ensure a good night’s
sleep. Furthermore, there is a lot to be said for 20
substituting honey for sugar whenever possible. Using
honey as a sweetener in drinks or cooking can help you
lose weight as honey contains fewer calories than refined
sugar.
Honey is also used for its medicinal qualities. For 25
instance, it can help ease a wide variety of digestive
problems. Those with gastric problems take one to three
teaspoonfuls of honey especially on an empty stomach just
before bedtime. Known to be a good natural laxative,
honey helps to keep bowel movements regular. 30
Some mothers find honey to be an excellent remedy for
a troublesome cough. The honey cough drop is made with
a quarter of a cup of honey and one tablespoon each of
fresh lime or lemon juice and pure glycerine (which you
can get at any pharmacy). An excellent traditional remedy 35
for sore throat is to sip steaming hot tea with a teaspoonful
or two of honey.
Besides that, honey is also beneficial if it is prepared
with cinnamon. Take one part honey to two parts of warm
water and add a small teaspoon of cinnamon powder, make 40
a paste and massage it on the itching part of the body. It is
noticed that the pain recedes within a minute or two. For
arthritis patients, take one cup of hot water with two
spoons of honey and one small teaspoon of cinnamon
powder every morning and night. Even chronic arthritis 45
can be cured if they drink this mixture regularly. In
addition, honey is also beneficial for those who are
suffering from heart attack. Make a paste of honey with
cinnamon powder. Then, spread the paste on bread. This is
much better than taking jam. Eat this regularly for 50
breakfast. It reduces the cholesterol in the arteries and
saves a person from heart attack. If a person already had an
experience of heart attack, he or she should do this process

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daily to avoid from getting the next heart attack. As a
result, it will relieve loss of breath and strengthens the 55
heart beat.
A special honey formula keeps skin soft and looking
young. The ingredients are one egg white, a teaspoonful of
honey and teaspoonful of milk. The ingredients are beaten
and applied to clean skin. The mixture should be left on for 60
at least half an hour. This formula was said to have been
used by the beautiful Egyptian queen, Cleopatra.

EXERCISE 3.5

What do the following words/phrases in the passage refer to?

1. ‘it’ in line 2 ____________________________________________

2. ‘they’ in line 6 __________________________________________

3. ‘it’ in line 6 ____________________________________________


4. ‘this’ in line 11 _________________________________________
5. ‘those’ in line 27 ________________________________________
6. ‘it’ in line 51 ___________________________________________

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 3.6

Answer the questions in complete sentences. Your answers should be


based on the passage.

1. What are the benefits of honey to our health?


__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

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2. Why are doctors still unclear on the benefits of honey?
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

3. What can a person do if he or she has trouble sleeping?


__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

4. How can honey help us to loose our weight?


__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

5. How can a person ease his or her digestive problems?


__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

6. How can honey and cinnamon help arthritis patients?


__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

7. What could a person who is suffering from heart attack do to avoid


from having the next heart attack?
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

8. Why did Cleopatra use honey?


__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

Check your answer.

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EXERCISE 3.7

Answer the questions in complete sentences. Your answer should be


based on the passage.

1. ‘due to the fact that’ in line 7 is followed by some examples. They


are:
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

2. The word ‘however’ in line 10 contrasts one idea. What is the idea?
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

3. The word ‘besides that’ in line 15 is followed by two examples. They


are:
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

4. The word ‘furthermore’ in line 20 links one idea. It is:


__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

5. The word ‘for instance’ in line 25 is followed by one example. It is:


__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

6. The word ‘besides that’ in line 38 is followed by one idea. It is:


__________________________________________________

7. The word ‘in addition’ in line 46 is followed by one supporting idea.


It is:
__________________________________________________

8. The word ‘as a result’ in line 54 tells us of a particular result. It is:


__________________________________________________

Check your answer.

85

 
EXERCISE 3.8

Match the words in Column A with words in of the same meaning in


Column B.

COLUMN A COLUMN B
1. substance (line 1) A. to show awareness of; approve of or
2. maintain (line 2) appreciate
3. recognize (line 5) B. real, rather than pretended or false
4. complex (line 7) C. to use something new or different instead of
5. genuine (line 11) what is normally used
6. nourishing (line13) D. a particular type of liquid, solid, or gas
7. substituting (line 21) E. to remove things from a natural substance in
8. refined (line 23) order to make it pure
9. ease (line 26) F. the part of your body where solid waste are
10. bowel (line 30) formed
G. to make something stay the same
H. providing the food needed to live, grow, and
be healthy
I. the ability to do something easily
J. with a lot of details

Check your answer.

 
3.2 GRAMMAR - SIMPLE PAST TENSE

The Simple Past Tense is used:


a) to describe an action that happened in the past at a definite time.
eg. : My father went to the post office yesterday.
I studied until mid night last night.
(b) to refer to an action which was performed regularly in the past, but is
no longer practiced at the time of speaking.
eg. : I always got good results when I was in primary school.
My sister and I often watched the television when we were
young.
3.2.1 Using Be: Past Tense
PRESENT TENSE PAST TENSE
(a) I am at the office today. (a) I was at the office yesterday.
(b) Aminah is at school today. (b) Aminah was at school yesterday.
(c) The girls are in class today. (c) The girls were in class yesterday.

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Simple past tense of be
Singular Plural

I was we were
you were (one person) you were (more than one person)
she was they were
he was the girls were
it was Abdullah and Siti were
Haziany was

EXERCISE 3.9

Change these sentences to Past Tense.

1. I am in class today.
I was in class yesterday.

2. Marina is at school today.


Marina was at school yesterday.

3. I am very busy today. _________________________________

4. My friends and I are very busy today. _____________________

5. Miss Aminah is at work today. __________________________

6. Miss Aminah and Mr. Lim are at work today. _______________

7. Mr. Fitri and Miss Farah are very happy today. _____________

8. I am very sad today. __________________________________

9. The teacher is angry at me today. ________________________

10. This classroom is very hot today. ________________________

Check your answer

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3.2.2 Past Time Words: Yesterday, Last, and Ago

YESTERDAY LAST AGO

Amy was here… Amy was here… Amy was here…

yesterday last night two minutes ago


yesterday morning last week seven hours ago
yesterday afternoon last month three days ago
yesterday evening last year two weeks ago
four months ago
last spring a (one) year ago
last summer
last fall
last winter

last Sunday
last Monday
last Tuesday

EXERCISE 3.10

Complete the sentences below using yesterday, last or ago.

1. Amy and Akmal met at the cinema two days ________________.

2. Many students were unable to come to school ________________


morning.

3. Mrs. Alice spent his holiday in Venice ________________ summer.

4. My mother arrived in Kuala Lumpur ________________ Monday.

5. I could still remember the coldness of the weather in New Zealand


when I was there ________________ year.

6. I met someone special when I went for a vacation in Spain a year


________________.

7. The accident happened five hours ________________.

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8. My father had to go for a conference ________________ month.

9. I had a very bad fever ________________ winter.

10. The train departed from the station five minutes


________________.

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 3.11

Fill in the blanks below with the correct Simple Past form of the verb in
brackets.

1. Farah always (go) ______________ for a walk when she was


troubled.

2. Mrs. Hazirah often (walk) ______________ to school when she was


young.

3. I (forget) ______________ to make breakfast for my grandmother


this morning.

4. My father (scold) ______________ me for being home late


yesterday evening.

5. Amir (eat) ______________ a lot of apples at his auntie’s house last


night.

6. Iskandar (spend) ______________ his holiday in Pulau Pangkor last


year.

7. Mr. Iskandar (teach) ______________ English and Science in


Penang Free School forty years ago.

8. I (dream) ______________ about a handsome prince last night.

9. Nobody (be) _______________ hurt in the accident that happened


last Friday.

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10. The children (be) ________________ happy to have a chance to
watch Transformers last week.

Check your answer.

3.2.3 Past of Be : Negative

NEGATIVE
CONSTRUCTIONS
(a) I was not at home yesterday. was + not = wasn’t
(Singular)
(b) I wasn’t at home yesterday.
were + not = weren’t
(c) They were not at home yesterday. (Plural)

(d) They weren’t at home yesterday.

3.2.4 Past of Be : Questions

YES/NO QUESTIONS SHORT ANSWER + (LONG ANSWER)

(a) Were you at home last Yes, I was.


night? (I was at home last night.)
(be) + (subject) No, I wasn’t.
(I wasn’t at home last night)

(b) Was Farah at home last Yes, she was.


night? (I was at home last night.)
(be) + (subject) No, she wasn’t.
(I wasn’t at home last night.)

(c) Were they at home last Yes, they were.


night? (They were at home last night.)
(be) + (subject) No, they weren’t.
(They weren’t at home last night.)

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INFORMATION SHORT ANSWER + (LONG
QUESTIONS ANSWER)
(d) Where were you last night? At home.
Where + (be) + (subject) (I was at home last night.)

(e) Where was Farah last night? At the library.


Where + (be) + (subject) (She was at the library last night.)

EXERCISE 3.12

Make questions and give short answers.

1. (you / in class / yesterday)


A: Were you in class yesterday?
B: Yes, I was.

2. (Farah / in class / yesterday)


A: ___________________________________________
B: No, ________________________________________

3. (Mr. Lim / at the office / yesterday)


A: ___________________________________________
B: No, ________________________________________

4. (Dania / at the zoo / two weeks ago)


A: ___________________________________________
B: Yes, ______________________________________

5. (Farah and Fitri / at the party / last night)


A : _______________________________________
B : No, ___________________________________________

6. (Intan and Iskandar / at the restaurant / yesterday afternoon)


A : ______________________________________________
B : Yes, _________________________________________

7. (Mrs. Hazirah / at home / last night)


A : _____________________________________________
B : No, __________________________________________
A : Where ________________________________________
B : At the supermarket.

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8. (Mr. Iskandar / at the post office / this morning)
A : _____________________________________________
B : No, ___________________________________________
A : Where _________________________________________
B : At the bank.

9. (The children / at Mrs. Akmar’s house / two days ago)


A : ____________________________________________
B : No, ___________________________________________
A : Where _______________________________________
B : At my house.

10. (The girls / at the cinema / last night)


A : _____________________________________________
B : No, __________________________________________
A : Where _________________________________________
B : At the tuition center.

Check your answer

3.2.5 The Simple Past Tense Using -ed

Simple Present (a) I walk to the office every day. Verb + -ed = the
simple past tense
Simple Past (b) I walked to the office yesterday.

Simple Present (c) Ali walks to the office every I


day. You
Simple Past They
(d) Ali walked to the office We + walked
yesterday. He (verb +ed)
She
It
Ali

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EXERCISE 3.13

Fill in the blanks below with the correct Simple Present or Simple Past
form of the verb in brackets.

1. Amy ______________ (wake) at six o’clock this morning.

2. Education ______________ (be) the key to success.

3. It often (rain) _________________ at night. It (rain)


_________________ last night.

4. When I am asleep, I always (dream) _________________. I


(dream) _________________ about my mother last night.

5. Miss Farah is a warm and friendly teacher. She often (smile)


_________________ when she (talk) _________________ to her
students.

6. I (cook) _________________ my own lunch yesterday afternoon.


I (cook) _________________ my own lunch every afternoon.

7. I work as a part-time waitress at a restaurant. I (be)


_________________ at the restaurant every evening. I (be)
_________________ there yesterday evening.

8. Akmar is a very hardworking student. She always (ask)


_________________ questions. She (ask) _________________ a
question in class yesterday.

9. My cousins and I used to play hide and seek when we


_________________ (be) a child.

10. Intan _________________ (sweep) the floor every morning. She


_________________ (sweep) the floor yesterday morning.

Check your answer.

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EXERCISE 3.14

Change the following words to Past Tense.

1. study ___________ 16. find ___________


2. get ___________ 17. eat ___________
3. go ___________ 18. listen ___________
4. say ___________ 19. iron ___________
5. receive ___________ 20. cry ___________
6. pay ___________ 21. sweep ___________
7. spend ___________ 22. dream ___________
8. travel ___________ 23. hide ___________
9. break ___________ 24. swim ___________
10. put ___________ 25. love ___________
11. have ___________ 26. hope ___________
12. teach ___________ 27. come ___________
13. start ___________ 28. fly ___________
14. return ___________ 29. blow ___________
15. borrow ___________ 30. throw ___________

Check your answer.

3.2.6 The Simple Past Tense of Irregular Verbs

Examples:
I saw the show last night.
They did their homework in class.
John felt happy when he saw me.

Explanation:
Many verbs are irregular in the past tense. An irregular verb does not use
the –ed ending.

3.2.6.1 List of irregular past tense verbs

a) Verbs with no Change

Cost-cost hurt-hurt put-put cut-cut hit-hit


Let- let fit-fit quit-quit shut-shut

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b) Verbs with change

feel-felt keep-kept leave-left


bend-bent build-built send-sent
break-broke choose-chose freeze-froze
steal-stole speak-spoke wake-woke
dig-dug hang-hung lend-lent
spin-spun win-won stand-stood
come-came become-became sit-sat
forget-forgot shoot-shot see-saw
bring-brought buy-bought catch-caught
begin-began drink-drank get-got
ring-rang spend-spent run-ran
find-found wind-wound

c) Other verbs

is-was are-were am-was


do-did go-went have-had
hear-heard make-made

EXERCISE 3.15

Fill in the blanks with the Simple Past Tense of the verbs in brackets.

1. UUM ___________ (win) the inter-varsity football tournament.


UUM won the inter-varsity football tournament.

2. The man ______________ (find) the money on the train


yesterday.

3. We ______________ (meet) our former neighbour at the night


market.

4. Haji Ismail __________ (take) off his songkok as soon as he


________ (enter) his house.

5. I accidentally _____________ (cut) my finger last night.

6. The girls ____________ (watch) television after dinner.

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7. My brother ___________ (play) the piano at his friend’s farewell
party.

8. Mr. Hassan _____________ (teach) us history when we _______


(are) in Form Five.

9. The police ___________ (catch) the thief two days after the
robbery.

10. Suddenly, the girls in the room _________ (hear) a scream.

11. Iskandar __________ (forget) to bring his notebook to the office.

12. Amy ___________ (spend) a lot of money when she went to Kota
Bharu last month.

13. I ____________ (dream) of becoming an actress when I


_________ (be) young.

14. Intan __________ (stand) in the rain four three hours last night.

15. The police ___________ (catch) the robber that __________


(break) into the bank last month.

Check your answer.

3.3 THE USE OF “THERE”

Sentences can begin with word “there” followed by the verb “be” in the
Simple Past tense.

Past Tense --- “was” is used for Singular subject /”were” is used for
plural subject.

Example
A man was outside the house.
There was a man outside the house.

Seven chairs were in the classroom.


There were seven chairs in the classroom.

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EXERCISE 3.16

Fill in the blanks with “was” or “were”.

1. There _______ eggs in the kitchen.


There were eggs in the kitchen.

2. There _______ birds in the garden.

3. There _______ a concert at the hall last night.

4. There _______ no students in the campus last week.

5. There _______ some books on the desk.

6. There _______ a cat in the class.

7. There _______ birds on the tree.

8. There _______ insects in his pizza.

9. There _______ a policeman standing in the middle of the road.

10. There _______ so much noise coming from our neighbour’s house.

11. There _______ a few seats left on the bus.

12. There _______ four horses in the field yesterday evening.

13. There _______ many people at the night market last night.

14. There _______ only one student at the clinic this morning.

15. There _______ blood everywhere at the crime scene.

Check your answer.

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3.3.1 Negative Form of “There”

Example

“was”
There was a cup on the table.
There wasn’t a cup on the table.

“were”
There were many students at the Mall.
There weren’t many students at the Mall.

EXERCISE 3.17

Change the following sentences to the negative.

1. There were many apples in the basket.


There were not many apples in the basket.

2. There was a cat in the house.


_________________________________________________.

3. There were five cars on the road.


_________________________________________________.

4. There was a ring on her finger.


_________________________________________________.

5. There were ten students in the hall.


_________________________________________________.

6. There was a famous singer on the stage.


_________________________________________________.

7. There was a terrible hurricane yesterday.


_________________________________________________.

8. There were eleven cars involved in the accident.


_________________________________________________.

9. There were many students affected by the disease.


_________________________________________________.

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10. There was enough medicine to cure the disease.
_________________________________________________.

Check your answer.

3.3.2 Question Form of “There”

Example
There was a pencil on the desk.
Was there a pencil on the desk?

There were oranges in the refrigerator.


Were there oranges in the refrigerator?

EXERCISE 3.18

Change the following sentences into questions.

1. There was a coin in his pocket.


Was there a coin in his pocket?

2. There was a tiger in the cage.


_________________________________________________.

3. There were many cups on the shelf.


_________________________________________________.

4. There were several boys swimming in the river.


_________________________________________________.

5. There was some juice in the jug.


_________________________________________________.

6. There was no one at the library.


_________________________________________________.

7. There were many people injured in the accident.


_________________________________________________.

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8. There was a loaf of bread on the kitchen table.
_________________________________________________.

9. There was a glass of water on the cupboard.


_________________________________________________.

10. There were plenty of roses in the garden.


_________________________________________________.

Check your answer.

3.4 THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE USING WHERE, WHEN,


WHAT TIME AND WHY

QUESTION SHORT ANSWER

(a) Did you go to the Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t.


supermarket?

(b) Where did you go? To the supermarket.

(c) Were you at the supermarket? Yes, I was. / No, I wasn’t.

(d) Where were you? At the supermarket.

(e) Did you cry because father Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t.
scolded you?

(f) Why did you cry? Because father scolded me.

(g) Did Akmar come at ten? Yes, she did. / No, she didn’t.

(h) What time


did Akmar come At ten.
When

(i) What time did Akmar What time usually asks for a specific
come? time on a clock.
At ten.

Six o’clock.

Around 8.15.

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(j) When Akmar come? The answer to when can be various
At ten. expressions of time.

Sunday

1st August.

Last night.

This morning.

Two days ago.

EXERCISE 3.19

Make questions using where, why, what time, or when.

1. A: Where did you go yesterday?


B: To the post office. (I went to the post office yesterday.)

2. A: __________________________________________
B: Because she was very tired. (I did not join the party because I
was very tired.)

3. A: ___________________________________________
B: Because I was late for the meeting. (Mrs. Hazirah cried because
she was late for the meeting.)

4. A: ________________________________________
B: Three days ago. (Mr. Iskandar completed his assignment three
days ago.)

5. A: _______________________________________
B: At seven o’clock this morning. (My mother arrived at seven
o’clock this morning.)

6. A: _____________________________________________
B: She overslept. (Faridatul was late to class because she overslept.)

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7. A: ______________________________________________
B: At the cinema. (Amy and Akmal met at the cinema.)

8. A: ______________________________________________
B: At 10.15 a.m. (Fitri fetched his sister at 10.15 a.m.)

9. A: _____________________________________________
B: At IKEA. (Mrs. Hazirah bought her new dining table at IKEA.)

10. A: ______________________________________________
B: Because she had to attend an urgent meeting. (Aminah could not
visit her grandmother because she had to attend an urgent
meeting.)

11. A: _____________________________________________
B: On Friday morning. (I arrived in UUM on Friday morning.)

12. A: ____________________________________________
B: Because it was too expensive. (I did not buy the ring because it
was too expensive.)

13. A: _____________________________________________
B: Around midnight. (The thief broke into the house around
midnight.)

14. A: ______________________________________________
B: In Italy. (Farah and her family spent their holiday in Italy.)

15. A: ______________________________________________
B: Because Akmal got bad results in his final examination. (Akmal
was unhappy he got bad results in his final examination.)

Check your answer.

3.5 PAST PROGRESSIVE TENSE

The Past Progressive Tense is used:

(a) to describe an action or activity in progress at a particular time in the


past.
eg. : I was sitting in class. (yesterday)

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(b) to describe two actions going on at the same time in the past.
eg. : Farah was talking on the phone while I was sleeping.

EXERCISE 3.20

Make sentences using the pictures below (using past progressive).

Picture A Picture B

Picture C Picture D

   

Picture E Picture F

   

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Picture G Picture H

Picture I Picture G

Check your answer.

3.5.1 Using While with the Past Progressive

(a) Anna came to my house while I While + subject + verb = a


was cooking. time clause
(b) While I was cooking, Anna came While I was cooking is a time
to my house. clause.
A while-clause describes an
action or activity that was in
progress at the time another
action or activity happened.
The verb in a while-clause is
often past progressive (eg.: was
cooking, was eating, was doing)

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3.5.1.1 While vs when

(a) The thief broke into my The verb in a while-clause is often past
house while I was sleeping. progressive. Eg. in (a) and (b).

(b) While I was sleeping, the


thief broke into my house.

(c) When the thief broke into my The verb in a when-clause is often simple
house, I was sleeping. past. Eg. in (c) and (d).

(d) I was sleeping when the thief


broke into my house.

EXERCISE 3.21

Complete the sentences below using the Past Progressive Tense.

1. My father (talk) was talking on the phone yesterday, when I (get)


got back from school.

2. When I (get) got back from school yesterday, my father (talk) was
talking on the yesterday.

3. While I (watch) _________________ my favourite television


program last night, my sister (arrive) _________________ from
Kuala Lumpur.

4. My sister (arrive) _________________ from Kuala Lumpur last


night, while I (watch) _________________ my favourite television
program.

5. The students (laugh) _________________ when the teacher (walk)


_________________ into the classroom.

6. The wind (blow) _________________ gently when we (arrive)


_________________ at the beach.

7. While Farah (read) _________________ the newspaper yesterday


morning, her mother (call) _________________ to tell her the
shocking news.

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8. The audience (cheer) _________________ loudly when their
favourite singer (appear) _________________ on the stage.

9. Mr. Iskandar (wear) _________________ a black suit when I (see)


_________________ him.

10. The naughty boys (roam) _________________ at the café during


class hours when the dean (catch) _________________ them.

11. I (talk) _________________ to my friend when my teacher (shout)


_________________ my name.

12. My mother (be) _________________ busy (cook)


_________________ in the kitchen when it started to rain.

13. Shahrul (eat) _________________ dinner when his friends (come)


_________________.

14. I (shop) _________________ at The Curve last Thursday when I


(meet) _________________ Faridatul.

15. Fiza (chat) _________________ on the telephone when her boss


(come) _________________ into the office.

16. Kaseh (play) _________________ with her cats when her father,
Iskandar (call) _________________ her.

17. Mrs. Hazirah (work) _________________ quietly in her office when


suddenly the door (open) _________________ and her son,
Taufeek (rush) _________________ in.

18. The motorist (hit) _________________ her when she (get)


_________________ into her brand new car.

19. I (do) _________________ my work when my cat suddenly (spill)


_________________ a cup of coffee onto my notebook.

20. My brothers (quarrel) ____________ when I (walk) __________


into the room.

Check your answer.

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EXERCISE 3.22

Fill in the blanks below with the correct Simple Past form or Past
Progressive Tense of the verb in brackets.

1. When I (enter) _________________ the room, my father (talk)


_________________ on the phone.

2. Iskandar and I often (study) _________________ together when we


were in college.

3. Mrs. Hazirah and her daughter (be) _________________ at the


market last Sunday.

4. Mr. Iskandar (water) _________________ the plants in the garden


when a snake (bite) _________________ his leg.

5. During my early years at school, I often _______________ (get)


into trouble with my teachers.

6. The teacher (explain) _______________ something to Ali when


Farah (raise) _______________ her hand and ask him a question.

7. The children (play) _______________ hide and seek when the lights
(go) _______________ off.

8. Last night, we _______________ (sit) at the pavement for more


than two hours, waiting for my father to take us home.

9. Fitri _______________ (fall) down the stairs just now.

10. I (step) _______________ on a chewing gum while I (walk)


_______________ to school this morning.

11. My sister _______________ (work) in Kajang three years ago.

12. My mother _______________ (hurry) to the bank, when she


_______________ (bump) into Mrs. Hana.

13. Mr. Abdullah _______________ (teach) us History when we


_______________ (be) in Form Four.

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14. I _______________ (save) RM200 last month.

15. Intan _______________ (write) a journal when she


_______________ (hear) a noise at the back of her house.

Check your answer.

 
 

EXERCISE 3.23

Complete the sentences below.

1. _____________________________________________________
__________________________________while I was watering the
plants.

2. When my aunt called ____________________________________


_____________________________________________________
_______________________________________________.

3. __________________________________________,Farah was
teaching.

4. __________________________________________, when the


electricity went off.

5. ___________________________________________, while I was


waiting for my father at the airport.

6. While the children were doing their homework,


__________________________________________________.

7. ______________________________________________, when I
received the bad news.

8. The baby little girl cried __________________________________


__________________________________________________.

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9. _____________________________________________________,
while I was preparing dinner.

10. _________________________________, when I arrived at the


office.

Check your answer.

3.6 WRITING

3.6.1 Transition Signals

Transition signals are used to link sentences so that the sentences make
sense and help the flow of your writing.

Purpose of the transition Transitional words/phrases

To indicate time relationship before, after, meanwhile, when, while,


since, then, later, sooner, afterwards,
presently, meanwhile, during, by that time,
first, second, third, finally, next

To indicate space relationship between, right, left, beyond this point

To indicate comparison compared to, likewise, similarly, at the


same time

To contrast in contrast, however, unlike, although,


even though, in spite of, none the less,
nevertheless, but, yet, instead, on the
contrary, on the other hand

To indicate cause and effect so, therefore, consequently, thus, due to


the fact that, due to, as a result, as a
consequence, since, because

To conclude in conclusion, in summary, to summarize,


to conclude, therefore

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To show examples for example, for instance, to illustrate

To add points moreover, furthermore, besides that,


furthermore, besides, and

EXERCISE 3.24

Fill in the blanks below with the correct transition signals.

1. The newly wed couple wants to buy a new car. ______________,


they can’t afford it at the moment.

2. The accident that occurred at Jalan Batu 2 was very bad.


______________, no one was injured.

3. The students studied very hard for the final examination.


______________, they got very good results.

4. Farah had been disrespectful to her teacher. ______________, she


was reprimanded in front of the whole class.

5. The two teenagers were caught shoplifting. ______________, the


shop owner reported them to the police.

6. ______________ Akmar had enrolled for the English course this


semester, she was often absent. ______________ she was not
allowed to sit for the exam.

7. My parents visited me last week. ______________, they took me to


the shopping complex. ______________, we had lunch together.

8. Akmar always neglects to pay his telephone bills. ______________,


her telephone line was disconnected.

9. Fitri is a very handsome young man. ______________, he is also


generous and likes to help others.

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10. Linda is a very beautiful girl. ______________, she is very stingy
______________ greedy.

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 3.25

Complete the sentences below.

1. Farah always manages to save her money every month. Therefore,


_____________________________________________________
_______________________________________________.

2. My family and I had a very great time last weekend. First,


_____________________________________________________
________________________________________________. Then,
_____________________________________________________
___________________________________________.

3. I can’t afford that ring since _______________________________


_____________________________________________________.

4. Kaseh is always on diet. As a result __________________________


_____________________________________________________.

5. Shila was caught stealing her mother’s money. As a consequence,


_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________.

6. Iskandar is planting some new flowers that he bought earlier that


morning. Meanwhile, his wife ______________________________
__________________________________________________.

7. Nizam isn’t free to play soccer with us today. In addition,


_____________________________________________________
_______________________________________________.

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8. There are many disadvantages of eating fast food. First,
_____________________________________________________.
Second, ______________________________________________
_____________________________________________________.

9. Smoking brings many disadvantages to us. It leads to many diseases


for example ___________________________________________
_____________________________________________________.
Besides that, __________________________________________.
Furthermore, __________________________________________
_____________________________________________________.

10. Some people prefer to live in the city, while some prefer to live in the
countryside. The city provides many benefits for instance
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
______________________________________.
On the contrary, the countryside____________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________.

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 3.26

Identify the topic sentence in the paragraphs below.

My neighbour
She always helps me whenever I have problems. For instance, when I fell
ill a few months ago, she sent me to the hospital and took good care of
me. In addition, she never forgets to water my plants when I am not
around. Mrs. Intan is a very kind neighbour. It is very difficult to get a
neighbour as kind as Mrs. Intan nowadays. I really appreciate her as my
neighbour.
The internet
We can write to our families, teachers, and friends through email and
with just one click at the fingertip, the email will be sent to the people we

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want to in just a few seconds. The internet brings advantages to us in
many ways such as saving our time. Furthermore, we can also shop
online through the internet. Shopping online can save a lot of our time.
We just need to browse the website of the things that we want and
purchase our order online. We do not have to drive and get stuck in the
traffic jam. Besides that, we could also avoid queuing to make payment.

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 3.27

Write supporting sentences for each of the following topic sentence.

1. UUM is a good place to study. _____________________________


_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
____________________________________________.

2. Every student has their own way of studying when the exam is just
around the corner.
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_______________________________________________.

3. People do many things at the beach _________________________


_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
____________________________________________.

4. Reading is a good hobby__________________________________


_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________
_________________.

Check your answer.

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EXERCISE 3.28

Write a paragraph based on the topic sentence given.

My new house

I love the location of my new house. For one thing,


________________________________________________________
________________________________. There is no crime, and most
people don’t even lock their doors. In addition, ___________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________.
Lots of stores, schools , and restaurant are nearby. Within a few miles,
there is also a library, health and fitness center, and movie theater. Most
of all, ___________________________________________________
________________________________________________________.
They are friendly and helpful and seem to keep our community safe and
clean. Finally, _____________________________________________
________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________.

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 3.30

Playing football

It was a great day to play football. The temperature was very


nice. ____________________________________________________.
In addition, the sky was a dark blue with plenty of white clouds that
shaded the field slight. The field looked very clean. My friends and I
were very excited to play. Furthermore, _______________________
__________________________. We started playing at 4.00p.m. There
were two teams. ___________________________________________
________________________________________________________

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________________________________________________________.
After a while, it started to rain. All of us ran towards the building nearby.
Finally,___________________________________________________
________________________________________________________.

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 3.31

Choose one of the following topics below to develop into a paragraph.


1. Qualities of a good student.
2. Benefits of belonging to a study group.
3. The advantages of living in the city.
4. The advantages of studying abroad.

Check your answer.

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CHAPTER 4

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES

At the end of this chapter, you should be able to:


1. Read, comprehend and retrieve information from selected
texts.
2. Identify and use the Simple Future Tense in the
(a) Affirmative
(b) Negative, and
(c) Interrogative forms.
3. Use the comparative and superlative forms of adjectives and
adverbs
4. Write sentences using connectors such as ‘and’ , ‘but’, ‘or’ , ‘so’
and ‘because’.
5. Write a complete essay.

4.1 READING

4.1.1 Reading 1

UNDERWATER JEWELS OF REDANG

It is easy to see why Telok Kalong in Pulau Redang is so


popular. Pulau Redang is one of the many islands off the coast
of Terengganu. It is the largest of the islands and is a popular
holiday spot for tourists and lovers of marine sports. The island
is two and half hours ride by boat from Kuala Terengganu. To 5
get to the island tourists can either board their boats at the
Kuala Terengganu jetty or the Chendering Fisheries complex.
The beach at Telok Kalong is of pure white clean sand. The
sparkling crystal clear sea water reflects the blue sky. Pulau
Redang has quite a number of other similar beaches but Telok 10
Kalong’s unique feature is its source of fresh water - a steam
comes right down to the beach. And, another reason of course,
is its proximity to the corals. They are just around the curve of
the beach across the water to the small islands, a distance not
too far away. 15

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Pulau Redang and its family of eight smaller islands are
situated 46 km. north-east of Kuala Terengganu. Above all,
these islands are famous for a great variety of soft corals. Marine
biologists believe that the shallow sea-bed in the area, the warm
currents plus the shelter provided by the circle of islands all 20
contribute to the rich coral environment. This makes it look
like an underwater jewel exhibition. Sadly, however, scores of Pulau
Redang’s underwater wonders have been destroyed. The thorn
starfish feeds upon corals, destroying them in the process.
Besides this, dragging anchors from boats may further damage 25
the coral bed. Then there are the fishermen, who the major
culprits. They blast vast areas of coral with dynamite in order to
get the fish.
Besides corals there are also other forms of marine life in
Pulau Redang. Varieties of fish can be found there. Every once 30
in a while families of clams can also be seen. They are white and
silvery or brilliantly purple.
We visited various corals locations around Telok Kemang,
near Pulau Kerengga Besar and Kecil, and near Pulau Lima. Vast
areas of corals have been destroyed by the fishermen but some 35
regrowth has begun as a result of action by concerned people.
Their call to set up a marine park must be supported; otherwise
the remaining marine life will be wiped out. That would be very
sad indeed.

EXERCISE 4.1

What do the following words/phrases in the passage refer to?


1. ‘its ’ in line 11 __________________________________________

2. ‘underwater jewel exhibition’ in line 22 _______________________

3. ‘they ’ in line 31 ________________________________________

4. ‘their’ in line 37 ________________________________________

5. ‘that ’ in line 38 _________________________________________

Check your answer.

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EXERCISE 4.2

Answer the questions below in complete sentences. Your answers should


be based on the passage.

1. What are Pulau Redang and the nearby islands most famous for?
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

2. What does Telok Kalong beach have that other beaches in Pulau
Redang don’t?
_____________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________

3. What three factors contribute to the rich growth of coral in the sea
around Pulau Redang?
(a) ________________________________________________
(b) ________________________________________________
(c) ________________________________________________

4. Name three varieties of marine life found around the island of Pulau
Redang?
(a) ________________________________________________
(b) ________________________________________________
(c) ________________________________________________

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 4.3

With the help of a dictionary write out the meaning of the following
words as they appear in the passage.

1. reflects (line 9) _________________________________________

2. proximity (line 13) ______________________________________

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3. contribute (line 21) ______________________________________

4. blast (line 27) __________________________________________

5. locations (line 33) _______________________________________

Check your answer.

4.1.2 Reading 2

A VISIT TO BANGKOK

Bangkok is the capital of Thailand, Malaysia’s northern


neighbour. Hundreds of Malaysian visit the city every year. Most
Malaysians go by express train through Padang Besar on the
west Coast of the Peninsula. These trains leave for Bangkok
every Monday, Wednesday and Friday. In addition, those living 5
on the East Coast can go via Sungai Golok on a Thai train on
Tuesdays, Thursdays, Saturdays and Sundays.
It is also possible to drive one’s car to Bangkok, or take a
bus or taxi. However, one must remember that the Malaysian-
Thai border is open only until midnight and not 24 hours of the 10
day.
Many visitors to Thailand also arrive by air. Bangkok’s new
airport at Souvanabumi is a major stop for about 50
international airlines flying from Europe, the United States,
Australia and most capital cities of Asia. Many ships also take
passengers to Bangkok’s seaport on the Chao Phraya River just 15
south of the city.
Once a visitor is in Bangkok, there are many ways for him to
travel around. There is a ready supply of taxis. Just like most
other Asian cities, they have meters showing the fares but they
are seldom used. Instead, one is expected to haggle over the 20
fare. However, it is difficult to bargain if one doesn’t’ know how
far one is travelling. A cheaper means of transport is the ‘tut-tut’
or three-wheeled motorized vehicle. Travelling this way is usually
cheaper than travelling by taxi.
Buses run all over the city, though finding out just which one 25
is going the right way can be a problem. A city map is available
with numbers showing the bus routes so one should be able to
work out where he can catch the right one. In addition, there are

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klong boats in the many canals in Bangkok. Unfortunately most
boat people do not speak any language but Thai. Therefore, 30
most tourists find it difficult to arrange a boat for hire.
In Bangkok accommodation is easy to find. The city is over-
supplied with luxury class hotels so prices are not very high.
There are also three-star hotels as well as cheap hotels, so there
is something to suit everyone’s pocket. If a tourist is really 35
travelling cheap, many Thai wats or temples allow male tourists
to stay. Such a tourist should get permission from the priest, and
must not forget to leave a donation behind.
There are many beautiful, religious and historical buildings
in Bangkok. In addition, there are other tourist attractions like 40
the floating market, and shopping for Thai silk and gemstones.
However the best experience for the visitor is meeting Thai
people. The country is called The Land of Smiles for a good
reason. It is said that the Thais are among the most friendly
people in the world. Thai customs and manners reflect a 45
gentleness and courtesy which is rare elsewhere.

EXERCISE 4.4

What do the following words/phrases in the passage refer to?

1. ‘the city’ in line 2 _______________________________________

2. ‘those’ in line 5 ________________________________________

3. ‘they’ in line 18 ________________________________________

4. ‘this way’ in line 23 _____________________________________

5. ‘one’ in line 25 _________________________________________

Check your answer.

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EXERCISE 4.5

Answer the questions in complete sentences. Your answers should be


based on the passage.

1. How can visitors from Malaysia visit Bangkok?


__________________________________________________

2. Why is it difficult for a tourist to hire a boat in Bangkok?


__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

3. Why is finding a place to stay in Bangkok not a problem ?


__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

4. What are the two things that a visitor must do if he wants to stay at
the temple?
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

5. Why are the Thais considered to be among the most friendly people
in the world?
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 4.6

Match the words in Column A with words in of the same meaning in


Column B.

Column A Column B
1. via (line 4 A. ways
2. haggle (line 10) B. passing through
3. means (line 22) C. range

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4. klong (line 26) D. bargain
5. class (line 38) E. temple
6. tourist (line 40) F. visitor to a foreign country
7. wat (line 41) G. canal

Check your answer.

4.2 GRAMMAR – THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE: WILL

subject will with will verb complement


They will go to the movies tonight.
The boys will paint the classroom tomorrow. We use will + base verb
She will buy some new clothes next for the future tense. Will
week. doesn’t have an -s form.

He’ll swim.
She’ll jump
It’ll take turn.

They will not receive their salary. Put not after will to
They won’t receive their salary. form the negative.

I will not think about your suggestion.


I won’t think about your suggestion.

I will always remember you. You can put an adverb


She will never move away. (always, never, probably,
We will probably stop in Ipoh. even) between will and
the main verb.

EXERCISE 4.7

Fill in the blanks with the Simple Future Tense of the verbs from the
box. Use each verb only once.

collect teach strike further add be


send organize carry return

1. My uncle _______________________ from Paris next week.

2. My sister’s class _________________ a party at the end of the


month.

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3. Tomorrow, I ___________________ the money from the students.

4. The clock _____________________ in a couple of minutes.

5. I ________________ her the flowers.

6. Before he drinks his tea, he __________________ some milk to it.

7. Mr. Sun _______________ your suitcase into the car.

8. My parents ____________ at home tonight.

9. Joe __________________ her studies at UUM next year.

10. The instructor ______________ the students a new topic next


month.

Check your answer.

4.2.1 The Interrogative or Question Form of the Simple Future


Tense

Question in the Simple Future Tense is formed in the following way

Will Subject Base Verb Expansion


Will he come to the meeting tonight?
Will the show start at 8?
Will they wait for us if we are late?

EXERCISE 4.8

Change the following statements to questions.

1. My sister will study at UUM next year.


____________________________________________________?

2. Salleh will be here at 2.30 this afternoon.


____________________________________________________?

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3. The school will make all the arrangements for the students.
____________________________________________________?

4. There will be a short meeting at 12.30 today.


____________________________________________________?

5. We will cook for them tonight.


____________________________________________________?

6. The plane will leave Penang as soon as the problem is fixed.


____________________________________________________?

7. Malaysia will participate in the next Olympics in London.


____________________________________________________?

8. The teacher will give us the test results tomorrow.


____________________________________________________?

9. The doctor will be in his clinic next week.


____________________________________________________?

10. Bob will come soon.


____________________________________________________?

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 4.9

Fill in the blanks with the Simple Present Tense or the Simple Future
Tense.

1. You _____________________ (have) fewer problems when you


_____________ (live) in the hostel.

2. When she ________________ (complete) the English course next


month, She __________________ (go ) to Sydney.

3. His parents ___________________ (not/give) the car until he


_____________(pass) the driving test.

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4. My brother has borrowed my bicycle. He ________________
(return) it when he ____________ (visit) me tomorrow.

5. When the men _________________ (call) me, I ______________


(tell) them what to do.

6. Salmi _____________________ (start) teaching at UUM when she


_____________(complete) her studies)

7. I ____________________(cook) when I _______________(be)


free.

8. Joe ______________(be) very angry when ______________


(receive) the summon.

9. The Board of Directors _____________________(not/make) a


decision until it _____________(has) the information.

10. The student _________________ (start) paying his loans when he


_____________________ (start) working.

Check your answer.

4.2.2 Future with “Be Going To”

Subject Be Going To Verb Expansion


I am going to buy a computer.
You are going to call your parents When the verb is to go,
tonight. we often delete it.
They are going to the concert this
afternoon. We can put an adverb
(always, never,
They are not going to graduate this year. probably, even)
He is going to Jitra this evening. between is, am, are and
going.
They are going to go on a trip next
week.
They are going on a trip next week.

She is probably going to send the letters tomorrow.


The boys are always going to remember their
birthdays.

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EXERCISE 4.10

1. They ____________________________________ the invitation


cards on Monday.

2. There ___________________________________ many people at


the concert.

3. She ________________________________ to London at the end


of the year.

4. He ________________________________ the house tonight.

5. My neighbour _____________________________ his parents in


Kulim later today.

6. We __________________________________ our next semester


break with our friends.

7. I think Joe and Jill ____________________________________


very happy together.

8. The kitchen renovation ____________________________ a lot of


money.

9. The teacher _______________________________ some students


to the front of the class.

10. My parents have guest who _______________________ from out


of town.

Check your answer.

 
 
 
 
 

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EXERCISE 4.11

Fill in the blanks to complete the statements.

1. I don’t understand the meaning of this word.


I______________________________ it up in the dictionary.

2. It’s hot in here. I _____________________________________ the


windows.

3. She is hungry. She _______________________________ lunch


now.

4. My parents at home are always worried about me. I think I


___________________ them later today.

5. We don’t have any sugar and rice in the house. When I go out
shopping, I _________________________________ them.

Check your answer.

4.2.3 Questions with “Be Going To”

Affirmative Questions and Statements


Wh- Be Subject Be Going +to Base Form Expansion Answer

We are going to wash the car today.


Are you going to wash the car today?

What is going to wash the car today? We


He is going to paint the house next week.
Is he going to paint the house next week? Yes , he is.
Who is going to paint the house next week? He is.

Compare Negative Questions and Statements


She isn’t going to the party.
Is she going to the party? No, she isn’t.
Who isn’t going to the party? She is.

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EXERCISE 4.12

Fill in the blanks to complete this conversation between a teacher (T)


and her student (S).

T: In this course, You _____________________________ (study)


English grammar. You _______________________________ (do)
a lot of writing. Tomorrow, I ______________________________
(give) you a list of assignments. Do you have any questions about
this course?

S: Yes. How many tests __________________________ have ?

T: You ____________________________________ (take) 12 tests-


one every week.

S: ____________________________________________ (tell) us
when the test will be held?

T: Oh, yes. I’ll tell you a few days before.

Check your answer.

4.3 MAKING COMPARISONS: COMPARATIVE AND


SUPERLATIVE FORMS

4.3.1 Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adjectives and


Adverbs

Simple Comparative Superlative


tall taller tallest One-syllable adjectives + adverbs
fast faster fastest

easy easier easiest Two-syllable adjectives that end in -y


happy happier happiest

frequent more frequent most frequent Other two-syllable adjectives


active more active most active

important more important most important Adjectives with three or more syllables
difficult more difficult more difficult

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quickly more quickly most quickly -ly adverbs
brightly more brightly most brightly

good/well better the best Irregular adjectives and adverbs


bad/badly worse the worst
far farther the farthest
little less the least
a lot more the most

Exceptions

bored more bored the most bored Exceptions to one-syllable adjective


tired more tired the most tired

handsome, gentle, narrow, clever, friendly Other two-syllable adjectives that have two forms
angry, polite, stupid

4.3.2 Comparative Adjectives

Using -ER and MORE

Examples
Kuala Lumpur is a bigger city than Seremban.
This chair is more comfortable than that chair.
My sister is taller than me.

We use the comparative form to compare two items. We use than before
the second item of the comparison.

Examples
The cost of living in Kuala Lumpur is much higher than in Alor Setar.

Much can come before a comparative form.

EXERCISE 4.13

Write the comparative form of the adjectives.

1. long longer than

2. expensive more expensive than

3. bad ___________________

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4. cheap ___________________

5. old ___________________

6. popular ___________________

7. funny ___________________

8. long ___________________

9. beautiful ___________________

10. easy ___________________

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 4.14

Complete the sentences with the comparative form of the correct


adjectives.

1. Hassan bought a CD player two years ago. I bought one last month.
Hassan’s CD player ______________________________ mine.

2. My TV costs RM250.00. Gul’s costs RM200.00. His TV


_________________________ mine.

3. My brother ______________________________________ I am.

4. Jill’s English _______________________________________ her


sister.

5. My English course ___________________________________ my


Maths course.

6. Health ______________________________________ money.

7. December _______________________________ than January.

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8. Kuala Lumpur _______________________________ than Kucing.

9. Your college __________________________________ tham mine.

10. An orange _______________________________ a lemon.

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 4.15

Write sentences use the comparative adjective with the correct form of be.

1. Mustafa / tall/ his brother.


Mustafa is taller than his brother.

2. The plane / fast/ the train.


__________________________________________________

3. The train / expensive / the bus.


__________________________________________________

4. A monkey / intelligent / a dog.


__________________________________________________

5. My grades / good / your grades.


__________________________________________________

6. Tara / heavy/ her sister.


__________________________________________________

7. Calculus / difficult / algebra


__________________________________________________

8. The bookstore/ far/ cafeteria.


__________________________________________________

9. Mexico City / hot / Paris.


__________________________________________________

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10. Joe / funny/ Jamal.
__________________________________________________

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 4.16

Complete the sentences with the correct form comparative or superlative


of the adverbs.

1. fluently Johan speaks Arabic _________________________I.


Johan speaks Arabic more fluently than I.

2. late Kathy finished ______________________ us.


Kathy finished later than us.

3. quickly We finished our work _______________________


them.

4. beautifully Jamal sings ________________________than Aziz.

5. hard My brother works _________________________than I.

6. hard My sister works __________________________ of all.

7. carefully My wife drives _______________________________ I.

8. early We arrived at the party _____________ of all the guests.

9. well Harun can write ___________________________ of


all.

10. clearly Alice pronounces her words _________________ Gin.

Check your answer.

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4.3.3 Making Comparisons: As ( Adjective) … As

We can show two things are equal or unequal in some way by using :
as + adjective/adverb + as
Example
Joe is as tall as his father.
My room is as big as my sister’s.
Erik is as strong as his teammates.
He doesn’t speak Arabic as fluently as his father.

EXERCISE 4.17

Compare yourself to another person. Use the following adjective and as


… as.

1. thin I’m not as thin as my sister.

2. old ____________________________________________

3. educated ____________________________________________

4. intelligent ____________________________________________

5. patient ____________________________________________

6. lazy ____________________________________________

7. tall ____________________________________________

8. friendly ____________________________________________

9. talkative ____________________________________________

10. strong ____________________________________________

Check your answer.

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4.4 SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES

Examples
Kuala Lumpur is the biggest city in Malaysia.
China has the largest population in the world.
Mt. Everest is the tallest mountain in the world.
The KLCC Towers is one of the tallest buildings in the world.
Penang Hill is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Malaysia.

We use the superlative form to pint out the number-one item of a group
of three or more. We use the before the superlative form.

We often put a prepositional phrase at the end of a superlative sentence:


in the world in the class in my family

We often put “one of the” before a superlative form. Then we use a


plural noun.

EXERCISE 4.18

Complete with the correct superlative form.

Adjective Superlative
1. small the smallest

2. big _________________________

3. funny _________________________

4. interesting _________________________

5. hot _________________________

6. nice _________________________

7. important _________________________

8. good _________________________

9. bad _________________________

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10. beautiful _________________________

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 4.19

1. This building is very old. It is the oldest building in the town.

2. It was a very happy day. It was _____________________ in my life.

3. It’s a very good movie. It is _________________________ I have


ever seen.

4. She’s a very popular singer. She is _______________ in our country.

5. It was a very bad mistake. It was ____________________ I have


ever made.

6. It is a pretty town. It’s ______________________ I have ever seen.

7. It was a very cold day. It was _____________________ of the year.

8. He’s a very interesting person. He’s ______________ I’ve ever met.

9. Ken is a good tennis player. He’s _______________ in our school.

10. Sydney is a big city. It is _______________________ in Australia.

Check your answer.

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EXERCISE 4.20

Read the passage below. Find and correct eight mistakes in the use of the
superlative. The first mistake is already corrected.

Restaurant Review

Last week I had dinner at the Serai Grill, a popular restaurant in Alor
Setar. In a city with more than 20 restaurants, this is (1) the more
(most) beautiful restaurant in town. It is also (2) the expensive. I was
with a group of four people, and we each ordered something different.
The chicken with mushrooms and cream was definitely (3) the more
deliciousest. (4) The more unusual dish was fish satay in a nut sauce.
Very interesting. My wife likes hot food. Her Tom Yam seafood was (5)
the most hottest dish. My steak was good, but not (6) the better.
Desserts were terrific. They make (6) the goodest cheese cake in the
world! I recommend the Serai for special events. Be sure to make a
reservation. This is (7) one of the popular restaurants in town.

Check your answer.

EXERCISE 4.21

Write a superlative sentence, giving your opinion about each of the


following items. You may use “one of the …” (plus a plural noun).

1. most interesting city


Mecca is one of the most interesting cities in the world.

2. longest river
The Nile is the longest river in the world.

3. most important job


_____________________________________________________

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4. most famous actor
_____________________________________________________

5. the smallest state


_____________________________________________________

6. the fastest man


_____________________________________________________

7. the best restaurant


_____________________________________________________

8. most comfortable chair


_____________________________________________________

9. the shortest month


_____________________________________________________

10. the most interesting TV programme


_____________________________________________________

Check your answer.

4.5 WRITING

4.5.1 Sentence Connectors: Using And, But, Or, So, Because

We use these words to put two sentences together.

Example
The bus stopped and the passengers got out.
Kassim is tall, but his brother is short.
Do you want to play tennis or go jogging?
I like to read, but I don’t have much time.
We invited Shalina to the party, but she can’t come.

But gives the idea that the second idea is opposite of the first. A comma
usually comes before but

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EXERCISE 4.22

Choose the right connectors (and, but, or, so, because) to join each pair
of sentences together into one sentence. Write out the sentence.

1. The football game ended. The spectators ran into the field.
_____________________________________________________

2. Elias reads the newspaper every morning. He likes to follow the


world news.
_____________________________________________________

3. The students wanted to go to the library. It was closed.


_____________________________________________________

4. We could go to the beach. We could go shopping.


_____________________________________________________

5. Salleh cannot play the piano. He can the guitar.


_____________________________________________________

6. Jenny likes to watch comedy movies. They make her forget her
troubles.
_____________________________________________________

7. Some people like to live in the city. Some people prefer to live the
village.
_____________________________________________________

8. The bus arrived. We got on it.


_____________________________________________________

9. You could continue studying. You could take a break.


_____________________________________________________

10. Hafiz walked to class yesterday. His car would not start.
_____________________________________________________

Check your answer.

139

 
EXERCISE 4.23

Complete the following sentence following the connectors. Write out the
sentence.

1. The teacher decided to cancel the class because


_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

2. I wanted to buy the shirt but


_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

3. She finished studying at 8 and


_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

4. My parents could have travelled by train or


_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

5. We did not have enough money for lunch so


_____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________

Check your answer.

4.5.2 Writing a Complete Essay

A complete essay has three main parts:


a) An introduction – provides some background information on the
subject and states the main idea in a thesis statement.
b) The body – presents the supporting paragraphs; each paragraph has
a topic sentence and supporting details, examples, facts are given.

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c) The conclusion – summarizes the main points.

4.2.2.1 Descriptive essay


o Descriptive writing uses words to create images for the readers. In a
descriptive essay, a writer uses details to inform the readers how a
subject looks, sounds, smells, tastes, or feels.
o To make a clear and specific description of the subject, as well as
providing details, adjectives and adverbs can be used.
e.g. I drive a black car (black = adjective)
eg. She dances gracefully across the hall. (gracefully = adverb)
o Prepositions and prepositional phrases can be used to specify
location or position in space when describing a scene.
e.g. I was walking around the park when I saw the house.
(around the park = prepositional phrase)
o Similes (like, as…as) can be used to make the writing more
descriptive and familiar.
e.g. My friend Sarah is like a sister to me.
e.g. He is as cunning as a fox.

Exercise
Write a five – paragraph descriptive essay on one of the following topics.
o A special family celebration
o A famous tourist attraction in my country.
o My favorite food.
o An unforgettable experience.
o How I usually spend my weekend.

141

 
ANSWER KEY
CHAPTER 1

Exercise 1.1
1. petai
2. the petai seed / the petai
3. orang asli
4. petai trees

Exercise 1.2
1. Parkid Speciosa
2. Because it is something you either like or hate
3. Eaten with rice
4. Because of its unpleasant smell
5. Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, and Selangor produce petai in abundance.
This is because these states have many orang Asli who gather petai
which grows in the deep jungle.
6. In recent years
7. In August .
8. Vitamins A, B, and C
9. To poison fish
10. To preserve the petai, the stalls are dipped in hot water , salted and
kept in bottles.

Exercise 1.3
1. Successful treatment has become available in recent years.
2. A person
3. The victim
4. Bridges
5. Agrophobia
6. Phobics
7. Dr. Manuel Zane
8. The phobic is to face up to his fear
9. The woman who was afraid of using escalators
10. Not many people know that mental illness can be reliably and
effectively treated

Exercise 1.4
1. Phobias are fears that disturb a person and make him behave in ways
that are not normal.
2. A fear is a feeling of scared or horrified when there is danger but a
phobia however, causes unreasonable panic when there is no real
danger.

143

 
3. i) to stop thinking about fears by doing such things such as counting
the numbers on the license plate
ii) to practice talking out loud
iii) to face up to the fear.
4. Because they don’t know that mental illness can be reliably and
effectively treated.

Exercise 1.5
1. i) We all experience fears and anxieties
ii)A phobia causes unreasonable panic when there is no real danger.
2. i) A person who has a fear of swallowing will be afraid to eat
thinking that he may get choked.
ii) One with a phobia for caterpillars may be unable to go outdoors.
3. The phobia becomes the victim’s main concern in life and that the
phobics cannot escape from thinking about it.
4. Some phobics will develop strange behavior
5. i) the real cause of phobia is unknown
ii) it could be passed down from generation to generation

Exercise 1.6
1. e
2. b
3. d
4. a
5. c

Exercise 1.7
1. am
2. is
3. are
4. are
5. are
6. is
7. is
8. are
9. are
10. are

Exercise 1.8
1. She’s
2. He’s
3. She’s
4. They’re
5. They’re

144

 
6. He’s
7. They’re
8. It’s
9. They’re
10. They’re

Exercise 1.9
1. is not
2. am not
3. are not
4. is not
5. is not
6. is not
7. are not
8. is not
9. is not
10. is not

Exercise 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14 and 1.15


Students’ own answer

Exercise 1.16
1. Is your hometown big?
2. Is Spanish your first language?
3. Are they at work?
4. Are durians very delicious?
5. Is she here today?

Exercise 1.17
1. him
2. Her
3. it
4. it
5. me
6. Them
7. Us
8. him
9. You
10. them

Exercise 1.18
1. it 4. It
2. It’s 5. me
3. I 6. You

145

 
7. you 20. It
8. 21. Them
9. it 22. I
10. I 23. They
11. You 24. I
12. It 25. Them
13. 26. Them
14. Me 27. I
15. You 28. Me
16. I 29. you
17. You 30. them
18. us 31. I
19. It 32. you

Exercise 1.19
1. Where is
2. When is
3. Who is
4. What is
5. Why are
6. Where are
7. How are
8. Where is
9. When is
10. How is

Exercise 1.20
1. These are
2. Those are
3. This is
4. That is
5. These are
6. These are
7. That is
8. This is
9. That is
10. This is

Exercise 1.21
1. have
2. Has
3. Have
4. Has
5. Has
6. has/have

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7. Has
8. has
9. have
10. have

Exercise 1.22
1. are
2. Is
3. There isn’t
4. There are
5. There is
6. There is
7. There are
8. There isn’t
9. there is
10. There are

Exercise 1.23
2.. Is there a tree in front of the building? Yes, there is. No there isn’t.
3. Is there a food court at the mall? Yes, there is. No there isn’t.
4. Are there many people at the market every morning? Yes, there are .
No there aren’t..
5. Are there many animals at the zoo? Yes, there are . No there aren’t.
6. Is there a man selling traditional food at Pekan Rabu? Yes, there is.
No there isn’t.

Exercise 1.24, 1.25, 1.26, 1.27


Student’s own answer

CHAPTER 2

Exercise 2.1
1. Tan Sri Lee Lam Thye
2. Anti crime culture
3. Malaysian community
4. Answer incoming calls or text messages
5. Your children / children
6. Responsibilities
7. Valuable items like cell phones, laptop bags, handbags, shopping
bags
8. Valuable items like cell phones, laptop bags, handbags, shopping
bags
9. Your car / the car
10. Uniformed person

147

 
Exercise 2.2
1. Practicing vigilance by trusting one’s instincts, by staying connected,
doing role play sessions with one’s children, having age-appropriate
expectations of one’s children, not leaving valuables in easy to reach
places, not leaving car key in ignition unattended and being careful
with strangers.
2. It is necessary in order to instill awareness of the seriousness of
crime in the Malaysian community.
3. One could teach their children how to react when facing a potential
criminal and assign responsibilities only when they are able to handle
them.
4. Ask that person for his/her ID and keep oneself alert at all times.

Exercise 2.3
1. a) the current economic situation
b) crime
2. a) listen for strange noises or sounds
b) keep yourself alert / be alert
3. One could easily lose one’s valuables and injure oneself.
4. a) If you need to answer incoming calls or text messages while
driving, stop and park your car in a safe place.
b) If you are walking, stand against a wall so that you have a 180-
degree view of the people around you.
5. In combating crime, collaborative effort could help to decrease the
chances of crime occurring or being repeated.

Exercise 2.4
1. d
2. e
3. b
4. a
5. c

Exercise 2.5
1. Going on a dream holiday.
2. Plan your travel carefully.
3. Travel-sized goods.
4. Security tags.
5. Revealing your home address and phone number.
6. Use your business address or business card in your luggage tags.
7. Legal documents / driving license, identity card, insurance card,
emergency assistance cards, credit card and cash.
8. Prescribed medicines.
9. Detailed maps.
10. Snacks

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Exercise 2.6
1. Travel-sized goods, security tags, legal documents, (prescribed)
medicines, detailed maps of travel destination, small notebook and
pencil, snacks.
2. Student’s own answer.
3. Student’s own answer.
4. Student’s own answer. Suggested answer: To remind travelers of
things that could ensure a hassle free holiday.

Exercise 2.7
1. a) Going on a dream holiday is a joy when thoroughly prepared.
b) Going on a dream holiday could turn into a bad experience if not
carefully planned
2. Knowing what to do and what to bring when travelling.
3. Any of the products mentioned in the article e.g. shampoo,
deodorant, baby wipes etc.
4. a) the benefits of having detailed maps of places one is going.
b) The benefits of having a small notebook and a pen/ pencil.
5. Example.

Exercise 2.8
1. c
2. a
3. b
4. e
5. d

Exercise 2.9
1. likes
2. eats
3. buy
4. give
5. like
6. get
7. open
8. sells
9. get
10. like

Exercise 2.10
Student’s own answer.

Exercise 2.11
1. gets
2. is

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3. studies
4. gets
5. Has
6. is
7. live
8. am
9. study
10. watch
11. eat
12. use

Exercise 2.12
1. do not need
2. does not have
3. do not buy
4. does not go
5. does not have
6. do not work
7. does not live
8. do not need

Exercise 2.13
1. lives
2. does not live
3. is not
4. does not need
5. is
6. uses
7. does not work
8. is
9. takes
10. do not need
11. need
12. is not
13. has
14. work
15. Work
16. do not have
17. visit
18. takes

Exercise 2.14
1. Yes, I do / No, I don’t.
2. Yes, she does / No, she doesn’t.
3. Yes, he does / No, he doesn’t.

150

 
4. Yes, they do / No, they don’t.
5. Yes, they do / No, they don’t.
6. Yes, he does / No, he doesn’t.
7. Yes, they do / No, they don’t.
8. Yes, he does / No, he doesn’t.
9. Yes, they do/ No, they don’t.
10. Yes, they do / No, they don’t.

Exercise 2.15
A: like
B: do, have
A: does she speak
B: speaks
A: talks, don’t understand, gives
B: does your teacher give
A: gives, wears, does your teacher wear
A: talks, does, talk
B: does

Exercise 2.16
1. Where do you live?
2. Who do you live with ?
3. What do you bring to class?
4. What does the teacher bring to class ?
5. How do you go to school?
6. Where do you live?
7. How do you spend your weekends?
8. What does the teacher give every day?
9. Why does the teacher give us homework?
10. How many classes do you have every day?

Exercise 2.17
A: What is your name?
B: My name is John Fernandez.
A: How do you spell Fernandez?
B: FERNANDEZ. It’s a Spanish name.
A: Are you from Spain?
B: No, I am not from Spain.
A: What country are you from?
B: I come from Chile.
A: What language do they use in Chile?
B: They speak Spanish and a little bit of English.
A: Is your family here?
B: No. My family is still in Chile. I call them once a week.
A: Isn’t it expensive?

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B: No, it isn’t. I use a phone card.
A: How much does it cost?
B: It costs five ringgit. We can talk for 35 minutes.
A: How do you say “hello” in Spanish?
B: We say “hola”. Please excuse me now. I’m late for my class. See you
later.

Exercise 2.18
1. does Do is Are
2. are do Are were
3. Do Does Is does Does Are Do

Exercise 2.19
A) 1. My mother washes my clothes every Sunday.
2. Where do you live?
3. He does not need help from you.
4. You do not need to study for the test.
5. My brother attends a private university.
6. Does your brother have a car?
7. What kind of computers does this school have?
8. How do you spell “mosque”?
9. What does the teacher want?
10. Why don’t you want to see the dentist?
11. How many children does your sister have?
12. How much does a stamp cost?
13. I do not like to use the public toilet.
14. How do you say “good morning” in your language?
15. What does “rescue” mean?

B) 1. lives/doesn’t live
2. uses/doesn’t use
3. speak/don’t speak
4. is/isn’t
5. has/doesn’t have
6. is/isn’t hard

C) 1. What is the first month of the year?


2. Where do they live?
3. Who is the Vice President of the company?
4. How much does the CD cost?
5. How do you spell “dilemma”?

Exercise 2.20

J: Tell me, Lulu, where DO you WRITE (write) your songs?

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Lu: Well, I write a lot of them at home and almost anywhere.
J: Do any other members of the group write songs?
Lu: Yes, Jake, the drummer also writes some.
J: And how do you know if a song is good enough?
Lu: We decide together after we have tried it out.
J: How long does it take you to write a song?
Lu: It depends. Sometimes it takes only a few minutes, but sometimes it
takes days and days.
J: And where do the ideas for your songs come from?
Lu: Often they come from the things around me, the newspapers and
things I read about.
J: Do the members of the group spend much time together?
Lu: No, we don’t really spend much time together. We like to be on our
own when we can.
J: What do your parents think of your success?
Lu: Oh, they are happy for me.
J: Do they like your songs?
Lu: Not really. They listen to other kinds of music.

Exercise 2.21, 2.22, 2.23, 2.24, 2.25, 2.26 and 2.27


Student’s own answer.

Exercise 2.28
My English teacher are Jo Ann. She teaches speaking and listening. She
is very nice but she is very strict. She usually gives a lot of homework and
we take a lot of tests. I sometimes fail the test. I am sad. English is hard
for me. Every day, at the beginning of class, she takes attendance and we
hand in our homework. Then she is explains the grammar. We do the
exercises in the book. The book has a lot of exercises. Most of the
exercises are easy, but some are hard. Sometimes, she asks us to answer
out loud, but most of the time we write the answers. Once in a while, she
asks one of the students to write the answer on the whiteboard. We like
our teacher because she makes the class interesting. She sings sometimes
in class and we learn new words. Once a month, we watch a movie in
class. I always enjoy her lessons. After class, I sometimes go to her
office if I want more help. She is very helpful and always tries to help
me. Jo Ann always dresses formally. She usually wears a skirt and never
wears pants. She is about 30 years old but she looks like a teenager.
I am very happy with my teacher. She understands the problems faced
by her students. Her first language is not English but she speaks English
very well. She knows it is hard to learn another language

Exercise 2.29
1. am listening
2. are sleeping

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3. is speaking
4. am looking
5. are acting
6. are buying
7. I am thinking
8. are cooking
9. am trying
10. are walking

Exercise 2.30
2. A: Is the teacher writing on the whiteboard now?
B: Yes, she is (No, she isn’t)

3. A: Is the teacher sitting at his desk now?


B: Yes, he is ( No, he isn’t)

4. A: Is the teacher explaining the tenses now?


B: Yes, she is ( No, she isn’t)

5. A: Is the teacher helping?


B: Yes, she is ( No, she isn’t)

6. A: Is the teacher taking the attendance now?


B: Yes, she is (No, she isn’t)

7. A: Is the teacher helping the students now?


B: Yes, she is (No, she isn’t)
8. A: Are we practicing the present continuous now?
B: Yes, we are (No, we aren’t)

9. A: Are we reviewing Unit 10 now?


B: Yes, we are (No, we aren’t)

10. A: What exercise are we doing?


B: We are doing exercise 1.

Exercise 2.31
2. My parents usually visit my sister during the holidays.
Right now, my parents are visiting my sister.

3. We wash our hands before every meal.


Right now, we are washing our hands.

4. The mechanic services our car every 5000 km.


Right now, the mechanic is servicing our car.

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5. Every month, my roommate cleans his fish tank.
At this moment, my roommate is cleaning his fish tank.

6. I lay the table and serve the food every night.


Right now, I am laying the table and serving the food for
tonight’s dinner.

7. In the evening, Joe plays futsal with his friends.


Right now, Joe is playing futsal with his friends.

8. Every Saturday, they run around the campus.


Right now, I am running around the campus.

9. Miss Hani plans her lessons every Saturday afternoon.


Now, I am planning my lessons.

10. My friend’s mother seldom scolds her children.


My friend’s mother is scolding her children.

Exercise 2.32
A) 1. is sitting
2. is reading
3. reads
4. is watching
5. watches
6. likes
7. are not watching
8. are playing
9. play
10. go

B) 1. am sitting, are sitting sit


2. speaks, is speaking
3. Does it snow/snows
4. It is raining
5. am eating/like/eat
6. is crossing
7. goes, prepares, is preparing
8. go, take, wants, is driving, sitting
9. like , buys, is buying
10. likes, bake, is baking

Exercise 2.33
Student’s own answer.

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CHAPTER 3

Exercise 3.1
1. monkey-eating eagle
2. monkey-eating eagle
3. birds
4. campaign
5. monkey-eating eagle
6. male eagle
7. female eagle

Exercise 3.2
1. due to the negative effects of man’s activities, such as the destruction
of the eagle’s natural breeding places
2. man continued to cut down trees and destroy the birds and their
natural habitat
3. the male eagle attracts the attention of the female with a great display
of its ability in flight
4. not many are still alive nowadays/they are becoming extinct
5. answer may vary-accept any suitable answer

Exercise 3.3
1. such as the destruction of the eagle’s natural breeding places
2. the campaign failed because man continued to cut down trees and
destroy the birds and their natural habitat
3. the lack of support from the government
4. the bird is enormous in size, it has a surprisingly soft call which is
long, low-pitched whistle rather than the typical eagle shriek

Exercise 3.4
1. F
2. D
3. G
4. B
5. C
6. H
7. I
8. A
9. E
10. J

Exercise 3.5
1. honey
2. doctors
3. honey

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4. honey
5. people who have gastric problems
6. paste / the mixture of honey and cinnamon

Exercise 3.6
1. help protect and maintain good health, prevent and treat diseases, for
the skin, and for diet
2. the syrup is quite a complex mixture of enzymes, plant pigments,
organic acids, esters, antibiotic agents, vitamins and trace minerals
3. making a cup of chamomile tea with some fresh or dry mint leaves as
well as a teaspoonful of honey
4. honey is nourishing and helps prevent dehydration when exercising
heavily
5. take one to three teaspoonfuls of honey especially on an empty
stomach just before bedtime
6. it recedes the pain in a minute or two
7. make a paste of honey with cinnamon
8. to keep her skin soft and looking young

Exercise 3.7
1. the syrup is quite a complex mixture of enzymes, plant pigments,
organic acids, esters, antibiotic agents, vitamins and trace minerals
2. the benefits of honey are genuine enough
3. honey-flavoured tea is also a wonderful drink to reduce stress and
relax the mind
4. there is a lot to be said for substituting honey for sugar whenever
possible
5. can help ease a wide variety of digestive problems
6. honey is also beneficial if it prepared with cinnamon
7. honey is also beneficial for those who are suffering from heart attack
8. it will relieve loss of breath and strengthens the heart beat

Exercise 3.8
1. D
2. G
3. A
4. J
5. B
6. H
7. C
8. E
9. I
10. F

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Exercise 3.9
3. I was very busy yesterday.
4. My friends and I were very busy yesterday.
5. Miss Aminah was at work yesterday.
6. Miss Aminah and Mr. Lim were at work yesterday.
7. Mr. Fitri and Miss Farah were very happy yesterday.
8. I was very sad yesterday.
9. The teacher was angry at me yesterday.
10. The classroom was very hot yesterday.

Exercise 3.10
1. ago
2. Yesterday
3. Last
4. last
5. last
6. ago
7. Ago
8. Last
9. Last
1o. ago

Exercise 3.11
1. went
2. walked
3. forgot
4. scolded
5. ate
6. spent
7. taught
8. dreamed / dreamt
9. was
10. were

Exercise 3.12
2. A: Was Farah in class yesterday?
B: No, she wasn’t.

3. A: Was Mr. Lim at the office yesterday?


B: No, he wasn’t.

4. A: Was Diana at the zoo two weeks ago?


B: Yes, she was.

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5. A: Were Farah and Fitri at the party last night?
B: No, they weren’t.

6. A: Were Intan and Iskandar at the restaurant yesterday afternoon?


B: Yes, they were.

7. A: Was Mrs. Hazirah at home last night?


B: No, she wasn’t.
A: Where was Mrs. Hazirah last night?
B: At the supermarket.

8. A: Was Mr. Iskandar at the post office this morning?


B: No, he wasn’t.
A: Where was Mr. Iskandar this morning?
B: At the bank.

9. A: Were the children at Mrs. Akmar’s house two days ago?


B: No, they weren’t.
A: Where were the children two days ago?
B: At my house.

10. A: Were the girls at the cinema last night?


B: No, they weren’t.
A: Where were they last night?
B: At the tuition centre.

Exercise 3.13
1. woke
2. is
3. rain, rained
4. dream, dreamed / dreamt
5. smiles, talks
6. cooked, cook
7. am, was
8. asks, asked
9. were
10. sweeps, swept

Exercise 3.14
1. studied 7. spent
2. got 8. traveled
3. went 9. broke
4. said 10. put
5. received 11. had
6. paid 12. taught

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13. started 22. dreamed / dreamt
14. returned 23. hid
15. borrowed 24. swam
16. found 25. loved
17. ate 26. hoped
18. listened 27. came
19. ironed 28. flew
20. cried 29. blew
21. swept 30. threw

Exercise 3.15
2. found 9. caught
3. met 10. heard
4. took, entered 11. forgot
5. cut 12. spent
6. watched 13. dreamed / dreamt, was
7. played 14. stood
8. taught, were 15. caught, broke

Exercise 3.16
2. were 9. was
3. was 10. was
4. were 11. were
5. were 12. were
6. was 13. were
7. were 14. was
8. were 15. was

Exercise 3.17
2. There wasn’t a cat in the house.
3. There weren’t five cars on the road.
4. There wasn’t a ring on her finger.
5. There weren’t ten students in the hall.
6. There wasn’t a famous singer on the stage.
7. There wasn’t a terrible hurricane yesterday.
8. There weren’t eleven cars involved in the accident.
9. There weren’t many students affected by the disease.
10. There wasn’t enough medicine to cure the disease.

Exercise 3.18
2. Was there a tiger in the cage?
3. Were there many cups on the shelf?
4. Were there several boys swimming in the river?
5. Was there some juice in the jug?
6. Was there no one at the library?

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7. Were there many people injured in the accident?
8. Was there a loaf of bread on the kitchen table?
9. Was there a glass of water on the cupboard?
10. Were there plenty of roses in the garden?

Exercise 3.19
2. Why didn’t you join the party?
3. Why did Mrs. Hazirah cry?
4. When did Mr. Iskandar complete his assignment?
5. When / What time did your mother arrive?
6. Why was Faridatul late to class?
7. Where did Amy and Akmal meet?
8. When / What time did Fitri fetch his sister?
9. Where did Mrs. Hazirah buy her new dining table?
10. Why couldn’t Aminah visit her grandmother?
11. When did you arrive in UUM?
12. Why didn’t you buy the ring?
13. When / What time did the thief break into the house?
14. Where did Farah and her family spend their holiday?
15. Why was Akmal unhappy?

Exercise 3.20 (possible answers)


1. Picture A
The teacher was teaching in the classroom.

2. Picture B
The rabbit was eating.

3. Picture C
The optometrist was checking the patient’s eyes.

4. Picture D
The woman was typing at the computer.

5. Picture E
The woman was playing golf.

6. Picture F
The girl was drawing / writing.

7. Picture G
The boy/man was playing baseball.

8. Picture H
The woman was drying her hair.

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9. Picture I
The baby was bathing.

10. Picture J
The woman was eating noodles.

Exercise 3.21
3. was watching, arrived
4. arrived, was watching
5. were laughing, walked
6. was blowing, arrived
7. was reading, called
8. were cheering, appeared
9. was wearing, saw
10. were roaming, caught
11. was talking, shouted
12. was, cooking
13. was eating, came
14. was shopping, met
15. was chatting, came
16. was playing, called
17. was working, opened, rushed
18. hit, was getting
19. was doing, spilled
20. were quarrelling, walked

Exercise 3.22
1. entered, was talking
2. studied
3. were
4. was watching, bit
5. got
6. was explaining, raised
7. were playing, went
8. sat
9. fell
10. stepped, was walking
11. worked
12. was hurrying, bumped
13. taught, were
14. saved
15. was writing, heard

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Exercise 3.23
Possible answers (accept any suitable answers):
1. Iskandar arrived at my house while I was watering the plants.

2. When my aunt called, I was studying English Grammar.

3. When I walked into the classroom, Farah was teaching.

4. I was doing my homework when the electricity went off.

5. I bumped into my aunt and uncle, while I was waiting for my father
at the airport.

6. While the children were doing their homework, a snake went into the
room.

7. I was watching the television, when I received the bad news.

8. The little girl cried when she heard a very loud noise in the kitchen.

9. It started to drizzle while I was preparing dinner.

10. The dean was not in the room when I arrived at the office.

Exercise 3.24
1. However
2. However
3. Therefore/ As a result/ So
4. Therefore/ As a result/ As a consequence
5. Therefore/ As a result/ As a consequence
6. Although / Therefore/ As a result/ As a consequence
7. First / Then / Afterwards
8. Therefore/ As a result/ As a consequence
9. In addition/ Besides that/ Furthermore/ Moreover
10. However/ On the contrary

Exercise 3.25
Student’s own answer.

Exercise 3.26
My neighbour
Mrs. Intan is a very kind neighbour.

The internet
The internet brings advantages to us in many ways such as saving our time.

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Exercise 3.27, 3.28 and 3.29
Student’s own answers.

CHAPTER 4

Exercise 4.1
1. Telok Kalong
2. Rich coral environment
3. Varieties of fish and clams
4. Concerned people
5. The wiping out of marine life.

Exercise 4.2
1. They are famous for a great variety of soft corals.
2. Fresh water
3. a) shallow sea bed
b) the warm current
c) the shelter provided by the circle of islands
4. a) corals
b) varieties of fish
c) clams

Exercise 4.3
1. gives an image of something in the manner of a mirror
2. near
3. add
4. blow up using dynamite
5. places

Exercise 4.4
1. Bangkok
2. Malaysians
3. Visitors
4. meters
5. using samlor
6. bus

Exercise 4.5
1. express train, car, bus or train.
2. because most boat people do not speak any language but Thai.
3. because accommodation is easy to find.
4. i) get permission from the priest
ii) do not forget to leave a donation.
5. because Thai customs and manners reflect a gentleness and courtesy
which is rare elsewhere.

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Exercise 4.6
1. b
2. d
3. a
4. g
5. c
6. f
7. c

Exercise 4.7
1. will return
2. will organize
3. will collect
4. will strile
5. will send
6. will add
7. will carry
8. will be
9. will further
10. will teach

Exercise 4.8
1. Will my sister study at UUM next year?
2. Will Salleh be here at 2.30 this afternoon?
3. Will the school make all the arrangements for the students?
4. Will will be a short meeting at 12.30 today?
5. Will we cook for them tonight?
6. Will the plane leave Penang as soon as the problem is fixed?
7. Will Malaysia participate in the next Olympics in London?
8. Will the teacher give us the test results tomorrow?
9. Will the doctor be in his clinic next week?
10. Will Bob come soon ?

Exercise 4.9
1. will have / live
2. Completes / will go
3. Will not give / passes
4. Will return / visits
5. call / will tell
6. Will start / completes
7. Will cook / am
8. Will be / receives
9. Will not make /has
10. Will start /starts

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Exercise 4.10
Students’ own answer.

Exercise 4.11
1. Am going to look
2. Am going to open
3. Is going to have
4. Am going to call
5. Am going to buy

Exercise 4.12
1. Will study
2. Will do
3. Am going to give
4. Will we have
5. Will take
6. Will you tell

Exercise 4.13
3. Worst than
4. Cheaper than
5. Older than
6. More popular than
7. Funnier than
8. Longer than
9. more beautiful than
10. Easier than

Exercise 4.14
Students’ own answer.

Exercise 4.15
Student’s own answer.

Exercise 4.16
1. The plane is faster than the train.
2. The train is more expensive than the bus.
3. A monkey is more intelligent than a dog.
4. My grades are better than your grades.
5. Tara is heavier than her sister.
6. Calculus is more difficult than algebra.
7. The bookstore is farther than the cafeteria.
8. Mexico City is hotter than Paris.
9. Joe is funnier than Jamal.

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Exercise 4.17
3. More quickly than
4. More beautifully than
5. Harder than
6. The hardest
7. More carefully than
8. Earlier than
9. better than
10. More clearly

Exercise 4.18, 4.19, and 4.20


Students’ own answer

Exercise 4.21
1. Most
2. most expensive
3. The most delicious
4. The hottest
5. The best
6. The best
7. One of the most popular

Exercise 4.22
Students’ own answer

Exercise 4.23 and 4.24


Students’ own answer

167