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Русский алфавит:
Аа Бб Вв Гг Дд Ее Ёё Жж Зз Ии Йй Кк Лл Мм
Нн Оо Пп Рр Сс Тт Уу Фф Хх Цц Чч Шш Щщ Ъъ
Ыы Ьь Ээ Юю Яя

2. Voiced and Unvoiced Consonants:

 Voiced Consonants: б в г д ж з л м р н
 Unvoiced Consonants: п ф к т ш с щ ч ц х

3. Gender: Nouns denoting males are masculine, while nouns denoting females are feminine. For the nouns denoting
abstract objects, endings determine the gender
Masculine -> consonant/й/ь
Feminine -> а/я/ь
Neuter -> о/е # Nouns ending и/ю/у are likely to be foreign borrowed and neuter.

4. Indeclinable Nouns: are borrowed into Russian from other languages and do not obey Russian grammatical rules
and never change their endings.
 Words ending и/ю/у are indeclinable;
 Females names ending anything other than а/я/ь are indeclinable;
 Many foreign words ending о are indeclinable;
 Кофе is masculine and indeclinable;
 A name in quotation marks is indeclinable if it’s generic noun precedes it;
 In other cases, foreign words are treated as native ones.

5. Animate Nouns: denote people and animals but not plants. Animate nouns have special grammatical features.
Although it is usually obvious whether a noun is animate or not, but there are non-obvious cases,
 Singular nouns denoting groups of people are inanimate;
 Nouns denoting parts of animate beings are inanimate;
 Anthropomorphic toys and court-cards are animate.

6. The Eight Personal Pronouns:

Nominative Prepositional Accusative Genitive Dative Instrumental

Я Мне Меня Меня Мне Мной
Ты Тебе Тебя Тебя Тебе Тобой
Он Нём Его Его/Него Ему/Нему Им/Ним
Она Ней Её Её/Неё Ей/Ней Ей/Ней
Оно Нём Его Его/Него Ему/Нему Им/Ним
Мы Нас Нас Нас Нам Нами
Вы Вас Вас Вас Вам Вами
Они Них Их Их/Них Им/Ним Ими/Ними
7. Conjugation of Verbs in the Present Tense:

Infinitive Знать Говорить Жить Ехать

Stem Зна- Говор- Жив- Ед-
Я ~ю ~ю ~у ~у
Ты ~ешь ~ишь ~ёшь ~ешь
Он/Она/Оно ~ет ~ит ~ёт ~ет
Мы ~ем ~им ~ём ~ем
Вы ~ете ~ите ~ёте ~ете
Они ~ют ~ят ~ут ~ут

 To make a verb negative simply put не in front of the verb.

 If the infinitive is stressed on the stem, the stress is fixed; if the infinitive is not stressed at the stem, the я-form is
stressed on the ending and all the other five forms will either be stressed on the ending or on the stem.
 Every говорить-type verb whose stem ends б в м п ф has an extra -л- in the я-form.
 When the third person plural form of the verb is used without the pronoun, the meaning becomes impersonal,
e.g. Говорят, что русский хлеб всегда свежий.
“It is said that Russian bread is always fresh.”

8. Case Endings of Nouns:

Case Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Remarks

Replacing о with а usually change the
m & f ы/и place of the stress.
Nom. й/ь а/я/ь о/е
n а/я Nominative plural is also Accusative
plural in case of inanimate nouns.
а/я -> е stem of
е е A few masculine nouns (short ones)
Prep. ь -> и +
ий -> ии ие -> ии have ending у after в and на.
ия -> ии ах/ях
а -> у
а -> у Same as
я -> ю Animate feminine nouns behave like
Acc. я -> ю  Genitive
й/ь/’c’ ->  inanimate nouns.
ь ->  Plural
anim -> а/я
а/я See Details
Gen. а -> ы ы/и
мя -> ени Below
я -> и
а/я -> е stem of
Dat. ь -> и у/ю + neuter имя -> имени
а/я -> prep.
ия -> ии ам/ям
ом/ем/ём а -> ой
дети -> детьми
а -> ой я -> ей
Ins. ом/ем/ём ами/ями дочери -> дочерьми
я -> ей я -> ёй
лошади -> лошадьми
я -> ёй ь -> ью
люди -> людьми

 Two Nouns мать and дочь always add -ер- before any case ending.
9. В and На: ‘in’, ‘on’, ‘at’:
 ‘In’ is в;
 ‘On’ is на;
 ‘At’ is в with enclosed spaces/buildings and на with open spaces and activities/events;
 Sometimes ‘in’ corresponds to на when the place is an open space or was originally an open space.

10. Nominative Form of Possessives & Demonstratives:

Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural

My Мой Моя Моё Мои
Your Твой Твоя Твоё Твои
His Его Его Его Его
Her Её Её Её Её
Its Его Его Его Его
Our Наш Наша Наше Наши
Your Ваш Ваша Ваше Ваши
Their Их Их Их Их
This/that Этот Эта Это Эти
That Тот Та То Те

11. Uses of the Accusative:

 After verbs, as objects of the sentence,
e.g. Я знаю Ивана.
 In time expressions of duration and frequency,
e.g. Подождите минуту.
e.g. Я здесь уже неделю.
e.g. Раз в год.
 With в ‘into’ and на ‘on to’ to express motion to somewhere;
 With the preposition через ‘through’, ‘across’ and за ‘for’ (in return for),
e.g. Через улицу.
e.g. Спасибо за всё.
Через is also used with time words to mean ‘after the named period of time has elapsed’,
e.g. Через неделю мы едем в Сибирь.
12. Adjectives:

Case Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural

Nominative ый/ий/ой ая ое ые/ие/ьи
Prepositional ом/ем/ьем ой/ей/ьей ом/ем/ьем ых/их/ьих
inanim -> 
Accusative ую/юю/ью  ых/их/ьих
anim ого/его/ьего
Genitive ого/его/ьего ой/ей/ьей ого/его/ьего ых/их/ьих
Dative ому/ему/ьему ой/ей/ьей ому/ему/ьему ым/им/ьим
Instrumental ым/им/ьим ой/ей/ьей ым/им/ьим ыми/ими/ьими

 Soft Adjectives: end ~ний. These have endings ~ий, ~яя and ~ее in the masculine, feminine and neuter
 Третий-Type: adjective have endings ~ья and ~ье in the feminine and neuter respectively.
o The other rare adjectives of this type are nearly all derived from the names of living things, particularly
animals, e.g. собачий “dog’s”.

13. Какой ‘What kind of ...?’: is used to ask what something is like,
e.g. Какая это машина? “What kind of car is it?”

14. Adverbs: are always indeclinable. The commonest adverb ending in Russsian is о, replacing the ый/ий/ой adjective

15. Cases of the Possessives and Demonstratives:

Case Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural

моём/твоём моей/твоей моём/твоём моих/твоих
Prepositional нашем/вашем нашей/вашей нашем/вашем наших/ваших
этом/том этой/той этом/том этих/тех
inanim -> 
мою/твою моих/твоих
Accusative нашу/вашу  наших/ваших
эту/ту этих/тех
моего/твоего моей/твоей моего/твоего моих/твоих
Genitive нашего/вашего нашей/вашей нашего/вашего наших/ваших
этого/того этой/той этого/того этих/тех
моему/твоему моей/твоей моему/твоему моим/твоим
Dative нашему/вашему нашей/вашей нашему/вашему нашим/вашим
этому/тому этой/той этому/тому этим/тем
моим/твоим моей/твоей моими/твоими моими/твоими
Instrumental нашим/вашим нашей/вашей нашими/вашими нашими/вашими
этим/тем этой/той этим/тем этими/теми
16. Mobile or Fill Vowels: Some masculine nouns which end consonant + е/о + consonant, drop the е/о whenever an
ending is added.
 The ending ~ец, common with names of nationalities, nearly always has a mobile е, e.g. япон(е)ц.
 The endings ~еец, ~аец, ~оец also have a mobile е, but when the е drops out it leaves behind the letter й,
e.g. Европеец -> Европейцы

17. Spelling Rules:

Rule Description
Spelling Rule 1 After г к х ж ш щ ч -> и will be found instead of ы.
After ж ц ш щ ч -> е will be found instead of о. This rule is not
Spelling Rule 2
applicable in case of stressed о.
Spelling Rule 3 After г к х ж ш щ ч ц -> а will be found instead of я.
Spelling Rule 4 After г к х ж ш щ ч ц -> у will be found instead of ю.

18. Есть ‘is’, ‘are’: is used to ask whether something is available; it can also be used as ‘is’/’am’/’are’ when they mean ‘to
exist’ or ‘to be present’,
e.g. Чай есть? “Is there tea?”
e.g. Бог есть. “God exists.”

19. Uses of the Genitive:

 With numbers and quantity words,
e.g. Три рубля. “Three roubles.”
e.g. Много времени. “A lot of time.”
o If the number and the noiun are inverted, the meaning is ‘about’, ‘approximately’,
e.g. Рубля три. “About three roubles.”
o After the numbers 2, 3, 4 and any number ending 2, 3, 4, the noun is genitive singular while numbers
from 5 upwards are followed by genitive plural.
o It is a genral rule that the last number determines the form of the noun.
 Posssession, corresponding to ‘s’ in “Ivan’s house” and related meanings,
e.g. Дом Ивана. “Ivan’s house.”
 After a large number of prepositions,
e.g. До свидания. “Goodbye.” (Untill meeeting.)
 With нет meaning “there isn’t”,
e.g. Нет времени. “There is no time.”
 The genitive is also used after negated transitive verbs,
e.g. Она не знает языка. “She doesn’t know the language.”
 A minor use of the genitive is to express the partitive meaning,
e.g. Дайте хлеб. “Give me bread.”
e.g. Дайте хлеба. “Give me some bread.”
o A small number of nouns have a special у/ю ending for the partitive,
e.g. Вы хотите чаю? “Would you like some tea?”
20. Genitive Plural:
 All nouns ending ь, replace ь with ей, often stressed, particularly if the noun is short but hard to predict;
 Nouns ending ж/ч/ш/щ add ей often stressed but hard to predict;
 Most other masculine nouns ending with consonant add ов;
 Feminine nouns ending а and neuter nouns ending о have a ‘zero ending’;
 All nouns ending ия/ие replace я/е with й and the stress never shifts;
 Nouns with irregular nominative plural ending unstressed ья repeat the stem in all forms of the plural;
 Nouns with irregular nominative plural ending stressed ья have the ending ей;
 Nouns ending й have the ending ев;
 Nouns ending жка/чка/шка/цка/ька become жек/чек/шек/цек/ек in the genitive plural respectively;
 Other consonants + ка become consonants + ок;
 Other а/о nouns with ‘awkward’ consonant groups also split the final consonants with о/е;
o The consonant groups тв/гр/рт are not split.
 Nouns ending йка become ек;
 Nouns ending consonant + я generally replace я with ь, but the ending consonant + ня becomes consonant + ен;
 Nouns ending анин/янин/ин lose the final ин;

21. One; Од(и)н: is not a numeral, but behaves like an adjective agreeing with the following noun and has the same
endings as этот,
e.g. Я знаю одну девушку. “I know one girl.”
 All numbers which end with a form of один behave in the same way and any accompanying noun is singular,
e.g. Я знаю сто двадцать одну девушку. “I know 121 girls.”

22. To Have: In Russian there is no commonly used verb corresponding to ‘to have’, instead a construction is used,
У + <possessor in genitive> + есть + <thing possessed in nominative>
 The construction without есть asks about some feature of the thing possessed,
A: У вас есть сын? “Do you have a son?”
B: Да, есть. “Yes, I do.”
A: У вас сын большой или маленький? “Is your son big or small?”

23. Иметь ‘to have’: is not ussed in the everyday sense of possession. Instead, it is used with abstract nouns in a number
of fixed expressions,
e.g. Иметь право. “To have the right.”
e.g. Иметь в виду. “To have/bear in mind.”
e.g. Вы имете право. “You have the right.”
e.g. Это не имеет значения. “It doesn’t matter.”

24. There isn’t: Нет + genitive: is the opposite of есть,

e.g. У меня нет детей? “I have no children.”
 The idiomatic use of нет + person is to mean ‘not here’,
e.g. Её нет дома. “She’s not at home.”
25. Adjectives with Numerals:
 Один have the adjective in nominative singular;
 Numbers 5 and upwards have the genitive plural adjective;
 After 2, 3, 4 adjectives are in the genitive plural with masculine and neuter nouns and in the nominative
plural with feminine nouns;
o It is preferred to use nominative plural of adjectives with all those feminine nouns whose genitive
singular is identical to the nominative plural, while those nouns which have different stresses in the
genitive singular and nominative plural are more likely to have genitive adjectives.

26. Question Word Ли ‘Whether’: requires no intonation and is always the second item in the question,
e.g. Нет ли у вас долларов? “You wouldn’t have dollars, would you?”
 The colloquial phrase что ли? “is it?/am I?/are you?”, etc. is always placed at the end,
e.g. Он русский, что ли? “He’s Russian, is he?”

27. Prepositions with Prepositional Case:

Preposition Meaning Example

в in, at в Москве
на on, at на троллейбусе
о/об/обо about, concerning о царе/обо мне/об Англии
при attached to, in the presence of; at the time of при мне

28. Prepositions with Accusative Case:

Preposition Meaning Example

through/across через лес
after a named period of time has elapsed Через неделю мы едем в Сибирь.
за for (in return for) Спасибо за письмо.

29. Talking about the Past: To make the past tense of most verbs, simply take off the ть and add an ending,

Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural

Ending ~л ~ла ~ло ~ли
 If the infinitive ends in something other than ть, then the masculine singular past tense stem is hard to
determine, but all the other forms follow the same pattern.
30. Быть “to be”: does not have a normal present tense, but forms its past tense like any other verb,

Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural

Conjugation был была было были
Negation не был не была не было не были

31. Past of есть and нет “There isn’t”:

Есть -> Быть
Нет + Genitive -> Не было

32. Stress of the Past Tense:

 As a general rule, if the infinitive has only one syllable, the feminine form will be stressed on the а, while
other forms will be stressed on the stem; знать is an exception: она знала.
 Longer verbs are likely to have fixed stress, but verbs with prefixes normally have the same stress pattern as
the root verb;
 The shift of the stress to не with быть is found with a small number of one-syllable verbs.

33. Reflexive Verbs: Most Russian verbs have a suffix ся, which becomes сь after a vowel, are called reflexive verbs.
These verbs have a meaning of ‘self’,
e.g. Она одевает мальчика. “She dresses the boy.”
e.g. Она одевается красиво. “She dresses well.”
e.g. Она одевалася. “She dressed herself.”
 Another common use of the reflexive verbs is when they are used intransitively, i.e. when things open, close
or beginare made subjects without an object,
e.g. Иван начинает концерт.
e.g. Концерт начинается.
34. Prepositions and Other Quantity Words with Genitive Case:

Meaning Example
много much, many, a lot много друзей/много сахара
мало few, little мало сахара
несколько some, a few несколько минут
сколько? how much?, how many? сколько часов?
столько so much, so many столько работы
больше more больше денег
меньше less, fewer меньше слов
без without кофе без молока
письмо дла вадима
для for
Это – стакан для чай.
до until, before, up to до свидания/до лекции/до 28 стаканов
из out of, from – opposite of в + acc. из Москвы/один из её друзей
кроме except все кроме Евы
мимо past, by Мы едем мимо Лубянки.
около near, approximately, around около завода/около 4 километров
от from people письма от друзей
после after после урока
против opposite, against, across против магазина/против капитализма
ради for the sake of ради детей
с from – opposite of на + acc. с вокзала
у окна/у нас дом
у by, near; at someone’s place; from Вчера я был у Маши.
Я купил машину у Льва.
близ near place/person близ леса/близ Наташи
вдоль along, down вдоль реки/вдоль ултцы
вместо instead of, in place of вместо меня/вместо физики
вне outside вне закона
внутри inside внутри дома
возле near, by, next to Дарья живёт возле нас.
вокруг around Все сидели вокруг стола.
из-за because of, from behind из-за поноды/из-за дивана
из-под дивана
из-под from under; for use of
На столе стакан из-под чая.
накануне on the eve of накануне революции
помимо apart from, in addition to помимо него
посреди in the middle of посреди парка
среди among/in the middle of среди девушек
35. Future Tense: A major use of perfective verbs is the formation of the future tense. If the same endings are added to
the perfective as in imperfective, the meaning is future,
e.g. Я звоню. “I phone.”
e.g. Я позвоню. “I’ll phone.”
 A perfective formed from an imperfective by the addition of a prefix always has the same conjugation as the

36. Хотеть ‘to want’: is most commonly used with an infinitive,

e.g. Я хочу пойти в Эрмитаж.
 If the thing/action wanted is a single event, perfective is used, while for repeated/unspecified duration
events use imperfective aspect,
e.g. Я хочу прочитать эту книгу.
e.g. Я хочу читать русские книги.
 It can also be used with a noun either in the accusative (with specific objects) or the genitive (with abstract
nouns or in the partitive meaning),
e.g. Что вы хотите?
e.g. Я хочу бутерброд.
e.g. Мы хотиме мира.

37. Нравиться ‘to please’: is used alongwith nouns in dative to ask question “Do you like...?”,
e.g. Вам нравится Москва? “Do you like Moscow?”
e.g. Мне ваши дети очень нравится. “I like your children very much.”
e.g. Как вам нравится...? “What do you think of...?”
e.g. Как вам нравится этот фильм? “What do you think of this film?”

38. The Main Uses of the Dative:

 To translate ‘to’ a person in sentences such as “I wrote to my friend”,
e.g. Я писал другу. “I wrote to my friend.”
 In impersonal constructions with words like надо/можно, the person affected is in the dative,
e.g. Ему можно видеть. “He can see.”
 After certain verbs, including most verbs of communication and speaking and many which have a sense of
giving something,
e.g. Я ему скажу. “I’ll tell him.”
 After the prepositions к ‘towards’/’to a person’ and по ‘along’/’according to’ and various other meanings
depending on the context,
e.g. Я ходил к друзьям. “I went to my friends.”
e.g. по улицам “along the streets”
 With four rarer prepositions: благодаря ‘thanks to’, согласно ‘according to’, вопреки ‘in spite of’ and
навстречу ‘towards’,
e.g. благодаря хорошей погоде “thanks to the good weather”
e.g. согласно плану “according to the plan”
e.g. Навстречу нам шёл дедушка “Grandfather was coming towards us.”
39. Prepositions with Dative Case:

Preposition Meaning Example

к towards/to a person Я ходил к друзьям.
по along/according to по улицам
благодаря thanks to благодаря хорошей погоде
согласно according to согласно плану
вопреки in spite of вопреки проблеме
навстречу towards Навстречу нам шёл дедушка.

40. Use of Aspect in the Past:

Imperfective Perfective
Perfective is used for completed single event,
Actions in process are always imperfective. Мы пошли домой.
“We went home.”
Sequences of actions, except when they are repeated
Actions repeated habitually or an unspecified number
are perfective since each action must be finished to
of times are imperfective,
start the other,
Мы звонили каждый день.
Я позвонила и сказала, что приду.
“We telephoned you every day.”
“We lived there for three years.”
Verbs denoting staes rather than actions are normally Verbs with prefix про- meaning ‘to spend a specified
imperfective, amount of time doing something’,
Они жили в Москве. Мы прожили там три года.
“They lived in Moscow.” “We lived there for three years.”
Expressions of duration (‘all day’, ‘for three hours’)
require the imperfective,
Я писала весь день.
“I was writing all day.”
If there was no action, imperfective is used,
Она не звонила.
“She didn’t phone.”
Actions attempted but without result are With negation the perfective indicates failure to do
imperfective, something,
Я вам звонила. Она не позвонила.
“I telephoned you.” but you weren’t in “She failed to phone.” though she was expected to
The imperfective is used in cases where the fact of
completion is irrelevant,
Вы читали “Война и мир”?
“Have you read War and Peace?”
Вы прочитали “Война и мир”?
“Have you finished War and Peace?”
The imperfective is also used for actions which,
though completed, were reversed or undone or
Мой друг приехал ко мне.
“My friend cam to me.” and left again
41. Aspect of the Infinitive: Imperfective is used for some general work, while perfective is used to be specific,
e.g. Я решли читать эту книгу. “I have decided to read this book.” but necessarily finish it
e.g. Я решли прочитать эту книгу. “I have decided to read this book.” and finish it
 After the verbs начинать/начать, продолжать and кончать/кончить, any infinitive is always

42. Use of Tense: Reported Speech: In Russsian, when someone’s words are reported, the tense of the original words
stays unchanged,
Я была в Лондоне.
Вера сказала, что она была в Лондоне.
 This preference for keeping thetense of the original words is extended to cover seeing, hearing and other
forms of perception in addition to verbs of speaking,
e.g. Я знал, что он русский.

43. Whether Ли: The same retention of the original tense is found in reported yes-no questions.
 Whenever English ‘if’ can be replaced by ‘whether’, ‘if’ must be translated as ли,
Джон спросил: “Анна говорит по-русски?”
Джон спросил, говорит ли Анна по-русски.

44. The Future of быть:

буду будешь будет будем будете будут
e.g. Я буду в Москве. “I shall be in Moscow.”

45. Aspect in Future: The choice of aspect in future follows the same basic principles as the choice in the past, i.e.
imperfective simply names the action while the perfective specifies that the action is seen as a completed whole. In
most cases, perfective is used while imperfective is used only if the action is unfinished or repeated,
e.g. В Москве вы будете жить у нас. “In Moscow you will live with us.”

46. Use of Tenses: Future for English Present: In Russian, after the conjunctions когда, если (not ‘whether’), пока...не,
the future tense must be used if the meaning is future where English often uses the present,
Когда я буду в Москве, я позвоню его сестре.
“When I will be in Moscow, I’ll phone his sister.”
 In case of the planned future, Russian and English both uses present,
e.g. Завтра я работаю. “Tomorrow I’m working.”
47. Dative in Impersonal Constructions: Many constructions such “It is cold today”, “I have to go”, have Russian
equivalents in which ‘is cold’, ‘have to’ are translated not by verbs but by indeclinable adverb-type words usually
ending –о and are often called ‘category of state’ words.
 The person who is affected is in the dative case,
e.g. Сегодня холодно. “It’s cold today.”
e.g. Мне надо идти. “I have to go.”
e.g. Можно мне войти? “May I come in?”
 These indeclinable words can be made past/future tense by placing было/будет after the word;
было/будет can also be placed before the word, particularly those which are also used as adjectives,
e.g. Нам надо было позвонить. “We had to make a phone call.”
e.g. Нам было холодно. “We were cold.”
e.g. Вам надо будет позвонить. “You will have to phone.”

48. Imperative Form:

Ending Description Example

-йте If the stem of the verb ends with a vowel. читать -> чита- -> читайте
If the sstem of the ты-form ends in a consonant and the я-
-ите говорить -> говор- -> говорите
form of the present or future is stressed on the end.
-ьте If the stem ends with a consonant with the stress on stem. быть -> буд- -> будьте

49. Choice of Aspect for Imperatives:

Imperfective Perfective
Imperfective is used for commands to do something Perfective is used for commands and requests
repeatedly or without time limitation, involving single events,
Говорите по-русски, пожалуйста. Позовите, пожалуйста, Еву.
Negative commands which are warnings rather than
Imperfective is used for negative commands with не,
prohibitions can be perfective,
Не спрашивайте.
Не упадите.
Imperfective is used for invitations,
Берите ещё.
Insistent or peremptory commands may be
imperfective, particularly when telling people to do
something they know they ought to,
Откройте, пожалуйста.
Открывайте! if hesitated

50. First Person Imperative: is the construction like “Let’s go to the Red Square.”. It’s equivalent in Russian is,
Давайте + мы-form of the future perfective/imperfective infinitive
e.g. Давайте пойдём на Красную площадь.
 The imperfective infinitive is a shortened version of the imperfective future. If the imperative is negative, the
будем must be included,
e.g. Давайте не будем говорить об этом.
51. Third Person Imperative: can be used if some third person is to do something; to make such construction пусть +
third person plural of the verb is used,
e.g. Пусть придёт завтра. “Let her come tomorrow.”
e.g. Пусть говорят. “Let them talk.”

52. Official Imperative: particularly negative ones are often in the infinitive,
e.g. Не курить! “No smoking!”
e.g. Молчать! “Be quiet!”

53. Uses of the Instrumental:

 To indicate the instrument used to carry out an action,
e.g. Он писал карандашом. “He wrote with a pencil.”
 After six preposiions,
e.g. С удовольствием. “With pleasure.”
 The instrumental is used with parts of the day and the seasons of the year answering the question ‘when’,
e.g. утром “in the morning”
 The instrumental is used after certain verbs, frequently used in formal style with the meaning ‘to be’,
e.g. Она стала инженером. “She became an engineer.”
e.g. Его отец был врачом. “His father was a doctor.”
 The idiomatic use of с + instrumental to join two human subjects where English uses ‘and’,
e.g. Пришли Иван с женой. “Ivan and his wife came.”

54. Prepositions Used with Instrumental Case:

Preposition Meaning Example

за behind, beyond за дверью
между between между лесом и рекой
над above над городом
перед in front of перед домом
под under под землёй
с with с удовольствием
55. Declension of Surnames:

Case Masculine Feminine Plural

Nominative Иванов Иванова Ивановы

Accusative Иванова Ивангву Ивановых

Genitive Иванова Ивановой Ивановых

Dative Иванову Ивановой Ивановым

Instrumental Ивановым Ивановой Ивановыми

Prepositional Иванове Ивановой Ивановых