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Exercises

dq (t ) d

E1.2 i (t ) = = (0.01sin(200t) = 0.01 × 200cos(200t ) = 2cos(200t ) A

dt dt

E1.3 Because i2 has a positive value, positive charge moves in the same

direction as the reference. Thus positive charge moves downward in

element C.

direction to the reference. Thus positive charge moves upward in

element E.

terminal is b. Thus the charge moves from the negative terminal to the

positive terminal, and energy is removed from the circuit element.

the current enters the positive reference, and we have the passive

reference configuration.

10 10 10

20t 3 20t 3

w a = ∫ pa (t )dt = ∫ 20t dt =

2

= = 6667 J

0 0

3 0

3

(b) Notice that the references are opposite to the passive sign

convention. Thus we have:

10 10

10

w b = ∫ pb (t )dt = ∫ (20t − 200)dt = 10t 2 − 200t 0

= −1000 J

0 0

1

E1.7 (a) Sum of currents leaving = Sum of currents entering

ia = 1 + 3 = 4 A

(b) 2 = 1 + 3 + ib ⇒ ib = -2 A

(c) 0 = 1 + ic + 4 + 3 ⇒ ic = -8 A

E1.8 Elements A and B are in series. Also, elements E, F, and G are in series.

-3 - 5 +vc = 0 ⇒ vc = 8 V

- vc - (-10) + ve = 0 ⇒ ve = -2 V

ρL

E1.11 The resistance of a wire is given by R = . Using A = πd 2 / 4 and

A

substituting values, we have:

1.12 × 10 −6 × L

9. 6 = ⇒ L = 17.2 m

π (1.6 × 10 − 3 )2 / 4

I = V / R = 15.8 / 1000 = 15.8 mA

E1.14 Using KCL at the top node of the circuit, we have i1 = i2. Then using KVL

going clockwise, we have -v1 - v2 = 0; but v1 = 25 V, so we have v2 = -25 V.

Next we have i1 = i2 = v2/R = -1 A. Finally, we have

PR = v 2i2 = ( −25) × ( −1) = 25 W and Ps = v 1i1 = (25) × ( −1) = −25 W.

E1.15 At the top node we have iR = is = 2A. By Ohm’s law we have vR = RiR = 80

V. By KVL we have vs = vR = 80 V. Then ps = -vsis = -160 W (the minus sign

is due to the fact that the references for vs and is are opposite to the

passive sign configuration). Also we have PR = v R iR = 160 W.

2

Problems

1. To gather, store, process, transport and present information.

2. To distribute, store, and convert energy between various forms.

P1.2 Four reasons that non-electrical engineering majors need to learn the

fundamentals of EE are:

2. To be able to lead in the design of systems that contain

electrical/electronic elements.

3. To be able to operate and maintain systems that contain

electrical/electronic functional blocks.

4. To be able to communicate effectively with electrical engineers.

1. Communication systems.

2. Computer systems.

3. Control systems.

4. Electromagnetics.

5. Electronics.

6. Photonics.

7. Power systems.

8. Signal Processing.

P1.5 (a) Electrical current is the time rate of flow of net charge through a

conductor or circuit element. Its units are amperes, which are equivalent

to coulombs per second.

(b) The voltage between two points in a circuit is the amount of energy

transferred per unit of charge moving between the points. Voltage has

units of volts, which are equivalent to joules per coulomb.

3

(c) The current through an open switch is zero. The voltage across the

switch can be any value depending on the circuit.

(d) The voltage across a closed switch is zero. The current through the

switch can be any value depending of the circuit.

time.

(b) An open switch is anagolous to a closed valve.

(c) A resistance is anagolous to a constriction in a pipe or to a pipe with

friction.

(d) A battery is analogous to a pump.

1 coulomb/s

P1.7 Electrons per second = = 6.25 × 1018

1.60 × 10 coulomb/electron

−19

P1.8* The reference direction for iab points from a to b. Because iab has a

negative value, the current is equivalent to positive charge moving

opposite to the reference direction. Finally since electrons have negative

charge, they are moving in the reference direction (i.e., from a to b).

For a constant (dc) current, charge equals current times the time

interval. Thus, Q = (5 A) × (3 s) = 15 C.

P1.9 The positive reference for v is at the head of the arrow, which is

terminal a. The positive reference for vba is terminal b. Thus, we have

v ba = −v = −12 V. Also, i is the current entering terminal a, and iba is the

current leaving terminal a. Thus, we have i = −iba = 2 A. Thus, current

enters the positive reference and energy is being delivered to the device.

P1.10 To stop current flow, we break contact between the conducting parts of

the switch, and we say that the switch is open. The corresponding fluid

4

analogy is a valve that does not allow fluid to pass through. This

corresponds to a closed valve. Thus, a closed valve is analogous to an

open switch.

dq (t ) d

P1.11* i (t ) = = (2 + 3t ) = 3 A

dt dt

P1.12 (a) The sine function completes one cycle for each 2π radian increase in

the angle. Because the angle is 200πt , one cycle is completed for each

time interval of 0.01 s. The sketch is:

0.005 0.005

0.005

(b) Q = ∫ i (t )dt = ∫ 10 sin(200πt )dt = (10 / 200π ) cos(200πt ) 0

0 0

= 0.0318 C

0.01 0.01

0.01

(c) Q = ∫ i (t )dt = ∫ 10 sin(200πt )dt = (10 / 200π ) cos(200πt ) 0

0 0

=0 C

∞ ∞

P1.13* Q = ∫ i (t )dt = ∫ 2e −t dt = −2e −t | 0∞ = 2 coulombs

0 0

dq (t ) d

P1.14 i (t ) =

dt

=

dt

(3 − 3e −2t ) = 6e −2t A

P1.15 The number of electrons passing through a cross section of the wire per

second is

15

N = = 9.375 × 1019 electrons/second

1.6 × 10 − 19

5

The volume of copper containing this number of electrons is

9.375 × 1019

volume = = 9.375 × 10 − 10 m3

1029

πd 2

A= = 3.301 × 10 − 6 m2

4

volume

u = = 0.2840 mm/s

A

Q = (5 amperes) × (24 × 3600 seconds) = 432 × 10 3 coulombs

and the stored energy is

Energy = QV = ( 432 × 10 3 ) × (12) = 5.184 × 10 6 joules

(a) Equating gravitational potential energy, which is mass times height

times the acceleration due to gravity, to the energy stored in the battery

and solving for the height, we have

Energy 5.184 × 10 6

h= = = 17.6 km

mg 30 × 9.8

(b) Equating kinetic energy to stored energy and solving for velocity, we

have

2 × Energy

v = = 587.9 m/s

m

(c) The energy density of the battery is

5.184 × 10 6

= 172.8 × 10 3 J/kg

30

which is about 0.384% of the energy density of gasoline.

Energy = QV = (20) × (10) = 200 joules

Because iba is positive, if the current were carried by positive charge it

would be entering terminal b. Electrons enter terminal a. The energy is

taken from the element.

6

P1.18 The electron gains 1.6 × 10 −19 × 9 = 14.4 × 10 −19 joules

P1.20 If the current is referenced to flow into the positive reference for the

voltage, we say that we have the passive reference configuration. Using

double subscript notation, if the order of the subscripts are the same

for the current and voltage, we have a passive reference configuration.

reference polarity is positive at terminal a and the voltage value is

negative, terminal b is actually the positive terminal. Because the charge

moves from the negative terminal to the positive terminal, energy is

removed from the device.

should move from the positive terminal to the negative terminal, in other

words from a to b. Electrons move from b to a.

P1.24 p (t ) = v (t )i (t ) = 20e −t W

∞

Energy = ∫ p (t )dt = −20e −t | 0∞ = 20 joules

0

7

P1.25 ( a) p (t ) = v ab iab = 50 sin(200πt ) W

0.005 0.005

0.005

(b) w = ∫ p (t )dt = ∫ 50 sin(200πt )dt = (50 / 200π ) cos(200πt ) 0

0 0

= 0.1592 J

0.01 0.01

0.01

(c) w = ∫ p (t )dt = ∫ 50 sin(200πt )dt = (50 / 200π ) cos(200πt ) 0

0 0

=0 J

Cost $60

P1.26* Energy = = = 500 kWh

Rate 0.12 $/kWh

P = = = 694.4 W I = = = 5.787 A

Time 30 × 24 h V 120

60

Reduction = × 100% = 8.64%

694.4

(b) P = 60 W taken from element A.

(c) P = 60 W delivered to element A.

(b) P = 60 W delivered to element A.

(c) P = 60 W taken from element A.

hours, the energy delivered is W = pT = 9 Whr = 0.009 kWhr. Thus the

unit cost of the energy is Cost = (0.50) /( 0.009) = 55.56 $/kWhr which is

463 times the typical cost of energy from electric utilities.

8

P1.30 The current supplied to the electronics is i = p /v = 50 / 12.6 = 3.968 A.

The ampere-hour rating of the battery is the operating time to discharge

the battery multiplied by the current. Thus, the operating time is

T = 100 / i = 25.2 hours. The energy delivered by the battery is

W = pT = 50(25.2) = 1260 wh = 1.26 kWh. Neglecting the cost of

recharging, the cost of energy for 300 discharge cycles is

Cost = 75 /(300 × 1.26) = 0.1984 $/kWh.

P1.31 A node is a point that joins two or more circuit elements. All points

joined by ideal conductors are electrically equivalent. Thus, there are

four nodes in the circuit at hand:

P1.32 The sum of the currents entering a node equals the sum of the currents

leaving.

P1.34 For a proper fluid analogy to electric circuits, the fluid must be

incompressible. Otherwise the fluid flow rate out of an element could be

more or less than the inward flow. Similarly the pipes must be inelastic

so the flow rate is the same at all points along each pipe.

P1.35* Elements A and B are in series. Also, elements E and F are in series.

9

P1.36 (a) Elements C and D are in series.

(b) Because elements C and D are in series, the currents are equal in

magnitude. However, because the reference directions are opposite, the

algebraic signs of the current values are opposite. Thus, we have ic = −id .

(c) At the node joining elements A, B, and C, we can write the KCL

equation ib = ia + ic = 3 + 1 = 4 A . Also we found earlier that

id = −ic = −1 A.

For the node at the top end of element C, we have ib + ic = 3 . Thus,

ic = 1 A . Finally, at the top right-hand corner node, we have

3 + ie = id . Thus, id = 4 A . Elements A and B are in series.

ic = ib − ia = 1 A ie = ic + ih = 5 A

if = ia + id = −3 A i g = if − ih = −7 A

ib = ic + ia = 2 A ie = ic + ih = 4 A

id = if − ia = 7 A if = i g + ih = 6 A

P1.40 If one travels around a closed path adding the voltages for which one

enters the positive reference and subtracting the voltages for which one

enters the negative reference, the total is zero.

(b) Because elements A and B are in parallel, the voltages are equal in

magnitude. However because the reference polarities are opposite, the

algebraic signs of the voltage values are opposite. Thus, we have

v a = −v b .

(c) Writing a KVL equation while going clockwise around the loop

composed of elements A, C and D, we obtain v a − v d − v c = 0. Solving for

v c and substituting values, we find v c = 7 V. Also we have

v b = −v a = −2 V.

10

P1.42* Summing voltages for the lower left-hand loop, we have − 5 + v a + 10 = 0,

which yields v a = −5 V. Then for the top-most loop, we have

v c − 15 − v a = 0, which yields v c = 10 V. Finally, writing KCL around the

outside loop, we have − 5 + v c + v b = 0, which yields v b = −5 V.

find

v d = v a + v b = 12 V v c = −v a − vf − v h = −1 V

v e = −v a − v c + v d = 8 V v g = ve − v h = 2 V

v b = vc + ve = 7 V

ic = ia − id = 1 A ib = −ia = −2 A

v b = v d − v a = −6 V vc = vd = 4 V

The power for each element is

PA = −v a ia = −20 W PB = v b ib = 12 W

PC = v c ic = 4 W PD = v d id = 4 W

Thus, PA + PB + PC + PD = 0

(b) In Figure P1.33, no element is in parallel with another element.

(c) In Figure P1.34, elements C and D are in parallel.

P1.46 The points and the voltages specified in the problem statement are:

Applying KVL to the loop abca, substituting values and solving, we obtain:

v ab − v cb − v ac = 0

5 − 15 − v ac = 0 v ac = −10 V

11

Similiarly, applying KVL to the loop abcda, substituting values and solving,

we obtain:

v ab − v cb + v cd + v da = 0

5 − 15 + v cd − 10 = 0

v cd = 20 V

P1.47 (a) The voltage between any two points of an ideal conductor is zero

regardless of the current flowing.

terminals.

P1.48 Four types of controlled sources and the units for their gain constants

are:

2. Voltage-controlled current sources. A/V or siemens.

3. Current-controlled voltage sources. V/A or ohms.

4. Current-controlled current sources. A/A or unitless.

P1.49 Provided that the current reference points into the positive voltage

reference, the voltage across a resistance equals the current through

the resistance times the resistance. On the other hand, if the current

reference points into the negative voltage reference, the voltage equals

the negative of the product of the current and the resistance.

P1.50*

12

P1.51

P1.52 The resistance of the copper wire is given by RCu = ρCu L A , and the

resistance of the tungsten wire is RW = ρW L A . Taking the ratios of the

respective sides of these equations yields RW RCu = ρW ρCu . Solving for

RW and substituting values, we have

RW = RCu ρW ρCu

= (0.5) × (5.44 × 10 -8 ) (1.72 × 10 −8 )

= 1.58 Ω

P1.53

P1.54

P1.55* R=

(V1 )2 =

1002

= 100 Ω

P1 100

(V2 )

2

90 2

P2 = = = 81 W for a 19% reduction in power

R 100

13

P1.56 The power delivered to the resistor is

p (t ) = v 2 (t ) / R = 2.5 exp( −4t )

and the energy delivered is

∞ ∞ ∞

2. 5 2. 5

w = ∫ p (t )dt = ∫ 2.5 exp(−4t )dt = exp( −4t ) = = 0.625 J

0 0 − 4 0 4

p (t ) = v 2 (t ) / R = 2.5 sin 2 (2πt ) = 1.25 − 1.25 cos( 4πt )

and the energy delivered is

10 10 10

1.25

w = ∫ p (t )dt =

0

∫ [1.25 − 1.25 cos(4πt )]dt

0

= 1.25t −

4π

sin( 4πt ) = 12.5 J

0

ρL

R =

A

(a) Thus, if the length of the wire is doubled, the resistance doubles to

1Ω.

(b) If the diameter of the wire is doubled, the cross sectional area A is

increased by a factor of four. Thus, the resistance is decreased by

a factor of four to 0.125 Ω .

P1.59 (a) The voltage across the voltage source is 10 V independent of the

current. Thus, we have v = 10 which plots as a vertical line in the v−i

plane.

horizontal line in the v−i plane.

to i = 0.2v − 2 .

equivalent to i = 0.2v − 2 .

14

The plots for all five parts are shown. (Parts d and e have the same plot.)

contradictory because the currents in series elements must be equal.

because the current through a short circuit is zero by definition and

currents in series elements must be equal.

because the voltages across parallel elements must be equal and the

voltage across a short circuit is zero by definiton.

P1.61 The power for each element is 20 W. The current source delivers power

and the voltage source absorbs it.

15

P1.62*

elements in the circuit. Applying KVL, we have

v c = v R + 10 = 5iR + 10 = 20 V

P1.63 This is a parallel circuit and the voltage across each element is 10 V

positive at the top end. Thus, the current through the resistor is

10 V

iR = = 2A

5Ω

Applying KCL, we find that the current through the voltage source is

zero. Computing power for each element, we find

Thus, the current source delivers power.

PR = (iR ) 2 R = 20 W

Pvoltage − source = 0

16

P1.64*

is the voltage across all three resistors that are in parallel. Thus,

v2 v2

i3 = = 1 A , and i2 = = 0.5 A . Applying KCL, we have

5 10

i1 = i2 + i3 + 1 = 2.5 A . By Ohm's law: v 1 = 5i1 = 12.5 V . Finally using KVL,

we havev x = v 1 + v 2 = 17.5 V .

P1.65

Ohm’s law for the 5-Ω resistor yields: i1 = 15 / 5 = 3 A. Then for the 10-Ω

resistor, we have v 1 = 10i1 = 30 V. Using KVL, we have v 2 = v 1 + 15 = 45 V.

Then applying Ohms law, we obtain i2 = v 2 / 10 = 4.5 A. Finally applying

KCL, we have I x = i1 + i2 = 7.5 A.

P1.66 (a) The 3-Ω resistance, the 2-Ω resistance, and the voltage source Vx are

in series.

(b) The 6-Ω resistance and the 12-Ω resistance are in parallel.

(c) Refer to the sketch of the circuit. Applying Ohm's law to the 12-Ω

resistance, we determine that v 1 = 6 V. Then, applying Ohm's law to the

6-Ω resistance, we have i1 = 1 A. Next, KVL yields i2 = 1.5 A. Continuing,

17

we use Ohm's law to find that v 2 = 3 V and v 3 = 4.5 V. Finally, applying

KVL, we have Vx = v 3 + v 1 + v 2 = 13.5 V.

1000vin = 2io + 8io from which we determine that v in = 10 mV.

Then, iin = v in / 10 4 = 1 µA , and finally we have

Vx = 5000iin + 10000iin = 15 mV.

18

(b) Rx and the 2-Ω resistor are in parallel. Also, the 6-Ω resistor and the

the 4-Ω resistor are in parallel. Thus, the voltages across the parallel

elements are the same as labeled in the figure.

(c) v1 = 6 V

i 4 = v 1 / 4 = 1 .5 A

v x = 10 − v 1 = 4 V

i2 = v x / 2 = 2 A

i s = i2 − 1 = 1 A

i x = i 4 − is = 0.5 A

Rx = v x / i x = 8 Ω

v = 12 V i12 = 1 A i6 = 2 A

(b) ix = v x / 3 = 0.5556 A

the voltage source.)

PR = 3(ix ) 2 = 0.926 W (absorbed)

Pcontrolled − source = 5v x ix = 4.63 W (absorbed)

P1.71

19

− 18 + v x + 2v x = 0, which yields v x = 6 V. Then we have v 12 = 2v x = 12 V.

Using Ohm’s law we obtain i12 = v 12 / 12 = 1 A and i x = v x / 2 = 3 A. Then

KCL applied to the node at the top of the 12-Ω resistor gives i x = i12 + i y

which yields i y = 2 A.

P1.72 Consider the series combination shown below on the left. Because the

current for series elements must be the same and the current for the

current source is 2 A by definition, the current flowing from a to b is 2

A. Notice that the current is not affected by the 10-V source in series.

Thus, the series combination is equivalent to a simple current source as

far as anything connected to terminals a and b is concerned.

P1.73 Consider the parallel combination shown below. Because the voltage for

parallel elements must be the same, the voltage vab must be 10 V. Notice

that vab is not affected by the current source. Thus, the parallel

combination is equivalent to a simple voltage source as far as anything

connected to terminals a and b is concerned.

P1.74 (a) 10 = v 1 + v 2

(b) v 1 = 15i

v 2 = 5i

(c) 10 = 15i + 5i

i = 0.5 A

(d) P

voltage −source = −10i = −5 W. (Power delivered by the source.)

P5 = 5i 2 = 1.25 W (absorbed)

20

P1.75*

v x = (4 Ω) × (1 A) = 4 V is = v x / 2 + 1 = 3 A

v s = 3is + 4 + 2 = 15 V

Applying KCL for the node at the top end of the controlled current

source:

is = ix / 2 − ix = −ix / 2 = 1 A

The source labled is is an independent current source. The source labeled

ix/2 is a current-controlled current source.

P1.77 Applying Ohm's law and KVL, we have 20 + 10ix = 5ix . Solving, we obtain

ix = −4 A.

The source labeled 20 V is an independent voltage source. The source

labeled 5ix is a current-controlled voltage source.

21

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