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# INTRODUCTION

Buoyancy is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed
object. In a column of fluid, pressure increases with depth as a result of the weight of the
overlying fluid. Thus the pressure at the bottom of a column of fluid is greater than at the top
of the column. Similarly, the pressure at the bottom of an object submerged in a fluid is
greater than at the top of the object. This pressure difference results in a net upwards force on
the object. The magnitude of that force exerted is proportional to that pressure difference, and
(as explained by Archimedes' principle) is equivalent to the weight of the fluid that would
otherwise occupy the volume of the object, i.e. the displaced fluid. The metacentric height
(GM) is a measurement of the initial static stability of a floating body. It is calculated as the
distance between the centre of gravity of a ship and its metacentre. A larger metacentric
height implies greater initial stability against overturning. The metacentric height also
influences the natural period of rolling of a hull, with very large metacentric heights being
associated with shorter periods of roll which are uncomfortable for passengers. Hence, a
sufficiently, but not excessively, high metacentric height is considered ideal for passenger
ships.An ideal boat strikes a balance. Very tender boats with very slow roll periods are at risk
of overturning, but are comfortable for passengers. However, vessels with a higher
metacentric height are "excessively stable" with a short roll period resulting in high
accelerations at the deck level. Sailing yachts, especially racing yachts, are designed to be
stiff, meaning the distance between the centre of mass and the metacentre is very large in
order to resist the heeling effect of the wind on the sails. In such vessels, the rolling motion is
not uncomfortable because of the moment of inertia of the tall mast and the aerodynamic
damping of the sails.It might also move up or down with respect to the water line. The point
at which a vertical line through the heeled centre of buoyancy crosses the line through the
original, vertical centre of buoyancy is the metacentre. The metacentre remains directly above
the centre of buoyancy by definition. The metacentre is considered to be fixed for small
angles of heel; however, at larger angles of heel, the metacentre can no longer be considered
fixed, and its actual location must be found to calculate the ship's stability.

OBJECTIVE

##  To determine metacentric height

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BASIC CONCEPT

The centre of buoyancy of a floating body is the point about which all the body parts exactly
buoy each other in other words, the effective centre of the displaced water. The metacentre
remains directly above the centre of buoyancy regardless of the tilt of a floating body, such as
a ship. When at rest on even keel, the vessel’s centre of buoyancy is directly below the centre
of gravity as well as below the metacentre. When a vessel tilts, one side displaces more water
than does the others, and the centre of buoyancy moves and is no longer directly under the
centre of gravity, but, regardless of the amount of the tilt, the centre of buoyancy remains
directly below the metacentre. If the metacentre is above the centre of gravity, buoyancy
restores stability when the ship tilts. The stability increases with the distance between
metacentre and centre of gravity, called the metacentric height. The inertia resistance is a
quantified description of how the waterline width of the boat resists overturning. Wide and
shallow or narrow and deep hulls have high transverse metacentres (relative to the keel), and
the opposite have low metacentres; the extreme opposite is shaped like a log or round
bottomed boat. Ignoring the ballast, wide and shallow or narrow and deep means that the ship
is very quick to roll and very hard to overturn and is stiff. For static equilibrium of the
pontoon, the total weight, W (which acts through the centre of gravity, G) must be equal to
the buoyancy force which acts through the centre of buoyancy B, which is located at the
centroid of the immersed cross-section. When the pontoon heels through a small angle, the
metacentre M is identified as the point of intersection between the lines of action of the
buoyancy force (always vertical) and BG extended. For stable equilibrium, M must be above
G.

Figure 5.1: A floating body is stable if the body is (a). The centre of gravityG is below the
centroidBof the body; (b). The metacentreMis aboveG; (c) unstable ifM below G.

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PROBLEM STATEMENT

## An important application of the buoyancy concept is the assessment of the stability of

immersed and floating bodies when being placed in a fluid. Knowing metacentre, M location
is vital and great importance in the design of ships and submarines. The body is said stable if
M is above G and unstable if otherwise.

Students are required to carry out experiment to fulfil the objective stated above by using
both method namely adjustable position traversed weight experiment and based upon
geometry and depth of immersion.

APPARATUS

##  Metacentric height apparatus

 Hydraulic bench
 Weigh balance
 Ruler and fine string

PROCEDURE

1. The traversable mass, P(Newton) , was weighed and used for traversing across the
pontoon.
2. The pontoon, mast and both masses were assembled, the total weigh, W was
determined.
3. The pontoon’s centre of gravity was located by tying a light string tightly around the
mast and the whole assembly was carefully suspended from it. The adjustment has
been made until the direction becomes horizontal.
4. The pontoon was placed in water.
5. The traversable mass was adjusted to its middle position and the pontoon was not
tilted.
6. The immersed depth was measured, d at each side of the pontoon and take the average
7. The traversable mass was moved to the right side in 20mm increments and the
distance & angle was recorded.
8. Procedure been repeated by traversing the mass to the left of centre.
9. Step 7 & 8 was repeated for different position of the pontoon centre of gravity.

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DATA AND ANALYSIS

Pontoon:

Length =0.35m

Width =0.20m

Depth =0.075m

BG =0.26m

BM =0.45m

## Based on centre position traversed weight

Distance (cm) 0
Angle ,𝜃 0
Immersed depth 2.4
I 23.33x103
Di(cm) 2.4
V(cm3 ) 1680 cm3
BM(cm) 45
GM(cm) 19
Table 1

Calculation:

I= (LB3)/12

di= (a + b ) /2

=(2.4+2.4)/2

=2.4

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V=Lbdi

## =35 x 20 x 2.4 = 1680 cm3

GM = BM – GB=45-26= 19

=2.3cm

=1.9cm

## Averaged immersed depth 3 = (0.5+2.9)/2

=1.7cm

1 2 3
Distance, x 20 40 60
Angle ,𝜃 3.50 6.50 8.60
Immersed depth, 2.3 1.9 1.7
di(cm)
GM1(cm) 81.416 87.410 98.777
GM2(cm) -24.125 -24.179 -24.170
Table 2

=2.05cm

## Averaged immersed depth 2 = (2.9+0.4)/2

=1.65cm

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Averaged immersed depth 3 =(3.9+0.3)/2

=2.1cm

1 2 3
Distance, x 20 40 60
Angle ,𝜃 30 60 80
Immersed 2.05 1.65 2.1
depth,di(cm)
GM1(cm) 95.023 94.750 106.29
GM2(cm) -24.162 -24.165 -24.150
Table 3

Calculation:

𝑝𝑥
GM = cot 𝜃
𝑤

## P=weight of movable mass.

𝜃= angle of heel.

W= total weight.

## b) Based upon geometry and depth of immersion

𝑏2 𝑑𝑖
GM= 12𝑑𝑖 − (𝑦 − 2 )

Y= centre of gravity.

b=pontoon width.

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DISCUSSION

## For this experiment, we have to conduct the metacentric height measurement.

The metacentric height (GM) is a measurement of the initial static stability of a floating body.
It is calculated as the distance between the centre of gravity of a ship and its metacentre. A
larger metacentric height implies greater initial stability against overturning.

## The effect of changing the position of G on the position of the metacentre

(M).Changing the position of G on the position of the metacentre (M) will cause change of
stability of floating object. If M lies above G a righting moment is produced, equilibrium is
stable and GM is regarded as positive. If M lies below G an overturning moment is produced,
equilibrium is unstable and GM is regarded as negative. If M coincides with G, the body is in
neutral equilibrium.

The values of GM at lowest values of the angle (θ) are likely to be less accurate.The
angle(s) obtained during the experiment are directly related to GM. Typically, the angle occur
when more of the hull on one side get deeper into the water, and the hull on the other side
moves out of the water. The result is that the center of buoyancy shifts to the side where more
water is displaced, while the center of gravity remains in the same place at the pontoon since
the pontoon itself has not changed. When the centre of buoyancy change, this make the result
GM less accurate and negative GM may be resulted.

Most sensitive parameter that affects the accuracy of the results Make sure the water
is in steady condition to prevent existence of large waves on the water before taking the
displacement from sail centre line, the eyes must be perpendicular to the pontoon to get

Precautions must be taken for these experiments are make sure the water is in steady
condition to prevent existence of large waves on the water before taking the reading. After
that, when taking the reading of the angles for adjustable weight lateral displacement from
sail centre line, the eyes must be perpendicular to the pontoon to get accurate reading. Lastly,
this experiment involves large volume of liquid. Thus, ensure that the water flows
accordingly in the container to prevent flood occur in the laboratory.

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CONCLUSION

As a conclusion we have achieved the objectives for this metacentric height measurement
experiment which is to determine metacentric height. Based on the result, from table 1, the
distance is 0 and the angle is 00, so the metacentric height (GM) is 19 cm. While from table 2
we take the distance based on the left side of the pontoon is 20, 40, 60 and the angle is 3.50,
6.50, 8.60, so the metacentric height (GM1) is 81.416, 87.410, 98.777 and GM2 is -24.123, -
24.179, -24.170. Lastly, from table 3 we take distance based on the right side of the pontoon
is 20, 40, 60 and the angle is 30, 60, 80, so the metacentric height (GM1) is 95.023, 94.750,
106.29 and GM2 is -24.162, -24.165, -24.150.

## So we can conclude, metacentric height depends on the position of the load.

Metacentric height increase when the position of the load moves further from the centre of
gravity. As the metacentric height increases, the angle is also increases. It shows that the
position of the instable floating body which has higher value of metacentric height and the
position of the metacentric is below the center of gravity.

During this experiment was conducted there have a few errors occur that influence the
result. By this there are few suggestions in order to determine an accuracy of metacentric
height measurement experiment such as care handling should be taken during application the
distance of the weights and height of immerse dare to be determined accurately.

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REFERENCES

 https://www.britannica.com/science/metacentre
 http://www.brighthubengineering.com/naval-architecture/116428-determining-the-
metacentric-height-of-a-floating-body/
 http://www.codecogs.com/library/engineering/fluid_mechanics/floating_bodies/stabili
ty-and-metacentric-height.php
 https://www.marineinsight.com/naval-architecture/intact-stability-of-surface-ships/