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metacentric hydrology

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Buoyancy is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed

object. In a column of fluid, pressure increases with depth as a result of the weight of the

overlying fluid. Thus the pressure at the bottom of a column of fluid is greater than at the top

of the column. Similarly, the pressure at the bottom of an object submerged in a fluid is

greater than at the top of the object. This pressure difference results in a net upwards force on

the object. The magnitude of that force exerted is proportional to that pressure difference, and

(as explained by Archimedes' principle) is equivalent to the weight of the fluid that would

otherwise occupy the volume of the object, i.e. the displaced fluid. The metacentric height

(GM) is a measurement of the initial static stability of a floating body. It is calculated as the

distance between the centre of gravity of a ship and its metacentre. A larger metacentric

height implies greater initial stability against overturning. The metacentric height also

influences the natural period of rolling of a hull, with very large metacentric heights being

associated with shorter periods of roll which are uncomfortable for passengers. Hence, a

sufficiently, but not excessively, high metacentric height is considered ideal for passenger

ships.An ideal boat strikes a balance. Very tender boats with very slow roll periods are at risk

of overturning, but are comfortable for passengers. However, vessels with a higher

metacentric height are "excessively stable" with a short roll period resulting in high

accelerations at the deck level. Sailing yachts, especially racing yachts, are designed to be

stiff, meaning the distance between the centre of mass and the metacentre is very large in

order to resist the heeling effect of the wind on the sails. In such vessels, the rolling motion is

not uncomfortable because of the moment of inertia of the tall mast and the aerodynamic

damping of the sails.It might also move up or down with respect to the water line. The point

at which a vertical line through the heeled centre of buoyancy crosses the line through the

original, vertical centre of buoyancy is the metacentre. The metacentre remains directly above

the centre of buoyancy by definition. The metacentre is considered to be fixed for small

angles of heel; however, at larger angles of heel, the metacentre can no longer be considered

fixed, and its actual location must be found to calculate the ship's stability.

OBJECTIVE

1

BASIC CONCEPT

The centre of buoyancy of a floating body is the point about which all the body parts exactly

buoy each other in other words, the effective centre of the displaced water. The metacentre

remains directly above the centre of buoyancy regardless of the tilt of a floating body, such as

a ship. When at rest on even keel, the vessel’s centre of buoyancy is directly below the centre

of gravity as well as below the metacentre. When a vessel tilts, one side displaces more water

than does the others, and the centre of buoyancy moves and is no longer directly under the

centre of gravity, but, regardless of the amount of the tilt, the centre of buoyancy remains

directly below the metacentre. If the metacentre is above the centre of gravity, buoyancy

restores stability when the ship tilts. The stability increases with the distance between

metacentre and centre of gravity, called the metacentric height. The inertia resistance is a

quantified description of how the waterline width of the boat resists overturning. Wide and

shallow or narrow and deep hulls have high transverse metacentres (relative to the keel), and

the opposite have low metacentres; the extreme opposite is shaped like a log or round

bottomed boat. Ignoring the ballast, wide and shallow or narrow and deep means that the ship

is very quick to roll and very hard to overturn and is stiff. For static equilibrium of the

pontoon, the total weight, W (which acts through the centre of gravity, G) must be equal to

the buoyancy force which acts through the centre of buoyancy B, which is located at the

centroid of the immersed cross-section. When the pontoon heels through a small angle, the

metacentre M is identified as the point of intersection between the lines of action of the

buoyancy force (always vertical) and BG extended. For stable equilibrium, M must be above

G.

Figure 5.1: A floating body is stable if the body is (a). The centre of gravityG is below the

centroidBof the body; (b). The metacentreMis aboveG; (c) unstable ifM below G.

2

PROBLEM STATEMENT

immersed and floating bodies when being placed in a fluid. Knowing metacentre, M location

is vital and great importance in the design of ships and submarines. The body is said stable if

M is above G and unstable if otherwise.

Students are required to carry out experiment to fulfil the objective stated above by using

both method namely adjustable position traversed weight experiment and based upon

geometry and depth of immersion.

APPARATUS

Hydraulic bench

Weigh balance

Ruler and fine string

PROCEDURE

1. The traversable mass, P(Newton) , was weighed and used for traversing across the

pontoon.

2. The pontoon, mast and both masses were assembled, the total weigh, W was

determined.

3. The pontoon’s centre of gravity was located by tying a light string tightly around the

mast and the whole assembly was carefully suspended from it. The adjustment has

been made until the direction becomes horizontal.

4. The pontoon was placed in water.

5. The traversable mass was adjusted to its middle position and the pontoon was not

tilted.

6. The immersed depth was measured, d at each side of the pontoon and take the average

reading.

7. The traversable mass was moved to the right side in 20mm increments and the

distance & angle was recorded.

8. Procedure been repeated by traversing the mass to the left of centre.

9. Step 7 & 8 was repeated for different position of the pontoon centre of gravity.

3

DATA AND ANALYSIS

Pontoon:

Length =0.35m

Width =0.20m

Depth =0.075m

BG =0.26m

BM =0.45m

Distance (cm) 0

Angle ,𝜃 0

Immersed depth 2.4

I 23.33x103

Di(cm) 2.4

V(cm3 ) 1680 cm3

BM(cm) 45

GM(cm) 19

Table 1

Calculation:

I= (LB3)/12

di= (a + b ) /2

=(2.4+2.4)/2

=2.4

4

V=Lbdi

GM = BM – GB=45-26= 19

=2.3cm

=1.9cm

=1.7cm

1 2 3

Distance, x 20 40 60

Angle ,𝜃 3.50 6.50 8.60

Immersed depth, 2.3 1.9 1.7

di(cm)

GM1(cm) 81.416 87.410 98.777

GM2(cm) -24.125 -24.179 -24.170

Table 2

=2.05cm

=1.65cm

5

Averaged immersed depth 3 =(3.9+0.3)/2

=2.1cm

1 2 3

Distance, x 20 40 60

Angle ,𝜃 30 60 80

Immersed 2.05 1.65 2.1

depth,di(cm)

GM1(cm) 95.023 94.750 106.29

GM2(cm) -24.162 -24.165 -24.150

Table 3

Calculation:

𝑝𝑥

GM = cot 𝜃

𝑤

𝜃= angle of heel.

W= total weight.

𝑏2 𝑑𝑖

GM= 12𝑑𝑖 − (𝑦 − 2 )

Y= centre of gravity.

b=pontoon width.

6

DISCUSSION

The metacentric height (GM) is a measurement of the initial static stability of a floating body.

It is calculated as the distance between the centre of gravity of a ship and its metacentre. A

larger metacentric height implies greater initial stability against overturning.

(M).Changing the position of G on the position of the metacentre (M) will cause change of

stability of floating object. If M lies above G a righting moment is produced, equilibrium is

stable and GM is regarded as positive. If M lies below G an overturning moment is produced,

equilibrium is unstable and GM is regarded as negative. If M coincides with G, the body is in

neutral equilibrium.

The values of GM at lowest values of the angle (θ) are likely to be less accurate.The

angle(s) obtained during the experiment are directly related to GM. Typically, the angle occur

when more of the hull on one side get deeper into the water, and the hull on the other side

moves out of the water. The result is that the center of buoyancy shifts to the side where more

water is displaced, while the center of gravity remains in the same place at the pontoon since

the pontoon itself has not changed. When the centre of buoyancy change, this make the result

GM less accurate and negative GM may be resulted.

Most sensitive parameter that affects the accuracy of the results Make sure the water

is in steady condition to prevent existence of large waves on the water before taking the

reading. Besides, when taking the reading of the angles for adjustable weight lateral

displacement from sail centre line, the eyes must be perpendicular to the pontoon to get

accurate reading.

Precautions must be taken for these experiments are make sure the water is in steady

condition to prevent existence of large waves on the water before taking the reading. After

that, when taking the reading of the angles for adjustable weight lateral displacement from

sail centre line, the eyes must be perpendicular to the pontoon to get accurate reading. Lastly,

this experiment involves large volume of liquid. Thus, ensure that the water flows

accordingly in the container to prevent flood occur in the laboratory.

7

CONCLUSION

As a conclusion we have achieved the objectives for this metacentric height measurement

experiment which is to determine metacentric height. Based on the result, from table 1, the

distance is 0 and the angle is 00, so the metacentric height (GM) is 19 cm. While from table 2

we take the distance based on the left side of the pontoon is 20, 40, 60 and the angle is 3.50,

6.50, 8.60, so the metacentric height (GM1) is 81.416, 87.410, 98.777 and GM2 is -24.123, -

24.179, -24.170. Lastly, from table 3 we take distance based on the right side of the pontoon

is 20, 40, 60 and the angle is 30, 60, 80, so the metacentric height (GM1) is 95.023, 94.750,

106.29 and GM2 is -24.162, -24.165, -24.150.

Metacentric height increase when the position of the load moves further from the centre of

gravity. As the metacentric height increases, the angle is also increases. It shows that the

position of the instable floating body which has higher value of metacentric height and the

position of the metacentric is below the center of gravity.

During this experiment was conducted there have a few errors occur that influence the

result. By this there are few suggestions in order to determine an accuracy of metacentric

height measurement experiment such as care handling should be taken during application the

distance of the weights and height of immerse dare to be determined accurately.

8

REFERENCES

https://www.britannica.com/science/metacentre

http://www.brighthubengineering.com/naval-architecture/116428-determining-the-

metacentric-height-of-a-floating-body/

http://www.codecogs.com/library/engineering/fluid_mechanics/floating_bodies/stabili

ty-and-metacentric-height.php

https://www.marineinsight.com/naval-architecture/intact-stability-of-surface-ships/

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