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AISC (2010) Specifications Chapter C

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determines the load corresponding to a state of bifurcation

equilibrium of a perfect frame by eigenvalye analysis

The system was assumed to be perfect, and there were

no lateral deflection until the load reached Pcr.

At Pcr, the original configuration of the frame becomes

unstable, and with a slight perturbation the deflections

start increasing without bound.

However, if the system is not perfect, or it is subjected to

lateral loads along with gravity loads, then the deflections

will start increasing as soon as the loads are applied.

However, for an elastic frame, the maximum load capacity

will still be limited to that corresponding to Pcr

To trace this curve, a complete load-deflection analysis of

the frame is necessary. A second order analysis will

generate this load-deflection curve

In a second order analysis procedure, secondary effects as

the P- and P- effects, can be incorporated directly. As a

result, the need for the B1 and B2 factors is eliminated.

In a second-order analysis, the equilibrium equations are

formulated with respect to the deformed geometry, which

is not known in advance and constantly changing, we

need to use an iterative technique to obtain solutions.

In numerical implementation, the incremental load

approach is popular. The load is divided into small

increments and applied to the structure sequentially.

1

Second Order Analysis

Discretize frame into Form the structure internal force

beam-column elements

vector Ri1 using all element ri1

For each beam-column

element, formulate stiffness

For each element,

matrix k = ko + kg

compute element end forces ri1

Assemble structure stiffness using TF and P, Ma, Mb

matrix K using k and id array

compute P, a, b from e,

Ri = Ki1 Di1 a, b using element local ke

Di1 = [Ki1]-1 Ri

Where in the i load step, For each element,

Ri = incremental load vector Compute e, a, b

Ki1 = structure secant stiffness matrix from di1 using Td

Di1= incremental displacement vector

For each element,

Di1 = Di + Di1 Extract di1 from Di1

vector Ri2 using all element ri2

Form the structure internal force

vector Ri1 using all element ri1

Repeat until convergence, where Qij approx. 0

Form the structure external force compute element end forces ri2

vector Ri+1 = Ri + Ri using TF and P, Ma, Mb

Qi1 = Ri+1 - Ri1 compute P, a, b from e,

a, b using element local ke

For each element, using the current

value of axial force P For each element,

Update element k Compute e, a, b

from di2 using Td

Assemble element k to form

updated structure stiffness matrix For each element,

Ki2 Extract di2 from Di2

2

Second Order Analysis

After convergence, Di+1 = Din = Di + Dik

Assumed another load increment, and go back to begining

3

C1. General Stability Requirements

1. General Requirements

Stability shall be provided for the structure as a whole and

for each of its elements.

The effects of all of the following on the stability of the

structure and its elements shall be considered:

(1) Flexural, shear, and axial member deformations, and all

other deformations that contribute to the displacements of

the structure.

(2) second order effects (both P- and P-δ effects).

(3) geometric imperfections

(4) stiffness reductions due to inelasticity

(5) uncertainty in stiffness and strength

loading corresponding to the LRFD load combinations

Any rational methods of design for stability that consider

all of the listed effects is permitted; this includes the

methods identified in Sections C1.1 and C1.2

C1.1 – Direct Analysis Method of Design

Consist of calculation of the required strengths in

accordance with Section C2, and calculation of available

strengths in accordance with C3 is permitted for all

structures

C1.2 Alternative Methods of Design

The effective length method and the first-order analysis in

Appendix 7 are permitted as alternatives to the direct

analysis method for structures that satisfy the constraints

specified in that appendix.

4

C2. Calculation of Required Strengths

For the direct analysis method, the required strengths of

the components of the structure shall be determined from

Analysis conforming to Section C2.1.

Initial imperfections according to Section C2.2 and

stiffness according to Section C2.3.

(1) Account for member deformations (flexural, axial,

shear) and all other component and connection

deformations that contribute. Account for stiffness and

stiffness reductions (according to C2.3) that contribute

(2) Second-order analysis that considers both the P-Δ and

P-δeffects.

Use of approximate second-order analysis provided in App. 8 is

permitted as an alternative to a rigorous second-order analysis

(3) The analysis shall consider all gravity and other loads

(4) For design by LRFD, the second order analysis shall be

carried out under LRFD load combinations

5

C2.1 General Analysis Requirements

(2) cont’ … Second-order analysis requirements

A P-Δ only second-order analysis (one that neglects the

effects of P-δresponse on the structure) is permitted when:

(a) structure supports gravity load using vertical members

(b) ratio of maximum second-order drift to maximum first-

order drift is ≤ 1.7

(c) no more than 1/3 of the gravity load is supported by

columns part of the MRFs in the direction of translation.

However, it is necessary in all cases to consider the P-δ

effects in the evaluation of individual members subject to

flexure and compression. This can be satisfied by using the

B1 factor in App. 8.

The effects of initial imperfections on the stability of the

structure shall be taken into account by :

(a) direct modeling of imperfections in the analysis as

specified in C2.2a

(b) application of notional loads as specified in C2.2b

These are imperfections in the location of points of

intersection of members. Out-of-plumbness of columns.

Initial out-of-straightness of individual members is not

addressed in this section. It is covered in the design of

columns (compression members).

6

C2.2a Direct Modeling of Imperfections

In all cases, it is permissible to account for the effect of

initial imperfections by including them directly in the

analysis.

The structure shall be analyzed with points of intersection

of members displaced from their nominal location.

The magnitude of the initial displacement shall be the

maximum amount considered in the design.

The pattern of initial displacements shall be such that it

provokes the destabilizing effect

User Note: Initial displacements similar in configuration to both

displacements due to loading and anticipated buckling modes should

be considered in the modeling of imperfections. The magnitude of the

initial displacements should be based on permissible construction

tolerances (AISC CoSP) , or on actual imperfections if known

If the structure support gravity loads using vertical

columns, and the ratio of maximum second-order drift to

first-order drift is ≤ 1.7, then it is permissible to include

imperfections only in analysis of gravity-only load

combinations and not in analysis for combinations that

include applied lateral loads.

7

C2.2b Use of Notional Loads

For structures that support gravity loads using vertical

columns, it is permissible to use notional loads to

represent the effects of initial imperfections in accordance

with this section. Nominal geometry used.

(1) Notional loads shall be applied as lateral loads at all

levels. These loads shall be additive to the other loads

applied in all load combinations. The magnitude of the

notional loads shall be:

Ni = 0.002 a Yi

Ni = notional load applied at level i (kips)

Yi = gravity load applied at level i from load combos

(2) The notional load Ni shall be distributed over that level

in the same manner as the gravity load at that level, and

applied in the direction providing greatest destabilization

(3) The notional load coefficient of 0.002 is based on the

nominal initial out-of-story plumbness ratio of 1/500. If

other value is justified, it is permitted to adjust the

notional load coefficient proportionally.

(4) If the ratio of the maximum second-order drift to

maximum first-order drift is less than or equal to 1.7 in all

stories, it is permitted to apply the notional lateral load in

gravity only load combinations and not in combinations

using other lateral loads

8

C2.3 Adjustments to Stiffness

The analysis of structures to determine required strengths

shall used reduced stiffness as follows:

A factor of 0.80 shall be applied to all stiffness that

contributed to the structure stability. This factor can be

applied to all stiffness in the structure.

An additional factor, τb shall be applied to the flexural

stiffness of all members whose flexural stiffness are

contributing to the stability

When a Pr / Py £ 0.5, t b = 1.0

4(a Pr / PY )

When a Pr / Py > 0.5, t b =

1- a Pr / PY

(3) Instead of using τb < 1.0, it is permissible to use

τb=1.0 and an additional notional load of 0.001αYi, which

are to be added in the direction that causes more

destabilization and also for gravity load combos.

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