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LANGUAGE LEARNING NEEDS OF FILIPINO-CHINESE LEARNERS AS INPUTS

FOR THE PROPOSED ENGLISH INSTRUCTION ENHANCEMENT PLAN

Dr. Cecilia L. Calub


Ms. Francelle L. Calub
College of Education, Tarlac State University
Ms. Xiaoying L. Xu
Bayanihan Institute – Department of English
Philippines

Abstract

This descriptive research aimed to identify the objective and subjective learning needs of grades 4 – 6
elementary school learners of Bayanihan Institute. It also looked into the most and least important needs of the
learners, proposed intervention program to enhance English instruction in the school, and determined the
implications of the research findings to the teaching of English as a second language to the young Filipino-Chinese
learners.

The data revealed that longer exposure to the language; use of bilingual in class discussion; giving more
emphasis on the importance of English; use of rich vocabulary for speaking and writing; frequent learning of
English in school; use of English with teachers and foreigners, and strengthening of learners’ reading and writing
skills were the common objective needs of the learners. On the other hand, the use of group method in the
classroom; less homework, practice of the language inside and outside the classroom; learning the language by
using new English words in sentences; use of television/video/films instructional media; more listening, reading,
speaking, and discussion through the board; error correction by teacher done in private; culture study; language
games; assessment of proficiency by applying English in real-life situations and through written tests; and non-
graded performance were their common subjective needs. Considering the two types of needs, learning the
language individually and using the language in real – life contexts were considered both as the most important
needs whereas choosing the right words when speaking/writing, learning from posters and bulletin boards, writing
compositions, and being informed of performance by grade were all considered least important.

The proposed English instruction enhancement plan targeted specific skills and provided instruction
incorporating multiple opportunities for guided practice. The four communications skills which are listening,
speaking, reading and writing were emphasized within the instructional design of the lessons. Based on the findings,
it is recommended that teachers should attend special trainings that focus on the language learning needs of young
Filipino-Chinese learners; curricula, teaching methods, and materials should meet the needs of the learners of
different ages and at different stages; and that the school needs to enhance or improve their English instruction to
meet the objective and subjective learning needs of the Chinese-Filipino young learners.

Key Words: language learning needs, objective needs, subjective needs, English instruction enhancement
plan

Introduction

A large number of Filipino- Chinese students living in the Philippines have learned English as a foreign or
second language. Some of them have become successful learners, while more of them have encountered difficulties
or problems learning the language. It is necessary for language instructors then to help these learners who
experience such difficulties. And the initial step to help them solve their problems of the students is to identify their
learning needs.

Recently in elementary English language teaching there has been an emphasis on careful and extensive
needs analysis for course design. In any English course, the learners are expected to acquire receptive and
perceptive academic skills parallel to developing learning strategies and study skills (Jordan, 1997). Given the

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diversity and complexity of ESL objectives, it is crucial to conduct an in-depth needs assessment before planning
and implementing an ESL curriculum and materials.

According to Nunan (1990), “no curriculum can claim to be truly learner-centered unless the learner’s
subjective needs and perceptions relating to the processes of learning are taken into account.” Many teachers
acknowledge the need to understand learners’ preferences, but they may not actually consult learners in conducting
language activities. Teachers may believe that learners are not capable of expressing what they want or need to learn
and how they want to learn. However, most researchers claim that learners do have an awareness of what goes on in
classes and that teachers should therefore make an attempt to align their task orientation to that of learners. Breen
and Candlin ( 2001 ) showed that students were able to identify specific techniques adopted by the teacher that they
preferred and believed that it helped them with understanding the new language. Nunan (1988) describes two
Australian studies that show learners favor traditional learning activities over more communicative activity types.

It should be noted that curriculum developers, syllabus designers, and teachers should become aware of their
students’ needs. Once they come to know them, they can, “if necessary,” take into consideration those needs and
plan and implement alternative behaviors and activities in their classes. Language learning needs include objective
needs and subjective needs (Brown, 1995). Objective needs are those needs determined on the basis of clear-cut,
observable data gathered about the situation, the learners, the language that students must eventually acquire, their
present proficiency and skill level, and so forth. Subjective needs are generally more difficult to determine because
they have to do with “wants”, “desires”, “expectations” (Brindley, 1984).

Bayanihan Institute – Elementary Department is one of the schools located in Tarlac City, Philippines which
teaches ESL to Filipino as well as Filipino – Chinese learners. Like any other ESL learners, Filipino - Chinese
learners have their specific learning needs. Although the English instruction in the school was learner-centered,
still inadequacy in terms of learning inputs was observed. To help the learners become more proficient in the
language, a language learning needs analysis was conducted. The data gathered became the basis for the proposed
English instruction enhancement plan.

Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to determine the Filipino-Chinese learners’ needs in learning English as a second language
(ESL) at Bayanihan Institute located in Tarlac City. Moreover, it specifically aimed to find answers to the following
problems:

1. What are the language learning needs of the pupils categorized as:
1.1. Objective needs and
1.2. Subjective needs?
2. What are the most and least important language learning needs of the pupils as perceived by them?
3. What enhancement plan may be proposed to address the language learning needs of the pupils?

Research Methods

Design. This research used the descriptive design to get the pertinent data. It utilized both the quantitative and
qualitative data as inputs for the proposed enhancement English instruction plan at Bayanihan Institute. Survey was
conducted to determine quantitatively the frequency of the language learning needs of the pupils, categorized as
objective and subjective needs. Qualitative data was gathered through a structured interview.

The Participants. One hundred percent (100%) of the total population of the Grade 4, Grade 5, and Grade 6 classes
taking English subjects at Bayanihan Institute was taken to get the desired number of respondents. Thus, a total of
72 pupils (Grade 4 – 25, Grade 5 – 23, Grade 6 – 24) participated in the research.

Instrument and Data – Collection Procedure. To facilitate gathering of data, the language learning needs
questionnaire designed by Brindley (1984) was adopted. This questionnaire has been used and/or adopted by many
language education researchers to identify language learning needs of second language learners of English.
Language researchers found the instrument useful and effective in identifying the specific learning needs and
preferences of their students. For this reason, the instrument was not pilot-tested or validated anymore. The

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questionnaire contained both open-ended and closed ended questions focused on the pupils’ objective and subjective
needs in learning English. The items in the questionnaire were categorized as objective and subjective needs. Each
item in the questionnaire explored or indicated a particular language need.

An English proficiency test on listening, speaking, reading and writing was also conducted. The proficiency
test was the same tests yearly used by the Bayanihan Institute to assess their learners’ language proficiency level.
Validating the test was considered unnecessary since it has been used several times by the school. The test was a
regional proficiency test for elementary school children learning ESL in private schools. This was approved by
the Department of Education regional office for use in the classroom. In this study, the test was administered to
determine the skill/s where the learners were weak or strong. The Grade 4 proficiency test contained 40 items (
Listening – 4, Speaking – 20, Reading – 9, Writing - 7 ) ; Grade 5 – 50 items ( Listening – 5, Speaking – 19,
Reading – 6, Writing - 10 ); and Grade 6 – 38 items ( Listening – 15, Speaking – 10, Reading – 8, Writing – 5)

Five (5) learners from each grade level were interviewed after completing the survey questionnaire. The
same questions written in the questionnaire, specifically those on objective needs, were asked. Oral responses were
recorded and transcribed to determine indication of needs.

The data obtained through the questionnaire and English proficiency test were subjected to statistical
treatment. Statistical results concerning each item in the questionnaire were presented in tabular form, analyzed, and
interpreted.

Results and Discussion

1. Learning Needs of the Pupils Categorized as Objectives and Subjective Needs

Learning needs has been pointed out by Brindley (1884) as objectives needs and subjective needs. Objective
needs are observable factual information about the learners, their personal background, learners’ proficiency, and
where or how often students use the target language in real life. Subjective needs reflect learners’ perception of
language learning. Learners’ views on goals, priorities, wants, expectations, preference for learning strategies and
participation styles are some components of subjective needs.

The following tables reveal the statistical data on the objective learning needs of the learners. Such needs
were based on the following data: 1) learners’ length of exposure to the study of English; 2) medium of instruction
in the school; 3) importance of English to the learners; 4) learners’ perception of their proficiency in English along
the four basic communication skills; 5) problems in using English; 6) English learning domains; 7) with whom the
learners use English; 8) situations where English is being used by the learners.

1.1. Objective Needs

1.1.1 Pupils’ Length of Exposure to the Study of English

The learners’ exposure to the study of English indicates their length of exposure to the English language
particularly in the school. How long the child had been learning the target language was one concern of this study.
The following table shows how long the learners had been learning English as a second language.

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Table 1. Learners’ length of exposure to the study of English
Options f P R
1. 7 years 17 24% 1.5
2. 8 years 17 24% 1.5
3. 9 years 11 15% 3
4. 4 years 9 12% 4
5. 6 years 6 8% 5
6. 10 years 5 7% 6
7. 5 years 4 6% 7
8. 3 years 3 4% 8

The table shows that 17 or 24% had been learning English in the school for 7-8 years. This comprised the
majority of the participants in the survey. Eleven (11) or 15 % had been learning English for 9 years, while 9 or 12%
had been learning for 4 years. Three (3) or 4%, which comprised the least number of respondents had been studying
English for just 3 years.

The data suggests that the learners need to learn English for a long period of time. They need to be exposed
to the target language in both formal and informal settings. Research findings in the past revealed that the longer the
child is exposed to the language, the easier the learning is. For the qualitative data, the interview with the learners
reveals their needs on this particular aspect:

Pupil 1. I need to learn English to become better. Three years is not enough
Pupil 2. I need to learn English for a long time to catch up with classmates who are good in English.
Pupil 3. I need to learn more and in a longer time to improve my speaking skills.

The interview result suggests that they needed to learn English to become better persons, to catch up with
classmates who were good in English, and to improve their speaking skills.

1.1.2 Medium of Instruction in the School

English is one of the official languages in the Philippines. It is also one of the media of instruction in the
elementary, secondary and tertiary levels. Research had proven that making English as the medium of instruction in
the school helps in developing learners’ competence and proficiency in the use of the language. To determine
whether English was used as the medium of communication at Bayanihan Institute, a survey on this was made. The
next table shows the statistical data on this.

Table 2. Medium of instruction in the school


Options f P R
1. English and Chinese 38 53% 1
2. English 24 33% 2
3. English and Filipino 10 14% 3

The table shows that 38 or 53% had been using the combination of English and Chinese (Bilingual) as
medium of instruction in the school. This comprised the majority of participants in the survey. Twenty-four (24) or
33% had been using English as sole medium of instruction in the school. Ten (10) or 14%, which comprised the
least number of respondents had been using the combination of English and Filipino as medium of instruction in the
school. For the qualitative data, the interview with learners reveals their needs on this particular aspect:

Pupil 1. English and Chinese should both be used as media of communication


Pupil 2. English should be used as the sole medium of instruction.
Pupil 3. English should be used in our school, but we may sometimes speak Filipino during break time.

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The data implies the importance of using English as the medium of instruction the school. Alone or used with
Chinese and Filipino, English was still preferred by the learners as their teachers’ means or tool in teaching.

1.1.3 Importance of English to the Learners

When asked whether English is important to them, the learners had the following responses .

Table 3. Importance of English to the learners


Question YES Response
f P
Is English important to you? 71 97%

The table shows that majority (71or 97%) of the learners said that English is very important to them. This
comprised the most of the participants in the survey. This suggests that very few learners thought that English was
not important.

For the qualitative data, the interview with pupils reveal why they considered English as important to them,
an indication of their need for the language. It is presented in the following table.

Pupil 1. English is important. I can communicate and be understood by others.


Pupil 2. English is a daily language in our country.
Pupil 3. English is important and it teaches me a lot of knowledge.

It could be gleaned from Table 3 that the learners considered as important to them. Their reasons (e.g., to
communicate and be understood, a daily language in their country, teaches a lot of knowledge) indicate their real
need for English.

1.1.4 Learners’ Proficiency in the Four Communication Skills (Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing)

To determine how the learners are rated in terms of their proficiency in the English language along the four
communication skills, a proficiency test was administered. Language proficiency or linguistic proficiency is the
ability of an individual to speak or perform in English as a second language. Effective writing and reading skills are
as important for effective communication as speaking and listening skills. Table 4 shows the statistical results on
the proficiency test for combined Grades IV, V, and VI on listening.

Table 4. Learners’ proficiency in listening


Grade M Description
Grade IV (25) 3.56 Passed
Grade V(23) 1.87 Failed
Grade VI(24) 7.75 Passed
Overall Mean 4.39 Passed

The table indicates that the Grades IV and VI learners passed the proficiency test on listening. Grade IV
learners got an average mean of 3.56 whereas the Grade VI got an average mean of 7.75. The Grade V learners got
an average mean of 1.87 indicating that they failed in this test. However, the overall mean was 4.39 which meant the
learners in general passed the test. The data suggest that the Grades IV and VI learners were strong in listening test,
on the contrary, the Grade V were weak on this skill. Table 5 shows the proficiency test results on speaking.

Table 5. Learners’ proficiency in speaking


Grade M Description
Grade IV (25) 15 Passed
Grade V(23) 14.26 Passed
Grade VI(24) 8.08 Failed
Overall Mean 12.44 Passed

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The statistics reveal that in the test on speaking, the Grade IV learners they passed, too. On the other hand,
the Grade VI obtained 8.08, indicating that they failed. However, the overall mean denotes that the learners as a
whole passed the test. The data suggest further that the Grades IV and V were strong in this aspect, whereas the
Grade VI was not. The next table shows the results on the proficiency test on reading.

Table 6. Learners’’ proficiency in reading


Grade M Description
Grade IV (25) 6.36 Failed
Grade V(23) 3.6 Failed
Grade VI(24) 4.25 Failed
Overall Mean 14.21 Failed

Table 6 shows that the learners from Grades IV to VI when taken as a whole performed poorly in the
reading test. The overall mean was 14. 21 which meant that they failed. This suggests then that they were weak in
reading.

Table 7 shows the results of the proficiency test in writing.

Table 7. Learners’ proficiency in writing


Grade Mean Description
Grade IV (25) 4.12 Failed
Grade V(23) 6.04 Failed
Grade VI(24) 2.3 Failed
Overall Mean 12.46 Failed

The data suggest that the learners were weak in terms of their writing skill. In general, they failed having
obtained an overall mean of 12.46. The proficiency test results suggest that the they were strong in listening and
speaking but weak in reading and writing.

Although reading and writing have become essential skills for almost every job, the majority of the pupils
did not read or write well enough to meet grade-level demands The teachers in these classrooms seemed to be under
pressure to improve the academic achievement of their pupils, who often may have difficulty with the foundational
reading skills of word recognition and decoding. Although these pupils may have received reading instruction that
focused on basic skills in their classroom, they either failed to master or are not able to apply these skills to read
with fluency and to easily gain information from print. Once these pupils fall behind in literacy, they rarely if ever
close the gap without intensive intervention.

The key to getting students at any level to read and write is simply giving them something worth writing and
reading about. The students who struggle with these activities get the most boring and uninspiring assignments.
Reading and writing are not just a set of basic skills people are taught at school, they an integral part of each
educated individual’s life since they are the basis of written communication. Written communication, in its turn, is
another tool for people to express their ideas, and learn about those of others.

The findings concurred with that of the recent findings from The Nation's Report Card (2010) in reading
which reported that nearly 70 percent of the nation's eighth graders in the United States fail to read at a proficient
level. It is ridiculous to learn that these learners were native speakers of English themselves, yet they had difficulty
in reading and writing. Likewise, with the findings of Munby (1978) and Li (2001) suggesting that the pupils had
difficulty reading and comprehending texts in English. Writing was found to be a very difficult task for many
ESL/EFL learners. Many pupils complained that they could not expand their texts or make them substantial because
they had limited vocabulary though they knew the topic.

1.1.5 Problems in Using English

Learners of English do encounter a lot of problems with the language. Chinese-Filipino learners like any
other ESL learners may show signs of difficulty in learning the language. The problem may lie in their difficulty to

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pronounce words the correct way and inability to construct correct sentences or longer stretches of utterances. Table
8 shows what the respondents perceived to be their problem in learning English.

Table 8. Problems in using English


Options f P R
1. Choosing the right word/s while speaking. 28 39% 1
2. Saying what I want to say. 23 32% 2
3. Conversing/Talking to other person/persons in English. 20 28% 3
4. Asking questions 18 25% 4
5. Giving answers to simple questions. 17 24% 5

Table 8 indicates that 28 or 39% had problems in choosing the right word/s to use while speaking; 23 or 32%
had problems in saying what they wanted to say; 20 or 28% had problems in conversing or talking to other persons
in English; 18 or 25% had difficulty asking questions; whereas 17 or 24% worried about giving answers to simple
questions. The statistical results show that the learners had very limited English vocabulary, thus they had
difficulty choosing the right words to say while speaking. The findings concurred with those of Brindley ( 1984).
The author found out that one of the needs of the learners was adequate vocabulary in the target language. As non-
native speakers of English this is not considered an extraordinary problem. However, for them to be effective
speakers and writers of the global language they have to expand their vocabulary in English to effectively
communicate with people throughout the world whose language is not English. The interview with learners reveals
their need to solve their problems in learning English.

Pupil 1. Sometimes I could not say what I wanted to say in English. I need to learn a lot of words.
Pupil 2. It is very hard to think of the right words to use when I speak and write in English.
Pupil 3. It’s hard to write or talk in English if you don’t know what correct word to use. I need to learn more words.

The data reveal that the learners indeed have difficulty speaking and writing due to their lack of vocabulary.
Hence, there is a need to help them expand or enrich their vocabulary. As English teachers, a variety of teaching
techniques may be used for vocabulary enrichment.

1.1.6 English Learning Domains

Children may use English anywhere. It could be in the school, at home, in the supermarket, in the church,
just anywhere. However, not all learners of English would prefer to speak the language just anywhere due to reasons
other than the personal ones. The following table shows the domain where the learners would like to use English to
communicate with other people, for instance, their teachers and classmates.

Table 9. English learning domains


Options f P R
1. In the school 70 97% 1
2. In the party 20 28% 2
3. At home 9 12% 3

The table indicates that majority of the learners preferred to use English in the school. Seventy (70) or 97%
chose to use English in the school. Twenty (20) or 28% preferred using English in the party. The least number of the
pupils, 9 or 12% of the respondents, chose using English at home. The interview with the learners revealed their
English learning domains which are indicated in the following table.

Pupil 1. Our parents could not speak English at home. So we prefer to use English in the school with our teachers.
Pupil 2. I sometimes use English with my friends.
Pupil 3. Sometimes used English at home.

The learners who were interviewed said that they preferred to use English in the school. They could talk to
their teachers in English. Since Chinese parents talk to them either in Chinese or in Filipino at home, this place was

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not considered a domain for learning English, but there were a few pupils who said that their parents communicated
with them in English at home.

1.1.7 With Whom the Learners Use English

Communicating with other people in a real context facilitates learning of the target language. This makes one
use the language in a practical and useful way, besides the people whom they talk to have great influence in
developing their competence in the use of a language. The following table shows the people with whom the pupils
communicated to in English.

Table 10. With whom the pupils use English


Options f P R
1. With my teacher 69 96% 1
2. With foreigners 59 82% 2
3. With my friends 31 43% 3
4. With my parents 26 36% 4

The table shows that the majority (69) or 96% of the learners used English when communicating with their
teachers. Fifty-nine (59) or 82% preferred to use English with foreigners [the nationalities were not mentioned].
Thirty-one (31) or 43% had their friends to communicate with. The least number, 26 or 36% of the respondents,
said they communicated English with their parents. For the qualitative data, the interview reveals their needs on
this particular aspect:

Pupil 1. I prefer speaking native language with parents, because they don’t know English.
Pupil 2. I prefer using Filipino with friends.
Pupil 3. Sometimes I am using English with parents.
Pupil 4. I prefer using English with my teachers and foreigners.

The interview results suggest that all of them preferred to communicate with their teachers in English.
Seven (7) admitted that their parents didn’t know how to speak English, thus they preferred to talk to them in their
native tongue (Chinese Mandarin). As with their friends, they preferred to talk to them in Filipino.

1.1.8 Classroom Situations Where English Is Being Used by the Learners

To develop learners’ communication skills in English, teachers often conduct classroom activities which are
parts of their lesson plans. Depending on the pupils’ interests and motivation to learn, likewise on the skill of the
teacher to facilitate the activities, learning of English may be enhanced. In this study, learners were asked about
classroom situations or activities where English was being used by the teacher.

Table 11. Classroom situations where English is being used by the pupils
Options f P R
1. Participation in answer-question session in class. 65 90% 1
2. Participation in class discussion. 65 90% 2
3. Listening to teachers’ instruction. 61 85% 3
4. Asking teachers for clarification or explanation. 60 83% 4
5. Listening to lectures. 59 82% 5

The statistical data show that most (65) or 90% of the learners used English when they participated in
answer-question sessions, likewise in class discussions. Sixty-one (61) or 85% mentioned that English was used in
giving instructions which their teachers gave and which they had to listen to. For the qualitative data, the interview
with the learners reveals their needs on this particular aspect.

Pupil 1. Sometimes I ask teacher in Filipino for clarification or explanation.


Pupil 2. Sometimes I use English for participating in class discussion.
Pupil 3. Our teacher should lecture in English but also explain in Filipino.

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Learners who could speak in Filipino preferred to communicate with their teachers in Filipino for some
clarifications or explanations. They also preferred lectures to be given in English but had to be explained in Filipino.
The data suggest that the use of bilingual (alternate use of English and Filipino) can also facilitate learning in the
classroom.

1.2 Subjective Needs

As recognition grew in the 1980’s and 1990’s of the existence and importance of psychological, cognitive,
cultural and affective learning needs, a “subjective” interpretation arose in which needs are seen in terms of the
learner as an individual in the learning situation (Brindley, 1984), and attention was given to “factors of a
psychological or cognitive nature which influence the manner in which learners will perceive and interact with the
process of language study” (Tudor, 1996). Subjective needs pertain to the non-content category that looks into
individual preferences and styles in actualizing the objective need category.

In this study, the learners were asked about the following aspects: 1) working preferences in learning
English; 2) preferences for doing their homework; 3) time allocation for homework; 4) preferences for learning
inside and outside the classroom; 5) vocabulary learning; 6) media preference; 7) modes of learning; 8) error
correction; 9) peer correction; 10) learning activities; 11) assessment of language performance; 12) how they want to
be informed of their progress in learning English. The following tables show the statistical data, the analysis of such
data, and their corresponding interpretation.

1.2.1 Working Preferences in Learning English

Studies on working preferences of learners in the classroom reveal that many would like to work in group, be it
in small or in large groups. The importance of group method in teaching and learning process was evident in the
learners’ development of their ability to communicate with others, lead and influence a group, decide on matters of
concern, show team spirit, and present an activity which they had worked hard for. Language is a sure commodity
used in an English classroom when working either in group or individually

Table 12 shows the class working preferences of the learners

Table 12. Working preferences in learning English


Options f P R

1.In small groups 49 68% 1


2. In one large group 40 56% 2
3. In pairs 35 47% 3
4. Individually 27 38% 4

Table 9 indicates that majority of the learners preferred to learn English in small groups. Forty-nine (49) or
68% chose to work in small groups to learning English. Forty (40) or 56% preferred to work in one large group,
while 35 or 47% to learning in pairs. The least number, 27 or 38% of the participants individually, chose working
individually. The interview with the learners suggests their learning/ working preferences, as follows:

Pupil 1. I choose working in large group because I can talk to more people.
Pupil 2. I don’t want to work individually. I cannot solve problems alone.
Pupil 3. I like learning in small group so I can concentrate or focus my attention to learn.
Pupil 4. It is not fun to learn alone.

The comments suggest that group work is recognized by the learners as important, perhaps even an exciting way
to learn English. Through group work, social interrelationship is developed or enhanced. The spirit of collaboration
and teamwork is strengthened.

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Previous studies have shown that through group work, the learners develop their communication skills,
particularly their spoken skills. Thus, this is considered to be one of the subjective needs of the learners to facilitate
learning of the target language (TL).

1.2.2. Preferences for Doing Their Homework

In many studies, researchers had found out that many students did not like homework. As observed children
never like their homes as extension to their school assignments. To determine whether learners prefer homework in
English or not and how much time do they like to spend this, a survey on this was conducted. Tables 13 and 14
revealed the statistical data.

Table 13. Preferences for doing their homework


Question YES Response
f P
Do you want to do homework? 60 83%

The table shows that the majority (60) or 83% of the learners wanted to do their homework. This indicates
that homework is still important to the pupils. Such data contradicted with the observation of the researcher that
most students dislike doing homework during weekends or at night time to be submitted, perhaps, the next day.

Table 14. Time for doing their homework


Options f P
1. 7 hours a week 24 33%
2. 5 hours a week 22 31%
3. 10 hours a week 11 15%
4. 2 hours a week 10 14%
5. 3.5 hours a week 5 7%

The table shows that 24 or 33% of the learners spent 7 hours a week in doing their English homework.
Twenty-two (22) or 31% spent 5 hours a week in doing their English homework. Eleven (11) or 15% had been spent
10 hours a week; 10 or 14% spent 2 hours a week, and 5 or 7% spent 3.5 hours a week in doing their homework.

The interview with the learners revealed their homework preferences.

Pupil 1. I don’t like homework. I would like to prepare and review for the next day.
Pupil 2. I also like homework. It is important.
Pupil 3. I don’t want to do my homework if it is not easy.
Pupil 4. I want to do my homework in the weekdays, not on weekends.

The learners confessed that they did not like homework, that they wanted to spend their time reviewing for
the next day’s lessons (perhaps, tests), nor for homework. Four (4) said that they did not like homework to be done
on weekends; 3 thought that doing homework was important, and 2 said that they did not like doing homework that
was not easy. The data implies that learners prefer to do school tasks in the classroom, not at home. They do not like
doing difficult assignments at home. They want their teachers around guiding or supervising them to facilitate
learning.

1.2.3. Preferences for Learning Inside and Outside the Classroom

There are learners who prefer to learn outside the classroom, see other places and meet other persons. Finding
out the pupils’ preferences for learning inside and outside the classroom was done in this survey.

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Table 15. Preferences for learning inside and outside the classroom

Options f P R
1. I want to spend some of our time learning in the classroom and 53 74% 1
sometimes practicing our English with people outside.
2. I want to spend all our learning time in the classroom. 45 63% 2

The table shows that fifty- three (53) or 74% of the learners wanted to spend some of their time in the
classroom and some of their time practicing their English with people outside. Forty- five (45) or 63% preferred
spending all their learning time in the classroom. The data suggest that learning of English is not only effectively
done in the classroom but also outside. Using English in context and with other people, in addition to their teachers
and classmates, is something that the teachers must consider.

1.2.4. Vocabulary Learning

Vocabulary learning is a complicated task, though many may perceive it as simple. The learner has to
perform several tasks when learning a new word: spelling, pronunciation, stress, grammatical class, semantic
category, in combination with other semantics and grammatical elements in the sentence, and possible contextual
occurrence in various situations. Thus, a language learner, attempting to learn a word, may overlook these
characteristics of the word, and remain content with one or two. To determine whether the learners use the effective
way to learn the new vocabulary in the classroom, a tabulated survey result on this is presented.

Table 16. Vocabulary learning preferences


Options f P R
1.Using new words in sentence 57 79% 1
2.Saying or writing words several times 48 67% 2
3.Thinking of relationships between known and new words 40 56% 3
4. Avoiding verbatim translation 32 44% 4
5. Guessing the unknown 26 36% 5

The table shows that the majority of the learners preferred to learn vocabulary using new words in sentence.
Fifty-seven (57) or 79% chose to use new words in sentence to learn vocabulary. Forty- eight (48) or 67% preferred
to say or write words several times. Forty (40) or 56% chose thinking of relationships between known and new,
while (32) or 44% preferred to avoid verbatim translation and to learn vocabulary. The least number, 26 or 36%
wanted to learn vocabulary by guessing the unknown.

1.2.5 Media Preference

Multi-media teaching is one modern method in teaching English. Traditionally, teachers use the blackboard,
bulletin board, and paper charts to illustrate what they teach. However, with the breakthrough in technology and
communication, such teaching aids are not adequate. Children seem to get amazed and motivated to learn when
technology is applied. Television, radio, computer, motion picture – these are just some of the modern audio-visual
media that a teacher may use to enhance teaching in the classroom. Relative to this, the learners were asked about
the media they preferred to be used to learn English.

Table 17. Media preference


Options f P R
1. Television/ video/films 60 83% 1
2. The blackboard 51 71% 2
3. Written material 43 60% 3
4. Pictures/posters 41 57% 4
5. Tapes/cassettes 27 38% 5
6. Radio 17 24% 6

11
The table shows that the majority (60) or 83% of the learners preferred learning by television/video/films.
Fifty-one (51) or 71% preferred learning in English by the blackboard. Forty –three (43) or 60% preferred learning
by written material, while 41 or 57% wanted to pictures/ posters. Only 17 or 24% of the participants , chose learning
in English by radio. The interview with the learners revealed the following:

Pupil 1. I don’t like learning by radio. I prefer to watch movie, especially funny movies.
Pupil 2. I prefer our teacher to write on the blackboard, so I can take notes.

1.2.6 Modes of Learning

Children learn in different ways. They use not just one strategy or style in learning. They use a combination
of learning strategies or modes. The following table shows the learning modes used by the learners.

Table 18. Modes of learning


Options f P R
1. By listening 65 90% 1
2. By reading 65 90% 2
3. By copying from the board 50 69% 3
4. By listening and taking notes 46 64% 4.5
5. By reading and making notes 46 64% 4.5
6. By making summaries 27 38% 6
7. By repeating what I hear 25 35% 7

Table 18 shows that 65 or 90% of the learners preferred learning by listening and reading. Fifty (50) or 69%
preferred learning by copying from the board. Forty-six (46) or 64% chose making summaries, while the least of
pupils, 25 or 35% of them wanted to learn by repeating what they hear. The data implies that listening and reading
are the most common strategies or modes used by the learners to learn a language. The interview with the learners
reveals their reasons for using a particular learning mode, which are as follows:

Pupil 1. I prefer to just listen to the teacher. If the teacher is good, I will listen well to understand the lesson.
Pupil 2. By reading, I will know a lot of words – their spelling and pronunciation. I can also improve my reading
skills.
Pupil 3. Summarizing is hard. I don’t like it.
Pupil 4. I don’t like repeating what I hear. It’s not good.

1.2.7 Error Correction

As in any other field, errors in language teaching, learning, perception and production are inescapable. What is
important though is coping with them in such a way that they do not frustrate, inhibit and/or discourage language
learners. In this study, pupils were asked as to how they would prefer to be corrected by their teachers. Error
correction is the teacher reaction that transforms, disapproves or demands improvement of the learner utterance
(Chaudron,1977). The correction may come from the student, a peer or the teacher. Results concerning this item are
cited in the table below.

Table 19. Error correction


Options f P R
1. Later, in private 45 63% 1
2. Later, at the end of the activity, in front of everyone 32 44% 2
3. Immediately, in front of everyone 28 39% 3

The table shows that 45 or 63% of the learners preferred error correction later and in private. This comprised
the majority of the participants in the survey. Thirty-two (32) or 44% preferred to be corrected later, at the end of
activity or in front of everyone. Twenty-eight (28) or 38 % wanted error correction to be done immediately, even in
front of everyone. The interview with the learners reveal their attitude towards error correction.

12
Pupil 1. I don’t want to be corrected immediately because my classmates laugh at me.
Pupil 2. I want my teacher to correct me privately so I will know my errors.

1.2.8. Peer Correction

The next item is also related to error correction. Here, the learners were asked whether (1) they would mind if
corrected by their peers or classmates, or (2) asked to correct their own work. In the table below, the results are
shown.

Table 20. Peer correction


Options f P R
1. I don’t mind if my teacher corrects my speaking or my written work. 49 68% 1
2. I don’t mind if my classmates sometimes correct my written work. 44 61% 2

The table shows that the majority of the learners preferred to be corrected by their teacher. Forty-nine (49) or
68% confessed that they would not mind if their teacher sometimes correct their work. Forty-four (44) or 61 % said
that they would not mind if their peers correct them or their work. The learners who were interviewed had these to
say about being corrected:

Pupil 1. I don’t mind my teacher correcting me. She knows my errors better.
Pupil 2. I don’t want my classmates correcting me. I feel embarrassed.

1.2.9. Learning Activities

There are certain activities which can be done inside and outside the English classroom. However, not all the
activities chosen by the teacher are preferred by the learners.

The next item delves into what learners find very useful in the classroom: (1) role play (2) language games,
(3) songs, (4) talking with and listening to other students, (5) memorizing conversations/dialogues, (6) getting
information from guest speakers, (7) getting information from planned visits, (8) writing a learning diary, and (9)
learning about culture. The statistical results are illustrated in Table 21.

Table 21. Learning activities done in the classroom


Options f P R
1. Learning about culture 64 89% 1
2. Language games 61 85% 2
3. Role play 58 81% 3.5
4. Talking with and listening to other students 58 81% 3.5
5. Memorizing conversation/dialogue 54 75% 5
6. Songs 52 72% 6
7. Getting information from planned visits 35 49% 7
8. Getting information from guest speakers 34 47% 8
9. Writing a learning diary 31 43% 9

The table shows that 64 or 89% chose learning about culture as activity to be done in the classroom. This
comprised the majority of the participants in the survey. Sixty- one (61) or 85% preferred doing language games in
the classroom. Fifty-eight (58) or 81% preferred doing role play, including talking with and listening to other
students in the classroom. Fifty-four (54) or 75% preferred memorizing conversation/dialogue in the classroom.
Fifty –two (52) or 72% liked songs as activity done in the classroom. Only 31 or 43% of the respondents chose
writing a learning diary as an activity they like to be done in the classroom. The data suggest that the majority of
the learners like learning about culture in their classroom activities to learn English.

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When asked which of the learning activities above they perceived to be the most useful and the least useful,
the learners gave the responses which were tabulated below.

Table 22. Preferences of most and least useful learning activities done in the classroom
Options Most Useful Least Useful
f P f P
1.Learning about culture 25 35% 3 4%
2.Language games 16 22% 2 3%
3.Role play 11 15% 11 15%
4.Songs 8 11% 7 10%
5.Talking with and listening to other students. 4 6% 6 8%
6.Writing a learning diary 3 4% 31 43%
7.Memorizing conversation/dialogue 2 3% 3 4%
8.Getting information from guest speakers 2 3% 4 6%
9.Getting information from planned visits 1 1% 5 7%

The table shows that majority (25) or 35% chose “learning about culture” as the classroom activity they find
most useful. Language games were chosen by 16 or the 22% of the learners. Only 1 chose “getting information from
planned visits” as the most useful activity. The least useful learning activity to the majority was “writing a learning
diary”. Forty-three (43) chose this activity. Chosen by the least number of the participants as the least useful was
language games.

The statistical data suggest that most of the learners believed that studying their own culture and perhaps the
culture of the Americans (or English) is important. Language is embedded in culture, and it is interesting to learn
both. Writing a learning diary seems disliked by the pupils. This implies that the learners do not want their teachers
to know what they have been doing or what they have done. Or, it could be that, writing is too difficult for them.

1.2.10. Assessment of Language Performance

With the next item, a question on how learners would like their language performance be assessed was
determined. Their choices were: (1) through written tasks set by the teacher, or (2) ability to use the language they
have learnt in real-life situations. Results are presented in the table below.

Table 23. Assessment of language performance


Options Response
f P R
1. Seeing if they can use the language she/he had learnt in real-life situations. 58 81% 1
2. Written tasks set by the teacher. 54 75% 2

The table shows that the majority (58) or 81% of the learners wanted to find out how they can use English in
real-life situations. Fifty-four (54) or 75% of them said that by being able to answer written tasks set by their
teachers is already a clear indication that they can put into use the language they learned. The findings implies that
as long at the learners are able to use the language proficiently in real context and are able to express themselves in
writing without being ‘graded’ by a classroom teacher, then they are assured that they have effective language
performance.

1.2.11 Informing Learners of their Progress in Learning English

The satisfaction felt for their L2 performance varies from student to student. Many are after high marks; some
are after command of L2; others go for both. In this study, learners were asked if they get a sense of satisfaction
from having their work graded, from being told that they have made progress, or from feeling more confident in
situations which they found difficult before. The results received are given in the table below:

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Table 24. How pupils want to be informed of their progress in learning English
Options f P R
1. I want my work to be graded. 65 90% 1
2. I want to be told that I made progress 57 79% 2
3. I want to feel more confident in communication situations that I found 53 74% 3
difficult before

The table shows that the majority ( 65) or 90% of the learners preferred to have their work graded to be
informed whether they made progress in learning the language or not. Fifty-seven (57) or 79% wanted to be
informed of their progress while 53 or 74% said that if they felt more confident in communication situation that
seemed to be difficult before, that to them means they had learned. On the other hand, the interview with the
learners revealed their preferences in expressing satisfaction or progress in learning English:

Pupil 1. I want to be told that have made progress, so I will be very happy.
Pupil 2. I want to see the work graded, so I will know the improvement.
Pupil 3. I want to be feeling more confident in situation that found difficulty before.

2. The Most and Least Important Learning Needs of the Learners as Perceived by Them

Effective language teaching and learning can only be achieved when teachers are aware of their learners'
needs, capabilities, potentials, and preferences in meeting these needs. In this study, we have only dealt with the
preferences Conducting a needs analysis is an important first step in the development of a curriculum that is being
developed from scratch for a completely new program (Brown, 1995). According to Brown (1995), the definition of
a needs analysis is “the systematic collection and analysis of all subjective and objective information necessary to
define and validate defensible curriculum purposes that satisfy the language learning requirements of students within
the context of particular institutions that influence the learning and teaching situation” (p. 36). The outcome of a
needs analysis should be a list of goals and objectives for the parties involved, which should “serve as the basis for
developing tests, materials, teaching activities, and evaluation strategies, as well as for reevaluating the precision
accuracy of the original needs assessment” (Brown, 1995, p. 35). In addition, teachers must know what constitute
their students’/pupils’ learning needs in English.

Finding out the common needs of the elementary schoolchildren was one of the concerns of this study.
Tables 25 and 26 below present the most and least important objective and subjective learning needs of the
Chinese-Filipino learners.

Table 25. The most and least important objective needs of the learners
Options f P R

1. English must be used not just in the school but anywhere and in several 25 35% 1
situations with different people.
2. Must be taught well how to converse in English to other persons. 15 21% 2
3. Need longer time to learn English. 10 14% 3.5
4. There must be adequate and appreciate activities and exercise in listening, 10 14% 3.5
speaking, reading and writing.
5. Must be taught how to pronounce the words exactly. 5 7% 5
6. Must be taught how to ask questions and answer simple questions. 4 5% 6
7. Must be taught how to choose the right words while speaking and writing. 3 4% 7

The table evidently shows that of the seven (7) objective needs cited, majority (25) or 35 % of the
participants chose “English must be used not just in the school but anywhere and in several situations with different
people”. It ranked 1st. Thus, it was the considered to be the most important objective needs of the learners. Only 3
or 4% chose “Must be taught how to choose the right words while speaking and writing” as the most important. On
the other hand, “Must be taught how to choose the right words when speaking and writing” ranked last. It was
chosen by only 3 or 4% as an important need to them, hence, the least important. The data imply that

15
communicative competence is what the learners are after. They want to apply their ability to communicate in
English not just in a formal setting such as the classroom but also in varied contexts and with different people,
perhaps at home, in the market, in the church, just anywhere where there are people around to communicate with. It
is worth to note that of all the objective needs mentioned, choosing the right words to use when speaking or writing
was the least important to them. This is perhaps due to the fact that what is important for these children is their
ability to communicate and send their message in an easy and practical without putting so much pressure on
themselves as to what words they would use when they talk or when they write. Despite this finding it is still
necessary to help the learners enrich their vocabulary, particularly words that they must appropriately use in real-life
situations.

The most and least important subjective needs of the learners are tabulated below.

Table 26. Most and least important subjective needs of the learners
Options f P R
1. Prefer to learn English individually. 25 35% 1
2. Like learning English from mass media like television, video, films and
radio. 11 31% 2
3. Prefer to learn English in large groups. 7 10% 3
4. Prefer to learn English in small groups. 6 8% 4.5
5. Want to spend most of my time learning English in the classroom. 6 8% 4.5
6. Prefer to learn English in pairs. 4 5% 6.5
7. Prefer to learn English by practicing with people outside the classroom. 4 5% 6.5
9. Like learning new vocabulary. 3 4% 10.5
10. Prefer my teacher to teach us English through the blackboard. 3 4% 10.5
11. Like learning English taking notes from lecture. 3 4% 10.5
12. Prefer to be corrected where he/she had mistakes 3 4% 10.5
or errors in speaking and writing.
13. Prefer a variety of language games in the 2 3% 14.5
classroom.
14. Like homework. 2 3% 14.5
15. Prefer dialogue, skits or dramas in the classroom. 2 3%
16.Like learning English from printed materials like books, newspapers and 2 3% 14.5
magazines.
17.Like learning English from posters and bulletin boards. 1 1% 18
18. Prefer writing different compositions like poems, diaries, songs, short
stories. 1 1% 18
19. Prefer to be informed about his/her performance in English by their
teacher through grades. 1 1% 18

Among the subjective needs cited, majority (25) or 35% chose “Prefer to learn English individually” as the
most important need, while each of the following was chosen by only 1: “Like learning English from posters and
bulletin board”, “Prefer writing different compositions like poems, diaries, songs, short stories”, and “Prefer to be
informed about his/her performance in English by their teacher through grades”.

The findings suggest that the learners want to learn or be taught individually. What they mean perhaps by
this is that they preferred to be tutored or be attended to individually when learning in the classroom. Thus, what the
learners prefer is the individualized type of instruction. In addition, most of them would rather choose to work on
their own and study alone with concentration and focus. As regards the least important subjective needs, the data
imply that most learners do not consider poster and bulletin boards as the best tools to learn English. Writing
composition types seems not important to them. This is not doubtful since based on investigations conducted
learners thought of writing cognitively challenging, mind-exhausting task, a task where within a limited time they
would be asked by their teacher to produce a composition that should be free from errors in content, grammar,
mechanics and in the use of words. It is noteworthy that the learners disliked being informed of their progress

16
through grades. This concurred with the findings of many composition experts who found that students do not often
agree with the grades their teachers put for their ideas.

To have a clear idea of what constitutes the most and least important needs of the learners are, the following
summary table is presented. Note that only the needs that ranked first ( with majority votes) and last ( with the least
votes) are tabulated.

Table 27. Summary of the most and least important needs


Type of Need f P R Description
1. Objective
 English must be used not just in the school but anywhere and in several
situations with different people 25 35% 1 Most
Important
 Must be taught how to choose the right words while speaking and
writing. 3 4% 7 Least
Important
2. Subjective
 Prefer to learn English individually 25 35% Most
Important
 Like learning English from posters and bulletin boards. 1 1%
 Prefer writing different compositions like poems, diaries, songs, short Least
stories. 1 1% Important
 Prefer to be informed about his/her performance in English by their
teacher through grades. 1 1%

The table shows that in relation to their objective needs that the learners really need to prove their
communicative competence and the practical use of the language in several social contexts and with different
people. This suggest that using the language within the confines of the four corners of the classroom is not enough.
The learners may have thought that their freedom to use the language in whatever means they choose to and in
varied settings seems to be hampered with the presence of the teacher watching and perhaps grading their ability to
use it. They seem to want to test themselves and prove that they can already use the language they learned from their
teacher in communicating with others. In like manner, learning individually was preferred by most of the learners.
This suggests that they also prefer to learn the language by themselves alone. Each learner may want to prove,
perhaps, that even without the teacher’s intervention, each can manage to learn how to use the language in
communication. This may also suggest that the learners want to be taught or to be trained how to use the language
on a one-on-one approach, that is, the teacher giving more focus or attention to every learner who may need his/her
supervision. On the other hand, most of them chose not to be taught how to choose the right words while they
speak and write. This suggest that they would like to experiment and be creative in choosing the words which for
them are appropriate in the context where they use it. As regards subjective needs not chosen by many, they
considered posters and bulletin boards as not an important source of learning the language. Most may have thought
that writing compositions such as poems, diaries, or short stories are demanding and difficult, with their inadequacy
of the English vocabulary, the reaction is just expected. It is also interesting to learn that only one learner
considered evaluation of performance through grade (numerical) would not do them any good. This may mean that
they would rather choose to be praised or encouraged to learn more or be corrected ones a mistake is committed,
rather than graded for their ideas they have worked hard for to think and say.

3. Proposed English Instruction Enhancement Plan to Address the Language Learning Needs of the Learners

Based on the statistical results, there is a need to enhance the English instruction in the school for Filipino-
Chinese learners. Thus, the English instruction plan below was proposed. The plan is expected to serve as the
instrument for delivery of high quality, systematic ESL instruction for the pupils not only for the Grades 4, 5, and 6
but also for the other grade levels.

17
PROPOSED ENGLISH INSTRUCTION ENHANCEMENT PLAN

Objectives Strategies/Activities Persons Time Success


Involved Frame Indicator

1. To meet 1.1 . Expose the pupils to the language through School June – The diverse
the diverse the following: administrators, March needs of the
needs of the  Regular conversation with them in English English pupils in
pupils in  Movie/film showing/video presentation in instruction learning the
learning English program English
English as a  Inviting native speakers of English to talk planners, ESL language
second in their class department were met
language.  1.2. Use Grammar-Translation , communicative head, with 95%
competence, and Total Physical response Methods teachers, success.
in teaching English, allowing for translations and guidance
use of bilingual for effective discussion of the lesson counselors,
and class interaction parents, pupils
1.3. Giving the pupils communicative tasks that will
be done in real-life situations ( e.g. buying and
selling at the mall, writing letters to a friend)
1.4. Use different and varied vocabulary learning
strategies (e.g. mnemonics, phonemic awareness,
graphic organizers, semantic mapping, spelling,
context clues)
1.5. Organize and implement “Speak English”
campaign in the school.
1. 6. Use individual for greater English teaching
methods for collaborative learning
1.7. Provide adequate and quality time for
classroom learning to lessen the quantity of
homework.
1.8. Provide more and enriching listening, reading
and listening comprehension activities/exercises.
1.9. Correct pupils’ errors pleasantly and in private.
1.10. Teach pupils about their culture and the culture
of other countries especially those of United States
1.11. Use language games for a more enjoyable
learning
1.12. Use non-graded performance tasks. Numerical
ratings may be used. Praises may be given as
positive reinforcers.

2. To 2.1. Use visual cues (overheads, drawings, maps, School June– The
strengthen demonstrations, visual samples of new vocabulary). administrator, March listening
listening 2.2. Face student directly when speaking. English skills of the
skills of the 2.3. Repeat or rephrase what other students say department pupils were
pupils highlight texts/study guides. head, ESL strengthened
2.4. Provide note-taking assistance during lectures teachers, with 95%
to allow hearing/ visually impaired pupils to pupils success.
concentrate on the teacher.
2.5. Use peer tutoring.

18
2.6. Pre-teach vocabulary.
2.7. Use captioned videos, films, etc.
2.8. Show videos, etc. before presenting information
to provide a knowledge base for students.
2.9. Simplify vocabulary
3. To improve 3.1. Use graphic organizers to organize ideas and School June - The pupils’
speaking relationships. administrator, March speaking
skills of the 3.2. Use cues and prompts to help student know department skills were
pupils when to speak. head, teachers, improved
3.3. Use realia or authentic materials such as parents, pupils, with 95%
shampoo sachet, list of menus from a restaurant people in the success.
3.4. Use choral reading or speaking/Readers’ community
Theater/Chamber Theater
3.5. Use rhythm or music.
3..6. Allow practice opportunities for speaking
inside and outside the classroom
4. To 4.1. Use peer tutoring or buddy reading School June – The reading
enhance 4.2. Use taped or audio recorded materials (text or administrator, March skills of the
reading skills study guides). department pupils were
of the pupils 4.3. Use videos with advanced organizer.. head, enhanced
4.4. Allow students to quietly read aloud (sub- librarians, with 95%
vocalization). teachers, success.
4.5. Use graphic organizers. pupils, parents
4.6. Identify 5 W’s–who, what, when, where, why.
4.7. Use preparatory set–talk through what a reading
passage is about using new vocabulary and
concepts.
4.8. Provide adequate time for reading .
4.9. Provide meaningful practice, review, repetition.
4.10. Teach vocabulary in context.
4.11. Use computer-assisted instruction: online
researching, typing compositions,
watching/listening to videos
5. To help 5.1. Shorten writing assignments. School Yearlong The pupils’
the pupils 5.2. Provide note taking. administrator, writing
improve their 5.3. Allow computer for outlining, word-processing, librarian, skills were
writing skills spelling and grammar check. teachers, improved
5.4. Allow visual representation of ideas. parents, pupils with 95%
5.5. Apply collaborative writing.. success.
5.6. Provide model of writing.
5.7. Use flow chart and other non-prose forms for
writing ideas before the student writes.
5.8. Grade on the basis of content, do not penalize
for errors in mechanics and grammar.
5.9. Reduce quantity of homework

The proposed program targeted specific skills and provided explicit and fast-paced instruction incorporating
multiple opportunities for guided practice. It was based on the findings of this research that aimed to enhance the
ESL instruction at Bayanihan Institute by meeting the learning needs of the pupils. The four communications skills
which are listening, speaking, reading and writing were emphasized within the instructional design of the
lessons. As reflected in the plan, the learners are provided with activities and/or strategies to regularly reinforce
these essential communication components, enumerating some personnel to be involved. The time frame set for the
implementation of the plan is yearlong, that is, from June to March of each year. .

Conclusions

19
The following conclusions are based on the findings as discussed above.

1. The needs of the pupils are related to the exposure to the language; use of bilingual approach, emphasis on the
use of English; strengthening of pupils’ reading and writing skills; vocabulary learning for speaking and
writing; frequent use of English in the school; ability to communicate in English not only with their teachers
but also with foreigners; group learning, reduction of homework, more classroom learning and practice
outside, use of technology in teaching, provision of more listening, reading, speaking, and discussion through
the board; appropriate error correction, integration of culture lessons, language games; assessment of
proficiency by applying English in real-life situations and through written tests; and non-graded performance
instead of the numerical grades.
2. The pupils need to use English not just in the school but anywhere and in several situations with different
people, have longer time to learn the language individually and in group; likewise, have to learn the language
with the use of modern technology.
3. Based on the results of the needs analysis, the school needs to enhance or improve their English instruction to
meet the objective and subjective learning needs of the Chinese-Filipino young learners.

Recommendations

Based on the findings and conclusions presented, the following recommendations are given:

1. The proposed enhancement plan for English instruction may be implemented in institutions for young Chinese-
Filipino learners.
2. The learners must always be informed of their performance in the test either through grades or through
descriptive terms.
3. With the introduction of English at the elementary school level, teachers need special training on the language
learning needs of young learners. Curricula, teaching methods, and materials should meet the needs of the
learners of different ages and at different stages.
4. A restructuring of the curriculum informed by learners’ concerns and teachers’ expertise while utilizing the
school’s resources is a necessary step toward creating a unified educational community. However, teachers
cannot do this without the voice of their learners, and especially not without the help and support of the
administration.
5. Teachers must improve their English proficiency with an emphasis on communicative instruction at elementary
school level English education.
6. Teachers must employ variety of language teaching approaches/methods such as the Communicative Approach,
Audio-Lingual, Direct or Berlitz Method, Grammar-Translation, Total Physical Response, Suggestopaedia,
Bilingual Approach, Reading Approach, or the Silent Way .
7. More resources, such as internet, computers, computer- assisted language learning (CALL) systems, television,
films, books for extensive reading, and English magazines must be available.
8. Remedial centers for pupils with reading and writing problems must be put up. Tutorial classes where bright
pupils can be utilized to tutor slow readers or poor writers be organized.
9. Language learning needs survey and analysis in every grade level may be conducted yearly

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ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Dr. Cecilia L. Calub is an English professor of Tarlac State University. She is the Area Head of the MAEd
English program in the same university. She graduated with the following degrees: Bachelor of Science in
Elementary Education (BSEEd), with specialization in English, Cum Laude; Bachelor of Science in Secondary
Education BSEd), major in English, minor in History; Master of Arts in Education, major in Guidance and
Counseling; and Doctor of Philosophy in Linguistics, major in Applied Linguistics. In 2005, she was awarded

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Outstanding in Linguistics Research by the Philippine Normal University – Manila. She has conducted a number
of research focusing on linguistics, language education, and gender advocacy and has presented most of them in
in-house research reviews, as well as in national and international conferences.

Francelle L. Calub is a full-time technical staff of the Office of Technology Development Transfer and
Commercialization (OTDTC), Tarlac State University. She taught English-related subjects in the same university for
almost eight years. Ms. Calub graduated with the following degrees: Bachelor of Arts in English and Master in
Education, major in English Language Teaching. At present she is pursuing her Ph.D. in Language Education .

Xiaoying L. Xu is a pre-school teacher from DaTian, FuJian, China. Granted scholarship to take up a post-
graduate course by a Chinese philanthropist from Tarlac City, Ms. Xu enrolled at Tarlac State University (TSU)
in 2009 and completed her Master of Arts in Education , major in English in 2011. While in the Philippines, she
stayed at Bayanihan Institute located in Tarlac City and handled English as well as Chinese subjects in the said
institution. Her bachelor’s degree in Pre-School Education was taken at FuJian College of Education in China.
After her graduation from TSU, she went back to China to continue her teaching career.

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