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BY: Sandeep Gupta

Points to be covered:

• Heat Exchanger – Types & Uses


• Parts of Shell & tube type exchanger

• TEMA designation

• Floating head details

•Test jigs & test flanges

• Maintenance of Floating head type heat exchanger


Heat Exchangers :
Widely used in Chemical Industry for heat
exchange between two fluids for attaining the
desired parameters of fluids, particularly
temperature & physical state of fluids

May be used as:


� Heaters (sensible heat changes)
� Coolers (sensible heat changes)
� Condensers (also change of state, V to L)
� Reboilers/Evaporators (also change of state, L to
V)
Types of Heat Exchanger
� Shell and tube
� Double pipe
� Plate
� Finned tubes
� Spiral
Hair pin, Spiral and plate HE
Plate heat
exchangers:
Compabloc, packinox
Shell & tube exchanger
• Shell
• Tubes
• Front Head cover
• Rear head cover
• Baffles
•Tube sheets
• Tie rod
General design consideration

Factor Tube-side Shell-side

Corrosion More corrosive fluid Less corrosive fluids

Fouling Fluids with high fouling Low fouling and scaling


and scaling

Fluid temperature High temperature Low temperature

Operating pressure Fluids with low pressure Fluids with high pressure
drop drop

Viscosity Less viscous fluid More viscous fluid

Stream flow rate High flow rate Low flow rate


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Baffle type and spacing
Baffles used
both to
support the
tubes and to
direct into
multiple
cross flow
•Tube density will be more for Triangular (or rotated
triangular) than sqaure( rotated)
Sqaure are more cleaning friendly than triangular
(hence used in dirty services)
Tube side: No. of passes
SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER BEM-TYPE.flv

Heat exchangers parts are designed and


fabricated confirming to ASME Sec VIII code
& TEMA standards. (The American Society
of Mechanical Engineers & Tubular Exchanger
Manufactures Association)
Latest
TEMA
Edition
TEMA: SIZE NUMBERING AND TYPE DESIGNATION

Rear end
Front end head type
Shell type
stationary head type

A E L
B F M Fixed tube sheet
C G N
D H P
N J S Floating head
K T
W
U U tube
Front head type
� A-type is standard for dirty tube side
� B-type for clean tube side duties. Use if possible
since cheap and simple.

A B

Channel and removable cover Bonnet (integral cover)


� C-type with removable shell for hazardous tube-side
fluids, heavy bundles or services that need frequent
shell-side cleaning.
CHANNEL INTEGRAL WITH
TUBE-
SHEET AND REMOVABLE
COVER

� N-type for fixed for hazardous fluids on shell side


CHANNEL INTEGRAL
WITH TUBE-
SHEET AND
REMOVABLE COVER

� D-type or welded to tube sheet bonnet for high


pressure (over 150 bar)

SPECIAL HIGH PRESSURE CLOSURE


Shell type
� E-type shell should be used if possible but
� F shell gives pure counter-current flow with two
tube passes (avoids very long exchangers)

E F Longitudinal baffle

One-pass shell Two-pass shell


More shell types
� G and H shells normally only used for
horizontal thermosyphon reboilers
� J and X shells if allowable pressure drop can
not be achieved in an E shell

G H
Longitudinal
Split flow baffles Double split flow

J X

Divided flow Cross flow


Fixed rear head types
L

Fixed tube sheet

� L is a mirror of the A front end head


� M is a mirror of the bonnet (B) front end
M
� N is the mirror of the N front end

N
U tube type
� Allow bundle removal and mechanical cleaning
on the shell side
� U tube is simple design but it is difficult to clean
the tube side round the bend
� U-tubes are a simple way of achieving a floating
head.
Floating heads
T S

Pull through floating head Similar to T but with smaller shell/


Note large shell/bundle gap bundle gap
Note that the T type requires a large shell and therefore a large shell-to-
bundle clearance in order to slide the bundle in and out of the shell. The S
type introduces the “split backing ring ” which enables the return header to
be dismantled and the bundle withdrawn through a smaller diameter shell.

Split backing ring


The S type is very common in refinery applications
because it enables access to the shell side for
maintenance and cleaning without giving a large shell-
to-bundle clearance .
Floating head
pictures
Test ring drawing
MAINTENANCE OF FLOATING HEAD TYPE HEAT
EXCHANGERS
FLOATING HEAD Heat Exchanger
General Assembly view
Gaskets
Tube side Inlet Shell side Inlet
Gasket

Floating Head
Shell Bundle

Dome or
rear head

Front head
Saddle

Tube side Outlet Shell side Outlet

Tube Sheet

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Floating Head Heat Exchanger
Cross Sectional View
Floating Head
Shell
Tube Bundle Baffle

Front Dome/
head rear head

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FLOATING HEAD Heat Exchanger
Split View of Parts
Gasket Gasket Split ring Gasket
Tube Bundle Gasket

Tube sheet Tube sheet Floating


Stationary Head Back Cover
head
cover

Shell

Floating
Head Detail

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Starting maintenance ( e.g. Shell/tubes cleaning or to attend leakages)

•Proper and stable scaffolding erection

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FLOATING HEAD Heat Exchanger
Maintenance Activity Description
Blind Inlets-Outlets of Disconnect and remove
exchanger Floating Head with gasket
Disconnect and remove Install the bundle puller
channel with gasket
Pull the bundle out
Disconnect and remove
Back cover with gasket

Bundle Puller

Ground level
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FLOATING HEAD Heat Exchanger
Maintenance Activity Description …..Continuation
Lower the bundle and Lift the bundle puller with
take to hydro-jetting area clean bundle and new gasket
gasket,,
Clean Shell and covers ready for reinstallation

Bundle Puller

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Ground level
FLOATING HEAD Heat Exchanger
Maintenance Activity Description…..Continuation
Reinsert the bundle by Lower the bundle puller to
bundle puller the ground and take it away

Bundle Puller

33 Ground level
FLOATING HEAD Heat Exchanger
Maintenance Activity Description…..Continuation
� Shell Side Hydro-test
Install front Test Ring Install Pressure Gauge Raise the pressure up to
with gasket data sheet value
Connect water pump
Install back Test Ring Check leakages from
with gasket Fill the shell by water tubes
Check Blinds in shell

PG

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Ground level Water Pump
FLOATING HEAD Heat Exchanger
� Shell Side Hydro-test …Check leakages from tubes continuation
PG

“A ” “B ”
Water

View “A ”

Water

View “B”
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FLOATING HEAD Heat Exchanger
� Shell Side Hydro-test ….Continuation Details
PG

Tube leak elimination Details


“A ” Shell under pressure “B ”

Detail “A ”
[By Expansion both sides]

Detail “B”
Leak [By Plug both sides]

Leak

36 Tube Expander Tool


FLOATING HEAD Heat Exchanger
Maintenance Activity Description…..Continuation

Discharge water from Reinstall bonnet with Remove Test Ring &
shell drain new gasket & tight floating head
gasket [floating
Remove Test Ring & bolts side
side]
distributor side
gasket [distributor side] Blind Distributor in & Reinstall Floating Head
out with split flange, new
gasket & tight bolts

PG

Drain

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FLOATING HEAD Heat Exchanger
� Tube Side Hydro-test ….Continuation Details
Install PG in distributor Check floating head Discharge the water,
top nozzle gasket sealing remove PG and water
Connect water pump Check distributor gasket pump
sealing Remove blinds form
Fill tube side by water
distributor nozzle and
Raise the pressure up to
tight bolts
value given by Inspection

PG PG

Drain

Water Pump
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FLOATING HEAD Heat Exchanger
� Shell Side Final Hydro-test ….Continuation Details
Install Back cover with Check Back cover Discharge the water,
Gasket gasket sealing remove PG and water
Connect water pump pump
Check bundle to shell
Fill Shell side by water gasket sealing Remove blinds form
shell nozzles and tight
Raise the pressure up to bolts
value given by Inspection

PG

Drain

Water Pump
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FLOATING HEAD Heat Exchanger

Handover & Final House Keeping

• Remove tools and equipment


• Do proper housekeeping
• Close Permits
• Remove scaffolding after unit startup

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THANK YOU