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AE 6050 Homework 1

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Summer 2018

HW#1

Due Thurs., May 24

Review Problems:

Ideal Gas Dynamics, Kinetic Theory, Statistical Mechanics

Homework solutions should be neat and logically presented, see format requirements

(seitzman.gatech.edu/classes/ae6050/homeworkformat.html). Please note the

requirement to draw some IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS from the results of

each problem. These could be how your findings would impact design/operation of a

practical device, a comparison of the results of different parts of a problem, a physical

interpretation of the results, etc.

To receive credit, show ALL work in the format described above. If you use equations

from the notes, the class textbook or another book, please cite the reference.

1. Isentropic Nozzle

a) Write a complete set of expressions (DO NOT derive them, just cite your

source) for a thermally and calorically perfect gas as it isentropically expands

through a supersonic nozzle that relate: the temperature (T), pressure (p),

density (), Mach number (M) of a flow; the local cross-sectional area (A) and

throat area (At) of the nozzle; and any necessary upstream reservoir

conditions. Make sure to include any additional assumptions that these

expressions use (i.e., assumptions that are not specifically given to you in this

problem).

b) Plot (not by hand!) T, p, and M vs. A/At for a mixture that is 60% N2 and 40%

Ar by mole through such a nozzle as it expands from a reservoir (M~0) to an

exit Mach number of at least 7 with reservoir conditions of 1,500 K and 35 atm.

Base your specific heat values for this mixture only on the modes you expect to

be near fully-excited (and therefore approximately constant) over the complete

range of temperatures covered.

2. Normal Shocks

a) Write expressions (again no derivations, just cite your sources) that give the

temperature ratio, T2 T1 , pressure ratio, p 2 p1 , density ratio 2 1 , velocity

ratio v2/v1 and normalized entropy increase, s 2 s1 R , for a normal shock in a

thermally and calorically perfect gas as a function of the shock Mach number,

M 1 . Again, be sure to include any additional assumptions used.

b) Plot the 1) temperature ratio, 2) pressure ratio, 3) density ratio, 4) normalized

entropy increase and 5) velocity ratio for normal shocks with Mach numbers up

to at least 12 using the gas mixture described in Problem 1, with initial

conditions of 450K and 0.1 atm. Base your specific heat values for this mixture

only on the modes you expect to be near fully-excited at the pre-shock

conditions.

3. Collision Frequency and Mean Free Path

The mean free path () is the average distance a molecule travels between

successive collisions. It can be approximated as C , the average

molecular speed divided by the collision frequency.

For this problem, let’s say each nitrogen (N2) molecule experiences elastic

collisions (i.e., collisions where only momentum or translational energy is

exchanged) with all other molecules in a pure N2 gas with a frequency of

2.5109 sec-1 at “normal” temperature and pressure conditions (NTP = 20C and

1 atm).

a) Estimate the mean free path of a N2 molecule at NTP.

b) Estimate the elastic collision cross-section (in units of cm2) for N2 based on

the values given in this problem.

c) Find the “average duration” (in units of picoseconds) of a collision for N2

molecules at NTP. This can be defined as the time two molecules moving the

average relative speed would be close enough for their centers of mass to be

within one “molecular diameter.”

d) Estimate the elastic collision frequency for a pure N2 gas if we kept the

density constant but increased the temperature by a factor of 2?

e) Estimate the mean free path for N2 for the same conditions used in part d).

For an equilibrium perfect gas, determine the fraction of molecules with a

translational kinetic energy greater than 5 times the average translational kinetic

energy.

5. Equilibrium Enthalpy

Consider a diatomic gas that can be modeled as a rigid rotor (with r=3.5K) and

harmonic oscillator (with v=2,000K), and with four electronic energy levels (g0=1;

g 1=3 1=300 K; g2=3, 2=22,000 K; g3=5, 3=100,000 K).

a) Write a simplified expression for the normalized enthalpy (h/R) of this gas as

a function of temperature that would be valid for temperatures above 200 K.

Your expression should include any necessary molecular properties given

above BUT do not enter numbers for the properties, use variables/symbols.

b) Using the standard thermodynamic definition of cp for a thermally perfect gas,

i.e., cpdh/dT, plot the specific heat for this gas from 200 K to 4,500 K based

on a numerical differentiation of your enthalpy (i.e., do not analytically

differentiate your result from part a, but rather calculate values for h/R at

different temperatures and use a differencing scheme to calculate its

derivative).

6. Specific Heat and Fully-Excited Conditions

The most general form of the partition function for a perfect gas is

n

Q g 0 g i e i T

i 1

where the lowest energy level (denoted 0) has zero energy, and i is the

characteristic temperature of the ith energy level (=i/k).

a) Using the above partition function expression without any simplifying

assumptions, derive an expression for the normalized specific heat (cv/R) of a

perfect gas. Your answer will contain various series summations.

SUGGESTION: while you could start with the expression given in class for E

as a function of (lnQ)/T, it might be easier to start with simpler expression:

E N i i N f i i

b) Use the result from (a) to plot cv,rot/R versus T/r for a linear rigid rotor starting

from ~0K and extending at least until the rotational energy mode is “fully-

excited”. Assume J=0 is the ground rotational energy level.

Also plot the value of Q as a function of T/r. (NOTE: do not use the

assumption that Q=T/r.)

c) At what temperatures would you say that the rotational mode is fully excited

for the following gases: 1) N2, 2) O2 and 3) H2.

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