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SURVEY REPORT

Submitted To: Submitted By:


Neetika Arora Chandan Garg (2011/71)
Deepak Singla (2011/43)
Manjinder Singh (2011/79)
Shubham Dani (2010/65)
Kulwinder Singh (2010/46)

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Index

1. Introduction............................................................................7
2. Topics.....................................................................................9
3. Switches................................................................................11
3.1. Types of Switches (Rating).............................................13
3.2. Types of Switches (Operation)........................................15
3.3. Comparison of Various Types of Switches......................17
4. Sockets..................................................................................19
4.1. Types of Sockets.............................................................21
4.2. Comparison of Various Types of Sockets........................27
5. Plugs......................................................................................29
5.1. Types of Plugs................................................................29
5.2. Comparison of Various Types of Plugs............................31
6. Lamp Holder.........................................................................33
6.1. Types of Lamp Holder....................................................35
6.2. Comparison of Various Types of Lamp Holder................37
7. Support Modules....................................................................39
7.1. Various Support Modules................................................39
7.2. Comparison of Various Types of Support Modules..........47
8. House Wiring.........................................................................49
8.1. Factor Affecting The Choice of Wiring...........................49
8.2. Types of Wiring System..................................................51
8.2.1. Cleat wiring System..............................................53
8.2.2. CTS wiring System...............................................57
8.2.3. Metal or lead sheathed wiring System.....................59
8.2.4. Casing and Capping Wiring System........................61

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8.2.5. Conduit wiring System........................................63
8.2.6. Specification of Wires.........................................65
9. References...........................................................................67
9.1. Visiting Shops..............................................................69
9.2. Websites.......................................................................71

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Introduction

SURVEY REPORT means analysis of different


things of different company. Our topic on the survey is “Material
required in house wiring”. In survey, we concentrate mainly on
switches, sockets, conduit metal boxes, and wires. We visit the various
electrical shops and collect data in catalogues. In this report, we
compare them based on their ratings, standard packing, and prices.
Different company Havells, Anchor, Riyo, Fine etc. are taken for
comparison. Its help us to select that which brand is best with respect
to other brands in all aspects either economically or on the quality
basis. One purpose of market survey is also keep up-to-date about the
developments in all products. By the market survey, one can easily
make estimate about the total approximate cost of any project
beforehand. So Market Survey play an integral role for an Electrical
Engineer.

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Topics
To study various types of domestic wiring components such as:
 Switches
 Sockets
 Plugs
 Lamp holders
 Support Modules
 Cables

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Switch

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Switches
A switch is a device used for making and breaking the
electrical connection, hence allowing the current to be flow in required
durations. An important device is used in the house wiring. It is applied
in every electrical connection. There are many types of switches such
as:-
 Mechanical Switch.
 Electro-Mechanical Switch.
 Electronic Switch.

The main function of switch is to perform ON and


OFF operations. In the electro-mechanical switch, there may be two or
three terminals depending upon application. This type of switch is
controlled manually, i.e. just by pressing it. This type of switch is most
widely today. Contacts of switch are connected to an external circuit.
Each set of contacts can be in one of two states either ‘closed’ meaning
the contacts are separate or the switches are non-conducting. The
mechanism actuating the transition between two states can be either is
toggle type.

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I. One-Way Switch

II. Two-Way Switch

III. Bell Push Button

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Based on operation, they are mainly of three types, which are as
follow:
I. One-Way Switch: It is a two terminal switch. It is preferred to be
connected in the phase wire. One terminal is connected to the
supply and other to the one terminal of the appliance. It is
connected almost to the every apparatus.

II. Two-Way Switch: It is a three terminal switch. It is always used


in a group of two to operate one appliance from two different
places any time. Two-end terminal of both the switches are short-
circuited side by side. Middle terminal of one switch is connected
to supply and of other is connected to one terminal of appliance.
We mostly use this switch in stairs.

III. Bell Push Button: It is a one-way switch with a spring controlled.


It always connects in phase wire. It is used in bell connection.

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I. 6A Switch

II. 16A Switch

III. 32A DP Switch


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Based on rating, they are mainly of three types, which are as follow:
I. 6A Switch: This switch is applied in the circuits containing the
current less than 6A. If the current exceeds the value of 6A then
terminal of switch starts burning. It is connected in house wiring
system to control the current lamp, TV, Fans etc.

II. 16A Switch: This switch is connected where the circuits


containing current more than 6A but less than 16A. If the current
exceeds the value of 16A then terminal of switch starts burning. It
is connected in house wiring system to control the major
appliances like water pumping motor, geyser etc.

III. 32A DP Switch: This switch is a four terminal switch or a


combination of two switches. Two terminals are connected to the
mains supply and two to the bus bar of domestic wiring. This
switch is connected in between the mains supply and bus bar of
domestic wiring.
Ratings of Single/Two/Push Way Switches:
1. 6A / 240V / 50Hz
2. 20A / 240V / 50Hz
3. 25A / 240V / 50Hz
4. 32A / 240V / 50Hz

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COMPARISON OF VARIOUS TYPE OF SWITCHES

S. No. Company Name Code Standard pkg. Price(Rs)/Unit


6A Single Way Switch
Havells AHCSXXW101/06 20 104/-
Deluxe 14111/95111 30 20/-
1. Anchor
Cherry 14121/95121 30 21/-
Riyo R-001 20 33/-
Fine(Modular) 161 20 50/-

6A Two Way Switch


Havells AHCSXXW102/06 20 140/-
Deluxe 14112/95112 30 27/-
2. Anchor
Cherry 14122/95122 30 28/-
Riyo R-002 20 42/-
Fine(Modular) 162 20 66/-

6A Bell Push Switch


Havells AHCSBXW100/06 20 150/-
Deluxe 14112/95112 30 27/-
3. Anchor
Cherry 14122/95122 30 28/-
Riyo R-003 20 42/-
Fine(Modular) 163 20 62/-

16A Single Way Switch


Havells AHCSXXW161 20 158/-
4. Anchor 14401/95401 10 81/-
Riyo R-004 20 50/-
Fine(Modular) 164 20 78/-

16A Two Way Switch


Havells AHCSXXW162 20 192/-
5. Anchor 14402/95402 10 97/-
Riyo R-006 20 62/-
Fine(Modular) 165 20 103/-

32A DP Switch With Indicator


Havells AHCSDIW321 10 480/-
6. Anchor 14404/95404 10 142/-
Riyo R-021 10 150/-
Fine(Classic) 416 10 150/-

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Socket

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Sockets
A power socket is a device to which electrical
devices can be connected to receive the electric current required for
their operation. Connected by a system of cables to a power source,
usually an electricity generation facility operated by an energy
production company, it generally has no moving parts. Instead, it
contains metal strips which make contact with the prongs of an electric
plug inserted into the socket. It’s through these contacts that the electric
current is transmitted.

Electrical devices which connect to a power


source through a power socket are considered to be portable because
they can easily be connected and disconnected from the power source.
Portable electric devices have a length of cable terminating in a two,
three or four prong plug. The prongs are shaped like blades or
cylinders, and may be a combination of the two. When a plug is inserted
into a power socket, a circuit is completed. Every power socket thus
needs at least two slots one with a live or “hot” contact strip to transmit
current to the device being plugged in, and one to return the current.

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I. 2 Pin Socket

II. 3 Pin Socket

III.5 Pin Socket

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TYPES OF SOCKETS

I. 2-Pin Socket: As the name implies, it consists of two pins or


holes in which 2-pin plug is inserted. It is mainly used in case of
light load. Its contacts are made of copper alloys. These are made
of different shapes. These are used for small loads.
Ratings: 6A / 240V / 50Hz.

II. 3-Pin Socket: From its name, it is cleared that it consists of three
pins or holes in which 3-pin plugs are inserted. These are better
than 2-pin socket from safety point of view. Because it has three
pins. The third pin has greater diameter as compared to two other
pins. It is used for earthing purpose. Diameter of third pin is
increase in order to decrease resistance. In case of fault, it may
be short circuited, then under such condition , this pin provide
low resistance path to short circuit current and hence provides
better safety to operator.
Ratings of 3-pin socket:
1. 6A / 240V / 50Hz
2. 10A / 240V / 50Hz
3. 16A / 240V / 50Hz.

III. 5 Pin Socket: From its name , it is cleared that it consist of 5


pins or hole, into which in which 3 pin or 2 pin plugs are
inserted. It is a combination of 2-pins or 3-pins according to
requirement. These type of sockets are most widely used.

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Multi-Pin Socket

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Today, we can use many auxiliaries by using single 5-pin
socket.
Ratings of 5-pin socket:
1. 6A / 240V / 50Hz
2. 10A / 240V / 50Hz
3. 16A / 240V / 50Hz

IV. Multi-Pin Socket: With the multi socket, we can connect no. of
appliances having different type of plug of any pin type by same
switch. We can control all the appliances connected to multi
socket just by one switch. This socket is also known as
UNIVERSAL SOCKET.
Ratings of Multi Sockets:
1. 6A / 240V / 50Hz
2. 10A / 240V / 50Hz
3. 16A / 240V / 50Hz

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Round Type Extension Board

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V. Round Type Extension Board: It is simply a board consists of
many sockets. Sometimes, we have to extent electrical
connection for temporary purpose. There we use this type of
socket. From the name, it indicates that it may be of round or
rectangular shape and the wire is wounds on the periphery
provided inside the cord. An indicator is also connected near
the sockets, which shows the presence of supply. Sometimes a
fuse is also connected for safety of the operator and appliances
to eliminate the fault.
Ratings of Extension Boards:
6A / 240V / 50Hz

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COMPARISON OF VARIOUS TYPE OF SOCKETS

S. No. Company Name Code Standard Pkg. Price(Rs)/Unit


6A 2 Pin Socket
Havells AHLKSXW062 20 106/-
1. Anchor 14301/95301 20 25/-
Riyo R-009 20 42/-
Fine(Modular) 168 20 54

6A 3 Pin Socket
Havells AHLKPXW063 10 150/-
2.
Anchor 14302/95302 10 33/-
Fine(Modular) 172 10 198/-

6A 5 Pin Socket
Havells AHLKPXW065 10 154/-
3. Anchor 14304/95304 20 33/-
Riyo R-010 20 47/-
Fine(Modular) 170 10 99/-

Universal Socket
Havells AHLKPXW130 10 260/-
4. Anchor 14307/95307 10 84/-
Riyo R-013 10 100/-
Fine(Modular) 171 10 132/-

4 Steps Fan Regulator


Havells AHLRFXW004 20 520/-
5. Anchor 14501/95501 10 232/-
Riyo R-017 10 155/-
Fine(Modular) 181 20 319/-

5 Steps Fan Regulator


Havells AHLRFHW005 10 580/-
6. Anchor 14502/95502 10 261/-
Riyo R-018 10 180/-
Fine(Modular) 182 10 425/-

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2-Pin Plug

3-Pin Triangular Plug

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Plugs
An AC power plug is a portable electrical
connector which consists at the minimum of two metal contact prongs
designed to make contact with matching points connected to a power
supply, usually contained in a protected electrical outlet. Except for the
actual metal contacts, an AC power plug is protected by an insulated
grip that's designed for ease of insertion into, or extraction from, a
power outlet. Power is transmitted from the plug to the device by means
of an insulated cable.
AC power plugs, and the outlets they plug
into, conform to the electrical codes of the nation they're located in,
which vary greatly from one nation to another, and considerable debate
exists as to the efficacy of each. They all have at least two prongs one,
called “live” or “hot,” and a second prong, usually called “neutral” or
“cold.” Many have a third prong, which conducts current only in the
case of insulation failure in the device. These prongs fit into the slots
on the electrical outlet and make contact with metal elements inside the
outlet that are wired into corresponding components of the electrical
system.
Types of Plugs:
1. 2-Pin 6A / 240V
2. 2-Pin 16A / 240V
3. 3-Pin Triangular pin 6A / 240V
4. 3-Pin Triangular Plug 16A / 240V

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COMPARISON OF VARIOUS TYPE OF PLUGS

S No. ITEMS HAVELLS LEGEND FINE


2-Pin Plug
1. 45.00 23.00 22.50
6A / 240V / 50Hz.
2-Pin Plug
2. 55.00 27.00 28.00
16A / 240V / 50Hz.
3-Pin Plug
3. 60.00 31.00 31.00
6A / 240V / 50Hz.
3-Pin Plug
4. 80.00 46.00 56.00
16A / 240V / 50Hz

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Lamp Holder

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Lamp Holder

Light bulbs are inserted in Light Bulb


Sockets usually known as Lamp Holders, which provide electrical
connections to the bulb and support it in the lighting fixture. At the end
of life of bulb, to change power, colour, lighting technology etc., the
use of lamp holders allows the lamps to be change safely and
conveniently. There are many different standards for these sockets,
created by de facto and by various standards bodies. A general coding
system is a letter or abbreviation followed by a number. Some
miniature lamps have wire leads suitable for direct connection to wires;
some reflector lamps have screw terminals for wire connections.
The function of Lamp Holder is to support Lamp and to
connect it electrically to the supply terminals. Generally, lamp holders
are made of Bakelite with solid Brass plungers, which touch with the
cap of lamp that is made of Brass with Porcelain insulation between
two Brass plungers. Brass holders are most durable but may give a
shock in case the connections are loose. The switch controls the lamp
holders. These are of different type or sizes of lamps are available in
circuits for the connection of different type of lamp we use different
type of lamp holders.

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Batten Lamp Holder

Angled Lamp Holder

Pendant Lamp Holder

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TYPES OF LAMP HOLDERS

I. Batten Holders: There are variety of batten type lamp holders in


the market such as:-
A. Straight Batten Lamp Holder Fitted With A ‘Short Shied’:
This shield provides protection against touching of lamp cap.
The batten holder has no back plate and hence it cannot be
mounted directly on a surface without use of a box or base.
Batten Lamp Holders may have two or three terminals present.
B. Angle Lamp Holder: These type of lamp holders available in
short and long shield. The long shield provides better
protection against touching of lamp. They have limited use in
a modern installation.
II. Pendant Lamp Holder: This type of lamp holder is used where
pendant or hanging type lightning is required. Electrical structure
or same function as compared to other lamp holder but
mechanically, there is a change as compared to other lamp
holders. At a time, there is only one lamp can placed or fit in it.
Ratings of Lamps Inserted In It:
1. 100W, 200W, 40W Lamp / 220V / 50 Hz
2. 15 W, 18 W, 40 W CFL / 220 V / 50 Hz

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COMPARISON OF VAROIUS TYPE OF LAMP HOLDER

S No. ITEMS HAVELLS LEGEND SSK


1. Batten Lamp Holder 50.00 20.00 25.00
2. Jumbo Batten Lamp Holder 60.00 35.00 35.00
3. Angle Lamp Holder 60.00 20.00 30.00
4. Pendent Lamp Holder 45.00 25.00 25.00

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4-Steps Fan Regulator

5-Steps Fan Regulator

Lamp Dimmer

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Support Modules
In our daily life, we use another support
modules in the switch boards like fan regulator, Lamp Dimmer,
Telephone jack, TV outlet and LAN outlet.
Various Support Modules:
I. Fan Regulator: In order to control or regulate the speed of the
Fan, Fan Regulator is used. There are many type of fan regulators
are available in the market like Electronic Fan Regulator is most
widely used today. By using them, we can control the speed of fan
in steps. Its size is almost equal to other domestic auxiliaries like
switch or simple electrical socket.
II. Lamp Dimmer: Dimmers are devices used to vary the brightness
of a light. By decreasing or increasing the RMS voltage and,
hence, the mean power to the lamp, it is possible to vary the
intensity of the light output. Although variable-voltage devices are
used for various purposes, the term dimmer is generally reserved
for those intended to control light output from resistive
incandescent, halogen, and (more recently) compact fluorescent
lights (CFLs) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). More specialized
equipment is needed to dim fluorescent, mercury vapor, solid state
and other arc lighting.
Dimmers range in size from small units the
size of a light switch used for domestic lighting to high power
units used in large theatre or architectural lighting installations.
Small domestic dimmers are generally directly controlled,
although remote control systems (such as X10) are available.
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TV Outlet

Telephone Jack

Lamp Indicator

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Modern professional dimmers are generally controlled by a digital
control system like DMX or DALI. In newer systems, these
protocols are often used in conjunction with Ethernet.
III. TV Outlet: This provides the accommodation for the aerial
connection. This is installed in the switchboard. In case of
concealed conduit wiring, this type of outlet cannot project out of
the surface. On this outlet, one end of the flexible cable is
connected. Whereas the other end of that wire is connected to the
TV.
IV. Telephone Jack: It is another outlet which is installed in switch
board in order to provide the connection to Telephone. Normally
RJ-45 jack is used for this purpose. Its size is almost equal to the
single or two way switches. One or more points are available in a
single jack.
V. Indicator: The purpose of the indicator is to show the presence of
electricity. Mostly Red color indicator is used. Depending upon
the quality and type of light used, its price may vary. This
indicator is mostly turn ON at all the times, so it should be such
that it consume less power.
VI. Cover Plates: Whether looking for classic western look. Cover
Plates covers the whole sets of switches and sockets. These plates
provides extra ordinary look to your house. These plates are made
of insulating material mostly P.V.C (Poly Vinyl Chloride) is used.
They do not have any electrical connection with wiring they just
provide pleasant look. Different manufactures made different
types of cover plates. According to the no. of switches and
sockets, these are made of different types and sizes.

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One Module Cover Plates

Two Module Cover Plates

Three Module Cover Plates

Four Module Cover Plates

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Different Types of Cover Plates:
a) One-Module: In the domestic wiring where one switch is used,
this cover plate is used. For different types or sizes of switches
depend upon their manufacturer’s plates are made of different
sizes.
b) Two-Module: In the domestic wiring where two switch is
used, this cover plate is used. For different types or sizes of
switches depend upon their manufacturer’s plates are made of
different sizes.
c) Three-Module: In the domestic wiring where three switch is
used, this cover plate is used. For different types or sizes of
switches depend upon their manufacturer’s plates are made of
different sizes.
d) Four-Module: In the domestic wiring where four switch is
used, this cover plate is used. For different types or sizes of
switches depend upon their manufacturer’s plates are made of
different sizes.
e) Six-Module: In the domestic wiring where six switch is used,
this cover plate is used. For different types or sizes of switches
depend upon their manufacturer’s plates are made of different
sizes.
f) Eight-Module: In the domestic wiring where eight switch is
used, this cover plate is used. For different types or sizes of
switches depend upon their manufacturer’s plates are made of
different sizes.
g) Twelve-Module: In the domestic wiring where twelve switch
is used, this cover plate is used. For different types or sizes of
switches depend upon their manufacturer’s plates are made of
different sizes.

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h) Multi-Module: In the domestic wiring where many or no. of
switch is used, this cover plate is used. These points may be
consist of switches, sockets for indicator etc. because in
domestic wiring, according to the requirements no. of points
are different at different places, so to overcome this problem
we use multi-module cover plate. Multi-Module are of
different sizes or shape.

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COMPARISON OF VAROIUS TYPES OF SUPPORT MODULES

S. No. Company Name Code Standard Pkg. Price(Rs.)/Unit


TV Socket
Havells AHOKTOW061 20 148/-
1. Anchor 14607/95607 10 39/-
Riyo R-014 20 50/-
Fine(Goldline) 817 20 87/-

Indicator Lamp
Havells AHOIXIW061 20 95/-
2. Anchor 14601/95601 20 34/-
Riyo P-006 20 45/-
Fine(Goldline) 822 20 58/-

Lamp Dimmer
Havells AHODEXW040 10 590/-
3.
Anchor 14504/95504 10 205/-
Riyo R-016 10 125/-

RJ-45 Jack
Havells AHOKJWW451 20 650/-
4.
Riyo M-015A 10 230/-
Fine(Goldline) 820 20 375/-

RJ-11 Telephone Jack


Havells AHOKROW061 20 148/-
5. Anchor 14603/95603 20 75/-
Riyo R-015 20 58/-
Fine(Goldline) 819 20 60/-

Cover Plates
S.NO. Items Havells Gold Medal Fine
1. One-Module 78 58 48
2. Two-Module 82 58 48
3. Three-Module 92 69 62
4. Four-Module 125 8 74
5. Six-Module 155 108 128
6. Eight-Module 188 137 185
7. Twelve-Module 225 172 213
8. Multi-Module 285 222 226

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House Wiring

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House Wiring
Electrical wiring is generally refers to
insulated conductor used to carry current and associated device. This
article describes general aspects of electrical wiring as used to provide
power in buildings and structures, commonly referred to as building
wiring.
Types of wiring according to uses
1. Domestic wiring
2. Commercial wiring
3. Industrial wiring

FACTOR AFFECTING THE CHOICE OF WIRING


1. Durability: Type of wiring selected should conform to standard
specifications, so that it is durable i.e. without being affected by the
weather conditions, fumes etc.
2. Safety: The wiring must provide safety against leakage, shock and
fire hazards for the operating personnel.
3. Appearance: Electrical wiring should give an aesthetic appeal to
the interiors.
4. Cost: It should not be prohibitively expensive.
5. Accessibility: The switches and plug points provided should be
easily accessible. There must be provision for further extension of
the wiring system, if necessary.
6. Maintenance Cost: The maintenance cost should be a minimum.
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Types of Wiring System
 Cleat Wiring System
 CTS wiring or TRS wiring or batten wiring System
 Metal or lead sheathed wiring System
 Casing and capping System
 Conduit wiring System

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Cleat Wiring System

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Cleat Wiring System
This System uses insulated Cables sub-
protected in porcelain cleats. CLEAT WIRING SYSTEM is
recommended for temporary installations. The cleats are made in pairs
having bottom and top halves. The bottom half is groove to receive the
wire and the top half is for cable grip. Initially the bottom and top cleats
are fixed on the wall loosely according to the layout. Then the cable is
drawn, tensioned and the screw tightens the cleats. Cleats are of three
types, having one, two, or three grooves, to receive one, two, or three
wires.
CLEAT WIRING SYSTEM is one of the
cheapest wiring considering the initial cost and labour, and is most
suitable for temporary wiring. In this system, wires can be quickly
install, easily inspected, and altered. When not required, this wiring
system can be easily dismantle without any damage to the cables,
cleats, and accessories.
All cleats are consist of two parts a base piece
and a cap. Cleats are might be fixed at the distance not more than 60
cm apart and at regular intervals.
Where CLEAT WIRING SYSTEM is laid
along the iron joist, porcelain cleats either be inserted with varnished
wood fillets or varnished wood clamps securely fixed to prevent the
conductors from coming in contact with the metal along witch they are
passing.

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Fixing of Cleats: In ordinary cases, cleats are might be attached to
wooden plugs fixed to the walls.
Distance Apart of Wires: For pressure up to 250 volts, cleats shall be
of such dimensions that in the case of branch loads, conductors shall
not be less than 2.5 cm apart, centre to centre, and in the case of sub-
mains not less than 4 cm apart, centre to centre. Care must be taken in
selecting the size of cleats particularly for branch distribution wiring
where two-way and three-way porcelain cleats are essential and the
difference in size shall be reasonable. Care should also be taken ensure
that grooves f porcelain cleats are essential and the difference in size
shall be reasonable. Care should also be taken ensure that grooves of
porcelain cleats do not compress the insulation nor be too wide for a
loose fit. Under no circumstances, two wires can be place in one groove
of the porcelain cleats.

Advantages
1) Easy installation.
2) Materials can be retrieve for reuse.
3) Flexibility provided for inspection, modifications, and expansion.
4) Relatively economical.
5) Skilled labour is not required.

Disadvantages
1) Appearance is not good.
2) Open system of wiring requiring regular cleaning.
3) Higher risk of mechanical injury.

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CTS Wiring System

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CTS Wiring System
In this wiring system, wires were sheathed in
tough rubber are used which are quite flexible. They are clip on wooden
battens with brass clips (link or joint) and fixed on to the walls or
ceilings by flat head screws. These cables are moisture and chemical
proof. They are suitable for damp climate but not suitable for outdoor
use in sunlight. TRS WIRING SYSTEM is suitable for lighting in low
voltage installations.
Advantages
1. Easy installation and is durable
2. Lower risk of short circuit.
3. Cheaper than casing and capping system of wiring
4. Gives a good appearance if properly erected.

Disadvantages
1. Danger of mechanical injury.
2. Danger of fire hazard.
3. Should not be expose to direct sunlight.
4. Skilled workers are required.

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Metal or Lead Sheathed wiring System

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Metal or Lead Sheathed Wiring System

This wiring system is similar to that of CTS


WIRING SYSTEM but the conductors (two or three) are individually
covered or insulated with a common outer lead-aluminium alloy
sheath. The sheath protects the cable against dampness, atmospheric
extremities, and mechanical damages. The sheath is earthed at every
junction to provide a path to ground for the leakage current. They are
fix by means of metal clips on wooden battens. The wiring system is
very expensive. It is suitable for low voltage installations.

Precautions To Be Taken During Installation:


1. The clips used to fix the cables on battens should not react with the
sheath.
2. Lead sheath should be properly earthed to prevent shocks due to
leakage currents.
3. Cables should not be run in damp places and in areas where
chemicals (may react with the lead) are used.

Advantages
1. Easy installation and is aesthetic in appearance.
2. Highly durable.
3. Suitable in adverse climatic conditions provided the joints are not
exposed.
Disadvantages
1. Requires skilled labour.
2. Very expensive.
3. Unsuitable for chemical industries.
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Casing and Capping System

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Casing and Capping System

This wiring system consists of insulated


conductors laid inside rectangular, teakwood or PVC boxes having
grooves inside it. A rectangular strip of wood called capping having
same width as that of casing is fixed over it. Both the CASING and the
CAPPING are screwed together at every 15 cm. Casing is attached to
the wall. Two or more wires of same polarity are drawn through
different grooves. The system is suitable for indoor and domestic
installations.
Advantages
1. Cheaper than lead sheathed and conduit wiring.
2. Provides good isolation, as the conductors are place apart reducing
the risk of short circuit.
3. Easily accessible for inspection and repairs.
4. Since the wires are not expose to atmosphere, insulation is less
affected by dust, dirt, and climatic variations.

Disadvantages
1. Highly inflammable.
2. Termites damage usage of unseasoned wood.
3. Skilled workmanship required.

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Conduit Wiring System

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Conduit Wiring System

In this system, PVC (polyvinyl chloride) or


VIR cables are passes through metallic or PVC pipes providing good
protection against mechanical injury and fire due to short circuit. They
are either embedded inside the walls or supported over the walls, and
are known as concealed wiring or surface conduit wiring (open
conduit) respectively. The conduits are buried inside the walls on
wooden gutties and the wires are drawn through them with fish (steel)
wires. The system is best suited for public buildings, industries, and
workshops.
Advantages
1. No risk of fire and good protection against mechanical injury.
2. The lead and return wires can be carry in the same tube.
3. Earthing and continuity is assured.
4. Waterproof and trouble shooting is easy.
5. Shock- proof with proper earthing and bonding
6. Durable and maintenance free
7. Aesthetic in appearance

Disadvantages
1. Very expensive system of wiring.
2. Requires good skilled workmanship.
3. Erection is quiet complicated and is time consuming.
4. Risk of short circuit under wet conditions (due to condensation of
water in tubes).

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Wires Used in House Wiring

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Specification of Wires
The conductor material, insulation, size and
the number of cores, specifies the electrical wires. These are important
parameters as they determine the current and voltage handling
capability of the wires. The conductors are usually of either copper or
aluminium. Various insulating materials like PVC, TRS, and VIR are
used. The wires may be of single strand or multi strand. Wires with
combination of different diameters and the number of cores or strands
are available.
Example: The VIR conductors are specifies as 1/20, 3/22, 7/20.
The numerator indicates the number of
strands while the denominator corresponds to the diameter of the wire
in SWG (Standard Wire Gauge). SWG 20 corresponds to a wire of
diameter 0.914mm, while SWG 22 corresponds to a wire of diameter
0.737 mm. A 7/0 wire means, it is a 7-cored wire of diameter 12.7mm
(0.5 inch). The selection of the wire is depending on the requirement
considering factors like current and voltage ratings, cost and
application.
Example: Application: domestic wiring
1. Lighting - 3/20 copper wire
2. Heating - 7/20 copper wire
The enamel coating (on the individual
strands) mutually insulates the strands and the overall wire is provided
with PVC insulation. The current carrying capacity depends on the total
area of the wire. If cost is the criteria then aluminium conductors are
preferred. In that case, for the same current rating much larger diameter
of wire is used.

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References

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Visiting Shops

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Websites

1. http://www.fineswitches.com
2. http://www.fineproducts.com
3. http://www.havells.com
4. http://www.anchor-world.com
5. http://www.girishproducts.com
6. http://www.philips.com
7. http://www.ssk.com
8. http://www.ppiindia.net

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