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Document No : UniKL MFI_SD_AC41(a)

CONFIDENTIAL
Revision No: 03
Effective Date: 01 March 2016
SET A

UNIVERSITI KUALA LUMPUR


MALAYSIA FRANCE INSTITUTE

FINAL EXAMINATION
JULY 2017 SEMESTER

COURSE CODE : NCB 20203

COURSE NAME : STATISTICS FOR ENGINEERS

PROGRAMME NAME : BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING WITH HONOURS


(MECHANICAL)

DATE : 06 JANUARY 2018

TIME : 02.30 PM – 05.30 PM

DURATION : 3 HOURS

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

1. Please read the instructions given in the question paper CAREFULLY.

2. This question paper is printed on both sides of the paper.

3. Please write your answers on the answer booklet provided.

4. Answer ALL questions.

5. Answer all questions in English.

THERE ARE 8 PAGES OF THIS QUESTIONS PAPER, INCLUDING THIS PAGE.


JULY 2017 CONFIDENTIAL

INSTRUCTION: Answer ALL questions.


Please use the answer booklet provided.

Question 1

(a) The life in hours of a thermocouple used in a furnace is known to be approximately normally
distributed, with sample standard deviation s  20 hours. A random sample of 15 thermocouples
resulted in the following data:

553, 552, 567, 579, 550, 541, 537, 553, 552, 546, 538, 553, 581, 539, 529

i. Calculate the sample mean of thermocouple lifetime.


[2 marks]
ii. Construct a 95% confidence interval on the mean life of thermocouple.
[4 marks]
iii. Test at 5% level of significance to support the claim that mean life of thermocouple
exceeds 540 hours.
[8 marks]

(b) A microbiologist wishes to determine whether there is any difference in the time it takes to make
yoghurt from two different starter; lactobacillus acidophilus (A) and bulgarius (B). Seven batches
of yoghurt were made with each of starters. Table 1 below shows the time taken, in hours, to
make each batch.
Table 1: The time takes to make yoghurt
Starter A 6.8 6.3 7.4 6.1 8.2 7.3 6.9
Starter B 6.1 6.4 5.7 5.5 6.9 6.3 6.7

Assuming that both sets of times may be considered to be random samples from normal
populations with same variance.
i. Test the hypothesis that the mean time taken to make yoghurt is the same for both
starters.
[8 marks]
ii. Calculate a 99% confidence interval for the difference mean of the time taken for two
starters.
[3 Marks]

NCB20203 STATISTICS FOR ENGINEERS Page 2 of 8


Document No : UniKL MFI_SD_AC41(b)
Revision No: 03
Effective Date: 01 March 2016
JULY 2017 CONFIDENTIAL

Question 2

(a) A name brand household washing machine is sold in five different colors, and a market
researcher wishes to study the popularity of the various colors. The frequencies given in the
Table 2 are observed from a random sample of 300 recent sales. Test the hypothesis that all
five colors are equally popular at 5% significance level.
Table 2: Frequencies of sales.
Colors avocado tan red blue white
Frequencies 88 65 52 40 55

[9 marks]

(b) i. Describe two (2) assumptions for use of analysis of variance (ANOVA)
[4 marks]

ii. Table 3 shows an experiment conducted by Sheldon (1960, Industrial and Engineering
Chemistry) which was performed at a pulp mill. The performance of a paper manufacturing
can be assessed based on the pulp brightness as measured by a reflectance meter. Each
of 4 operators (A, B, C and D) made 5 batches of pulp and the reflectance of paper from
each batch was measured. The goal of the experiment was to see if there was any
difference between the papers resulting from pulp made by each operator.
Table 3: The pulp brightness
Operators
A B C D
59.8 59.8 60.7 61.0
60.0 60.2 60.7 60.8
Brightness 60.8 60.4 60.5 60.6
60.8 59.9 60.9 60.5
59.8 60.0 60.3 60.5
Total 301.2 300.3 303.1 303.4

 x 2
ij 72966.240

Using a 5% significance level, test the hypothesis if the mean reflectance equal for paper
coming from each different operator.
[12 marks]

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Document No : UniKL MFI_SD_AC41(b)
Revision No: 03
Effective Date: 01 March 2016
JULY 2017 CONFIDENTIAL

Question 3

It is believed that the annual repair cost, y for a car is related to its age, x . A sample of 10 cars revealed
the results in the Table 4.

Table 4: The repair cost

Age (year) 2 3 1 7 6 8 4 1 2 5
Repair cost (RM) 72 99 65 138 170 140 114 83 101 110

Given:  xy  4903

(a) Sketch a scatter diagram and determine the type of relationship between the repair cost and the
age of the car.
[4 marks]

(b) Determine the simple regression model.


[12 marks]

(c) Interpret the slope, β̂1 , in regression coefficients.


[2 marks]

(d) Estimate the mean of repairing cost if the a is 4.5 year.


[2 marks]

(e) Determine the correlation coefficient, r .


[3 marks]

(f) Interpret the value of r in part (b).


[2 marks]

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Document No : UniKL MFI_SD_AC41(b)
Revision No: 03
Effective Date: 01 March 2016
JULY 2017 CONFIDENTIAL

Question 4

(a) The effective life (in hours) of batteries is compared by material type (1, 2 or 3) and operating
temperature: Low (5˚C), Medium (20˚C) or High (45˚C). Twelve batteries are randomly selected
from each material type and are then randomly allocated to each temperature level. Figure 1
shows the MINITAB output obtained from data that have been collected:

Two-way ANOVA: life versus temperature, material

Source DF SS MS F P
temperature 2 9578.0 B 3.61 0.127
material A 2228.7 1114.33 0.84 0.496
Error 4 C 1327.33
Total 8 17116.0

S = 36.43 R-Sq = 68.98% R-Sq(adj) = 37.96%

Figure 1

i. List the factors in this experiment.


[2 marks]

ii. Determine the values of A, B and C.


[6 marks]

iii. Determine whether there is any difference in mean life of the batteries for different
temperature at 5% significance level.
[5 marks]

(b) An engineer is interested in the effect of cutting speed, metal hardness and cutting angle on the
life (in hours) of a cutting tool. Two levels of each factor are chosen, and two replicates of a 23
factorial design are run. The Minitab output is shown in Figure 2:

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Document No : UniKL MFI_SD_AC41(b)
Revision No: 03
Effective Date: 01 March 2016
JULY 2017 CONFIDENTIAL

Term Effect Coef SE Coef T P


Constant 412.31 12.38 33.31 0.000
Speed 19.87 9.94 12.38 0.80 0.445
Hardness 85.88 42.94 12.38 3.47 0.008
Angle 70.13 35.06 12.38 2.83 0.022
Speed*Hardness -12.88 -6.44 12.38 -0.52 0.617
Speed*Angle -117.63 -58.81 12.38 -4.75 0.001
Hardness*Angle -22.63 -11.31 12.38 -0.91 0.388
Speed*Hardness*Angle -36.38 -18.19 12.38 -1.47 0.180

S = 49.5170 R-Sq = 85.33% R-Sq(adj) = 72.49%

Source DF Seq SS Adj SS Adj MS F P


Main Effects 3 50748 50748 16916 6.90 0.013
2-Way Interactions 3 58053 58053 19351 7.89 0.009
3-Way Interactions 1 5293 5293 5293 2.16 0.180
Residual Error 8 19615 19615 2452
Pure Error 8 19616 19616 2452
Total 15 133709

Main Effects Plot (data means) for life Interaction Plot (data means) for life
-1 1 -1 1
Speed Hardness
460 500
Speed
-1
440
1
420 400
Speed

400
300
380
Mean of life

500
Hardness
-1
-1 1 -1 1 1
400
Angle H ar dness
460

440
300
420
400
A ngle
380

-1 1

Figure 2

i. State the statistical model without the interaction term.


[2 marks]

ii. Determine the coefficient of determination, R 2 and interpret the value.


[3 marks]

iii. Determine which main effects, if any, are significant at 5% significance level.
[2 marks]

iv. Test the interactions effect between cutting speed and angle using 1% significance level.
[5 marks]

END OF EXAMINATION PAPER

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Document No : UniKL MFI_SD_AC41(b)
Revision No: 03
Effective Date: 01 March 2016
JULY 2017 CONFIDENTIAL
APPENDIX

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Document No : UniKL MFI_SD_AC41(b)
Revision No: 03
Effective Date: 01 March 2016
JULY 2017 CONFIDENTIAL

APPENDIX

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Document No : UniKL MFI_SD_AC41(b)
Revision No: 03
Effective Date: 01 March 2016