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Termodinamika

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- APCD Series Air Cooled Packaged Chillers
- Compressor Efficiency
- Thermodynamics 1
- Conduction
- Mech452 Outline
- Heat Exchangers
- Mechanical Engineering Sample Paper
- A Simulation for Predicting the Refrigerant Flow Characteristics
- Mould Cooling System
- Exchanger
- Esite-V-500
- Dsd
- 5_bab5_dasar Sistem Hidrolik Dan Pneumatik _ok
- Numerical Study of Convective Heat Transfer of Nanofluids a Review
- Appendix 7
- 4 3 Lmtd With Tutorial
- PDF 00004
- Compressor
- 3 - Natural Gas Transportation
- EWYQ-CWN CWP Product Flyer ECPEN17-444 English

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Example 1.1

The pressure inside a boiler is p p = 115.105 Pa and pv = 9.44.104 Pa inside a condenser. Calculate the absolute pressure inside the boiler

and condenser if the barometric pressure pb = 0.098 MPa. Find the vacuum in the condenser in % !

Solution:

a) The absolute pressure inside the boiler pa boil = pb + pp = 0.098 + 11.5 = 11.598 MPa

The absolute pressure in the condenser pa cond = pb - pv = 0.098 - 0.0944 = 0.0036 MPa

Example 1.2

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21/10/2017 Problem Set

A pressure vessel of a volume of 0.1 m3 contains 1.25 kg of oxygen. What is the density and specific volume?

Solution:

air density

Example 2.1

Calculate the densitz and specific volume of carbon dioxide CO2 under normal physical conditions.

Solution :

r=?;v=?

;

The gas constant for CO2 r = 188,97 J/(kg.K); absolute temperature T = t + 273.15 = 273.15 K

Then

Density

Example 2.2

A pressure vessel contains nitrogen at a temperature of t = 20 °C and pressure p = 2.2 MPa. The maximum allowed overpressure is 6

MPa. What is the maximum temperature that the nitrogen can be heated to if the barometric pressure is pb = 0,1 MPa?

Solution:

3. Ideal-gas mixtures

Example 3.1

1 kg of dry air comprises 23.2 mass % oxygen and 76.8 % nitrogen. Find the volume fractions of air (i.e. the individual volumes), the gas

constant, the mean virtual molar mass and the partial pressures of oxygen and nitrogen if the air pressure is p = 0.1013 MPa.

Solution:

wO2= 0.232; wN2 = 0.768; p = 0.1013 MPa ; xO2 = ?; xN2 = ?; r = ?; M = ?; pO2 = ?; pN2 = ?

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21/10/2017 Problem Set

Volume composition of air

for air

or

The partiál pressure of oxygen is po2 = xO2 p = 0.209. 0.1013 = 0.02118 MPa

The partiál pressure of nitrogen is pN2 = xN2 p = 0.791. 0.1013 = 0.08012 MPa

4. I. LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS

Example 4.1

A steel component weighing 0.2 kg heated inside a furnace is then inserted inside a calorimeter containing 0.5 kg of water at a

temperature of t = 20 °C. After stabilisation, the temperature inside the calometer is 75 °C. Calculate the temperature of the component

before it was inserted into the calorimeter. The specific heat capacitz of steel is c = 0.469 kJ/(kg.K).

Solution:

mFe = 0.2 kg; mH2O = 0.5 kg; t1H2O =20 °C ; t2H2O = 75 °C; cFe = 0.469 kJ/(kg.K)

QH2O =mH2O . cH2O (t2H2O - t1H2O) = 0.5 . 4186.8 (75 - 20) = 115.103 J

we can calculate

Example 5.1

A closed container contains 0.6 m3 of air with a pressure of p1 = 4.9.105 Pa and temperature t1 = 20 °C. What is the pressure and

temperature after losing 104.5 kJ of heat (i.e. cooling)?

Solution:

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21/10/2017 Problem Set

In an isochoric process ; where p2and T2 are the sought values. Here, it is necessary to use the First Law of Thermodynamics

for an isochoric process

kde is the mass of air

Pressure

Example 5.2

How much heat must be received by 0.5 kg of oxygen at a pressure of p1 = 2.94.10 5 Pa and temperature t1 = 35 °C in order to carry out

work A12 = 27 900 J under a constant pressure, and what will the final volume and temperature be?

Solution:

, where

In ab isobaric process

Q12 = m.cp (t2 - t1) = 0.5 . 0.917.103 (238 - 35) = 0.931.103 J = 0.931 kJ

Example 5.3

490 kJ of heat is rejected in an isothermic compression of 0.3 m3 of air with a pressure of p1 = 106 Pa and temperature t = 300 °C.

Calculate the final volume and pressure!

Solution :

V1 = 0.3 m3; p1 = 106 Pa; t = 300 °C; Q12 = -490 kJ; V2 = ? ; p2= ?

we get

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21/10/2017 Problem Set

Example 5.4

1 kg of air with an initial temperature of t1 = 30 °C and pressure p1 = 0.0981.106 Pa is adiabatically compressed to p2 = 0.981.l06Pa.

Deterermine the final volume, the final temperature and volume work done on this system (k = l.4 ).

Solution :

From the temperature and pressure ratio in an adiabatic process we get the final temeprature

Example 5.5

1.5 kg of air is polytropically compressed from p1= 0.088.106 Pa and t1 = 18 °C to p2 = 0.981.106 Pa and t2 = 125 °C. What is the

polytropic, final volume the work done on the system the heat lost and the change in internal energy..

Solution :

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21/10/2017 Problem Set

Example 5.6

Air at a temperature of 127 °C is compressed isothermically to a quarter of the initial volume and then adiabatically expands to its original

pressure. Calculate the temperature of the air after the adiabatic expansion!

Solution:

The temperature

Example 6.1

1 kg of oxygen at a pressure p1 = 4.9.105 Pa and temperature t1 = 127 °C expands isobarically to double its initial volume, then is

compressed isothermically to p2 = 39.2.105 Pa. Calculate the change in entropy of the oxygen!

Solution:

Ds12 = c p1n (T2/T1) = cp1n (v2/v1) = cp 1n (2.v1/v1) = 0,917.1031n 2 = 0,917.103.0,6931 = 0,6353. 103 J/(kg.K)

Ds(23) = q2,3/ T2,3 , kde T2,3 = T1.( v2/v1) = 400 (2.v1/v1) = 800 K

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The total change in entropy Ds(13) = Ds(12) + Ds(23) = (0.6353 - 0.52 ).103 = 0.1153.103 J/(kg.K)

Example 6.2

1.5 kg of air is compressed polytropically from pressure p1 = 0.88.105 Pa and tempreature t1= 18 °C to pressure p2 = 9.81.105 Pa and

temperature t2.= 125 °C. Find the entropy change!

solution:

(Note: The exponent of this polytropic process was determined in Exercise 5.47)

Example 6.3

Inside a recuperation exchanger with a gas turbine the air is heated by the exhaust gases from temperature t1 = 140 °C to t2 = 270 °C. The

gases are cooled from temperature t3 = 340 °C to temperature t4 = 210 °C. The gas is considered ideal having the properties of air. The

temperature of the ambient to = 20 °C. There is no heat loss. Calculate the exergy loss!

Solution:

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7. Carnot cycle

Example 7.1

1 kg of air is executing the Carnot cycle between the temperatures tH= 327 °C and tC = 27 °C. The highest temperature is 2.106 Pa; the

lowest is 1.2.105 Pa. Calculate the work, thermal efficiancy, the received and rejected heat and the exergic efficiency if the ambient

temperatrure is to= 20 °C !

Soluition :

tH = tmax = 327 °C; tC = tmin = 27 °C , pmax =2.106 Pa, pmin = 1,2.105 Pa ; ao = ? ; ht = ?; qH = ? /qC/ = ? ; hE = ?

the cycle

The exergetic efficiency is given by the ratio of the actually exerted and maximum work

8. Cycle of IC-engine

Example 8.1

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21/10/2017 Problem Set

The working gas in internal combustion engines with a combined input of heat is air. If the pressure p1 = 0.0981.106 Pa, temperature t1 =

30 °C, compression ratio e = 7, pressure ratio Y = 2, cutoff ratio j = 1.2, calculate the state values in the characteristic points of the cycle,

the input heat, the work done by the system and the thermal efficiency of the cycle. The specific heat capacity is constant.

Solution:

Quantities

Point 1

Point 2

Temperature

Point 3

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Temperature

Point 4

Pressure p4 = p 3 = 2.982.106 Pa

Point 5

Pressure

Temperature

Heat received

Heat lost

Cycle work

9. Compressor

Example 9.1

A twostage compressor sucks in air at a temperature of t1 = 20 °C and a pressure of 0.0981 MPa and compresses it to a pressure of p´2 = 6

MPa. Calculate the power of the engine necessary for driving the compressor and the amount of cooling water for both stages of the

compressor and also for the intercooler if the ratio of the output and input pressures is the same for both stages and the mechanical

efficiency of each stage is 0.7. The temperature of the water increases by 15 K. Compression in both stages is polytropic with an exponent

n = 1.3. The power of the compressor is V = 0.14 m3 /s.

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21/10/2017 Problem Set

Solution :

t1 = 20 °C; p1 = 0.0981 MPa, p2 = 6 MPa, hk = 0,7, Dt H2O = 15 K; n =1.3; V = 0.14 m3/s ; PNT = ?, PVT = ?, m NT = ?, m VT = ?,

mMCH = ?

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21/10/2017 Problem Set

The power necessary for compression of the air in the low-pressure stage is

The amount of cooling water for the low-pressure (high-pressure) stage of the compressor is

The total amount of cooling water that is necessary is mH2O = m H2O NT + mH2O VT + m H2O MCH = 0.11045 + 0.11045 + 0.4655 =

0.6844 kg/s

Example 10.1

A pressure vessel contains oxygen at a pressure of p1 = 5 MPa. The gas leaves through a nozzle into the ambient with a pressure of p2 = 4

MPa. The initial temperature of the oxygen is 100 °C. Calculate the theoreatical speed upon exit and the mass flow rate (kg/s), if the area

of the end of the nozzle is S = 20.10-6 m2 . Find the speed and mass flow rate of the oxygen upon exit in to the ambient which has a

pressure of p´2 = 0.098 MPa.

Solution:

p1 = 5 MPa; p2 = 4 MPa , t1 = 100 °C, S = 20.10-6 m,2 p´2 = 0.098 MPa, w2 = ?, m = ? w2´ = ?, m´ = ?

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21/10/2017 Problem Set

Mass flow

Mass flow

Example 11.1

Calculate the thermal efficiency of a cycle of a gas turbine with a compression ration of 10, which has a heat input at a constant pressure,

k = 1.4.

Solution:

e = 10; k = 1.4 ; ht = ?

Example 12.1

Calculate the state of water vapour with a pressure of p = 0.59 MPa and a temperature t = 190 °C.

Solution :

From the table for saturated water H20 it is possible to determine the temperature of the saturated vapour with a pressure of 0.59 MPa,

t23 = 158.14 °C < t = 190 °C.

This is a case of superheated vapour and, using the table for superheated water vapour (i.e. the i-s diagram), it is possible to find the

specific volume v, the enthalpy i and entropy s of the vapour for the pressure p and temperature t.

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21/10/2017 Problem Set

Example 12.2

What is the heat received by 1 kg of water vapour with a constant pressure of p = 1.47 MPa if the vapour quality increases from x1 = 0.8

to x 2 = 0.96 ?

Solution:

For pressure p and quality x1 from the i-s diagram: i1 = 2390 kJ/kg . For p and x2: i2 = 2702 kJ/kg. The heat received q = i2 -i1 = 2702 -

2390 = 312 kJ/kg.

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21/10/2017 Problem Set

q12 = (x2 - x1)( i´´- i´) =(x2-x1).l23

Example 12.3

Calculate the heat received by 6 kg of water vapour with a volume of 0.6 m3 at a temperature of p1 = 0.6 MPa, so that the pressure

increases to p2 = 1 MPa at a constant volume. Find also the final quality of vapour.

Solution :

a) Using the tables for water vapour, the specific volume of the vapour is:

From the condition v1 = v2 = v and considering the fact that in the initial and final states (1 and 2) the vapour is wet

v = v´1 + x1 (v ´´ 1 - v´1)

From the table for saturated water we substitute for the values of specific volumes of saturated liquid and vapour

The heat received at a constant volume of 1 kg of vapour is q12 = u2 - u1 = (i2 - p2v2)-(i1 - p1 v1 ) = ( i2 - i1 ) - v.( p2 - p1)

The enthalpy is

q12 = (1792.7 - 1326.5) - 0.1 .106 (1 - 0.6) = 466.2 - 40 = 426.2 103 J/kg

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21/10/2017 Problem Set

b) The calculation using the i-s diagram for water vapour is:

The enthalpy in point 1 for pressure p1 and the specific volume is v is i1 =1325 kJ/kg.

The enthalpy in point 2 for pressure p2 and the specific volume v is i2 = 1795 kJ/kg

The heat received is q12 = (i2 - i1) - v.( p2 -p1) = (1795 - 1325 ) - 0.1.106 . (1 - 0.4) = 470 - 40 = 430.103 J/kg.

Example 12.4

1 kg of water vapour at a pressure of p1 = 3 MPa and temperature t1,2 = 300 °C is compressed to one fifth of the original volume while

maintaining the temperature. Calculate the final state of the vapour, the work done on the szstem (i.e. consumed) and the heat lost.

Illustrate the process in a p-v, T-s and i-s diagram for water vapour.

Solution:

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21/10/2017 Problem Set

v1 = 0.08119 m3/kg

i1 = 2988 kJ/kg

s1 = 6.53 kJ/(kg.K)

Since the volume of saturated vapour t = 300 °C is 0.02164 m3/kg, the final state 2 falls into the area of wet vapour, p2 = 8.592 MPa.

The enthalpy in point 2 i2 = i´2 + x2l23,2 = 1344.9 + 0.7335 . 1404.2 = 2373.9 kJ/kg

The e ntropy in point 2 s2 = s´2 + x2( s´´2 - s´2) = 3.2548 + 0.7335 (5.7049 - 3.2548) = 5.0518 kJ/(kg.K)

The difference in internal energies Du = u2 - u1 = (i2- i1) -(p2v2 - plv1) = (2373.9 - 2988).103-(8.592.0.016238 - 3.0.08119).106 =

-510.4.103 J/kg

The lost heat q12 = T(s2 - s1) = 573 (5.0518 - 6.53)= -847 kJ/kg

b) The calculation using the i-s diagram for water vapour: for p1 and t we get v1 = 0.08 m3/kg , i1= 2990 kJ/kg, s1 = 6.53 kJ/(kg.K), v2 =

v1/5 = 0,08/5 = 0.016 m3/kg

For temperature t and v2 we obtain x2 = 0.73, p2 = 8.6 MPa from the i-s diagram i2 = 2375 kJ/kg, s2 = 5.05 kJ/(kg.K)

The difference in internal energies Du = u2 - u1 = (i2 - i1) - (p2v2 - p1v1) = ( 2375 - 2990).103 - (8.6 . 0.016 - 3 . 0.08).106 = -615.103 +

0.1024.106 = - 512.6.103 J/kg

The lost heat q12 = T(s2 - s1) = 573 (5.05 - 6.53) = - 573 . 1.48 = - 848 kJ/kg

Example 12.5

1 kg of water vapour at a pressure of p1= 0.3 MPa and temperature t1 = 300 °C expands adiabatically to pressure p2 = 0.05 MPa.

Calculate the final parameters of the vapour, the volume work and the enthalpy change. Plot a T-s and i-s diagram.

Solution:

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21/10/2017 Problem Set

For p1, t1 we find i1 = 2988 kJ/kg ; v1 = 0.08119 m3/kg;, s1 = 6.53 kJ/(kg.K) based on the condition for an adiabatic process s2 = s1 and

regarding the fact that s2 < s´´2 at a pressure of p2 (this is actually a case of wet vapour)

The specific volume v2 = v´2+ x2(v´´2 - v´2) = 0.0010299 + 0.836 (3.239 - 0.0010299) = 2.708 m3/kg

The difference in internal energies Du = u2 - u1 = Di - (p2v2 - plv1 ) = -721.8.103 -( 0.05. 2.708 - 3. 0.08119 ).106 = -721.8.103 +

108.17.103 = - 613.63.103 J/kg

Example 12.6

Calculate the temperature at which ice melts under a pair of skates with blades 0.25 m long and 1 mm thick (the weight of the skater is m

= 70 kg) if 1/10 of the surface area of the blades is touching the ice. The specific heat for melting ice is l12 = 334 kJ/kg, the density of the

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21/10/2017 Problem Set

Solution:

L = 0.25 m; d = 1 mm ; m = 70 kg ; K = 0.1 ; l 12= 334 kJ/kg; rL = 0. 9168.103 kg/m3; rV = 1.0002.103 kg/m3 ; t12 = ?

Let T12 = 273 K (i.e. the temperature of melting ice at barometric pressure p) and dT related to it. The elementary change dT and dpare

replaced by

Example 13.1

Calculate the output speed of water vapour and the diameter of the nozzle of a Lavalovy jet, if the output quantity of the water vapour is

m = 216 kg/h at a pressure p1 = 0.588 MPa and the temperature t1 = 220 °C. The output preessure is p2 = 0.049 MPa.

Solution:

For pressure p1 and temperature t1 we calculate the enthalpz i1= 2890 kJ/kg

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21/10/2017 Problem Set

Example 14.1

The cycle of a thermal power station works with additional heating of water vapour. Pressure p1 = 12 MPa, temperature t1 = 530 ˚C,

pressure p´2 = 3500 Pa. The heating is carried out at a pressure of p´1 = 2.3 MPa to a temperature of t´1 = 480 ˚C. Calculate the increase in

the quality of the vapour upon exit from the turbine and the increase in thermal efficiency of the cycle with additional heating compared

to that without.

Solution:

p1 = 12 MPa; t1 = 530 ˚C; p´2 = 3500 Pa, p´ 1 = 2.3 MPa; t´1 = 480 ˚C; Dx = ?; Dht = ?

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21/10/2017 Problem Set

From the i-s diagram for water vapour for states 1, 2, l´, 2´ and 2" we calculate i1 = 3426 kJ/kg ; i2 = 2956 kJ/kg i1' = 3420 k J/kg;

i2' = 2180 kJ/kg; i2" = 1972 kJ/kg and the quality of the vapourx2 = 0,85 ; x2 = 0,763.

The increase in the thermal efficiency Dht = h;t2 - ht1 = 0.453 - 0.439 = 0.014

The increase in the quality of the vapourDx = x2´ - x2´´ = 0,85 - 0,763 = 0,087

15. Refrigerating

Example 15.1

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21/10/2017 Problem Set

An ammonia refrigerating station with a power output of Q = 110 kW works at an evaporation temperature of t1 = -15 °C. Saturated

vapour (see figure below) leaves the evaporator. The condensation temperature t3 = 30 °C, then follows undercooling of the condensate to

temperature t´3 = 25 °C. Calculate the theoretical level of refrigeration of the cycle, the amount of refrigerant NH3 in circulation and the

theoretical power output of the motor necessary for driving the compressor of the station.

Solution:

From the i-log p NH3 diagram - for the given temperatures - we obtain the enthalpies

i2 = 1894 kJ/kg ;

The theoretical power output for driving the compressore is P = m( i2 - i1) = 0.0977 ( 1894 - 1662 ) = 22.66 kW

Example 16.1

1000 kg moist air with a temperature of t1 = 40 °C and relative humidity j1= 0.2 with a pressure of p = 0.098 MPa is moistened with 5 kg

of water with a temperature tw= 20 °C. Calculate the state of the air after moistening.

Solution :

The specific humidity can be determined using the i-x diagram for state 1: x1 = 0.00948 kg/kg s.v.

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21/10/2017 Problem Set

During moistening, the slope of the straight line is equal to the enthalpy of the moistening medium (i.e. water)

iw = 83.7 kJ/kg. For iw and x2 we get for state 2: i2 = 65 kJ/kg s.v. ; t2 =27.9 °C

Example 17.1

Calculate the thickness of a concrete wall with a heat conductivity of l = 1.28 W/(m.K), through which heat flows with a magnitude q =

349 W/m2. The temperatures on the two sides of the wall are t1 = 20 °C, t2 = -20 °C.

Solution :

Example 17.2

The lining inside a boiler comprises two layers (d1 = 0.35 m, l1 = 1.4 W/(m.K), d2 = 0.25 m, l2 = 0.55 W/(m.K)). The temperature of the

inside surface is t1 = 900 °C, the temperature of the outside surface is t3 = 90 °C. Calculate the heat lost and the temperature between the

layers.

Solution:

we get

the first layer

Example 17.3

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21/10/2017 Problem Set

Calculate the heat load q [W/m] and the heat diffusion coefficient k [W/(m.K)], temperatures tS1 , tS2 of the wall of the pipe of the heat

exchanger. The dimensions of the pipe are: d1 = 0.1m, d2 = 0.108 m. The mean temperatures of the media are ti = 350 °C, te = 1500 °C.

The heat transfer coefficients on the inside surface of the pipe are a1 = 300, a2 = 110 W/(m2.K). The heat conductivity coefficient of the

material of the pipe is l = 45 W/(m.K).

Solution:

d1 = 0.1 m ; d2 = 0.108 m ; ti = 350 °C ; t e = 1500 °C , a1= 300 W/(m2 .K), a2 = 110 W/(m2.K) ; l = 45 W/(m.K) ; q = ? ; k = ? ; tS1= ?

tS2= ?

From the heat flow from the ambient 1 to the wall of the

exchanger q = a1 2 p r1 (t1- ti) we get

The temperature is

Example 17.4

Horizontal piping of a diameter of d = 0.057 m is heated by a natural flow of air. The mean temperature of the surface of the piping is ts =

4 °C, the temperature of the surrounding air is to = 36 °C. Calculate the heat transfer coefficient from the air to the wall of the piping.

Solution :

d = 0.057 m ; ts = 4 °C, to = 36 °C , a = ?

Dt = ts - to = 36 - 4 = 32 °C

Grashof's number is

Gr Pr = 8.75.105..0..703 = 6.15.105

This value determines the transition mode, for which C = 0.54 , n = 1/4

Then

Příklad 17.5

Insulated piping covered with a layer of paint passes through a room whose walls have a temperature of 27 °C. The diamater of the piping

is d = 0.1 m, the length of the piping is l = 8 m. Calculate the heat transferred by radiation if the surface temperature is 7 °C. How does

this heat change if the piping passes through a 0.2 x 0.2 m casing whose internal surface is covered by aluminium paint.

Solution:

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21/10/2017 Problem Set

t 1= 27 °C ; d = 0,1 m ; l = 8 m, t 2 = 7 °C ; Q = ? ; Q´= ? - for the 0.2 x 0.2 m casing

The heat radiated is (for e1= 0.39 ) Q = e 1 co S1 [(T1 /100)4 - (T2 /100)4] = 0.39. 5.7.p.0.1 . [ ( 300 / 100 )4-( 280/100 )4 ] = 112 W

where

Example 17.6

Inside a heat exchanger, black oil is cooled from t1 = 300 °C to t2 = 200 °C and crude oil is simultaneously heated from t´1 = 25 °C to t´2

= 175 °C. Calculate the mean temperature gradient inside this exchanger in the case of a) parrallel flow, b)counterflow. What is the

difference between the surface areas of the exchanger in the cases of a) and b) if, in both cases, the heat transfers and the heat transfer

coefficients are the same.

Solution:

t1 = 300 °C; t2 = 200 °C; t1 = 25 °C; t'2 = 175 °C ; Dts = ?; Dtp = ?; Ss/Sp = ?

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21/10/2017 Problem Set

The ratio of the surface areas in the case of parallel flow and counterflow with the same heat transfer and heat transfer coefficients is

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