Statistical Planning

E-Learning Material: TLE IV Web Design
raa EDDE 221 Design and Evaluation of Multimedia Educational Materials • UPOU • September 27, 2010

raa • email: web.rica@gmail.com • UPOU

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Statistical Planning
E-Learning Material: TLE IV Web Design EDDE 221 EVALUATION TOOL
National Orthopedic Hospital - School for Crippled Children (Banawe Branch)

Miss Ramos is the TLE teacher handling Computer Education. These photos were taken last September 1, 2010.

Updates I went back to NOH-SCC Main to observe the TLE class of Miss Ramos. Some of her students answered the survey questionnaire. However, I was advised to come back after a week to get more feedbacks. The e-learning material that I developed concentrated only on one lesson, Web Design. It is part of the TLE-ICT subject recommended for the fourth year high school students (Philippines). Since NOH-SCC

3 is a special school, they do not have so many students just like in a regular school. They only have one (1) section of six (6) fourth year high school students. I also checked the data posted regarding the number of high school students in another branch of NOH-SCC, in Sta. Lucia, they also have only six (6) senior students. They also have one (1) TLE teacher. More Data I also checked with DepED NCR if they have data about number of special schools and teachers in the National Capital Region. I did get some data such as the total number of TLE teachers in NCR, public special schools with secondary education, and number of enrollment in public special schools (secondary). If I need more data from the different regions, I was advised to go to the DepED Main Office in Pasig City.

NCR Basic Education Data Map (September 2, 2010)

These data are necessary for statistical planning. A statistician can help out in determining the number of samples, design of the survey questionnaire, and appropriate statistical analysis. Statistical Planning To clarify some of my questions regarding statistical analysis, I also asked the opinion of another statistician in UP Manila’s College of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics. I went to their office last September 3, 2010. I was able to get a clearer picture of how to improve my evaluation tool upon consultation with Miss April Furia. She also suggested the Likert scale instead of Yes or No response checklist in a survey questionnaire format. She also made a comment about Not Applicable or Do Not Know in the choices as not really giving an accurate answer. It is difficult to interpret because it can mean Yes or No. She recommended the exclusion of NA or Do Not Know in the response selection. For small sample size like in NOHSCC Banawe, it is highly recommended to make a descriptive analysis. I can just relay the response of the respondents regarding the e-learning material. For example, there are three out of four respondents who evaluated the e-learning material as acceptable educational material. I have to set the level of

5 acceptability if there is no prescribed standard. For example, my level of acceptability is 99% Yes per question. This is called Item Analysis. However, according to Ms. April, I can also make different levels of acceptability depending on my requirement. For example, apart from 99% Yes, I also want to have another group with a level of acceptability of 95% Yes, another group with 90% Yes, another one with 85% Yes, or 80% Yes. It would really depend on my purpose. Let us say I am going to use the e-learning material commercially, such as tutorials with a fee per hour, I’ll set my Yes at 100% for selected items or criteria (example, navigational tool) while 90% Yes for font design. For public use (which is free), I can set 100% Yes for navigational tool while the rest of the items can have 85% Yes for approval rating. Sophisticated statistical tools are not really required for small sample size. I can also set a level of approval rating per respondent. For example, the initial requirement is 45 Yes out of the 51 questions per respondent would qualify the e-learning material as acceptable for school use. For the next level, I can also set that I must have five (5) approvals out of the six (6) respondents to determine that the e-learning material is usable as well as useful and there is no need to revise. Hence, the multimedia educational material can contribute to the learning needs of the senior students and TLE teacher of NOH-SCC Banawe (Main). Can I also implement the same elearning material in another NOH-SCC unit? How about in all special schools in NCR? Will it be usable and useful nationwide? How about selling it to private special schools in the Philippines?

According to Ms. April, I can use different statistical tools according to my objectives. To make a decision whether to revise the multimedia educational material or not to suit a bigger population, a different set of statistical planning would be needed. For example, establish first the objectives of what do I need to obtain such as levels of acceptability for my e-learning material. Another objective would be to determine if there is a difference between the evaluation of the students and the TLE teachers. Instead of Yes or No, I can use Likert scale to determine the degree of affirmation or negation such as Strongly Agree, Agree, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree. I will not use Neutral, Do Not Know, or Not Applicable in the answer selection. Results from the NOH-SCC Main can serve as my pilot test to determine the usability and usefulness of the same e-learning material or revise it first for the next batch of evaluation. With the help of a statistician, a stratified sampling and probability proportional to size would be used to determine the target respondents such as senior students in special schools and TLE teachers in special schools. All data should be given to the statistician to get the accurate sample size and respondents. Ideally, all respondents should be surveyed but due to time constraints as well as budget, we use statistical analysis to get sample respondents that would yield valid and reliable results for the whole population. In the Philippine setting, the schools are grouped by district,

7 by city, by province, and by region. With the complete data (senior students in special schools, TLE teachers in special schools), the statistician can compute for the random number generation to determine the sample respondents. Afterwards, further statistical tests can be used to interpret the results such as Test of Association (Fisher, Chisquare) besides frequency distribution, ratio of proportion (percentages), or measure of central tendency (mean, median, and mode). What I did in the pilot test regarding the level of acceptability can also be applied in bigger population. More statistical tools are needed to determine a valid sample size to represent the whole population and accurate interpretation of the results whether the multimedia educational material is fit for use for all senior students and TLE teachers of the whole province or all regions. Otherwise, the e-learning material should be revised as suggested by the results and in compliance with the objective of iterative design which is continuous improvement.

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