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FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA (UiTM)


UiTM SHAH ALAM

PROGRAM : EM220 BACHELOR DEGREE OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


COURSE : APPLIED WELDING ENGINEERING
COURSE CODE : MEM661
GROUP : EM2207E7
LECTURER : ASSOC. PROF. DR. –ING YUPITER HP MANURUNG

INDIVIDUAL CASE STUDY : Magnetically Impelled Arc But Welding (MIAB)

STUDENT NAME : AMIRUL FAIZ BIN AHAMD YANI


STUDENT ID : 2015831454

22/12/2017
Submission of Report: ________________
(Date)

Received by : ________________
No. Contents Marks Allocated Mark Obtained

1 Overall Report Format 10

2 Introduction 10

3 Explanation on topic 30

4 Discussion 20

5 Conclusion 20

6 References 10

7 Total 100
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................... 1

2.0 MIAB WELDING ......................................................................................................... 2

2.1 MIAB Welding Process Description ..................................................................... 2

2.2 MIAB Welding Principles ..................................................................................... 3

3.0 DISCUSSIONS .............................................................................................................. 5

3.1 Comparison to other Welding Processes ............................................................... 5

3.2 Application ............................................................................................................ 6

3.3 Advantages ............................................................................................................ 6

3.4 Limitations ............................................................................................................ 7

4.0 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................. 7

5.0 REFERENCES .............................................................................................................. 8

6.0 APPENDICES ............................................................................................................... 9


1.0 INTRODUCTION

One of latest methods of welding tube to tube joints and tube to flange joints is still little
known in industry is Magnetically impelled arc butt (MIAB) welding (sometimes referred to
as rotating arc welding) is a rapid, clean, and reliable arc welding process that employs forging
to produce the finished weld. As such, it is classified as an electric arc welding process since
that is the energy source for producing melting or fusion, even though pressure from forging is
needed to complete the weld. It is thus a fusion arc pressure welding process, and, in that way,
is related to arc stud welding.

The MIAB welding process is well established in Europe (especially Eastern Europe)
and the independent states of the former Soviet Union, finding application in the automotive
industry for the fabrication of tubular-section butt welds and, to a lesser extent, tube-to-plate
welds. Tubes can have circular or non-circular cross sections, with walls ranging from 0.5 to 5
mm or more (0.020 to 0.200 in.) thick. Steel as well as aluminium alloy has been welded
successfully in mass production, producing welds with exceptional quality even for safety-
critical applications.

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2.0 MIAB WELDING

2.1 MIAB Welding Process Description


MIAB welding is a forge welding process that relies on an electric arc to generate
the necessary heating to melt the faying surfaces being welded. The arc heating also
lowers the yield strength of adjacent solid material to allow for sufficient forging action,
a critical aspect of the process. A basic schematic of MIAB welding is shown in Figure
1, which depicts the welding of two tubes and the simple process shown in Figure 2.

Figure 1 Basic Schematic of the MIAB Welding Process

Figure 2MIAB Process

As the figure indicates, an arc is made to spin around the tubes due to the
presence of a magnetic field generated with either permanent or electromagnets. The
velocity of the arc is considerable, reaching speeds as high as 200 m/s. The rapidly
spinning arc, in combination with the thermal conductivity of the metal being welded,
effectively creates very uniform heating at the joint. Upon completion of the heating

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phase, the parts are rapidly brought together under pressure. This upset step squeezes
the molten material out of the joint, and creates a forging action on the remaining
plasticized metal. The forging action produces the final solid-state joint. The process
does not use filler metal. Shielding gas, although sometimes used, is usually not
required. When shielding gas is not used, as in the case of this research, a short pulse
of high current is added which expels contaminated molten metal prior to upset.

2.2 MIAB Welding Principles


As shown in Figure 2, the MIAB welding process relies on the interaction between
electrical current flowing through the arc and a magnetic field.

Figure 3 Interaction Between Current and an Applied Magnetic Field

Upon initiation of a drawn arc, an electromagnetic force, 𝐹𝐿 , is generated on the arc.


The force is due to the axial component of current flow in the arc, 𝐼𝐿 , crossing the radial
component of the applied magnetic field, 𝐵𝐿 . This electromagnetic force on the flowing
current is referred to as a Lorentz force, and given by: f = J x B, where f =
electromagnetic force density, J = current density, and B = magnetic flux density. The
magnitude of the force, F, is proportional to the magnetic flux density, B, the arc current
I, and the arc length L and given by: F ~ B·I·L.

The force exerted on the flowing current affects the acceleration of the rotating
arc. Therefore, it is clear that by adjusting the strength of the magnetic field, the
magnitude of the arc current, or the width of the arc gap, the speed of the arc can be
altered. The ability to alter the speed of the arc by changing arc current can play an
important role in the process. In particular, by sharply increasing the current for a very
short time just prior to upset, a rapid expulsion of molten metal occurs which provides
cleaning action. This eliminates the need for shielding gas.

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The direction of the force is determined by applying Fleming's left hand rule,
which states that the rotating direction of the arc is always perpendicular to the applied
magnetic field and the arc current, as shown previously in Figure 2. The force occurs
due to the magnetic flux lines generated by the flowing current interacting with the
magnetic flux lines of the applied magnetic field. This phenomenon is shown
graphically on Figure 3, which depicts a current carrying

Figure 4 Aligned Magnetic Flux Lines Create Force on Conductor

conductor under the influence of an applied magnetic field. The force is generated on
the side of the conductor where the magnetic flux lines are aligned. Ironically, in arc
welding processes, a similar interaction creates a phenomenon called "arc blow", often
a detriment to the process.

In addition to the primary force on the arc that causes the arc to spin rapidly
around the part, there is an additional important force on the arc. This force is generated
when the radial component of the arc 𝐼𝑟 , crosses the axial component of the magnetic
field, 𝐵𝑎 , as shown in Figure 4. Initially, when MIAB welding a ferromagnetic material,
the arc is pushed to the ID of the joint due to arc blow effects. Upon heating, the curie
temperature is first reached on the ID of the tube, altering the distribution of magnetic
flux in the joint and pushing the arc outward. The outward movement of the arc can
play an important role in generating uniform heating at the joint.

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Figure 5 Radial Component of Arc Current Affects Arc Movement

3.0 DISCUSSIONS

3.1 Comparison to other Welding Processes


The MIAB welding process can be compared to both Friction welding and Flash
welding. Much like Friction welding, MIAB welding is ideal for round parts (especially
tubes and pipes). It produces a solid-state bond at the joint which is conducive to
excellent mechanical properties. Processes which produce solid-state bonds also
provide for the possibility of welding dissimilar metal joints. Unlike Friction welding,
MIAB welding equipment is much simpler and less expensive, since no part rotation is
required and upset pressures are much lower. Other potential benefits of MIAB welding
vs. Friction welding include less internal flash, shorter weld times, less metal loss, and
reduced machine maintenance.

Flash welding does not actually generate a true arc, but relies on the creation of shorts
between the parts being welded, and subsequent rapid expulsion of the metal at the
localized shorting points. This results in considerable loss of material during the
flashing process. Flash welding also does not utilize a magnetic field to control the
movement of the arc, which promotes very uniform heating in the MIAB welding
process. For these reasons, Flash welding is not an ideal process for welding tubular
automotive components.

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3.2 Application
 Butt welding of thin-walled tubes
 Butt and T-butt welding of automobile parts
 Butt welding of thick-walled tubes
 Butt welding od solid parts
 Tube to plate welding
 Tube to flange welding

3.3 Advantages
The major benefits of MIAB welding are no rotation of either component
(thereby overcoming problems with asymmetrical parts encountered with many friction
welding processes), short welding times (e.g., 2-4 s for 2 to 4-mm CO.040- to 0.080-
in.]-thick low-carbon steel tube), low material loss, low fumes and spatter, and
relatively low required arc current.

As opposed to flash and upset welding, MIAB welding does not use resistance
to accomplish heating at the joint, but, rather, an electric arc. This makes it an arc rather
than a resistance welding process. The fact that forging removes most molten metal
suggests that the process could be considered non-fusion; after all, the role of the liquid
is largely fluxing. The process is considered a non-consumable electrode arc process
because the intent is not to consume the parts being welded and used as electrodes, but
to preserve those parts.

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3.4 Limitations
The main limitation to the technique is that wall thicknesses about 6mm can be
difficult to weld since the rotating arc may not cause the entire butting surfaces to be
heated uniformly. There are, however, techniques which enable the thicker sections to
be welded and wall thicknesses up to 20mm have been welded using MIAB.

The MIAB process uses a forging action to weld together the component
surfaces which have been heated by the rotating arc. As with the other forge processes,
this results in the production of a flash on both the inner and outer surfaces of the
components. For many purposes, this welding flash can be left in place. If however, it
is necessary to maintain the bore of a welded tube assembly or restore the external
profile, then the flash should be removed.

MIAB welding machines, generally speaking are mechanically uncomplicated.


The machine comprises a rigid base unit upon which are mounted two work holding
clamping devices: one fixed, one sliding. These are normally hydraulically actuated
from a free-standing power pack.

4.0 CONCLUSION

As a conclusion, we know that this technologies (MIAB) can weld tube to tube or tube to
flange, and can weld irregular or non-circular components as easily as circular. This welding
process is one of the fastest methods of welding for tube and weld results are free from
inclusions and impurities. An automated process enables the result of weld to be highly
reproducible. The components also are not rotated so the alignment can be maintained. The
uniform heating of the joint results in low distortion and the weld a wide variety of materials
including dissimilar combinations. Lastly, the weld can be interfaced with automatic handle
system so production will increase.

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5.0 REFERENCES

[1] S. A. Vendan, S. Manoharan, G. Buvanashekaran, and C. Nagamani, “Simulation of magnetic


flux distribution for magnetically impelled arc butt welding of steel tubes,” Multidiscip.
Model. Mater. Struct., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 229–234, 2009.

[2] “Process _ MagWeld Technologies LLC _ Magnetically Impelled Arc Butt Welding MIAB _
Magweld Technologies LLC.” .

[3] “MIAB welding of thick-walled pipe ends - The Fabricator.” .

[4] Mechanicalinventions.blogspot.my, “Magnetically Impelled Arc Butt Welding Principles.” .

[5] D. H. W. E. Phillips, “Magnetically Impelled Arc Butt (Miab) Welding of Chromium- Plated
Steel Tubular Components Utilizing Arc Voltage Monitoring Techniques,” 2008.

[6] “Magneticall Impelled Arc Butt Welding, MIAB and MIAF.” .

[7] N. Nandakumar and P. Nandhini, “Investigating the characterization of Magnetically Impelled


Arc Butt welding,” vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 3747–3750, 2015.

[8] S. Arungalai Vendan, S. R. Mundla, and G. Buvanashekaran, “Feasibility of magnetically


impelled arc butt (MIAB) welding of high-thickness tubes for pressure parts,” Mater. Manuf.
Process., vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 573–579, 2012.

[9] “Authorized selling agent for S.” .

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6.0 APPENDICES

Figure 6 Tube welding

Figure 7 Machine K-872 is intended for welding pipelines under field conditions

Figure 8 Machine MD-1 is intended for welding small diameter tubes & pipeline.

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Figure 9 Machine MD-103 and MD-102 type for MIAB welding of shock absorber

Figure 10 Machine K1015 for drive shaft welding OD 70-102mm,WT 2-4mm

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