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CITIZENSHIP ADVANCEMENT TRAINING ORGANIZATION, What is the emphasis of the three program components of CAT?

All the three program components of CAT shall give emphasis to

ADMINISTRATION AND TRAINING citizenship training, encouragement of youth to contribute in the improvement
of the general welfare and quality of life of the community, and instilling
Why should we take CAT? patriotism, moral, virtues, respect for the rights of civilian and adherence to the
“The state recognizes the vital role of the youth in nation building and constitution.
shall promote their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual and social well being. OBJECTIVES :
- It shall inculcate in the youth patriotism and nationalism and encourage
A. Develop in the Corps of Cadets of a good fellow by actually undergoing that
their involvement in public and civic affairs.” It is our duty. 1987 Constitution
part, in order to prepare them for their subsequent role as CAT Leaders.
(Article II, Sec.13)
B. Enhance the students’ social responsibility and commitment to the
- It is our obligation.  “THE PRESERVATION OF THE STATE IS THE development of their communities.
OBLIGATION OF EVERY CITIZEN.” National Defense Act (Article I, Sec.2) C. Develop their ability to uphold the law and order as they assume active
- The Bible commands us. “As a good soldier of Christ Jesus you must participation in community activities and their readiness in assisting the
endure your share of suffering. Soldiers on duty don’t work at outside jobs. They members of the community especially in times of emergency.
try only to please their commanding officer.” 2 Timothy 2: 3 – 4 D. Develop personal qualities and attributes essential to successful leadership.
E. Install to the students’ appreciation and deep feeling for the spirit and the true
What is CAT? meaning of the motto – Honor, Loyalty, and Integrity.
-DepEd Order No. 35 s. 2003) : Citizenship Advancement Training (CAT) F. The Citizenship Advancement Training leads the way to the holistic approach
is a restructuring of the “Citizen Army Training”, and is a component of MAPEH in and in the country as a whole.
the Fourth Year. What is CAT? (DepEd Order No. 35 s. 2003)
Can any high school student be exempted from the C.A.T.?
- Citizen Advancement Training as provided by the Rule II-General
-No. This training is a requirement for graduation in the high school. How
Provisions, Section 2 of the Revised Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR) to
is the performance of the student in the C.A.T. rated? Student performance in
implement the National Service Program.
the CAT is rated either PASSED or FAILED.
- Citizen Advancement Training It is a restructuring of the Citizen Army
Training required to all Fourth Year High School students in the Philippines in How is CAT considered as a separate component of MAKABAYAN?
both public and private schools as provided for in the Department of Education CAT is considered as a separate component of MAKABAYAN along with Araling
(DepEd) Order Bo. 35, s. 2003 and reinforced by the DepEd Order No. 52, s. 2004. Panlipunan (AP), Edukasyong Pagpapahalaga (EP), Technology and Livelyhood
Education(TLE), and Music, Arts, PE and Health (MAPEH). CAT is treted as a
separate subject.
How many unit credits are given to CAT?
I. MILITARY ORIENTATION deals with the introduction and exposure of the
CAT carries a unit credit of 0.30 as per DepEd Order No. 57, s.2004. When are
learner to basic knowledge, unfamiliar situations and experiences as well as
classes considered in the passing or failing of CAT? CAT classes may be
activities related to military .
conducted during Saturday upon the approval of the School Head and PTCA .
II. COMMUNITY SERVICE refers to any activity that helps achieve the general
welfare and the betterment of life of the members of the community.
III. PUBLIC SAFETY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT SERVICE (PSLS) which encompasses Is there a uniform clothes or dress required while taking the CAT?
all programs and activities which are contributory to the maintenance of peace No special uniform, dress or clothes is prescribed but the school uniform may be
and order, enhancement of public safety and encouragement in the observance used, not military fatigue nor combat shoes as per DepEd Order No. 52, s. 2004.
of and compliance to laws. School-CAT related activities may prescribed one as agreed by the School Head
-The Program is a requirement for graduation for all fourth year high school and CAT unit but not expensive
students in both public and private secondary schools. CADETS’ HAIRCUTThe prescribed military haircut is the traditional white- side
wall (Crew cut or Army cut), with a tolerable length of two - weeks old hair.
6. Should you have any inquiries about CAT, consult your officers or the CAT
Grade Components Commandant only.
Class Standing Grade Class Standing Grade (70%) What is Philosophy?
1. Attendance ……………………. 15%  comes from the Greek words – philo and sophilo, which together
2. Aptitude ……………………….. . 25%. means love for wisdom Refers to the doctrine of values which
3. Quizzes/Com. Service…… 25% seeks to answer the meaning and purpose of life. (Gregorio,
4. Performance …………………. 35% 1979)
Summative Test Grade (30%) Term Grade = C.S.(70%)+Sum. Test(30%): 1. Stand and deliver.
2. Don’t quit.
Each cadette/cadet shall be given 100 points as merits at the beginning of every 3. Perfect practice makes perfect.
term. For every infraction of regulations, she/he shall be penalized by demerits. 4. Respect is not given but earned.
5. Attitude is a small thing but it makes a difference. He, who lives without
ADDITIONAL MERITS WILL BE REWARDED discipline, dies without dignity.
CLASS A: (10 – 30 DEMERITS) Major Misdemeanors Gross disrespect of superior - Obey first before you complain.
officers Abuse of authority Unexcused absence Destruction of school property -The fault of one is the fault of all.
Cheating during examinations Violation of standing instructions Long hair and -My “buddy” is my body.
mustache (for cadets) -If it is not for the good of all, I will not sacrifice myself. I must be stable even
CLASS B: (6-10 DEMERITS) Grave Misdemeanors Points the rifle at any person under pressure.
Rumor mongering Making boisterous remarks while in ranks Sleeping in 5 POINTS OF MILITARY DISCIPLINE
classroom while instruction is being conducted Tardiness in formation Unkempt Three Virtues of CAT
hair. 1. Integrity – be honest at all times
CLASS C: (4-5 DEMERITS) Less Grave Misdemeanors Slouching in ranks Walking in 2. Loyalty – speak well of the institution
uniform without headgear Rolling up of sleeves Spitting in ranks Does any act 3. Service – work for the betterment of mankind
detrimental to discipline while in ranks (howling shouting, etc.) Chewing of gums CADET’S CODE OF HONOR
or cadies while in ranks Carelessly laying aside the rifle Wearing of dirty and  A cadet does not lie.
slovenly uniform Commits any act similar in nature as the offenses mentioned .  A cadet does not cheat.
CLASS D: (1-3 DEMERITS) Minor Misdemeanors and Omission Untucked T- shirt  A cadet does not steal.
Unbraided hair for cadettes Unpolished brass articles Dirty face Not bringing of  A cadet does not cover-up the wrongs of his fellow cadet.
handouts Malingering Wearing of uniform other than the one prescribed Falling Military Secrecy:
out from ranks without permission Lazily dragging the rifle Commits any act “What you se, what you hear, when you leave, leave it here.” Military Principles:
similar in nature to the above offenses. “Obey first before you complain.” “You do what I say.”
1. Observe regular attendance and punctuality. Obey all orders given by your If you work for a man in heaven’s name, work for him, speak well of him
2. Always move in “Double Time”. Wear your proper uniform. Observe proper and stand by the institution he represents. Remember, an ounce of loyalty
grooming and bearing. is worth a pound of cleverness. If you must growl or externally find fault,
3. Be cordial to your officers. resign your position and when you are on the outside, damn to your
4. Observe silence inside the lecture room Listen and participate attentively to heart’s content. But as long as you are part of this institution, do not
the instructor.
5. Proceed to your classrooms immediately after the period. condemn it. If you do, the first high wind that comes along will blow you
away and probably you will never know why.
Military Courtesy and Discipline 3. March discipline
- March orders, alertness and security maintenance during marches.
Military Discipline 4. Combat discipline
 state of order and obedience existing within a Command - continue fighting against overwhelming odds.
 subordination of individual will for the good of the group “A soldier, an army, which loses its sense of discipline ceases to be an army.” ---
 demands habitual but reasoned obedience to Command - Juan Carlos I, Spanish Monarch
 created by training, use of punishment and rewards Military Courtesy
 demands correct performance of duty
Importance of Military Discipline
 Acts of politeness, civility and respect
 Insures orderly & effective group action = teamwork.  Serves to smoothen personal relationship
 Instill a sense of obligation to oneself, to his commander, unit, and entire  Done in military organization as a mutual respect for one another
organization. The Salute - most important form of military courtesy
 Insure unit efficiency in battle - the way it is executed indicates the state of morale and discipline.
General Rules for Saluting

Creating a Climate for Discipline
 required on and off military installations and on and off office hours
 Develops Teamwork in accomplishing tasks.  rendered at a distance of about 6 paces or the recognition distance of
 Unify actions into single effort to accomplish the mission 30 paces – the hand is held in position until the officer saluted has
 Develops habit of prompt obedience to orders passed or after the salute is returned
 Enables one to learn what is required in the battlefield
Judicious use of punishment and rewards  salute must be returned by the person entitled to it – if he is in
Awards – “positive incentives” only to those who deserve formation with other officers, only the most senior or the marcher
Punishment - to reform or eliminate those unfit in the organization returns it.
 Punish only the guilty person/party.  salute is not rendered when you are running
 Impose promptly
 Make the guilty party/person realize his mistake. (“sandwich  never salute while smoking
method”)  salute should not be executed in a haphazard manner
 Impose punishment appropriate for the offense.
 Should be done in private.  salutes are exchange whether individuals are in covered or uncovered
Instilling sense of confidence and responsibility area Military Courtesy & Discipline
 Makes one realize his obligations not only to himself but to his
entire organization.
 the salute is rendered but once if the senior remains in the vicinity and
no conversation takes place – if conversation takes place salute is
How Discipline is Measured
rendered after the conversation
 result of the job
 subordinate’s attitude
 performance of jobs even in the absence of the Commander
 the person reporting should salute first

Other Forms/Applications of Discipline  army personnel never salute with the left hand
1. Fire discipline
- start, control and stopping of fires during combat actions  the salute is always executed while looking at the person being saluted
2. Water discipline – it is best to accompany such courteous gesture with some appropriate
- proper and wise use of water greeting
Who and What Entitled to Salute 11 GENERAL ORDERS
- commissioned officers of the AFP
- commissioned officers of allied nations 1. TAKE CHARGE OF THIS POST AND ALL GOVERNMENT PROPERTY IN VIEW.
- high civilian officials or foreign dignitaries during military honors “WHEN IN CHARGE, TAKE CHARGE”. When you are assigned a job or
- colors and standards not cased responsibility, thefirst thing you do is take control of everything you have been
When to salute? given. So remember, the numberone thing is to “Take Charge”
1. When reporting to an officer.
4. When the national anthem is being played. (outdoor only) HEARING.You need two legs to walk, don’t you? That should help you remember
5. Raising and lowering of flag. the key words ofnumber.
6. After conversing with an officer.
1. When the troops are at work. tough one. Try to think of a school essay assignment. The teacher wants a 3-
2. Indoors, except when reporting to an officer. pagereport! Report is the key word to remember. Also another good way to
3. When carrying articles with both hands, or being so occupied to make remember this order isthat you have TO REPORT an order before you can
saluting impracticable. REPEAT IT. Therefore, report comes beforerepeat.
4. When attending to a vehicle.
6. When in ranks. ORTHE QUARTER-DECK THAN MY OWN.Two times two is four, right? So, if you
are repeating 2 twice, you get four. Repeat is the keyword in this one.
Forms of Address
1. Addressing Seniors - uniors address their seniors as “sir” or “ma’am” 5. QUIT MY POST ONLY WHEN PROPERLY RELIEVED.A lot of people work from 9
2. Addressing Juniors - by their names to 5. They start work at 0900 and they quit at 5:00 PM. The keyword for the 5th
 you may call juniors and contemporaries by first name Order is “Quit”.
 avoid calling your subordinates by their last names only – by their
 Sergeants are addressed as “Sergeants” ONLY. This is the longest Order to the Sentry. Some people remember this one
 Corporals are addressed as “Corporals” with the phrase “The significant six”, because it talks about 6 people, or groups
of people you need to pass orders onto.
 Private First Class and Privates are addressed as “Privates”
Other Forms of Courtesy
7. TALK TO NO ONE EXCEPT IN THE LINE OF DUTY.This has an easy memory aid:
 avoid undue familiarity with your seniors
“The Silent Seventh”. When you are silent, you don’t talk.
 never invite an EP to an officer’s club
 walk on the left of the senior - keep in step with him
phrase: “The Disorderly Eighth” Disorder is the key word.
 give your seniors priority in entering any conveyance
 to pass a senior while walking, salute and ask permission to go ahead
 “I desire” or “I wish” statements of your commander should be carried
CASENOT COVERED BY INSTRUCTIONS.When you’re in trouble you call 911,
out with all authority and power of an order.
right? Remember “9” and “Call”.
“perfect 10” is the best you can do; something we all want when we snap a PRINCIPLES OF LEADERSHIP
salute. You wantthe salute to be a perfect 10. “Salute” is the key word here. 1. Know yourself and seek self-improvement. In order to know yourself,
you have to understand your “be”, “know”, and “do” attributes. This is
11. BE ESPECIALLY WATCHFUL AT NIGHT, AND DURING THE TIME possible by continually strengthening your attributes by reading and
TOALLOW NO ONE TO PASS WITHOUT PROPER AUTHORITY.This is the final Order 2. Be technically proficient. As a leader, you must know your job and have
to the Sentry. Think of it as the end of the day, when night comes. Night isthe a solid familiarity with your employees’ jobs.
key word. 3. Seek responsibility and take responsibility for your actions. Search for
LEADERSHIP ways to guide your organization to new heights. And when things go
"Leadership is the art of getting someone else to do something you want done wrong, do not blame others
because he wants to do it”. Dwight D. Eisenhower 4. Make sound and timely decisions. Use good problem solving, decision-
making, and planning tools.
1. Leadership is the process of directing the behavior of others toward the 5. Set the example.
accomplishment of some common objectives.
6. Be a good role model for you employees. They will believe what they see
2. Leadership is influencing people to get things done to a standard and not what they hear.
quality above their norm. And doing it willingly."
7. Know your people and look out for their well-being. Know human nature
and the importance of sincerely caring for your workers.
8. Keep your people informed. Know how to communicate with your
 Different people require different styles of leadership.
people, seniors, and other key people within the organization
 A person who lacks motivation requires a different approach than one
with a high degree of motivation.
9. Develop a sense of accountability, ownership and responsibility in your
people. These traits will help them carry out their professional
 You must know your people!
 The fundamental starting point is having a good understanding of human
10. Ensure that tasks are understood, supervised, and accomplished.
nature, such as needs, emotions, and motivation.
Communication is the key to this responsibility.
 You must come to know your employees' be, know, and do attributes.
11. Train your people as a team. By developing team spirit, you will be able
 Must have an honest understanding of who you are, what you know, and
to employ your organization, department, section, etc. to its fullest
what you can do.
 It is the followers, not the leader or someone else who determines if the
leader is successful.
1. BE a professional. Examples: Be loyal to the organization, perform
 To be successful you have to convince your followers, not yourself or
selfless service, take personal responsibility.
your superiors, that you are worthy of being followed.
2. BE a professional who possess good character traits. Examples:
 You lead through two-way communication.
Honesty, competence, candor, commitment, integrity, courage,
 Much of it is nonverbal.
straightforwardness, imagination.
 What and how you communicate either builds or harms the relationship
3. KNOW the four factors of leadership — follower, leader,
between you and your employees.
communication, situation.
 All situations are different. What you do in one situation will not always
4. KNOW yourself. Examples: strengths and weakness of your
work in another.
character, knowledge, and skills.
 You must use your judgment to decide the best course of action and the
leadership style needed for each situation.
5. KNOW human nature. Examples: Human needs, emotions, and how
people respond to stress.
 The situation normally has a greater effect on a leader's action than his or
her traits. 6. KNOW your job. Examples: be proficient and be able to train others
in their tasks.
7. KNOW your organization. Examples: where to go for help, its climate perhaps more essential to mission success than leader
and culture, who the unofficial leaders are. development.
8. DO provide direction. Examples: goal setting, problem solving,  ithout followership, a leader at any level will fail to
decision making, planning. produce effective institutions.
9. DO implement. Examples: communicating, coordinating, supervising,  It is a responsibility no less important than that of a
evaluating. leader and it enables good leadership.
10. DO motivate. Examples: develop morale and esprit de corps in the  It is a given that we are followers more often than
organization, train, coach, counsel.
1. Authoritarian or autocratic - I want both of you to. . .” used when 1. Fear of Retribution
leaders tell their employees what they want done and how they want it  If I do not follow, I may lose my job!”
accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers. Some of the
 Following out of fear isn’t as much following as it is using a
appropriate conditions to use it is when you have all the information to
coercive type of power.
solve the problem, you are short on time, and your employees are well
 The leader in this case only continues being successful (in
maintaining followers) as long as the follower sees no other
2. Participative or democratic - Let's work together to solve this. . .
option. Not a tool of effective (and ethical) leaders.
Involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision
2. Blind Hope
making process (determining what to do and how to do it). However, the  “We must do something, and I hope this works!”
leader maintains the final decision making authority. Using this style is  In this situation, the follower is desperate for some solution and
not a sign of weakness, rather it is a sign of strength that your employees is probably only following due to a lack of alternatives.
will respect. Normally used when you have part of the information, and  Leaders should watch out for followers like these, as they are
your employees have other parts. Using this style is of mutual benefit — likely to flee and follow others who give them more hop
it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make 3. Faith in Leader
better decisions.  “What a great person. If anyone knows the answer, they do!”
 The follower is blind to the solution but follows because they
3. Delegative or Free Reign - You two take care of the problem while I go. .
have put faith in the leader.
. The leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the  Leaders should also be wary of these individuals, as they believe
leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made.This is used that by some magic or genius, the leader will provide the answer
when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what to the follower’s needs. Disappointment is inevitable, and no
needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do everything! You must leader is perfect.
set priorities and delegate certain tasks. This is not a style to use so that 4. Intellectual Agreement
you can blame others when things go wrong, rather this is a style to be  “What a good idea, that certainly makes sense!”
used when you fully trust and confidence in the people below you. Do  Logic guides this rationale, and the follower understands the
logic of the argument the leader is putting forward.
not be afraid to use it, however, use it wisely!
 This type of followership is common for educated individuals
who need to comprehend why things happen.
 Adherence to a leader 5. Buying the Vision
 It is jointly an art and a science requiring skill and  Whata brilliant idea, I don’t care who thought of it!”
conceptualization of roles in innovative ways—one
 When followers buy a vision, they are emotionally identifying exhibits disloyalty and undermines unit cohesion. The question is
with a view of the future that appeals to them in some way. irrelevant whether we agree; the boss has decided and we will carry it
 They are not just following a leader or logic; they are focused on out.
the idea of moving toward the shared goals of a group or 2. Fight with your boss if necessary; but do it in private. As followers we
organization. have an obligation to express our reservations about an issue. Speak
 This is a very useful rationale for leaders to work toward, but frankly and honestly with your boss; fight for your people and your
only if it can be sustained over a period of time. organization; but do so in private.
3. Use initiative. No one likes micromanagers, created when subordinates
TYPES OF FOLLOWERS stand by and wait for specific instructions. Overcome this by simply
1. Isolators showing initiative, accomplishing the task, and accurately briefing the
- Know little about the leader. results.
- Disinterested in company. 4. Accept responsibility when offered. The military cannot succeed and
- Disappears into the crowd. evolve unless it is composed of risk takers willing to accept responsibility.
- Works to pay the bills. It is difficult to assume responsibility because people fear failure. Even
- Detached and lethargic. Gen Curtis LeMay commented that he had never been given a job that
- Incentives to engage don’t work. he felt qualified to handle. Be a risk taker, accept responsibility.Tell the
2. Bystanders truth; don't quibble; your boss gives advice up the chain of command.
- Aware but chooses not to engage. Human nature is to cover up mistakes but this can lead to misfortunes.
- Passively goes along to serve self interest. Tell the truth, your nation and the military's reputation depends on it.
- Not motivated. 5. Do your homework; give your boss all the necessary information;
- Avoid the risk to be involved. anticipate possible questions. Become an expert on your subject. Think
- Could be swayed by incentives to engage. through the implications of the problem. Anticipate questions and
3. Participants prepare answers. Then propose your course of action.
- Engaged to make a difference. 6. When making a recommendation, remember who will probably have to
- Willing to speak up. implement it. Know your strengths, limitations and weaknesses. Do not
- Supports the leader and organization. propose impracticable solutions. Know who you are; put yourself in
- Intrinsically self motivated positions that maximize your strengths while masking your limitations.
This will make you a more successful subordinate.
4. Activists
7. Keep your boss informed of what's going on in the unit. As leaders
- Strongly supports or doesn’t support the leader and/or
advance in rank others are less inclined to speak with them. When
- Eager and energetic. information does flow it is heavily filtered. The boss needs subordinates
who routinely mention what has transpired in the unit. The boss needs
- Puts in long hours.
to know the good and bad.
- Often in the leaders’ inner circle.
- High degree of initiative. 8. If you see a problem, fix it. Don't worry about who gets the credit. Too
often we notice a problem and think "it's not my problem." It is our
5. Participants
problem. The essence of military life is teamwork. If you see a problem,
- All consuming commitment either for or against leader and/ or
take care of it. We are all in this together.
9. Put in more than an honest day's work, but don't forget the needs of
- Often emerge in dire situations.
your family. Work hard, but don't become a "workaholic." Your family
- Risk their own well being for their cause.
needs you. If they are miserable it will probably adversely affect your job
1. Don't blame your boss for an unpopular decision; your job is to support,
not undermine. Although extremely easy to blame a superior, it only
LEADERSHIP TRAITS (TRAITS OF A GOOD LEADER) the application of common sense will insure success in most situations which the
When a study of the personalities of a group of successful leaders was conducted leader is confronted.
sometime ago, fourteen (14) traits were identified as common to the as common
to the group. Although these traits are a good guide for the desirable personality 10. Justice - giving every his due; being equitable, impartial and consistent in
development of a leader, the mission, the personalities of subordinates and the bestowing awards and punishment. Justice involves the comparing of a rewards
situation will have a direct effect on which traits the leader must apply. and the meeting out of the punishment,
in accordance with the merit of the case. Firmness and fairness, without
1.Bearing-a man’s bearing is his general appearance, carriage, favoritism is an essential Quality of a leader.
deportment and conduct. The bearing of the leader establishes the standard
which affects subordinates, peers and superiors His carriage should be upright, 11. Knowledge - acquired the information including knowledge of
his general appearance and condition of his clothing and equip men exemplary. the job and knowledge of the men. Knowledge is power, nothing
His appearance and manner should reflect alertness, energy, competence and will attract confidence and respect more quickly and more
confidence. demonstrated. Knowledge is the ability to create
self confidence within the leader himself.
2. Courage-a mental quality that recognize fear of danger or criticism, but 12. Loyalty - the quality of faithfulness to country, the Army, seniors,
enables a man to proceed in the face of it with calmness and firmness. It is a subordinates and peers. The confidence and respect that can be gained from
quality of mind that gives a man control over fear, enabling him to accept superior and subordinate is immeasurable.
responsibility and act properly in a threatening situation.
13. Tact - the ability to deal with others in a respectful manner. The leader who
3.Decisiveness-a Positive approach, little waste of time, objectively, timely displays tact in dealing with superior and subordinates encourages courteous
analysis and sound evaluation of opinions made by others all treatment in return.
Contribute to the Development of decisiveness in the leader.
14. Unselfishness- The unselfish leader is one who avoids providing his own
4. Dependability - the certainly proper performance of comfort and personal advancement at the expense of others.
duty; A quality the leader must develop. A dependable leader can be relied
upon to carry out any activity with willing effort. The fourteen (14) traits alone mean little unless applied in an effective manner
5. Endurance - the mental and physical stamina measured by the ability of DRILL TERMS
withstand pain fatigue, stress and hardship is a kin to courage. – To help understand the meaning of drill terms, the following
definitions are included:
6.Enthusiasm - display of sincere interest and zeal in the performance of duties.
This Requires the leader to be optimistic and cheerful. Alignment– is a straight line upon which several elements or teams are
formed or the dressing of several elements upon a straight line. A unit is
7. Initiative - initiative or taking action in the absence of orders, often required of aligned when it is dressed.
leaders. Men develop respect and trust for a leader who meets new and
Base- is the element on which a movement is regulated. For instance, in
unexpected situations with prompt action.
executing right front into the leading squad is the base.
8. Integrity - The uprightness and soundness of moral principles, the quality of Cadence- is the uniform rhythm by which a movement is executed or the
truthfulness and honesty describe integrity. A leader who proves himself number of steps or counts per minute of which a movement is executed.
unreliable or of questionable integrity has no place in the military. Drill movements are normally executed at the
cadence of quick time or double time.
9. Judgment - the ability to logically weigh facts and possible solution on which
to be sound decision. Anticipation of situation avoidance of hasty decisions and
Center - is the middle point or element of a command. In a platoon of and therefore does not include twelve (12) inches between all men in line.
three (3) squads in the line, the second squad from the right is the center. The frontage of a squad however includes the intervals between men.
With four Drills 3 (4) squads in the platoon the second squad from the right
is the center squad (platoon). Guide - The man whom the command or element thereof regulates its
march. This is often the case in battle or on practice marches. In a squad
Column- is a formation in which the elements are placed one behind drill, a policeman (number one (1) front rank) is often the guide.
Head - The leading element of a column. To understand this definition
Depth - is the space from front to rear of any formation or a position one must remember that an element is a file, squad, platoon, company or
including the front and rear elements. The depth of a man is assumed to larger body forming part of a still another larger body.
be 12 inches.
Interval - The lateral space between elements on the same line. An
Distance- is the space between elements when the elements are on interval is measured betweenindividuals from shoulder to shoulder; and
behind the other. Between units, it varies with the size of the formation; between formations, this is done from flank to flank. Unit commanders and
between individuals, it is an arm’s length to the front plus six (6) inches or those with them are not considered in measuring interval between
about forty (40) inches, measured to be twelve {12} inches. elements of the unit with which it is posted. Considered interval between
individuals is one (1) arm’s length. Close interval is the horizontal distance
Double Time - Cadence at a rate of 180 steps per minute between shoulder and elbow when the left hand is placed on the left hip.
Echelon - One of a series of elements fo Left - The left extremity or element of a body.
rmed one behind another. Also a
modification of line formation in which adja Line - A formation in which the different elements are “abreast of each
cent elements are disp other” means on the same line. The other vital part of this definition
osed one in rear of centers on the word “element”. A section may be an element, therefore if
the other. the leading elements of several sections are on the same line, it becomes
a line formation.
Element - An individual, squad, platoon, company or larger body, forming
part of a larger body. Loose Pieces - Rifles and automatic rifles not used in making stacks.

File - Two men, the front-rank man and the corresponding man of the rear Oblique - An angle between zero (0) degree and forty-five (45) degrees.
rank. The front-rank man is the file leader. A file which has no rear –rank Right /Left Oblique, March is forty-five (45) degrees.
man is “blank file”. The term file applies to a single man in a single rank
formation. It is also a single column of men one behind the other. Pace - Thirty (30) inches, the length of the full step in quick time. The pace
at double time is thirty-six (36) inches.
Flank - The right or left extremity of a unit, either in line or column. The
element on the extreme right or left of the line. A direction at a right angle Piece - The term “piece” as used in this text means the rifle or automatic
to the direction, on an element or a formation is facing. rifle.

Formation - Arrangement of the elements of a unit in line, in column or Point of the Rest - The point at which a formation begins; specifically, the
any other prescribed manner. points toward which units are aligned in successive movements. For
example, in executing “On right into line,the point of rest is the place
Front - The direction in which a command faces. where the leading squad halts.

Frontage - The space occupied by an element measured from one flank Quick Time - Cadence at a rate of one hundred twenty (120) steps per
to the opposite flank. The frontage of a man is assumed to be minute. Rank:A line of men placed side by side. There are two ranks: the
twenty-two (22) inches, measured from the right to the left elbow front and rear rank.
Right - The right extremity or element of a body of troops. Slow Time: and command of execution for each movementare given so they begin
Cadence at sixty (60) steps per minute. and end on the foot in the direction of the turn: KANANG PANIG, NA
(RIGHT FLANK) is given Drills 8 as the right foot strikes the marching
Step: The distance measured from heel surface and KALIWANG PANIG, (LEFT FLANK) as the left foot strikes the
to heel between the feet of a marching surface. The interval between the preparatory command and the
man walking. A step may be command of execution is normally one step or count.
any prescribed number of in
a. The PNP commands were derived from the AFP English version and
COMMANDS AND THE COMMAND VOICE subsequently translated to Filipino version.This attempt to localize the
COMMANDS English version has brought about varied interpretations as to the
2.1. GENERAL preciseness of the “term” being used. In the command of execution for
a. A drill command is an oral order of a leader. The precise movement is example, the words RAP, NA, KAD, TA and others are sometimes
affected by the manner in which the command is given. misused/interchanged as the commander may opt to what he thinks is
b. The following rules shall govern for a commander in giving a command
to participating troops: b. To provide for uniformity, simplicityand preciseness and to suit the
1) When at halt, the commander faces the troops when giving a command. Filipino commands in terms of voice control, distinctiveness, inflections
In a command that set the unit in motion (marching from one point to and cadence
another), the commander shall move simultaneously with the unit to
maintain proper position within the formation. The following guidelines are set forth as a rule:
2) When marching, the commander turn his head in the direction of the 1) In general, the word NA is used to signal the command of execution
troops upon giving a command. except the following:
3) Exceptions to these rules occur during ceremonies.
c. The commander gives command MANUMBALIK (AS YOU WERE) to a) TA – (Abbreviated SANDATA) manual of arms for rifles and pistol,
revoke a preparatory command that he has given. The command except for KALIS and TALIBONG which fall under the general rule.
MANUMBALIK must be given prior to the command of execution. The b) KAD – (Abbreviated LAKAD) from at rest to motion. Example:
commander cannot cancel the command of execution with MANUMBALIK. PASULONG, KAD. For other commands given while in motion , the
If an improper command is not revoked, the personnel execute the general rule will apply. Example: LIKO SA KANAN, NA.
movement in the best manner possible. c) TO – (Abbreviated HINTO) from motion to rest.
d) RAP – (Abbreviated HARAP) in HANDA HARAP as literal translation of
a. Most drill commands have two parts, the preparatory command and the .
command of execution. Neither is a command itself, but the parts are e) DA – (Abbreviated HUMANDA) for attention.
termed command to simplify instruction. The command HANDA (READY), f) NGA – ( Abbreviated PAHINGA) in “TIKAS PAHINGA”or PARADE
SIPAT (AIM), PUTOK (FIRE) are considered to be two-part commands REST
even though they contain two pre-commands. COMBINED COMMANDS
In some commands, the preparatory command and the command of
1) The preparatory command states the movement to be carried out and execution are combined; for example,
mentally prepares the troop for its execution. In the command HUMANAY (FALL IN), PALUWAG (AT
PASULONG, KAD, the preparatory command is PASULONG. EASE), LUMANSAG (DISMISS
). These commands are given without inflection and
2) The command of execution tells when the movement is to be carried
out. In PASULONG, KAD, the command of execution is KAD.

b. To change direction of a unit when marching, the preparatory command

Mandus, Lingig, Surigao del Sur