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Section 4 Commentary - Robyn's Improved PSTAR Study Guide Page 1 of 5

Robyn's Flying Start

Aerodromes Home

General Information for Aerodromes
In Canada, an aerodrome is "any area of land, water Commentary
(including the frozen surface thereof) or other supporting
surface used, designed, prepared, equipped or set apart for Sections
use either in whole or in part for the arrival, departure,
movement or servicing of aircraft." 1.0 COLLISION
Read that carefully and you will realize that if you move all
the cars over to one half of a parking lot so a helicopter can 2.0 VISUAL SIGNALS
land on the other half, you have made an aerodrome (you
"prepared" it). If you land on a dirt road you are at an 3.0 COMMUNICATIONS
aerodrome (you "used" it). If a floatplane lands in your
swimming pool, according to the above definition it's an 4.0 AERODROMES
aerodrome. AIP-AGA 2.1 actually states, "for the most part,
all of Canada can be an aerodrome." 5.0 EQUIPMENT

To protect the travelling public, and owners of large 6.0 PILOT

swimming pools, some aerodromes are inspected for safety RESPONSIBILITIES
standards. These are marked on aeronautical charts and
published in the Canada Flight Supplement (or in the Water 7.0 WAKE
Aerodrome Supplement if it is a seaplane landing area). Any TURBULENCE
aerodrome published in the CFS or WAS is considered to be
a registered aerodrome, that is all that registered means. 8.0 AEROMEDICAL
CARs 101.01 rather unhelpfully tells us that registered
aerodrome "means an aerodrome registered by the Minister 9.0 FLIGHT PLANS
pursuant to Subpart 1 of Part III" AND FLIGHT
CARs 302.03 tells us that if an aerodrome complies with
another, more stringent, set of standards, it may be certified 10.0 CLEARANCES
as an airport. You can identify airports in the CFS because AND INSTRUCTIONS
they have the word Cert in the OPR section.
It's your responsibility to ensure the aerodrome you plan to OPERATIONS
use is adequate for your airplane, and to learn the layout and
procedures, so you don't end up like the pilots in this joke. 12.0 REGULATIONS -
Question-by-Question Explanation of Aerodromes 6/8/2010
Section 4 Commentary - Robyn's Improved PSTAR Study Guide Page 2 of 5

4.01 13.0 CONTROLLED

(1) There is no legal distinction between aerodromes with AIRSPACE
different types of runway surface.
(2) I don't believe there are any aerodromes with control 14.0 AVIATION
towers that are not certified as airports, but it is not the OCCURRENCES
control tower that makes it an airport. An airport with a
control tower is called a controlled airport in Canada, and a
towered airport in the United States.
(3) A registered aerodrome is any aerodrome listed in the
CFS or WAS. Other Student Pilot
(4) Certified means certified as an airport. Resources
What Canadian student
4.02 pilots need to know
A standard Transport
Canada windsock has three PSTAR References
orange stripes on it, Links and how to use the
separated by white stripes. A.I.P. the CARs and the
When there is no wind, the CFS
whole sock hangs straight
down from the frame. As the Transport Canada Exam
wind picks up, the sock Guides
starts to extend. When the wind is blowing hard enough to Study guides and flight
extend a dry windsock straight out, the wind is blowing at test standards
least 15 knots. (If it's wet, the wind needs to be a few knots
stronger to extend the windsock fully). As a rule of thumb, Search
the wind is blowing at about five knots per orange stripe that Search all of
is inflated. The picture here accurately shows the colours of
the standard striped windsock, but the artist has shown the Contact Robyn
tail of the windsock inflated in a way that does not usually Send me e-mail
occur. Based on the top of the windsock in the picture, it is
indicating about 6-7 knots: a little more than the first stripe
is extended. The tail should be hanging down more. While
looking for a better windsock picture, I found some pictures
of non-standard windsocks, that may amuse you.

CARS 301.08 tells us this, and other things we're not
allowed to do on an airport.
(1) You can find out who the operator of the airport is by
looking in the OPR section of the CFS entry for the airport.
A vehicle might obtain such permission to tow a disabled
aircraft to a hangar, for snow removal, or to bring a medivac
patient to an airplane.
(2) A lot of uncontrolled airports don't HAVE a security
(3) The RCMP might be the ones called out to get you OFF
the airport if you were drag racing on the runways, but they
aren't the ones to ask for permission to go on. 6/8/2010
Section 4 Commentary - Robyn's Improved PSTAR Study Guide Page 3 of 5

(4) Sadly, your flight instructor is unable to give you

permission to drive your car onto the runway.

(1) Red flags may be used to mark off unusable areas of the
apron, but not the taxiways and runways.
(2) I've never seen such a marking at any airport.
(3) The X's might be painted, but they could be on
tarpaulins, with dye on snow, or with poles laid out on the
runway, depending on how permanent or temporary the
closure is.
(4) This answer is just a red herring.

Runway numbering is based on the compass direction of the
runway. As you fly towards the runway, the first two digits
of the compass heading is the runway number. So landing on
runway 24, you are going southwest, at approximately 240
(1) Aircraft landing at the west end of the runway are going
east, therefore flying 090 degrees, so the runway is 09.
(2) Remember, it's the first two digits, not the last two: 90
degrees is 090.
(3) An airplane flying 270 is going west, but the end of the
runway it is approaching is the east end of the runway.
(4) There are no 3-digit runway numbers.

(1) Once you have been cleared to take off, or cleared to
position on the runway, you do not need to stop at the line. It
is posible to receive a take off clearance while you are still
taxiing, so you reach the hold short line and just keep going
onto the runway.
(2) Until you have clearance to cross that line, you MUST
stop and wait for clearance.
(3)&(4) If you are on the runway side of the line, you do not
need permission to cross the line and exit the runway.

The standard distance that unauthorized aircraft, pedestrians
and vehicles are asked to maintain is 200 feet. That's about
60 metres.

Transport Canada defines two terms, manoeuvering area
and movement area. The manoeuvering area is the area
used for taxiing, take-off and landing. The movement area
is the manoeuvering area plus the aprons. In other words, the 6/8/2010
Section 4 Commentary - Robyn's Improved PSTAR Study Guide Page 4 of 5

manoeuvering area is just the runways and taxiways, while

the movement area includes the parking areas. You can
remember this by thinking that taxiing and taking off are
more complicated, fancy manoeuvers than just parking, and
manoeuvering is certainly a fancier word than movement. A
question on these terms will probably turn up on your
private pilot written examination, too.
(1) The ramp or apron is the area where you park, preflight
the aircraft, and walk around looking at airplanes you think
you might like to own. It is part of the movement area, but
is not included in the manoeuvering area.
(2) That describes the movement area.
(3) The taxiways are included in both movement and
manoeuvering areas.
(4) Exactly. The taxiways and runways.

(1) At 2000' you are 500' above aircraft that are checking out
the airport for landing, and you are in agreement with CARs
(2) 1500' is usually 500' above circuit altitude, the
recommended altitude for overflying the runway to
determine the direction of landing.
(3) 1000' is the normal circuit altutude.
(4) 500' is way too low. You'd be interfering with circuit
altitude. See the commentary on section 12 for a diagram of
different overflight restrictions.

4.10 In a fixed wing aircraft, try to avoid taxiing over or

near any helicopter landing areas. If you must taxi over
them, be sure to scan the sky above and keep a listening
watch on frequency for any arriving rotary wing craft. Never
park your fixed wing aircraft on a helipad.

A is a hospital heliport.
B is a heliport.
C is arrival and departure hover area aiming point
D is apron and touchdown pad marking.

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This page written 8 October 2002 by Robyn Stewart. Last

revised 29 December 2002. 6/8/2010
Section 4 Commentary - Robyn's Improved PSTAR Study Guide Page 5 of 5 6/8/2010