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Science of the Total Environment 624 (2018) 1421–1428

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Science of the Total Environment

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/scitotenv

Reduction of the NOx emissions in vehicle diesel engine in order to fulfill


future rules concerning emissions released into air
Juraj Sinay, Michal Puškár ⁎, Melichar Kopas
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, TU Košice, Letná 9, 040 01 Košice, Slovak Republic

H I G H L I G H T S G R A P H I C A L A B S T R A C T

• The article deals with possible solution


of the cause “dieselgate”.
• High values of NOx were eliminated by
software installed in vehicles.
• The study is focused on emissions of die-
sel engine using experimental fuels.
• Results of study present possibilities for
solution of emission problems.

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In the past period occurred information about a fact that in some of the motorcars was installed a software, which
Received 26 November 2017 enabled to hide the over-limit values of the nitrogen oxides during the emission testing process. This affair is
Received in revised form 16 December 2017 called “dieselgate”. It is a well-known fact that the actual emission limits are very hard and there is arising a se-
Accepted 21 December 2017
rious problem for automobile factories to meet the demanding emission requirements. The emission standard
Available online xxxx
Euro is an obligatory standard, which is valid within the European Union. On the present there is valid the newest
Editor: P. Kassomenos standard Euro 6, which should help to eliminate most of the undesirable substances that are influencing quality
of air. However, already in this year or during the next year 2018 there will be implemented a new, stricter emis-
Keywords: sion standard Euro 7 in the EU. From this reason started to be used some of the alternative fuels in this branch.
Reduction There was performed a study, which investigated emissions of the vehicle diesel engine during application of
Emissions the experimental fuels. The experimental engine was equipped with the turbocharging and with the direct
Vehicle fuel injection. The different testing fuels were created using the ratios 0%, 50%, 80% and 100% between the biodie-
Diesel engine sel and the ULSDF (Ultra Low Sulphur Diesel Fuel), whereas the individually mixed fuels were marked B0:U100,
B50:U50, B80:U20 and B100:U0. The first kind of the applied fuel is the pure ULSDF and the last fuel is the pure
biodiesel. The experimental measurements were performed at the different engine loading levels and various en-
gine speeds in order to investigate an influence of the mixed fuels on the engine operational characteristics.
© 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

The vehicle industry is a strategic branch of industry within the


⁎ Corresponding author. home and international framework. It is permanently facing to the du-
E-mail address: michal.puskar@tuke.sk (M. Puškár). rable challenges that are presented in the form of requirements

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.12.266
0048-9697/© 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
1422 J. Sinay et al. / Science of the Total Environment 624 (2018) 1421–1428

concerning efficient exploitation of the fuel energy, reduction of the the diesel oil. Nowadays, in addition to the well-known and widely
emissions and application of the new technologies. used rapeseed oil, another kind of the biodiesel is becoming more and
In the past period occurred information about a fact that in some of more popular, namely it is the waste cooking oil. The up to now per-
the motorcars was installed a software, which enabled to hide the over- formed studies focused on the biodiesel applications were oriented
limit values of the nitrogen oxides during the emission testing process. only to the diesel engines that are installed in the motor cars, whereas
This affair is called “dieselgate”. Officially, all the motorcars fulfill limits a portion of the biodiesel in the mixed fuels was reduced (Yamada
defined for production of the nitrogen oxides (NOx). The emission test- et al., 2016). Moreover there are missing relevant studies describing a
ing process is performed in the laboratory conditions and the above- relation between the NO-emissions and NO2-emissions during utilizing
mentioned “special” software was able to overreach the testing ma- of the mixtures biodiesel-diesel oil (Simmons and Seakins, 2012; Fameli
chine. The collusive software cooperated with the engine control unit, and Assimakopoulos, 2015; Feng et al., 2014).
identified the measuring process and switched the engine into the oper- The presented research work was elaborated due to a deficiency of
ational regime with the reduced emission values. research information concerning influence of the biodiesel on combus-
The emission standard Euro is an obligatory standard, which is valid tion process and emissions of the vehicle diesel engines. There were ap-
within the European Union. This standard defines the limit values of the plied within this study the mixed fuels with various ratios between the
harmful pollutants occurring in the exhaust gases of the gasoline en- biodiesel and the Ultra Low Sulphur Diesel Fuel (ULSDF). The main task
gines and diesel engines installed in the motor vehicles. The limit values of this research was to determine an influence of a high biodiesel por-
of the pollutants are given in dependence on the weight of harmful sub- tion and diesel oil mixtures on combustion and NOx-emissions in the
stance and on the distance passed by the vehicle. The standards deter- case of the vehicle diesel engine. There is described in the following
mine limits of the carbon monoxide (CO), the hydrocarbons (NOx) part the applied experimental engine as well as utilization of the fuel.
and the particulate matters (PM); whereas these standards are taking The individual measurements were performed using the diagnostic
into consideration neither the carbon oxide nor the sulphuric com- equipment specified for measuring of the emissions. The obtained re-
pounds. On the present there is valid the newest standard Euro 6, sults and findings are described in the next sections.
which should help to eliminate most of the undesirable substances
that are influencing quality of air. However, already in this year or dur-
ing the next year 2018 there will be implemented a new, stricter emis- 2. Experimental model and conditions
sion standard Euro 7 in the EU.
It is a well-known fact that the actual emission limits are very hard 2.1. Experimental model and fuel mixtures
and there is arising a serious problem for automobile factories to meet
the demanding emission requirements. Development of the new, better The applied experimental model is the 4-cylinder vehicle TDI engine
engines and application of the anti-emission measures are connected produced byt VW group (dieselgate engine). There were tested the indi-
with expensive investments, together with a doubtful future. From vidual fuel mixtures with various ratios between the biodiesel and the
this reason it is necessary to look for the clear fuels, e.g. biodiesel. The ULSDF. Fig. 1 illustrates the given experimental model of diesel engine.
biodiesel is not only a renewable natural resource, but another advan- The main technical parameters of the tested engine are in Table 1. The
tage of it is a minimal content of the aromatic hydrocarbons and sul- tested engine was connected with a dynamometer (Puškár et al., 2015).
phur, high value of the cetane number, very good lubricity, high flash The applied ULSDF contains b10 ppm of sulphur and the biodiesel
point, non-toxicity and possibility of biological degradation. Moreover, fuel fulfills requirements of the European standard EN 14214 (Table 2).
it is not necessary in this situation to modify the diesel engine because The individual testing fuels were created by mixing of the biodiesel
the biodiesel can be applied in a clear form or as a mixture. There are with the ULSDF using the ratio values 0%, 50%, 80% and 100%, whereas
also known some disadvantages of the biodiesel, for example low they are marked BU(0:100), BU(50:50), BU(80:20) and BU(100:0).
level of the fuel efficiency, low fugitiveness, high viscosity and high The first kind of fuel is the clear ULSDF and the last fuel is the pure diesel
value of the solidification point (Geng et al., 2016). oil. The experimental measurements were also performed using other
There are elaborated several studies that investigated environmen- ratios between the biodiesel and the ULSDF, however taking into con-
tal impacts of the biodiesel. The obtained results present the significant- sideration the main purpose of this study the chosen ratios are the
ly reduced values of the CO-emissions, sulphur level, unburned most suitable. Content of the biodiesel below 50% in the fuel mixture
hydrocarbons and particulate matters in the exhaust gases in compari- does not offer the required results with regard to reduction of the emis-
son with the conventional diesel fuels. The biodiesel is dissolvable in sions and therefore such ratio is neglected. The brake specific fuel con-
the standard diesel oil and therefore it can be mixed in any ratio with sumption was measured for each of the fuels under the laboratory

Fig. 1. Experimental model.


J. Sinay et al. / Science of the Total Environment 624 (2018) 1421–1428 1423

Table 1 installed in the first cylinder of the tested diesel engine (Puškár et al.,
The technical parameters of the experimental engine. 2015). The pressure sensor was interconnected with the amplifier and
Model 2.0 TDI CR with the sensor of crankshaft angular displacement in order to obtain
Type 4 cylinders, common rail injection
data about the pressure values inside of the cylinder within the 0.5°
Compression ratio 16.2:1 range of the crankshaft angular displacement. The NOx emissions
Bore × stroke 81 × 95.5 mm were measured using a mobile system, which is determined for the
Displacement 1968 cm3 emission testing (TEXA) (Sinay et al., 2014).
Rated output 110 kW
Engine speed 3500–4000 r·min−1
Air intake way Turbocharged
2.3. Measuring procedure

The experiments were realised during the stabilized engine opera-


Table 2 tion and they investigated an influence of the combined fuel mixture
The specifications of the applied biodiesel and ULSDF. “biodiesel-ULSDF” on the combustion characteristics and on the NOx
Specification Biodiesel ULSDF emissions (Balland et al., 2014; Grega et al., 2015). The tested diesel en-
−3
Density, 15 [kg·m ] 860–900 810–850
gine operated at two stable engine speed levels: 1750 r·min−1 and
Viscosity (40 °C) [mm2·s−1] 3.5–5.0 2.0–4.0 3500 r·min− 1, using different engine loadings according to Table 3.
Cetane number Min. 51 Min. 48 There were applied during the testing process also other engine speeds
Sulphur content [mg·kg−1] b10 b10 and various engine loading levels, however the results obtained using
Heat of evaporation [kJ·kg−1] 250–290 282–338
the above-mentioned defined values are the most suitable with regard
Flash point [°C] 101 82
Carbon content [wt%] 81.5 97.1 to presentation of the achievements. In order to obtain high accuracy
of the measured results the tested engine was working initially several
minutes without measuring so as to reach the stable temperature values
conditions and the detailed operational conditions are presented in of the cooling water, lubricating oil and exhaust gases. The temperature
Table 3. of the cooling water was maintained in the range of 75 °C ÷ 85 °C and
the lubricating oil temperature was stabilized between 90 °C and 100
°C according to the engine operational conditions (Homisin et al.,
2.2. Measuring conditions 2016). The fuel consumption, the exhaust gas temperature and the
NOx emissions were measured continuously during a three minutes
Measuring of the internal pressure in the cylinder was performed by time interval. The tested diesel engine burned two various testing
means of the measurement system Kistler with a pressure converter fuels and the obtained experimental results were averaged. Every

Table 3
Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) measured for various fuel mixtures at different engine speeds and engine loading levels.

Engine speed Engine loading ULSDF B50:U50 B80:U20 Biodiesel

BSFC BSFC BSFC BSFC


[g·kW−1·h−1] [g·kW−1·h−1] [g·kW−1·h−1] [g·kW−1·h−1]

1750 r·min−1 102 Nm (30%) 272 293 304 315


204 Nm (60%) 223 240 249 258
306 Nm (90%) 203 219 227 236
3500 r·min−1 87 Nm (30%) 321 349 366 384
174 Nm (60%) 264 287 301 316
261 Nm (90%) 232 252 265 278

Fig. 2. Influence of different testing fuels on the cylinder pressure and heat release rate at the engine speed 1750 r·min−1 and engine load 30%.
1424 J. Sinay et al. / Science of the Total Environment 624 (2018) 1421–1428

Fig. 3. Influence of different testing fuels on the cylinder pressure and heat release rate at the engine speed 1750 r·min−1 and engine load 60%.

experiment performed during the stable operation was repeated at least volume of biodiesel in the testing fuels and the ignition lag is decreasing
two-times in order to eliminate the measuring inaccuracies. when amount of biodiesel in the testing fuels is higher. If the tested en-
gine was working at the loading level 30% of the maximum torque, so
3. Results and discussion the combustion process of the ULSDF has begun in the crankshaft
angle position −1° CA (Crank Angle), whereas combustion of the bio-
3.1. Influence of the different fuel mixtures on the engine characteristics diesel started at the angle position −2° CA. If the loading level reached
90% of the maximum torque, the corresponding angle in the case of
Figs. 2–7 illustrates the average values of the pressure in cylinder, to- ULSDF was −4° CA and the value of this angle was −5° CA for biodiesel,
gether with the curves describing the heat generation speed in the case i.e. there is recorded a reduction of the ignition lag about 1° CA approx-
of various testing fuels. The data concerning the pressure values in the imately. Moreover, higher ratio biodiesel/ULSDF reduces the momen-
cylinder were obtained by averaging of N100 cycles so that an influence tary speed of heat generation.
of random changes in the working cycle can be reduced in this way
(Puškár and Bigoš, 2010). It is possible to say, according to Figs. 4, 7 3.2. Influence of the different fuel mixtures on the exhaust gas temperatures
that the pressure in cylinder is moderately decreasing during higher
loading of engine with an increasing portion of biodiesel in the testing The temperature of exhaust gases depends on combustion efficiency
fuels. The curves describing a speed of the heat generation are different and this temperature influences generation of emissions. There are il-
in the case of combustion regime with the ULSDF and in the biodiesel re- lustrated in Fig. 8 the exhaust pipe temperatures for the different ratios
gime. The pressure in cylinder is rising earlier using a mixture of biodie- of biodiesel in the testing fuels. A moderate decrease of the exhaust pipe
sel with ULSDF in comparison with the pure ULSDF. It is a well-known temperature is observed with an increasing amount of biodiesel in the
fact that the cetane number of biodiesel as well as speed of its laminar testing fuels, however there is also evident a marked increasing of this
flame is higher compared to the ULSDF. It is evident that the maximal temperature as a result of higher engine speed and engine loading.
speed of heat generation is significantly reduced with an increasing The high level of the engine speed, together with high loading of the

Fig. 4. Influence of different testing fuels on the cylinder pressure and heat release rate at the engine speed 1750 r·min−1 and engine load 90%.
J. Sinay et al. / Science of the Total Environment 624 (2018) 1421–1428 1425

Fig. 5. Influence of different testing fuels on the cylinder pressure and heat release rate at the engine speed 3500 r·min−1 and engine load 30%.

engine causes increase of the exhaust gas temperature up to 400 °C. The the NOx emissions very significantly. Increasing of the biodiesel amount
exhaust pipe temperature influences the NOx emissions, as well. It is in the testing fuels reduces the NOx emissions substantially.
also evident from the same Fig. 8 that a higher ratio between the biodie- The increased engine speed and engine loading are generating
sel and the diesel fuel reduces the exhaust gas temperature in compar- higher volume of the NOx emissions for each of the tested fuels, namely
ison with the pure ULSDF, because the heating capacity of the biodiesel up to 800 ppm during the working regime with the pure ULSDF and up
is lower and in this way the heat release rate is reduced, as well. This to 700 ppm using the pure biodiesel (Fig. 9). The exhaust gas tempera-
phenomenon causes reduction of the exhaust gas temperatures ture is higher if the engine speed and engine loading are rising. This is
(Puškár and Bigoš, 2012). the main factor, which causes higher global amount of the NOx emis-
sions (Puškár et al., 2012; Puškár et al., 2013; Puškár et al., 2014;
Puškár and Bigoš, 2013).
3.3. Influence of the different fuel mixtures on the NOx emissions There are also several reasons resulting in the decrease of the total
NOx formation when the test engine operates in the biodiesel and diesel
The NOx emissions belong among the main pollutants of the diesel blended mode. Compared with diesel fuel, biodiesel with high cetane
engine. They consist of the following components: NO (nitrogen mon- number leads to the smaller premixed combustion and ignition delay.
oxide), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) and N2O (nitrous oxide) (Puškár et al., Additionally, the lower cylinder temperature also decreases the total
2012). The dominant part, i.e. N 60%, represent the NO emissions. The NOx concentration in the combustion process.
NO2 emissions create b40% and the N2O emissions are negligible.
From this reason the NOx emissions are considered to be the emissions 3.4. Influence of the different fuel mixtures on the NO and NO2 emissions
of NO and N2O within this our study. Composition of the NOx emissions
is influenced by the ratio air/fuel, by the ignition delay and by the fuel- Figs. 10 and 11 describe an influence of the various fuel mixtures on
air mixture temperature. It is evident according to Fig. 9 that a higher the NO and NO2 emissions. Amount of the NO emissions is significantly
portion of the biodiesel in the fuel mixture is influencing creation of increasing during rising of the engine loading, but these emissions are

Fig. 6. Influence of different testing fuels on the cylinder pressure and heat release rate at the engine speed 3500 r·min−1 and engine load 60%.
1426 J. Sinay et al. / Science of the Total Environment 624 (2018) 1421–1428

Fig. 7. Influence of different testing fuels on the cylinder pressure and heat release rate at the engine speed 3500 r·min−1 and engine load 90%.

reduced with a major portion of the biodiesel in the testing fuels. Higher experiments were performed using the 2.0 TDI engine. Mixing of the
loading of the engine as well as higher amount of biodiesel in the testing biodiesel with the ULSDF, using the ratios 0%, 50%, 80% and 100%, creat-
fuels causes lowering of the NO2 emissions. The ratio of NO2/NO when ed the different testing fuels. The individual mixed fuels were marked
the test diesel engine operates on different engine conditions for all B0:U100, B50:U50, B80:U20 and B100:U0. The first kind of the applied
test fuels. When the test diesel engine operates on the low engine fuel is the pure ULSDF and the last fuel is the pure biodiesel. The exper-
load, the ratio of NO2/NO is about 3:7, due to the low cylinder tempera- imental measurements were performed at the engine speed levels
ture, while the ratio of NO2/NO decreases significantly with the increase 1750 r·min−1 and 3500 r·min−1, using the loading levels from 30% to
of engine loads. When the test engine operates on the high load, the 90%. According to the data, which are obtained from the individual mea-
proportion of NO2 in the total NOx concentration is b3%. As shown in surements, it is possible to summarize a set of the acquired knowledge
Fig. 10, the ratio of NO2/NO decreases slightly with the increase of bio- into the following items:
diesel content in the test fuels. In the previous studies (Balland et al.,
2014; Feng et al., 2014), the reactions between NO and NO2 are: 1. The pressure in cylinder is rising moderately in the case of higher
(1) O2 = 2O; (2) N2 + O = NO + N; (3) O2 + N = NO + O; (4) N amount of biodiesel in the testing fuels, whereas the speed of heat
+ OH = NO + H; (5) NO + HO2 = NO2 + OH; (6) NO2 + O = NO + O2. generation is reduced significantly in this way.
2. The ignition delay is shortened with higher amount of biodiesel in
4. Conclusions
the testing fuels and the combustion speed is faster in this case.
Shortening of the ignition delay was about 1–2° CA.
This scientific article is aimed at influence of the different fuel mix-
3. The global NOx emissions are increased in the case of higher engine
tures on the ignition characteristics and on the NOx emissions (NO
speed and engine loading for the all testing fuels and vice-versa a
and NO2 emissions) in the case of a vehicle diesel engine. The

Fig. 8. Influence of different testing fuels on the exhaust gas temperature at the engine speed 3500 r·min−1.
J. Sinay et al. / Science of the Total Environment 624 (2018) 1421–1428 1427

Fig. 9. Influence of different testing fuels on the NOx emissions at the engine speed 3500 r·min−1.

higher portion of biodiesel in the testing fuels causes a significant re- the NOx emission. Biodiesel is the most promising fuel in the near future
duction of the NOx emissions. as an alternative to fossil diesel for solution this problems (Czech, 2013;
4. The NO emissions are higher if the engine loading is growing, but Rybár and Beer, 2015; Rybár et al., 2016; Chríbik et al., 2014; Toman
they are sinking with higher portion of biodiesel in the testing et al., 2017; Brezinová and Guzanová, 2009; Kršák et al., 2016).
fuels. The NO2 emissions are reduced markedly if the engine loading
is growing and if the portion of biodiesel in the testing fuels is higher. Acknowledgements

The “dieselgate” affair is able to cause a serious recession of the die- This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development
sel engines at the European market. The share of diesel engines at the Agency under the contract No. APVV-16-0259.
EU-market is N50%, however during the last years the modern The article was written in the framework of Grant Projects: APVV-
supercharged gasoline engines are more attractive for the clients. How- 16-0259 “Research and development of combustion technology based
ever, the reason of this phenomenon is not a better gasoline technology, on controlled homogenous charge compression ignition in order to re-
but higher prices of the diesel technology. The diesel engines are more duce nitrogen oxide emissions of motor vehicles”, VEGA 1/0473/17 “Re-
expensive because of more complicated emission systems and therefore search and development of technology for homogeneous charge self-
application of them is decreasing in the area of smaller and cheaper mo- ignition using compression in order to increase engine efficiency and
torcars predominately. The “dieselgate” affair will accelerate this pro- to reduce vehicle emissions” and KEGA 041TUKE-4/2017 “Implementa-
cess surely. The most serious problem of the diesel engines consists in tion of new technologies specified for solution of questions concerning

Fig. 10. Influence of different testing fuels on the NO emissions at the engine speed 3500 r·min−1.
1428 J. Sinay et al. / Science of the Total Environment 624 (2018) 1421–1428

Fig. 11. Influence of different testing fuels on the NO2 emissions at the engine speed 3500 r·min−1

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