Design of Plate Girders as Per is 800 2007 Lsm Unsupported Latest

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Design of Plate Girders as Per is 800 2007 Lsm Unsupported Latest

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i.e : The local buckling can be avoided before the limit state is achieved by limiting

the width to thickness ratio of each element of a cross-section subjected to

compression due to axial force, moment or shear as per Table 2.

a) Plastic sections

b) Compact sections

c) Semi-compact sections

d) Slender sections

Clause 8.4.2.1

(Table 15 : Effective length for simply supported beams)

The factored design moment,M at any section, in a beam due to external actions shall

satisfy

M ≤ Md

M = Factored design moment

Md = Design bending strength of the section

A beam may be assumed to be adequately laterally supported if restraint member

is capable of resisting a lateral force not less than 2.5 percent of the maximum

force in the compression flange of the member.

Case 1 : Laterally supported beam :

V = Factored design shear force

Vd = Design shear strength of the section

Md = βbZpfy / ϒmo

shall be less than 1.2 Ze fy / ϒmo incase of simply supported

beams.

otherwise, when

V > 0.6Vd

Md = Mdv

Mdv = Design bending strength under hogh shear as def

The effect of holes in the tension and compression flange, in the design bending strength need

not be considered if it satisfies the criteria given in : Clause 8.2.1.4

The simple theory of bending is based on the assumption that plane sections remain plane after

bending.In reality, shear strains cause the section to warp.The higher stresses are produced near

the junction of a web and lower stresses at points away from the web.This phenomenon

is known as shear lag.It results in a non-uniform stress distribution across the width of the flange.

The shear lag effects in flanges may be disregarded provided it validate Clause 8.2.1.5

Resistance to lateral torsional buckling need not to be checked seprately in the following cases :

a) Bending is about the minor axis of the section - As you are designing the section for moment about the

minor axis only.

b) Section is hollow or solid bars - These sections has high moment of resistance about both the axis.

c) In case of major axis bending, λLT (as defined in laterally unsupported beam design) is less than 0.4

As the value of λLT , is less than 0.4, it means you are overdesiging your section fo

particular force and moment and then, there is no need to chec

for lateral torsional buckling moment.

The design bending strength of laterally unsupported beam as governed by lateral torsional buckling

is given by:

Md = βbZpfbd

Step 8 : Check for deflection ( Table 6 of IS 800 defines the deflection limits)

Step 9 : Web buckling and Web crippling (As per 10.11 of Design of steel structures by N.Subramanian)

Web crippling strength of the web also called as the web bearing capacity at supports.

V = Factored design shear force

Vd = Design shear strength of the section

Md = βbZpfy / ϒmo

otherwise, when

V > 0.6Vd

Md = Mdv

Mdv = Design bending strength under hogh shear as defined in 9.2

b) Semi-compact section :

Mdv = Ze fy / ϒmo

Under combined axial force and bending moment, section strength as governed by

material failure and member strength

The Indian code (IS 800 : 2007) provisions are based on the Eurocode provisions and the code

requires the following two checks to be performed :

b) Overall buckling check

Members subjected to combined axial force (compression & tension) and bending moment, the

following should be satisfied :

Conservatively,

N / Nd + My / Mdy + Mz / Mdz

In the absence of high shear force, semi-compact section design is satisfactory under combined

axial force and bending, if the maximum longitudinal stress under combined axial force and bending,

fx satisfies the following criteria :

fx ≤ fy / ϒmo

N / Nd + My / Mdy + Mz / Mdz

Members subjected to combined axial force and bending moment shall be checked for overall

buckling failure as given in this section.

Important Points :

1) For design purpose, the platform beams shall be designed as a laterally unsupported beam.

As there is no slab over these beams (except roof paltform), there exists an unsupported length

Ly , of certain dimensions between two connecting beams which will act as lateral restraint to the

main beam which has to be designed.Laterall bending of main beam will take palce between this

unsupported length Ly.So, the beam will act as a laterally unsupported Beam.

2) When a member is capable of resisting a lateral force not less than 2.5percent of the maximum force

in the compression flange of the member, the member will as a full lateral restraint to the compression

flange of the main beam.

hod as per IS 800 : 2007 :

ved by limiting

n moment

strength of the section

percent of the maximum

n shear force

rength of the section

Md

case of simply supported

r stresses are produced near

b.This phenomenon

cross the width of the flange.

g the section for moment about the

and then, there is no need to check it

uctures by N.Subramanian)

pacity at supports.

ar as defined in 9.2

2 Ze fy / ϒmo

as governed by

≤ 1

≤ 1

mbined axial force and bending,

≤ 1

xists an unsupported length

act as lateral restraint to the

will take palce between this

ateral restraint to the compression

Design of Plate girders as per IS 800 : 2007 (Limit state method) : Beam

Lateral status of the beam = Unsupported

Mz = 11739 kN-m L/C = 3 My =

Vz = 300 kN Member no. = 8 Vh =

v,act = 44.31 mm h,act =

fyw = 240 Mpa

E = 2.0E+05 Mpa Section used =

At = 7.4E+04 mm² 2-flange = (400mm x

Izz = 5.21E+10 mm 4

1-web = (2100mm

y x

Iyy = 4.28E+08 mm4

Zzz = 4.78E+07 mm3 400mm

Zyy = 2.14E+06 mm3

rzz = 839.43 mm

ryy = 76.06 mm

Lz = 24.3 m 2180mm

Ly = 2.509 m z

c = 1.5 m

c/d = 0.71 tw = 20mm

εflange = 1.02

εweb = 1.02

Flange classification = Plastic section

Web classification = Compact section

Section classification = Compact section 400mm

y

Buckling class about

z-z axis = b Check for minimum web thickness : (As per clause

Buckling class about Condition : When only transverse stiffene

y-y axis = c Case 1: when 3d ≥ c ≥ d ,d/tw

Depth of neutral axis from Case 2: when 0.74d ≤ c < d ,c/tw

top flange about z-z axis = 1090 mm Case 3: when c < 0.74d ,d/tw

Depth of neutral axis about Case 4: when c > 3d Web shall be considere

y-y axis = 200 mm Governing case : = c < 0.74d

C.G. of the compression section from the ,d/tw ≤ 270 εw

neutral axis about z-z axis 760.68 mm 105 ≤ 275.4

C.G. of the compression section from the Web satisfies the Serviceability crite

neutral axis about y-y axis 46.08 mm Check for compressiom flange buckling requireme

clause 8.6.1.2(b) :

Plastic modulus of section about

z-z axis, (Zpzz) = 5.63E+07 mm

3

Condition : When transverse stiffeners

Plastic modulus of section about Checked to prevent the comp. flange from buckling into

y-y axis, (Zpyy) = 3.41E+06 mm

3

Case 1: when c ≥ 1.5d ,d/tw

KLz = 24.3 m Case 2: when c < 1.5d ,d/tw

KLy = 2.51 m Governing case : = c < 1.5d

KLz /rzz = 28.95 ,d/tw ≤ 345 εf

KLy / ryy = 33 105 ≤ 351.9

Member is within Slenderless limit Compression flange buckling requirement is

Check for shear buckling before yielding : (As per clause 8.2.1.1)

d/tw = 105

67εw = 68.34 Shear buckling analysis is required

d / tw = 105.00

Kv = 14.61 web with stiffeners

67εw Sqrt(Kv/5.35)= 112.93

a) Simple post-critical method : Check for shear (at support)

=

k v 2

E = 239.54 Mpa Shear carrying capacity

cr ,e 2

12 1 2

d =

t w

λw =sqrt(240/(sqrt(3)x239.54)) = 0.76

τb = 138.56 Mpa

Nominal shear strength, Vn =Vcr = Av x τb

therefore, Vn = Vcr = 5819.52 kN

Vdz = Vn / ϒmo = 5290.47 kN

Section is safe in shear

Section is in low shear

Therefore, Vn = Vcr = 4433.92 kN

Vdy = Vn / ϒmo = 4030.84 kN

Section is safe in shear

Section is in low shear

About major axis z-z = Section is in low shear

About minor axis y-y = Section is in low shear

Check for design capacity of the section :

Simply supported beam Md = βb . Zp . fbd where, βb = 1

fbd = χLT fy / ϒmo ,

χLT = 1 / {ФLT+ [ Ф LT -λ LT] } ≤

2 2 0.5

1 , ФLT = 0.5[1 + αLT + (

λLT = sqrt( βb Z pfy / Mcr) ≤ sqrt(1.2 Zefy/Mcr) otherwise, λLT =

Mcr = (2EIy hf)/(2L2LT) [1+ (1/20){(LLT/ry)/(hf/tf)}2]0.5 , LLT = 3012 mm

fcr,b = (1.1 E)/(LLT/ry)

2 2

[1+ (1/20){(LLT/ry)/(hf/tf)} ] 2 0.5

, αLT = 0.49

Mcr = 1.01E+11N-mm , fcr,b = 1.40E+03N-mm

λLT = 0.37 ≤ 0.37 or λLT = 0.41

Therefore, λLT = 0.37 Member may be designed as laterally suppo

For laterally supported beam :

Mdzz = 12281.52 kN-m ≤ 12524.8kNm Mdyy = 744.0kNm ≤

Mdzz = 12281.52 kN-m Mdyy = 560.38 kN-m

Mdzz > Mz Safe in bending Mdyy > My

Mz/Mdzz = 11739/12282 = 0.956

0.956 < 1

Section is safe

Unfactored moment abt z-z axis, M = 7826.00kNm

v,act = 44.31 mm

max,per.= Lz

/ 325 = 74.77 mm

Safe in Deflection

Symbols:

Mz = Factored moment about major axis z-z.

My = Factored moment about minor axis y-y.

Vz = Maximum shear stress in the transverse direction paralel to y-y axis.

Vh = Maximum shear stress in the lateral direction paralel to z-z axis.

δv,act. = Actual deflection in the transverse direction parallel to y-y axis.

δh,act. = Actual deflection in the lateral direction parallel to z-z axis.

fy = Yield strength of steel.

E = Youngs modulus of steel.

At = Total cross-section area.

Izz = Moment of inertia of the section about z-z axis.

Iyy = Moment of inertia of the section about y-y axis.

Zzz = Elastic modulus of the section about z-z axis.

Zyy = Elastic modulus of the section about y-y axis.

rzz = Radius of gyration about z-z axis.

ryy = Radius of gyration about y-y axis.

Lz = Span of the beam about z-z axis.

Ly = Unsupported length of the compression flange.

KLz = Effective length about z-z axis.

KLy = Effective length about y-y axis.

d = Depth of web.

tw = Thickness of web.

ϒmo = Partial safety factor.

Vn = Vp = Plastic shear resistance under pure shear.

Avz = Shear area about z-z axis.

h = Overall depth of the section.

tf = Thickness of flange.

bf = Width of flange.

Avy = Shear area about y-y axis.

Md = Design moment of the whole section disregarding high shear force effect.

Mdzz = Design moment capacity of the section disregarding high shear force effect about

Mdyy = Design moment capacity of the section disregarding high shear force effect about

Mdv = Design moment capacity of the section under high shear.

Mdvzz = Design moment capacity of the section under high shear about z-z axis.

Mdvyy = Design moment capacity of the section under high shear about y-y axis.

Mfd = Plastic design strength of the area of the cross-section excluding the shear area.

fcd = Design compreesive stress of axially loaded compression members.

Ae = Effective sectional area

χ = Stress reduction factor for different buckling class,slenderness ratio and yield stre

α = Imperfection factor

KL/r = Effective slenderness ratio

Ag = Gross area of cross-section

Mdz = Design moment capacity of the section about z-z.

Mdy = Design moment capacity of the section about y-y.

Mndy , Mndz = Design reduced flexural strength under combined axial force and the respective

uniaxial moment acting alone.

α1 , α2 = Constants

Cmy , Cmz = Equivalent uniform momemt factor.

Pdy , Pdz = Design strength under axial compression as governed bu buckling about minor(y)

major(z) xais respectively.

ny , nz = ratio of actual applied axial force to the design axial strength for buckling about th

& z axis respectively.

CmLT = Equivalent uniform momemt factor lateral torsional buckling.

) : Beam B1

0 kN-m

0 kN

0.00 mm

0 kN

ed =

For E250

40mm)

STEEL

20mm)

40mm

2100mm

z =d

40mm=tf

=b

se stiffeners are provided

≤ 200 εw

≤ 200 εw

≤ 270 εw

be considered as unstiffened

bility criteria

requirement : (As per

uckling into the web.

≤ 345 εf2

≤ 345 εf

uirement is satisfied

1554 kN

5290 kN

Hence safe

, ϒmo = 1.1

[1 + αLT + ( λLT - 0.2) + λLT 2]

sqrt( fy/fcr,b)

,hf = 2140mm

3N-mm

ally supported beam

560.4kNm

Safe in bending

ffect.

effect about y-y.

shear area.

respective

Design of Plate girders as per IS 800 : 2007 (Limit state method) : Beam

Lateral status of the beam = Unsupported

Mz = 381 kN-m L/C = 3 My =

Vz = 77 kN Member no. = 54 Vh =

v,act = 13.89 mm h,act =

fyw = 250 Mpa

E = 2.0E+05 Mpa Section used =

At = 1.5E+04 mm² 2-flange = (300mm x

Izz = 6.57E+08 mm 4

1-web = (465mm

y x

Iyy = 7.21E+07 mm4

Zzz = 2.65E+06 mm3 300mm

Zyy = 4.80E+05 mm3

rzz = 208.11 mm

ryy = 68.9 mm

Lz = 8.48 m 497mm

Ly = 2.7 m z

c = 1.35 m

c/d = 2.9 tw = 12mm

εflange = 1

εweb = 1

Flange classification = Compact section

Web classification = Plastic section

Section classification = Plastic section 300mm

y

Buckling class about

z-z axis = b Check for minimum web thickness : (As per clause

Buckling class about Condition : When only transverse stiffene

y-y axis = c Case 1: when 3d ≥ c ≥ d ,d/tw

Depth of neutral axis from Case 2: when 0.74d ≤ c < d ,c/tw

top flange about z-z axis = 248.5 mm Case 3: when c < 0.74d ,d/tw

Depth of neutral axis about Case 4: when c > 3d Web shall be considere

y-y axis = 150 mm Governing case : = 3d ≥ c ≥ d

C.G. of the compression section from the ,d/tw ≤ 200 εw

neutral axis about z-z axis 194.83 mm 38.75 ≤ 200

C.G. of the compression section from the Web satisfies the Serviceability crite

neutral axis about y-y axis 48.53 mm Check for compressiom flange buckling requireme

clause 8.6.1.2(b) :

Plastic modulus of section about

z-z axis, (Zpzz) = 2.96E+06 mm

3

Condition : When transverse stiffeners

Plastic modulus of section about Checked to prevent the comp. flange from buckling into

y-y axis, (Zpyy) = 7.37E+05 mm

3

Case 1: when c ≥ 1.5d ,d/tw

KLz = 8.48 m Case 2: when c < 1.5d ,d/tw

KLy = 2.7 m Governing case : = c ≥ 1.5d

KLz /rzz = 40.75 ,d/tw ≤ 345 εf2

KLy / ryy = 39.19 38.75 ≤ 345

Member is within Slenderless limit Compression flange buckling requirement is

Check for shear buckling before yielding : (As per clause 8.2.1.1)

d/tw = 38.75

67εw = 67 Shear buckling analysis is not required

Design strength,Vdz (abt. major axis)= Vn / ϒmo Design strength, Vdy (about minor axis) =

ϒmo = 1.1 ϒmo = 1.1

Vn = Vp = Avzfyw/sqrt(3) = (d.tw.fyw)/sqrt(3) Vn = Vp = Avy fyw/sqrt(3) =

Vp = 805.40kN Vp =

Vdz = 732.18kN Vdy =

Section is safe in shear

Section is in low shear Section is in low shear

About major axis z-z = Section is in low shear

About minor axis y-y = Section is in low shear

Check for design capacity of the section :

Simply supported beam Md = βb . Zp . fbd where, βb = 1

fbd = χLT fy / ϒmo ,

χLT = 1 / {ФLT+ [ Ф LT -λ LT] } ≤

2 2 0.5

1 , ФLT = 0.5[1 + αLT + (

λLT = sqrt( βb Z pfy / Mcr) ≤ sqrt(1.2 Zefy/Mcr) otherwise, λLT =

Mcr = (2EIy hf)/(2L2LT) [1+ (1/20){(LLT/ry)/(hf/tf)}2]0.5 , LLT = 3240 mm

fcr,b = (1.1 E)/(LLT/ry)

2 2

[1+ (1/20){(LLT/ry)/(hf/tf)} ]

2 0.5

, αLT = 0.49

Mcr =

3.45E+09N-mm , fcr,b = 1.04E+03N-mm

λLT = 0.46 ≤ 0.48 or λLT = 0.49

Therefore, λLT = 0.46 Member shall be designed as laterally unsupp

ФLT = 0.67 , χLT = 0.87 , fbd = 197.73

Mdzz = 584.79 kN-m > 381.00kNm Mdyy = 131.03 kN-m

Mdzz > Mz Safe in bending Mdyy > My

Mz/Mdzz = 381/585 = 0.652 Check for shear (at support)

0.652 < 1

Section is safe Factored maximum shear force

=

Check for Deflection : Shear carrying capacity

Unfactored moment abt z-z axis, M = 254.00kNm =

v,act = 13.89 mm

max,per.= Lz / 325 = 26.09 mm

Safe in Deflection

) : Beam B3

0 kN-m

0 kN

0.00 mm

0 kN

ed =

For E250

16mm)

STEEL

12mm)

16mm

465mm

z =d

16mm=tf

=b

se stiffeners are provided

≤ 200 εw

≤ 200 εw

≤ 270 εw

be considered as unstiffened

≥ d

bility criteria

requirement : (As per

uckling into the web.

≤ 345 εf2

≤ 345 εf

uirement is satisfied

= 0.00kN

xis) = Vn / ϒmo

(2b.tf.fyw)/sqrt(3)

1385.64kN

1259.67kN

Section is safe in shear

, ϒmo = 1.1

[1 + αLT + ( λLT - 0.2) + λLT 2]

sqrt( fy/fcr,b)

,hf = 481mm

3N-mm

Mpa

> 0kNm

Safe in Bending

201 kN

732 kN

Hence safe

unit wt L nos

300 16 125.6 8.38 2 631.5168

465 12 94.2 8.38 1 367.0691

457 16 125.6 8.38 1 481.0053

497

998.5859 0.651

8.683356

1007.269 0.835

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