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- Unit 1 the Theories of Arts and Creativity EDU551
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- Overcoming Barriers to Creative Thinking
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- CHAPTER I
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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

function that is: 1) Encourage human to do, so as pemenggutak or motor that

release energy. Motivation in this case is the driving force of every activity

undertaken. 2) Determine the direction of action, ie toward the goal to be

achieved. Thus the motivation can provide direction and activities to be done in

accordance with the formulation of its purpose. 3) Selecting the act, which

determines the actions what actions must be done in harmony to achieve the goal,

by setting aside the actions that are not beneficial to that goal. A student who will

face the exam with hope to pass, will certainly do the learning activities and will

not spend the time to play cards or read comics, for not harmonious with the

purpose.Dikitkan with learning activities, motivation has a function as a driver for

students to achieve achievement The existence of learning motivation will make

students melakuka n actions that lead to the achievement of learning achievement.

Sardiman (2011: 85) Creative thinking is used in problem solving . Problem

solving is to use (transfer) existing knowledge and skills to answer unanswered

questions or difficult situations (Ormrod, 2009: 393). The ability to solve

problems is very important because the problems always exist in human life

including children who are still undergoing formal education in school. Learners

can find problems in learning activities at school, for example problems in

determining theme essay, finding mathematical problem solving, or finding

material for practicum activities. The ability to solve a person's problems can be

demonstrated through several indicators, such as being able to identify problems,

have curiosity, work closely, and be able to evaluate decisions. High-level

thinking skills, both critical thinking skills, creative and problem-solving skills

possessed by a person, can not be possessed directly but acquired through

practice. Because this ability is so important, this ability should be trained in all

classroom learning. (Lutfiyah, 2015 ).

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The results obtained from the survey of The United Nations Development

Program (UNDP) report that Indonesia in 2014 was ranked 111th of the 188

participating countries in the Human Development Index Human Development

Index with a score of 0.0684 are in the medium category (Jahan, 2015) .

Furthermore, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study

(TIMSS) survey shows that the average score of Indonesian students' science

achievement is significantly below the international average. Indonesia in 2007

was ranked 35th out of 49 participating countries and in 2011 it was ranked 40th

out of 45 participating countries with a score of 406 still far from the international

score of 500 (Martin et al., 2012). The results have been obtained in international

UNDP studies and TIMSS is reinforced by research conducted by Efendi (2010)

which involves 4203 students throughout Indonesia in relation to physics skills in

TIMSS. The results obtained showed that the average achievement of Indonesian

students in terms of cognitive ( knowing, applying, reasoning ) is still low.

Further, the 2006 PISA ( Program for International Student Assessment) study

focusing on IPA literacy confirms that Indonesian students occupy the 50th

position of 57 participating countries with an average score of 393 (Widi & Eka,

2014).

Interviews that have been conducted with Senior High School N 2 Binjai

Physics Teacher revealed that teachers have not yet assessed the creative thinking

ability of students, whereas the ability to think creatively is very important.

Creative thinking allows students to analyze their thoughts in making choices and

draw conclusions intelligently. Researcher asks teacher to give problem solving

problem to student of class k ethics in giving problem solving student student can

not answer well about matter x newton law material and student have difficulties

in solving it , whereas before, when students were given regular exercises (routine

questions) they could finish it well. From there it can be said that in terms of

mastery of the material, pertained pretty good.

students can easily developing it so that when faced with problem-oriented

problem solving problems students will be able to solve it. However it turns out

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that it is wrong, because the ability of students in solving problems not necessarily

from the knowledge or mastery of the material it has many other factors influence

it, one of them problem solving is an effort obtain a masala h solution by applying

physical and knowledge involving creativity students think and reason and

effective factors such as student learning motivation ". This fact with interview

results when study introduction to the class X physics teacher, that as a whole the

class X students can not give any ideas or ways other than those contained in

books and explanations from their teachers, students can not provide explanations

in detail when answering a question from the teacher or from his friends, students

can not develop a particular idea (way) in practice questions, and students can not

find a truth questions in the sense that students feel disbelief with the answer.

From the results of the interviews indicate the low ability thinking creative

students and motivation to learn it , so it is suspected the possibility of low ability

problem solving is caused by low ability creative thinking of students and

student learning motivation . To prove the allegations , then done empirical study

(field research) .

Thinking Ability in Light Material of Students of Class VIII SMP Xaverius Kota

Lubuk linggau ". The purpose of this research is to describe students 'creative

thinking ability in light matter, to know the students' creative thinking ability in

light matter when viewed from cognitive observation and affective observation, to

know the difficulties experienced by students in achieving the indicators of

creative thinking ability, and to determine solution to overcome student

difficulties in achieving the indicators of creative thinking ability in class VIII

SMP Kota Lubuklinggau. The type of this research is descriptive qualitative, with

case study research type. The subject of this research is all students of class VIII

SMP Xaverius Kota Lubuklinggau. Data collection technique in this research is

using technique triangulation that is cognitive observation technique, affective

observation, and interview. Data analysis technique is descriptive qualitative

analysis. The result of the research shows that students' creative thinking ability in

light material of class VIII.D. Xaverius SMP Kota Lubuklinggau is still less

creative (36,68%) based on cognitive observation result with interview result and

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recommendations that can be submitted in this study is the teacher should provide

equal opportunities to all students to be able to develop the ability of creative

thinking in the learning process . While salmizah shaleh in his research entitled

Malaysian students' motivation towards Physics learning , The average score

scale for factors that influence the level of learning motivation Physics among

female and male students Woman Man Average Percent Percentage

Understanding 2.71 67.85% 2.77 69.47%

Interests/Preferences 2.84 71.01% 2.74 68.55%

Business/Importance 3.05 76.26% 3.01 75.46%

Selection 2.75 68.86% 2.66 66.67%

Value/Usage 2.99 74.85% 2.98 74.55%

Relationship 3.30 82.51% 3.04 76.02%

Pressure / Tension 3.10 77.65% 3.01 75.29% For interest / preference subscales,

the average score for female students was 2.84, while the male score was 2.74.

These findings suggest that interest / preference plays a more important role in

motivating female students to learn physics than for male students. The results are

slightly different. From previous findings, one generally finds that male students

are more interested in learning physics than female students. sub-scale of business

/ interest, the average score for female students is 3.05, while for male students,

the score is 3.01. These findings suggest that both female and male students are

quite similar Perceptions of Physics effort as subject. In addition, this subscale

also recorded the highest average score for both sexes. Students are generally

influenced by the intrinsic motivation of learning Physics. Most of them agree

with the statement that they must work hard to get good results in Physics,

because of the importance of this subject to pursue a higher level in the field of

science. While Hisdamayanti Djupanda, in his research entitled Analysis of

Student Creative Thinking on Solving Physical Problems of Fluid Materials,

the results of this study of 30 respondents in one class showed the average value

of each aspect of them:

1. Smooth Aspects: 69%

2. Aspect of Dexterity: 76%

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4. Elaboration Aspects: 50%

Overall for the level of creative thinking skills of students, still in the low

category for aspects of Elaboration and Smooth aspects. Average results per

aspect above were taken from 30 respondents. The level of creative thinking has

the highest percentage of flexibility, and the elaboration aspect has the lowest

percent gain. However, in this case each student has a different level of creative

thinking .This study looks at the differences of each aspect in solving physics

problems.

Based on the description on the above background, the authors are interested

to conduct research with the judu: Analysisis Of Motivation Learning Creative

Thinking And Problem Solving Skills Of Newton’ Law Topis Grade X Second

Semester In Senior High School N 2 Binjai.

Given the wide scope of the problem and the limitations of the researcher's ability

and time, the researcher needs to make a limitation of the problem in this research,

as follows:

students to know how the motivation to learn , students' creative thinking ability

and problem-solving abilities.

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2. This research will analyze the way of learning, creative thinking ability and

problem solving ability of newton material law physics .

Even Semester of TP 2017/2018

creative thinking about newton's legal material?

think creatively in order to troubleshoot a bus?

thinking and skills to solve newton material physics matter problems .

1. Theoretical benefits: as a study material and input for the further development

of motivational analysis of learning and creative thinking in solving physics

problems for other researchers.

2. Practical benefits

For schools Researchers hope that the results of this study can provide

information to teachers to consider factors that can improve student learning

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outcomes and make students think creatively in every learning and improve

learning motivation and the quality of education in special physics.

b. For students

their knowledge how to motivate themselves to learn creative thinking and

improve knowledge about students problem solving abilities.

c. For researchers

With this research, researchers can add insights and knowledge related to learning

motivation learning ability and creative thinking in solving physics problems.

Creativity can be seen from three aspects namely an ability, behavior, and process.

Creativity is an ability to think and discover new things, create new ideas by

combining, changing, or re-applying existing ideas. Creativity is also a behavior

to accept change and novelty, the ability to play with ideas and possibilities,

flexible perspective, and the habit of enjoying things. Creativity is a process of

hard work and continuity in generating better ideas and problem solving, and

always trying to make things better. (Lutfhiyah et al, 2015) .

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CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Learning Motivation

Motivation is closely related to the need. Further mention 3 motivation

function that is: 1) Encourage human to do, so as pemenggutak or motor that

release energy. Motivation in this case is the driving force of every activity

undertaken. 2) Determine the direction of action, ie toward the goal to be

achieved. Thus the motivation can provide direction and activities to be done in

accordance with the formulation of its purpose. 3) Selecting the action, which

determines what actions should be done harmoniously to achieve the goal, by

setting aside the actions that are not beneficial to that goal. A student who will

face the exam in the hope of graduation will undoubtedly do the learning activities

and will not spend his time playing cards or reading comics, because it is not

compatible with the purpose. Related to learning activities, motivation has a

function as a motivator for students to achieve achievement Motivation learning

will make students perform actions that lead to the achievement of learning

achievement. Sardiman (2011: 85)

Measurements to creative thinking skills are made using creativity tests.

The creative thinking test can be verbal, if the task demanded, expressed in words,

or figural, if the task demanded is expressed in the form of an image (Munandar,

2009 )

Creativity tests are generally developed based on the characteristics of

creative thinking ability. The results of creativity test development are then

compared to their degree and grouped into high and low creative thinking levels.

Instrument of measurement of creative thinking ability developed based on

indicator of characteristic ability of creative thinking. According to Munandar

(2009), creativity aspect consist of:

1) Current Thinking Skills ( Fluency )

2) Skillful Flexible Skills (Flexible)

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4) Detailed Skills (Elaborating)

5) Assessing Skills (Evaluating)

Indikator creative thinking by Munandar (2009) presented a detailed at

table below.

Table 2.1 . Indicator of creative thinking skills

No Indicator of creative thinking skills

1 Smooth thinking skills

a. Definition

Spark lots of ideas, answers, problem solving or questions

Provide many ways or suggestions to do things

b. Student Behavior

Asking question

Answering with a number of answers if you have any questions

1. Definition

Generate varying ideas, answers or questions

Can see the problem from different angles

2. Student Behavior

Provides a variety of unusual usage of an object

Provide various interpretations of a story, picture or problem.

3 Original thinking skills

a. Definition

Able to give birth to a new and unique phrase

Think of unorthodox ways to express yourself

b. Student Behavior

Thinking about issues or things that others never thought of

Questioning old ways and trying to think of new ways.

4 Detailed Skill (Elaborate)

a. Definition

Be able to enrich and develop an idea or product

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that it becomes more interesting

b. Student Behavior

Seek deeper meaning for answers or troubleshooting by taking

detailed steps

Develop or enrich others' ideas.

5 Skills assessing (Evaluating)

a. Definition

Define a benchmark of self-assessment and determine whether a

question is correct, a healthy plan or a prudent action

Be able to take decisions on an open situation]

b. Student Behavior

Give consideration on the basis of his own point of view

Analyze a problem or solution critically by asking "Why?"

a process involving elements of originality, fluency, flexibility and elaboration.

Fourth of the characteristics of creative thinking are defined as:

1. Originality

The category of originality refers to the uniqueness of any given

response. Originality is shown by an unusual, unique and rare response. Thinking

about the future can also stimulate original ideas. The type of questions that are

used to test this ability is the demands of interesting uses of common objects.

2. Elaboration

Elaboration is defined as the ability to decipher a particular object.

Elaboration is a bridge that must be passed by a person to communicate his

"creative" ideas to the community. It is this factor that determines the value of any

idea given to others outside of itself. Elaboration is shown by a number of extras

and details that can be made for simple stimuli to make it more complex. These

additions may be in the form of decoration, color, shade or design.

3. Smoothness

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in Filsaime). This is one of the most powerful indicators of creative thinking,

because the more ideas, the more likely it is to gain a significant idea.

4. Flexibility

This characteristic describes an individual's ability to change his mental

device when circumstances require it, or the tendency to view an issue instantly

from multiple perspectives. Flexibility is the ability to overcome mental

hindrances, changing the approach to a problem. Not stuck by assuming rules or

conditions that can not be applied to a problem.

The four characteristics of creative thinking above provide a view of the

creative process, which will help the individual to create creative ideas and solve

certain problems in the life process. From the above description, it can be

concluded that the four characteristics of creative thinking ie fluency, flexibility,

authenticity and elaboration will provide a view of the creative process, which

will help the individual to create creative ideas in solving specific problems. Some

of these characteristics can be used as an indicator to measure one's creative

thinking ability in solving certain problems, for example in the field of

mathematics. These abilities represent the process of being sensitive to one's

understandings, and are the main features of creative thinking that have

developed. In addition to fluency, flexibility, authenticity and elaboration are

human mental sensors.

According Dahar (2011 ) that problem solving is one type of high-level

learning because students must have the skills to combine the rules to achieve a

solution. Solving problems means finding the right way to bridge the existing gap

or in other words find a way out to solve the problem at hand. Furthermore Polya

(1985) states the problem solving is to find a way out of a difficulty, a way around

an obstacle, achieve a particular purpose or use of the various exit to solve a

problem. From these definitions it can be concluded that problem-solving skills

are high-level thinking processes undertaken through systematic stages including

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problems and arriving at the outcome of problem solving as an evaluation process.

A person's ability to solve a problem is determined by his understanding

of the problem. In general, a problem is a situation that satisfies the following

requirements: 1) The situation indicates a gap between expectations and reality, 2)

The situation generates motivation to find a solution and, 3) There is no lightning

tool available to find way out.

Polya description (1985) there are four stages of the process in solving

the problem are:

1. Understanding the Problem (Understanding the problem)

a) Reread the problem

b) Determine the quantity given and desired

c) Recognize the challenges in the problem

d) Mention problems back in different formats (create drawings or

diagrams)

2. Planning a plan

a) Recognize principles, rules and laws on the matter

b) Determine mathematical equations to solve problems

3. Carrying out the plan

a) Using mathematical equations to solve problems

b) Connecting with previous material concepts

4. Check back (Looking back)

a) Check out the troubleshooting steps

b) Examine the unity of results

This study uses the tests given to students aiming to determine the

students' physics problem solving skills. The test form for problem solving skills

used is an essay test. The essay question requires many variations of questions and

answers. The problem-solving technique used is based on Nezu, et al (2007).

Clearly the scoring guidelines for problem solving skills are presented in Table

3.3.

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No Indicators Measured Response to Problems Score

problem solving correctly and completely

capacity Solve a problem of every stage right but 3

incomplete

Resolving a problem from each stage is 2

known incorrectly or incompletely

Fixed an issue of each stage incorrectly 1

and incompletely

2 Explain the problem Write down symbols of known and 4

and gather realistic unknown variables correctly and

goals completely

Write down symbols of known and 3

unknown variables correctly but not

complete

Write down symbols of known and 2

unknown variables incorrectly or

incompletely

Write down symbols of known and 1

unknown variables incorrectly and

incompletely

3 Be creative and Write down the concept / principles of 4

generate alternative physics in the form of equations and

solutions determine the math steps to solve the

problem correctly and completely

Write the concept / principles of physics 3

in the form of equations and determine

the math steps to solve the problem

correctly but not complete

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physics in the form of equations and

determine the math steps to solve the

problem incorrectly

Write down the concept / principles of 1

physics in the form of equations and

determine the math steps to solve

problems incorrectly and incompletely

solution plan completely

Write the completion correctly but not 3

complete

Wrote an incorrect solution 2

Wrote an incorrect solution 1

5 Test the solution plan Write the solution correctly and

and determine whether completely and according to the unit

the solution plan is Write the solution correctly and 3

appropriate for completely but not in accordance with

troubleshooting the unit

Write correct but incomplete solutions 2

Writes the wrong unit 1

learning is problem solving ability. Functionally, problem solving is important

because through problem solving physics as an essential discipline can be

developed, and can be adapted to various contexts and everyday problems.

Problem solving ability is also able to improve way of thinking ( way of thinking

). Problems can also challenge the mind and nuances of the puzzle for students so

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learning.

NEWTON’S LAW

Newton's Law 1

formula : ∑F = 0

Sound: "If the resultant on an object is equal to zero, then the stationary object

will remain stationary and the moving object will remain at a steady pace". Under

this law, you can understand that an object tends to maintain its state. A stationary

object will tend to remain stationary and moving objects will tend to keep moving.

Therefore, Newton's Law I is also referred to as the law of inertia or the law of

inertia. An example of the application of Newton I Law can you observe when

you are in a moving vehicle then suddenly braking, then your body will be pushed

forward. That is what is meant by "the tendency to keep going." Another example

you can observe when you are sitting on a silent vehicle then moves abruptly, then

your body will jerk backwards. That is what is meant by "the tendency to remain

silent". The above examples are event of inertia or inertia. The inertia of an object

is determined by the mass of the object. The greater the mass of the object, the

greater the inertia. Mass is the inertia of an object. The larger the mass of an

object, the larger the force required to make the object accelerate or accelerate. In

addition, the mass of large objects will be more difficult to move from a stationary

position and hard to stop from moving conditions.

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Newton's Law 2

acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass. The direction of acceleration is

equal to the direction of the total force acting on it ". Under Newton II Law, you

can understand that an object will increase its speed if given a total force whose

direction is the same as the direction of motion of the object. However, if the

direction of the total force applied to the object is opposite to the direction of

motion of the object, it will decrease the rate of the object or even stop it.

Because speed change or speed is acceleration. Then it can be concluded that the

total force applied to the object can cause acceleration. An example of the

application of Newton II law can you observe when you kick a ball (meaning you

give a force to the ball), then the ball will move with a certain acceleration.

Newton II's law is denoted by the formula:

Where:

f = the total force acting on the object (N)

m= mass of body (kg)

a= acceleration of objects (m / s2)

Newton's Law 3

Beep: "When an object gives force to a second object, it gives the same force as

opposite to the first."

The example of the application is when you hit the table (meaning giving a style

to the table), then the table will give the force back to your hand with the same

magnitude and the opposite direction with the direction of style you give.

Therefore, the bigger you hit the table, the more pain your hands will become

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because the table is doing a style that is also getting bigger in your hands. Look at

the picture below.

Faksi = -Freaksi

will give a normal force reaction (N), so N = W with the opposite direction of

force.

a straining force (T) that is as large as the mass of the object (W) in the opposite

direction.

When someone weighs (W) up the elevator. When in a state of silence, the

resulting force equals the person's weight (F = W). As the elevator moves up, the

resulting force is greater than the weight of the person (F> W). When the lift goes

down the person's weight is greater than the resulting force (F <W).

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2. 5 Relevant research

creative thinking and problem solving

Creative thinking and problem solving the result of the research are:

No. Name of Journal title Results

researcher

1. Adam malik Enhancing pre- A research on the implementation of

et al. service physics HOT (Higher Order Thinking)

teachers' creative Laboratory has been carried out. This

thinking skills research is aimed to compare the

through HOT lab creativity of pre-service physics

design teachers who receive physics

lesson with HOT Lab and with

verification lab for the topic of electric

circuit. This research used a quasi-

experiment

methods with control group pretest-

posttest design. The subject of the

research is 40 Physics Education pre-

service

physics teachers of UIN Sunan

Gunung Djati Bandung. Research

samples were selected by class

random sampling

technique. Data on pre-service physics

teachers' creative thinking skills were

collected using test of creative

thinking

skills in the form of essay. The results

of the research reveal the average of

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<0.69>

for pre-service physics teachers who

received lesson with HOT Lab design

and <0.39> for pre-service physics

teachers

who received lesson with verification

lab, respectively. Therefore, we

conclude that the application of HOT

Lab design is

more effective to increase creative

thinking skills in the lesson of electric

circuit.

2. m.sneti nova Students' Students often contend with many

dkk Difficulties in difficulties during solving physics

Solving Physics tasks

Problems at high school. To mitigate the

problem, it is important to determine

the cause of these

difficulties. To accomplish this,

questionnaires for high school

students were prepared.

The goals of the survey were to find

out strategies that students use in

problem solvingand to discover any

methods and steps that help students

to solve the tasks correctly.Results of

the research are summarized in the

contribution. .

3. Rika hermawato Analysis of Creative The purpose of this research is to

et al. Thinking Skills of describe the creative thinking skill of

Class X Students in class X students in the subject of

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Particle Dynamics study consisted of 25 high school

students. Data were obtained from

preliminary tests, tests of creative

thinking skills and interviews. The

initial test consists of 25 questions.

The test of creative thinking consists

of 8 questions, each containing aspects

of creative thinking skills: fluency,

novelty, flexibility and elaboration

followed by interviews. Research data

is analyzed through qualitative

descriptive approach. Based on the

results of research and data analysis of

research results it can be concluded

that, aspects of novelty and fluency

obtained from the average value per

student problem is in the high

category, and aspects of flexibility and

elaboration are in the category of

being.

4. Muslimah Sari. Analysis of the Based on the results of research that

Masrik Vector has been done, it can be concluded

Masking that the problem solving ability of

Capabilities physics teacher candidate students

Presented in about vectors that are represented in

Different Contexts the context of mathematics and

to Physical Teacher physics is categorized enough. The

Candidates ability of vector problem solving in

the mathematical context of 1 out of

20 subjects was classified as very

high, 7 out of 20 research subjects

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9 out of 20 study subjects were

classified into adequate categories and

3 out of 20 research subjects

categorized into less categories. The

ability of vector problem solving in

the physical context as many as 7 out

of 20 subjects of study were classified

into either category, 9 out of 20

research subjects were categorized

into sufficient categories, 3 out of 20

subjects were categorized into less and

1 in 20 study subjects were

categorized into very less categories.

5. Svetlana ganina The Influence . This study reports the outcomes of a

et al. Of Problem Solving research, the purpose of which was to

On Studying establish how solving dispersed data

Effectivenes problems can affect the studying

I n Physics effectiveness of physics. Data were

collected through pre-tests and post-

tests for studentsand questionnaires

for teachers. The authors of this article

created anew the problem of

superfluous or nonsufficient data that

has been disabled for solving: so-

called dispersed data problems.The

results showed that solving dispersed

data problems increases studying

effectiveness in physics.

maharani et al Process based on is difficult for teacher, especially

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Solving study aims to evaluate students'

Mathematics creative thinking process based on the

Problem model of

Wallas. This is a descriptive and

qualitative research where data

triangulation is employed. Subjects

are categorized into upper, middle,

and low category after doing creative

thinking ability test. The object of the

study is the existence of how junior

high school students solving

mathematicsproblems. Data were

analyzed through classification, data

representation, and conclusions. The

results showed 1) 23,33% of students

only reached stage preparation, called

low category, 2) 60%

of students reached illumination stage

though students take a long time,

called middle category,

and 3) 16.67% of students have

completed up to verification stage,

called upper category. For students in

low and middle category, they still

need assistance when experiencing

obstacles in thecreative thinking

process, while the upper category

students need enrichment materials.

7. Hasanasy The Analysis of Creative thinking skills are needed in

syabani et al Student's Creative the 21st century learning. According

Thinking Skills in to the P21 platform (Partnership for

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Connection" century learning), someone will

Problem through survive in the 21st century if they have

Research Based some skills of one of them is creative

Learning thinking skill. By applying Research

Based Learning (RBL), 64 students

were given a problem that is Rainbow

Connection. Through

qualitativeresearch, student results are

analyzed to know the level of their

creative thinking skills. (I) In class A,

28 students have creative thinking

skills level 4, 2 students havecreative

thinking skills of level 3, and 4

students have creative thinking skills

of level 2 (ii) In class B, 20 students

have creative

thinking skills of level 4, 2 students

have creative thinking skills level 3,

and 8 students have creative thinking

skills of level 2.It can be concluded

that the level of students creative

thinking skills in solving Rainbow

Connection problems through RBL

are relatively high.

8. Salmiza Saleh Malaysian students' Based on the results obtained in this

motivation towards study, it can be concluded that in

Physics learning general, though these students have

been found to have a moderately high

motivation to learn Physics, most of

them still have a rather negative

perception of learning Physics in

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termsof the dimensions of motivation,

it was found that the relationships

subscale has the greatest influence

towards students' motivation to learn

Physics, followed by pressure / stress,

effort / significance, v alue / use,

interest, understanding, and choice.

The show results that there is no

significant

difference between male and female

students' motivation to learn Physics

in schools. However, there is a

significant difference between rural

students 'and urban students'

motivation to learn Physics, whereby

urban students do have a higher

motivation than to rural students.

9. Hiisdamayanti Analysis of Creative The results showed that each aspect of

djupanda et al. Thinking Senior creative thinking has different ways of

High School solving physics problems, especially

Students Solve elaboration aspects of respondents

Physical Problems. showed better results in solving the

problem than the aspect of thinking

the other creative.

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2.6.1 Motivation to learn

Motivation to learn comes from the word motive that can be interpreted

as the strength contained within the individual, which causes the individual to act

or act. In the learning activity, motivation can be said as the overall driving force

within the students that leads to learning activities, which ensures the continuity

of the learning activities and that gives direction to the learning activities, so that

the objectives desired by the learning subject are achieved (Sardiman, 2001: 71).

Motivation can basically help in understanding and explaining individual

behavior, including the behavior of the individual being studied. There are several

functions of motivation, among others, namely:

a. Encouraging people to do.

b. Determine the direction of the goal, ie towards the goal to be achieved.

c.Collecting the act, which determines the actions that are not

useful for that purpose.

(Sardiman, 2001: 83) The essence of learning motivation is internal and external

motivation in students who are learning to conduct behavioral changes, which in

general with some indicators of learning motivation can be classified as follows:

a. The desire and desire are successful

b.There encouragement and needs in learning

c. There hope and ideals in the future

d. There appreciation in learning

e. It is an interesting activity

f. There a conducive learning environment that allows a student

learn good. (Uno, HB 2006: 23).

Motivation In Learning The role of motivation to learn is very supportive of the

success of learners in learning activities.

2.6.2 Creative thinking

Creative thinking has components including fluency, flexibility,

elaboration, and originality. The ability to think fluency (fluency) has

characteristics such as triggering many ideas, answers, problem solving or

questions, providing many ways or suggestions to do things. The ability to think

26

seeking many alternative solutions, able to change the way or approach a way of

thinking. Elaboration skills have the traits of enriching and developing an idea,

detailing details of an object, idea or situation to make it more interesting.

Original thinking skills have such features as revealing new and unique things that

no one else has ever thought of. Hwang et al (2007) in his research entitled

Multiple Representation Skills and Creativity Effects on Mathematical Problem

Solving Using a Multimedia Whiteboard concluded that elaboration ability, which

is one component of creative thinking, is a key factor that stimulates students to

create their knowledge in the activity solution to problem. The ability to think

creatively also supports individual performance in problem-solving activities .

according to Munandar (2009).

learning is problem solving ability. Functionally, problem solving is important

because through problem solving physics as an essential discipline can be

developed, and can be adapted to various contexts and everyday problems.

Problem solving ability is also able to improve way of thinking. Problems can also

challenge the mind and nuances of the puzzle for students so as to enhance

curiosity, motivation, and persistence to always engage in physics learning.

Based on the description of the theory and framework above, then that

the hypothesis of this research is as follows:

1. There influence and the relationship between motivation to learn

creative thinking ability and solving physics problem on newton

legal material in Senior High School N 2 binjai.

2. There is an effect of creative thinking on solving student problems.

3. There is the influence of learning motivation and kretaif thinking

simultaneously to the problem solving skills of students of Senior High

School 2 Binjai.

27

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODS

The research location is located at Senior High School N 2 Binjai

3.2 Data Source

Source of data used in this research are:

3.2.1 Primary Data

1. According Kuncoro (2009: 148) Primary data is data obtained directly

with field surveys that use all the original data collection methods.

Methods that can be used to collect primary data is through the

spread of questionnaires, interviews and observations directly to

individuals or individuals. Primary data in this study was obtained

through the distribution of questionnaires to students Senior High

School N 2 BINJAI.

According Kuncoro (2009: 148) Secondary data is data that has been

collected by data collection agencies and published to the public data users.

Secondary data in this research, among others, taken from previous researchers

and electronic media (internet) .

3.3.1 Population

According Sekaran (2006: 121) population refers to the entire group of

people, events, or things of interest that investigators want to investigate.

Population in this research is class X Senior Highh School N 2 Binjai.

28

3.3.2 Sample

According Sugiyono (2005: 73) sample is part of the number and

characteristics possessed by the population.

According to Arikunto (2006: 134), if the subject is less than a hundred,

better taken all so that his research is population research. But if the number of

subjects is large, it can be taken between 10% - 15% or 20% - 25%.

Because the subject is less than 100, then this type of research is a

population study in which the author takes the entire population into a sample of

research with a total of 50 people.

3.4.1 Research Variables

The research variables used in this research are as follows:

a. The independent variable is the variable stimulus / variables that affect other

variables (Sarwono, 2008: 107).

The independent variables in this research are:

Motivation to learn : X1

Think creative : X2

b. The dependent variable is the variable that gives the reaction / response when

connected with the independent variable (Sarwono, 2008: 107).

The dependent variable in this research are:

Solution to problem :Y

The operational definition of the variables analyzed is as follows:

1. Learning Motivation (X1)

change in energy in a person characterized by the emergence of feelings and

reactions to achieve goals. With this understanding, it can be said that motivation

is something complex.

Motivation will cause a change in energy that exists in man, so that will bergayut

with psychiatric symptoms, feelings and emotions, to then act or do something. In

29

attempts to provide certain conditions, so that someone wants and wants to do

something, and if he does not like it, it will try to nullify or circumvent those

feelings of dislike. Sardiman (2011: 83)

suggests the characteristics of motivation that exist in students include:

1) Diligent to face the task (can work continuously for a long time, never stop

before finish).

2) Ductile facing difficulties (not quickly desperate) does not require outside

encouragement to perform as well as possible (not quickly satisfied with

achievements that have been in achievements).

3) Demonstrate interest in various problems.

4) Preferably working independently.

5) Rapid boredom on routine tasks (things that are mechanical, repetitive, and

therefore less effective.

6) Can defend his opinion (if you are sure of something).

7) It is not easy to let go of what is believed.

8) Pleased to find and solve problems problems. If someone has the characteristics

as above, means that someone has a high enough motivation to learn. The

characteristics of motivation to learn as above will be very important in

supporting the learning process.

Evans (1991) explains that creative thinking is a mental activity to create

continuous (continuous) relationships, so that a "right" combination is found or

until someone gives up. Creative associations occur through the resemblance of

something or through analogical thinking. The association of ideas forms new

ideas . So, think creatively

ignoring established relationships , and creating

relationships. This understanding shows that creative thinking is a mental activity

to find a combination that not known before .

While this research will describe the creative thinking skills of students based on

their aspects, namely :

30

b. flexibility,

c. fluency, and

d. elaboration (elaboration ) (park: 2004)

3. Problem solving(Y)

Problem solving is seen as one of the main skills that learners

should have when entering the real world (Mabilangan, 2012). Learners

are given the opportunity to solve problems that prioritize problems in

accordance with life and how to learn. A person who has problem-solving

ability can be classified as a qualified human resource because by having

the ability, one can solve problems from the lightest to the most complex (

Munandar , 20 09 ).

Creativity and problem-solving skills are also capabilities which is

demanded by the world of work today. According to Career Center Maine

Department of Labor (2004), some of the individual characteristics of the

desired workforce are: (1) confidence, (2) motivation for achievement, (3)

master basic skills such as reading, writing, listening, talking, and

computer literacy, (4) mastering thinking skills, such as problem solving,

problem posing, decision making, analthical thinking, and creative

thinking (4) creative thinking), and (5) master interpersonal skills, such as

the ability to work in teams and negotiate.

Determination of appropriate data collection techniques is very determine

the scientific truth of a study. In addition, the determination of data collection

methods in accordance with the problems under study will help smooth the

research objectives that have been determined.

To obtain the necessary data, researchers use data collection tools in the

following way:

31

That is by collecting data and information from books, journals, and

internet related to research.

3.5.2 Test

A test is a tool or procedure used to know or measure something in an

atmosphere, in a prescribed manner and rules (Arikunto, 1990). The test is one of

the key components in a reliable study to capture and collect research data

according to research needs. The tests used in this study are critical thinking skills

(multiple choice questions) and problem-solving skills test (multiple choice

questions).

The Critical Thinking Skills Tests

The critical thinking skills test in this study consisted of 15 questions in

the form of multiple choice tests given at the beginning of the study. The grid of

critical thinking skills can be shown in Table 3.1

Table 3.2

Test Layout

Grid of the Critical Thinking Instrument Test

Variables Indicator No. Scale Size Data

Item source

The Ability of 1. Provide a Ratio 0-100 Student

Critical simple

Thinking explanation

2. Build basic

skills

3. Conclude

4. Provide

further

explanation

5. Setting

strategies and

tactics

32

The student's physics problem solving test in this study consisted of 15

single-choice test questions given at the beginning of the study. In determining a

problem, a grid is needed for the problem. As for the grid problem for the test of

physics problem solving ability can be shown there is table 3.2

Table 3.3

Test Layout

Lattice Test of Problem Solving Ability Test

Variables Indicator No. Scale Size Data

Item source

Troubleshooting 1. Understandin Ratio 0-100 Student

Capabilities g the Problem

2. Create a

settlement plan

3. Implement

the settlement

plan

4. Re-checking

3.5.3 Questionnaire

The data collection in this study was obtained by questionnaire method

that is based on the answers of the respondents on the list of questions spread. The

questionnaire is a set of systematic questions logically related to the research

problem posed by the researcher (Yamin, 2009: 10). The questionnaires

distributed by researchers were 50 questionnaires to 50 respondents. Measurement

of variables is done by semantic differential scale .

The differential scale is the scale for measuring attitudes, but the form is

not a multiple choice, but is arranged in a continuum line where a very positive

answer lies on the right of the line, and a very negative answer lies on the left-

33

hand side of the line, or the like . The semantic-scale scale contains a set of

bipolar characteristics (two poles), such as: good-not good, hot-cold, and so on.

The data obtained through the measurement with the semantic differential

scale is the interval data. The scale of this form is usually used to measure

attitudes or certain characteristics that someone has.

In data processing, to calculate each indicator, it will be used scale

interval, where this scale shows the distance between one with other data that is:

Low

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

High

Information :

1 - 2 = Low

3 - 5 = Medium

6 - 7 = Height

3.5.4 .1 Test Validity

Validity test is used to measure validity or validity of a questionnaire.

Validity is the extent to which the accuracy and meticulousness of measuring

instruments in performing the measuring function (Yamin, 2009: 7).

Validity is a measure that indicates the extent of the validity of an

instrument (Arikunto, 2002: 144).

A measurement scale is called valid when doing what it should and

measuring what should be measured (Kuncoro, 2009: 172).

The high validity of the instrument indicates the extent to which the data

collected does not deviate from the description of the variable in question .

Validity test is done by testing the correlation between the item score and the total

score. Statistically the correlation number for the total that can be obtained must

be compared with the critical value of the correlation value of " Pearson

Corellation ".

34

correlation values obtained.

Testing is done by computer software tool SPSS program version 15.0 .

The formula of Pearson Corellation (Arikunto, 2006: 169) is as follows:

𝑛 ∑ 𝑋𝑌 − (∑ 𝑋) (∑ 𝑌)

𝑟𝑥𝑦 =

√{𝑛 ∑ 𝑋 2 − (∑ 𝑋 2 ) {𝑛 ∑ 𝑌 2 − (∑ 𝑌)2 }}

Information .

𝑟𝑥𝑦 : The correlation coefficient between the score of each item and the total item

score .

∑ 𝑥: Number of scores per item .

∑ 𝑦 : Total total score of items.

∑ 𝑥𝑦 : Number of multiplication items with total items.

n : Number of samples.

Criteria testing the validity of research indicator instrument is (Sarwono,

2008: 188):

1. If r count is greater than r table (at the 0.05 or 5 percent

significance level), then the questionnaire is valid.

2. If r count is less than r table (at the 0.05 or 5 percent significance

level), then the questionnaire is not valid.

3.5.4 .2 Test Reliabilitas

Reliabilitas shows the consistency and stability of a score (scale of

measurement). Re li abilitas refers to a certain level of reliability. Re lia bel means

trustworthy, so reliable.

A questionnaire is said to be reliable or reliable if one's answer to a

question is consistent or stable over time.

In the reliability test used alpha croncbach formula (Arikunto, 2006:

178), namely:

35

𝑟 𝑘 1− ∑ 𝑎𝑏2

11= [ ][ ]

𝑘−1 𝜎𝑡2

Information :

k : number of questions

𝑎𝑏 2 : the number of grain variations

𝜎𝑡 2 : total variation

To calculate the number of question varian variants, first look for the

variance value for each item of question with the formula:

(∑ 𝑋)2

2−

∑𝑋 𝑛

𝜎2 =

𝑛

Where :

𝜎2 : the value of the variance of the item

n : the number of respondents

x : the value of the selected score

To make it easier to test the validity and reliability of the questionnaire

will be helped by the program Statistic Product Service Solution (SPSS) Version

15.0 .

3.6.1. Classic assumption test

The classical assumption test is performed to test a model that is

appropriate or not used in the study. The classical assumption test used in this

research are:

That is a test that aims to determine the frequency distribution of data

whether distributed normally in multiple regression models used .

36

Multicoleaniritas test aims to test the correlation between independent

variables in the regression model used. No multicoleanirity will result in

inaccuracy in estimation.

1. By looking at the Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) count. A

regression model is said to be free of multicoleaniritas if its VIF is not more

than 10 and the tolerance value is about 1 or close to 1.

2. The value of R2 indicates a value smaller than the simultaneous

correlation coefficient (R).

3.6.1.3. Test Heterokede sitas

The heterokedes test aims to test whether in a regression model there

is a variance inequality of the residual of an observation to another observation. If

the residual variance of another observation remains, then it is called

homocedasticity, and also different variance is called heteroked sitas . The most

recent model is no heterokede sitas .

3.6.2. Multiple Regression Analysis

Multiple regression analysis is used to determine the effect of the

independent variable and variab el bound is forward- thinking creatively (X1) and

learning (X2) towards solving the problem (Y). In addition, multiple regression

analysis is also used to determine the extent of influence between the independent

variables and dependent variables.

The multiple regression equation can be written as follows:

Y = a + b1X 1 + b2X 2 + e

Information :

Y : Dependent Variable (Job Satisfaction)

a : Constants

X1 : Promotion of Position

X2 : Compensation

e : Error

37

F test is performed to test whether the independent variable (X1, X2) has

significant influence on the dependent variable (Y) simultaneously. The way used

is to compare the value of F table with F arithmetic . If the value of F arithmetic >F table

then the hypothesis is accepted, so it can be said that the independent variable

from the regression model can explain the dependent variable simultaneously.

Conversely, if F arithmetic <F table then the hypothesis is rejected, thus it can be said

that the independent variable of the multiple linear regression model is unable to

explain the dependent variable.

Test F to test the hypothesis proposed hypothesis formulation as follows:

H 0 : : 𝛽1= 𝛽2 = 0, meaning free variables (X1, X2) simultaneously no significant

effect on the variable Y.

H a : 𝛽1 ≠ 𝛽2 ≠ 0, means the independent variables (X1, X2) simultaneously

there is a significant influence on the variable Y.

The formula used to determine the level of significance of variables X1

and X2 together to variable Y used the formula F test regression (Sugiyono, 2005:

190):

𝑅2

𝑘

=

(1− 𝑅2 )/(𝑛−𝑘−1)

Where :

R : Coefficient of multiple correlation

k : The number of independent variables

n : Number of sample members

To test partially whether the independent variable (X1, X2) has a

significant influence on the dependent variable (Y) with the formulation of the

hypothesis as follows:

38

on the dependent variable ( Y ) .

H a : 𝛽1 ≠ 𝛽2 ≠ 0 ,means the independent variables (X1, X2) there is a

significant influence on the dependent variable (Y).

Criterion of decision making:

H 0 received if t arithmetic <t table , on

H a is accepted if t count > t table , on

The formula used to test each of these hypotheses with the formula t test partial,

namely:

𝑟 √𝑛−2

Thitung =

√𝑛−𝑟 2

Analysis of determination (R 2)

is used to measure the contribution of a

percentage contribution of independent variables studied in the form of creative

thinking (X1) and learning (X2) towards solving the dependent variable (Y)

together - the same where 0 ≤ 𝑅2 ≤ 1.. This means that the value of R2 is 1 or

close to 1 , the more powerful the influence of the independent variable on the

dependent variable . Conversely, if the value of R 2 is

close to zero, the weaker the

influence of the independent variables on the dependent variable, to facilitate data

processing then used SPSS ( Statistical Product and Service Solutions) program

for Windows Version 15.0.

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