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Dean, Read - 2001 - Modelling the Behaviour of Plastics for Design Under Impact

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www.elsevier.nl/locate/polytest

Property Modelling

Modelling the behaviour of plastics for design under impact

G. Dean, B. Read

Centre for Materials Measurement and Technology, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW, UK

Abstract

Computer methods based on finite element analysis are able to predict the performance of plastics under impact

loading. Although the accuracy of results depends on the model used to describe the deformation behaviour of the

polymer, whichever model is used, the analysis requires stress/strain data over a wide range of strain rate. These data

are most conveniently measured in tension, but procedures are currently not available for determining results at high

strain rates. ISO standards for tensile property measurement are applicable for strain rates up to around 0.1 s⫺1. To

simulate behaviour under impact, data are required at rates that are 3 or 4 orders of magnitude higher than this. For

accurate data acquisition at these higher rates, attention needs to be paid to apparatus design in order to minimise

contributions from transient forces arising from resonances and the propagation of shock waves in the apparatus. In

addition, procedures and extensometers are not routinely available for determining strains at the higher rates of defor-

mation. This paper illustrates the acquisition of data over a wide range of strain rates through a combination of measure-

ments at low and moderate strain rates with extrapolation of these data to higher rates. In order to maximise accuracy

at moderate strain rates, suitable designs need to be selected for the transducers, the test specimen geometry and the

test assembly. Extrapolation is achieved by the use of mathematical functions to model the stress/strain curves and

their rate dependence. Reference is also made to the development of a new materials model for describing the defor-

mation behaviour of toughened plastics at large strains. 2001 NPL. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights

reserved.

1. Computer aided design competent design rather than the moulding and testing

of prototypes. Computer methods are available based on

Most modern grades of plastics are very tough finite element analysis that enable predictions to be made

materials that are capable of sustaining large strain levels of performance under realistic loading situations.

prior to failure, making them an attractive option for There are two factors that limit the wider use of these

many applications. Such applications include housings computer methods. Firstly, a lack of recognised and rou-

for domestic and electronic appliances, which may have tine test methods for measuring some of the data required

to sustain accidental impact without showing signs of by the analysis, and secondly, limited knowledge of the

damage, and interior components of motor vehicles, validity for plastics of the materials models employed by

which may be impacted by occupants in a crash and must the computer analysis, and thus uncertainty in the accu-

minimise damage to the human body part involved. In racy of derived results.

these applications and others, it is important that the per- This paper discusses the experimental issues associa-

formance and the safe operating limits of the component ted with data measurement, and a procedure for

under impact are known. Substantial savings can be determining properties by modelling and extrapolation

made in both time and cost if this can be done through is proposed. The limitations of elastic–plastic materials

0142-9418/01/$ - see front matter 2001 NPL. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 1 4 2 - 9 4 1 8 ( 0 1 ) 0 0 0 0 3 - 4

678 G. Dean, B. Read / Polymer Testing 20 (2001) 677–683

models for describing non-linear deformation in plastics A simpler approach to determining strain in such tests is

are also discussed and the basis for a new model is to derive values from cross-head movement or the

explained. change in grip separation. An apparent or average strain

is obtained from the ratio of the change in grip separation

to the length of the specimen between the grips prior to

2. Determination of data required for impact load application. [Note, if the measurement of cross-head

analysis movement is used then a correction will, in general, be

necessary arising from the compliance of the test

2.1. Materials models and data assembly.] Since the test specimen is usually waisted in

the gauge region, this average strain will differ from

Non-linear stress/strain behaviour of plastics is gener- actual strain in the gauge region of the specimen, where

ally associated with an enhanced stress–relaxation, or the corresponding stress is calculated. It is possible to

creep arising from an increase in molecular mobility estimate the actual strain values from the average strain

induced by elevated stresses. Much of the strain is recov- using a correlation of these quantities determined from

erable at levels below the yield strain. Satisfactory mod- lower speed tests, where actual strain can be measured

els of non-linear viscoelasticity have yet to be developed, with extensometers. The correlation obtained will be spe-

and most FE packages consider material non-linearity in cific to a particular test machine, the specimen size and

terms of elastic–plastic models that were developed for geometry and the strain level in the specimen when this

metals and adapted for use with plastics and other is above the limit for linear behaviour. There will also

materials. be a small dependence upon material properties and

With elastic–plastic models, calculations of stress and hence test speed.

strain distributions at low strains (ⱕ0.01) are based on There remains some concern over the use of this

the theory of linear elasticity using, for isotropic approach for determining strain in materials where the

materials, values of the Young’s modulus E and elastic strain is not uniform in the gauge section of the specimen

Poisson’s ratio ne. The onset of non-linearity in a stress– beyond the peak in the stress/strain curve. Materials that

strain curve is then ascribed to plastic deformation and show a visible neck region are an extreme example of

occurs at a stress level regarded as the first yield stress. this.

The subsequent increase in yield stress with strain is In this way, it is generally possible to obtain valid

associated with the effects of strain hardening. The hard- tensile data up to test speeds of around 1 m/s which will

ening behaviour is required by the computer analysis and correspond to strain rates of typically 10 s⫺1. At test

is most commonly defined by a plot of tensile yield stress speeds above this, additional problems arise. Owing to

against the tensile plastic strain. This is derived from a the finite time for the hydraulic ram to accelerate to the

measured tensile stress/strain curve by subtracting the set speed, the test will not be performed under constant

elastic component of strain at each stress level. Since strain rate. In general, this is not a major problem since

plastics are viscoelastic materials, the hardening curves in the initial part of the test where the behaviour is linear,

are dependent upon the strain rate associated with the the strain rate is less than in the latter part where plastic

applied load. deformation is dominant. Hence, elastic and plastic

behaviour should be analysed using different values of

2.2. Experimental methods strain rate. A more serious problem arises with the rapid

accelerations associated with load application that give

Much of the material property data required by a finite rise to transient forces. Such forces are recorded by the

element analysis of the performance of a component force transducer and superimposed onto the measured

under impact loading can be derived from a series of force on the specimen. These transient forces arise from

tensile stress/strain curves measured over a range of excitation of a resonance of the force transducer and

strain rates. For many applications, the strain rate should from multiple reflections of the acoustic pulse generated

reach or exceed 100 s⫺1. Standard test methods for meas- at one end of the specimen by the sudden load appli-

uring tensile behaviour are confined to strain rates below cation. The influence of these forces on the accuracy of

0.1 s⫺1. Using servo-hydraulic test machines, smaller measurements can be minimised by using components

specimens and light weight extensometers, reliable of low mass in the test assembly and a high stiffness

results can generally be obtained to strain rates around force transducer and by filtering or smoothing the

1 s⫺1. Above this value experimental difficulties, force signal.

especially with strain measurement, can significantly

reduce the accuracy of results. 2.3. Data acquisition by materials modelling

The development of high-speed extensometers that

operate at higher strain rates has been reported, although The measurement of data characterising rate-depen-

these devices are not used routinely for data acquisition. dent behaviour suitable for impact analyses is laborious

G. Dean, B. Read / Polymer Testing 20 (2001) 677–683 679

An alternative approach to obtaining plastic strain hard-

ening behaviour at high strain rates is to use mathemat-

ical models of stress/strain curves measured at low and

intermediate strain rates to extrapolate behaviour to

higher rates where experimental difficulties arise. The

advantages of this approach are:

testing effort and expensive apparatus. The testing

procedures required for data extrapolation are rela-

tively straightforward.

2. Extensive materials property data can be readily cal-

culated from a mathematical function together with

values for the material parameters in this function that Fig. 1. Tensile stress–strain curves for a propylene–ethylene

have been derived from selected tests. This is a con- copolymer measured at different test speeds. The values for the

venient and efficient way of accessing materials plastic strain rate for each test are shown with each curve.

properties in a package that allows a user to define

the expression for rate-dependent hardening.

3. If valid functions are available for modelling rate-

dependent behaviour, then materials properties at deformation is dominant. At strain rates between 0.0003

high strain rates derived by extrapolation will be more s⫺1 and 0.03 s⫺1 measurements were obtained using the

accurate than measured values. This may be parti- ISO multipurpose test specimen and cross-head speeds

cularly relevant for those materials in which the strain of 1, 10 and 100 mm/min. Strain measurements at low

distribution in the gauge length of the specimen is not values (ⱕ0.01) were made using contacting exten-

uniform after the peak load has been reached. Meas- someters to measure both the longitudinal and transverse

ured stresses and strains are then average values strains. At higher strains, a contacting lateral exten-

which can depart significantly from true stress and someter was used for transverse strain measurements,

strain in regions of strain localisation. and a video extensometer was used to obtain longitudinal

strains. From these measurements, Poisson’s ratio was

derived over the strain range and used to calculate values

To address this latter problem, true stress and strain for the true tensile stress. No significant variation of

measurements can be made using a video extensometer Poisson’s ratio with strain rate was discernible from

and multiple, short gauge regions along the specimen. these tests.

By measuring lateral strain as well as longitudinal strain, Data at strain rates between 0.2 and 30 were obtained

in these discrete regions in the tensile specimen, values using tensile specimens having the same geometry as the

for Poisson’s ratio and thus true stresses can be calcu- standard multipurpose specimen but scaled to half the

lated. Video extensometers can only be used at low or size. A servohydraulic test machine was used to achieve

moderate strain rates but by extrapolating precise cross-head speeds in the range 10 to 1000 mm/s. Con-

measurements at these rates to higher rates, it should be tacting extensometers were used to measure longitudinal

possible to achieve higher accuracy in true stress and strain up to a strain of about 0.1 in tests carried out at

strain values than is possible by measurement of aver- speeds of 10 and 100 mm/s. At higher strains, and in

age values. tests at the higher speed of 1 m/s, longitudinal strains

The realisation of these objectives depends critically were derived from measurements of cross-head move-

on the validity of the model functions used to describe ment. Data at the highest strain rate were obtained from

strain and strain-rate dependence. Some suitable func- falling weight impact tests at a speed at contact of 4 m/s.

tions are proposed below and their application illustrated Lateral strain measurements were not made in tests at

using extensive property data measured on a propylene– strain rates above 0.03 s⫺1. Since tests at lower rates

ethylene copolymer containing 8% ethylene. showed that any variation of Poisson’s ratio with strain

rate was small, true stresses in the higher rate tests were

2.4. Modelling plastic strain hardening calculated using Poisson’s ratio data obtained at the

lower rates.

Fig. 1 shows true stress/true strain curves for the pro- Values for tensile modulus E were obtained at each

pylene copolymer measured in tension at strain rates strain rate from measurements below a strain level of

ranging from 3×10−4 s⫺1 to 90 s⫺1. These strain rates 0.005. These were used to derive curves of stress s

refer to strain levels of 0.03 and above where plastic against plastic strain ep based on the assumption that the

680 G. Dean, B. Read / Polymer Testing 20 (2001) 677–683

this material and can be assumed to take average values

of 0.69 and 0.6 respectively without any loss of predic-

tive accuracy.

The parameter eps decreases with strain rate and

reflects a shift in the strain at which the peak in stress

occurs with increasing strain rate as observed in Fig. 2.

This dependence can be either modelled as shown below

or assumed constant for convenience, if the associated

loss of precision is acceptable.

strain rate is generally described using the Eyring equ-

Fig. 2. True tensile stress/true tensile plastic strain curves ation [1]. In its most simple form, this can be written

derived from the data in the figure.

sy⫽A⫹B log ėp (3)

where sy is usually the peak stress in a tensile test carried

total strain e is the sum of elastic and plastic compo-

out at the strain rate ėp and A and B are temperature-

nents. Thus

dependent materials parameters. The rate-dependence of

s the parameters so and sf in Table 1 have accordingly

ep⫽e⫺ (1)

E been modelled using the expressions

The resulting curves are shown in Fig. 2 and are the rate- sf⫽sfo⫹b log ėp (4a)

dependent hardening data required by a finite element and

analysis.

Each of these curves can be accurately modelled by a so⫽soo⫹c log ėp (4b)

function of the form

Plots of sf and so taken from Table 1 against log ėp

s⫽[so⫹(sf⫺so)(1⫺exp⫺(ep/eps)b)](1⫺qep) (2)

are shown in Fig. 3. Eq. (4) gives a satisfactory fit to

yield stress) corresponding to zero plastic strain and a

value of around sf (the initial flow stress) corresponding

approximately to the plateau stress. The parameter eps

represents some mean strain within the strain range over

which the stress rises rapidly between so and sf, and the

parameter b influences the width of that range. The term

containing the parameter q describes a small decrease of

stress with plastic strain beyond the strain at which the

peak in stress occurs. Values for these parameters giving

the best fit of Eq. (2) to each of the curves in Fig. 2 are

shown in Table 1.

It is evident from Table 1 that the main strain rate Fig. 3. Plots of the parameters sf, so and eps shown in Table

dependence occurs in the parameters so and sf. The 1 against log plastic strain rate.

Table 1

Values for the parameters in Eq. (2) giving the fits shown to the data in Fig. 2

so (MPa) 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

sf (MPa) 27 29.3 31.7 35.4 39.5 42.5 46.5

eps 0.013 0.010 0.009 0.008 0.0075 0.006 0.005

b 0.63 0.63 0.70 0.68 0.70 0.75 0.75

q 0.56 0.51 0.47 0.70 0.76 0.59 0.54

G. Dean, B. Read / Polymer Testing 20 (2001) 677–683 681

tion and experimental data is very satisfactory except at

the highest rate of 91 s⫺1. The departure here may arise

from experimental error in the data which were determ-

ined using the falling weight impact method. Alterna-

tively, it may indicate the onset of a breakdown of Eq.

(4a) at this rate. With any predictive method, it is neces-

sary to establish the limitations in the functions

especially when used for extrapolation. The validity of

Eq. (4a) over a wider range of strain rate can be explored

through the use of measurements at lower temperatures

as discussed below.

Evidence that Eqs. (3) and (4) represent an over sim-

plification of yielding kinetics has been reported for

Fig. 4. Comparisons of tensile data with calculated values some polymers [2,3] and attributed to a contribution to

using Eq. (7) and the parameters in Table 2. the yield stress from a secondary (lower temperature)

relaxation process. Assuming that this process gives an

additive contribution to the yield stress, it follows that

the data and yield values for sfo and soo of 38 MPa and

the sf vs log ėp plot (Fig. 3) will show a change to a

10.6 MPa respectively. The parameters b and c are 3.6

steeper gradient at a strain rate dependent on the kinetics

MPa and 1.1 MPa respectively. The variation of the para-

of the secondary relaxation. This change of gradient

meter eps can also be adequately described by a linear

occurs at lower strain rates if the temperature is lowered,

dependence on log ėp as also shown in Fig. 3. Thus tak-

as shown in Fig. 5. In this figure, the maximum stress

ing

sy at each strain rate is identified from tensile tests at

eps⫽eso⫺d log ėp (5) different absolute temperatures T and is plotted as the

ratio sy/T against log strain rate. By normalising with

values for eso of 0.0077 and for d of 0.0013 have been

derived. respect to the absolute temperature T, the analysis shows

that the gradients of both regions (with and without con-

In general it will be possible to simplify Eq. (4) with

tributions from the secondary relaxation respectively) are

negligible loss of accuracy. It can be seen from the para-

meters derived from Fig. 3 that Eq. (4) can be written

sf⫽sfo(1⫹a log ėp) (6)

so⫽soo(1⫹a log ėp)

where a is approximately 0.090. Eq. (2) then takes the

form

s⫽(sfo⫺(sfo⫺soo)exp⫺(ep/eps)b)(1⫺qep)(1⫹a log ėp)

(7)

pendent of strain rate, then the strain and strain-rate

dependencies of s in Eq. (7) are separable. This can

make implementation of materials properties as a user-

defined hardening function easier in certain FE packages.

Fig. 4 shows comparisons of Eq. (7) with the experi- Fig. 5. Plots of sy/T against log strain rate for the propylene–

mental data using values for the parameters given in ethylene copolymer at different temperatures. Here, sv refers to

Table 2. the peak value of stress on a stress/strain curve.

Table 2

Values for the parameters in Eqs. (7) and (5) used to model strain and strain-rate dependent yield in the propylene copolymer

682 G. Dean, B. Read / Polymer Testing 20 (2001) 677–683

gradient is then easier to identify, and it is possible to

estimate where this will occur at temperatures around

and above ambient.

tic deformation is described by a von Mises yield cri-

terion, the only data requirements are elastic properties

and a hardening curve represented by a plot of yield

stress against plastic strain. If rate dependent behaviour Fig. 6. Experimental stress/strain curves for an acrylonitrile–

butadiene–styrene (ABS) polymer obtained from tests under

is to be modelled then curves spanning a range of strain

uniaxial compression, uniaxial tension and shear.

rate are needed, as shown in Fig. 2. However, in order

to establish how valid the von Mises criterion is for a

particular material, it is necessary to compare hardening

functions obtained under different stress states. In this the tensile curve. Clearly plastic deformation under a ten-

way, the sensitivity of yielding to the hydrostatic compo- sile stress is different from that under compression or

nent of stress can be investigated. Tensile data are gener- shear. The plastic deformation mechanism that deter-

ally used for this purpose as data acquisition is relatively mines behaviour under tension is associated with the

straightforward, together with results from shear or uni- nucleation of multiple crazes or cavities in the polymer.

axial compression tests. Results are analysed using a Since this requires a dilatational component of stress or

yield criterion with sensitivity to the hydrostatic compo- strain, the process is not observed in compression or

nent of stress [4,5]. The simplest of these is shear. In the case of ABS, the rubber phase acts as

centres for nucleation of cavities which serve to produce

冑3(l+1) (l−1) enhanced yielding around the rubber particles leading to

sT ⫽ 2D ⫹

J1/2 J (8) a reduction in the tensile yield stresses relative to equiv-

2l 2l 1

alent stresses in shear and compression. This behaviour

where J1/2

2D is the 2nd invariant of the deviatoric stress is revealed by measurements of Poisson’s ratio with

tensor and is a measure of the effective shear stress in strain as shown in Fig. 7. Initially, Poisson’s ratio is

the material. J1 is another stress invariant and is the observed to rise slightly with strain consistent with a

hydrostatic stress component. The parameter sT is a ten- plastic deformation mechanism that is predominantly

sile yield stress and will depend upon plastic strain ep. shear in character. At a strain of around 0.02, the Pois-

The function sT(ep) is the plastic strain hardening func- son’s ratio decreases as cavities start to nucleate, and a

tion and is shown at different strain rates by the data in deformation mechanism is initiated that involves sig-

Fig. 2. The parameter l is a measure of the sensitivity nificant dilatational strain. This cavity nucleation process

of yielding to the hydrostatic stress. Its magnitude can

be determined by analysis of the tests under different

stress states and lies typically in the range 1.1–1.2.

The yield behaviour of many materials cannot be read-

ily modelled using Eq. (8). Such materials are character-

istically multiphase polymers that have been specially

formulated by blending or copolymerisation to improve

toughness. A common example of such a material is

acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). Results of tests

carried out on a typical grade of this material under uni-

axial tension, uniaxial compression and shear are shown

in Fig. 6. If the results of the shear and compression tests

are analysed using Eq. (8), then a value for l=1.2 is

obtained. However, if tension and compression data or

tension and shear data are compared, then the derived Fig. 7. Comparison of tensile and shear test data for the ABS

values for l are significantly higher and must vary with polymer showing the onset of dilatational plastic deformation

plastic strain as a consequence of the different shape of in the tensile test at a strain of about 0.02.

G. Dean, B. Read / Polymer Testing 20 (2001) 677–683 683

lations based on the new model.

4. Conclusions

are able to calculate the performance of plastics compo-

nents under impact. For these calculations, tensile

stress/strain data are needed that have been determined

over a wide range of strain rate up to, and ideally,

beyond 100 s⫺1.

There are problems with the measurement of

stress/strain curves at strain rates above around 1 s⫺1. At

Fig. 8. Comparison of tensile stress/strain data for the ABS rates above this, errors in measurement occur associated

polymer with the curve predicted usng the new model with with the generation of transient forces and with difficult-

hardening data from a shear test. ies in the measurement of strain.

The data required by a finite element analysis are ten-

sile stress as a function of plastic strain and are derived

from measured stress/strain curves. Mathematical func-

is responsible for the observed reduction in tensile tions have been proposed here that accurately model

yield stresses. stress/plastic strain curves for a propylene–ethylene

copolymer and the dependence of these curves on

3.2. A new model for toughened plastics strain rate.

Using this model, stress/strain curves at high strain

An alternative elastic–plastic model is currently being rates can be calculated by extrapolation of measurements

developed based on the Gurson model [6] for porous made at low and moderate strain rates where measure-

plasticity in metals. The Gurson model describes ment accuracy is adequate. The validity of the extrapol-

enhanced yielding caused by the nucleation of cavities ation can be verified by selected measurements at a

around rigid inclusions in the material. These are lower temperature.

nucleated by the debonding of the inclusions and the A new materials model has been developed for plas-

matrix at a critical level of plastic strain. This model is tics that acquire high toughness through the nucleation

being modified to take into consideration three important of cavities under dilatational stress. The model is able to

features of toughened plastics. predict tensile behaviour from a knowledge of behaviour

under shear. Further work is needed to make additional

1. A modification of the yield criterion to include a sen- refinements to the model and assess its applicability to

sitivity to the hydrostatic component of stress in the a wider range of types of polymer.

absence of cavities.

2. A modification of the hardening function of the

material so that it changes progressively from the Acknowledgements

function for a toughened polymer (without cavities)

This work was carried out with funding from the DTI

to the function appropriate to the matrix polymer as

as part of their programme on the Characterisation of the

cavities are nucleated and the toughening phase

Performance of Materials.

becomes ineffective.

3. A change in the criterion for cavity nucleation so that

the critical factor is the volumetric strain. In this way, References

cavities will not be formed under compressive or

shear stress states. [1] H. Eyring, J. Chem. Phys. 4 (1936) 283.

[2] J.A. Roetling, Polymer 6 (1965) 311.

The new model is being developed and evaluated [3] C. Bauwens-Crowet, J.-C. Bauwens, G. Homes, J. Polym.

Sci. A2 7 (1969) 735.

through an analysis of results from tests under different

[4] S.S. Sternstein, L. Ongchin, Am. Chem. Soc. Polym. Prepr.

states of stress. Fig. 8 shows some early predictions 10 (1969) 117.

using the model to analyse data from the ABS polymer [5] R. Raghava, R.M. Caddell, G.S. Yeh, J. Mater. Sci. 8

shown in Fig. 6. The hardening function used in the (1973) 225.

model calculations is obtained from the stress/strain [6] A.L. Gurson, J. Eng. Mater. Technol., Trans ASME 99

curve measured in a shear test. Fig. 8 then shows com- (1977) 2.

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