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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
Background of Study Language is a very essential instrument in communication. According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, language is “(1)The system of sounds and words used by humans to express their thoughts and feelings, (2) the particular language system used by a people or nation”. 1 It means people can express their ideas, thoughts, feelings, and desires by language. Meanwhile, 1994 GBPP of MTs points out that “Bahasa merupakan alat untuk mengungkapkan makna yang diwujudkan melalui struktur (tata bahasa dan kosakata). Dengan demikian, struktur berperan sebagai alat pengungkapkan makna (gagasan, pikiran, pendapat, dan perasaan)”. [Language is a device to express meanings which is realized through structure (grammar and vocabulary). So, structure has a role as a device of expressing meanings (ideas, thoughts, opinions, and feelings)].2 Today, English becomes the most widely studied foreign language on the world. Richards and Rodgers say: “Whereas today English is the world’s most widely studied foreign language, five hundred years ago it was Latin …”.3 So, English is one of an international languages and it is widely used and studied all over the world. As people know that language is not only used in writing but also in speaking as a means of communication. In teaching language especially English as a foreign language, it is not only enough for the students simply to learn grammar but also to practice all the
AS. Hornby, Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, 5th ed., (Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 662.
Depag RI, GBPP Bahasa Inggris (MTs), (Jakarta: Depag RI, 1993), p. 2. Jack C. Richards and Theodore S.
Rodgers, Approach and Methods in Language
Teaching, 7 print., (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), p. 1.
common pattern, forms, or words until they can use them in proper position automatically. In Indonesia, English becomes the first foreign language that is considered very important and must be learnt in schools. 1994 GBPP of MTs: “Bahasa Inggris adalah bahasa asing pertama di Indonesia yang dianggap penting untuk tujuan penyerapan dan pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi, dan seni budaya, serta pembinaan hubungan dengan bangsa-bangsa lain” (English is the first foreign language in Indonesia which is considered very crucial for the purpose of science development and absorption of technology and culture, and also construction of relation with other nations).4 Here, English has become one of the elementary school subjects as the local content curriculum; even, English has been taught since kindergarten in some big cities. The aim of English learning is to enable students to communicate without hesitations and the purpose of communication will be achieved easily. As curriculum 2004 states that the aim of learning English on second grade of SMP is “Berkomunikasi secara lisan dan tertulis dengan menggunakan ragam bahasa yang sesuai dengan lancar dan akurat dalam wacana interaksional dan/atau monolog terutama dalam wacana yang berbentuk naratif, recount, deskriptif, dan anekdot” (To communicate in oral and written by using appropriate language variety fluently and accurately in interactional and/or monolog discourse especially discourse with the form of narrative, recount, descriptive, and anecdote).5 Based on the statements above, teachers must be able to organize learningteaching activities. They have to master the materials and methods. A good method can help the students in comprehending and mastering the lesson. One of the teaching failures is caused by an unsuitable method. As it is said by William F. Mackey “ The method used has often been said to be the cause of success or
Depag RI, op. cit., p. 1.
Depdiknas RI, Kurikulum Bahasa Inggris, 2004: Sekolah Menengah Pertama (SMP), (Jakarta: Depdiknas, 2003), p. 40.
failure in language; for it is ultimately the method that determines the what and the how of language interaction”.6 In addition, teaching learning process of a language cannot be separated from the curriculum or syllabus. It is often influenced by a view to language. A view or an idea to the language will affect to the method of teaching, as Mackey stated, “Difference in ideas on language learning will affect both method of teaching of it.”7 This statement means that a view of language and approach will affect the method of language teaching. Therefore, a view to the language is very important for language teaching and so is an approach. Because a view as well as an approach will require a particular method of teaching. There are a lot of methods and approaches to get the English teaching method effectively. To modify positively the situation of the classroom and to make the teaching-learning process lively, the writer would like to propose an alternative other than teacher centered approach or others, that is the one which common known under the term “Communicative Approach”. This approach will give the students opportunity to play an active role throughout the whole teachinglearning process. This reality indicates that communicative approach is essential for language teachers. It is time to move the other approach to communicative approach. It is parallel with Drs. Sunardi Kartowisastro’s opinion. In this case he reveals:
Salah satu langkah untuk memperbaiki sistem pengajaran bahasa asing, dalam hal ini bahasa Inggris, ialah dengan menyesuaikan pendekatan, cara/metode, atau teknik penyampaian dengan tujuannya. Pemerintah (Depdikbud) sekarang ini sedang menggalakkan penerapan pendekatan komunikatif sebagai salah satu implementasi kurikulum 1984, terutama bagi SMA. Bila pada kurikulum sebelumnya, yakni Kurikulum 1975/1976, telah dicobakan suatu metode campuran (eclectic) dengan pendekatan tradisional yaitu pendekatan dengar-ucap (aural-oral approach), maka sekarang ini setiap guru bahasa Inggris mulailah dituntut untuk menerapkan pendekatan yang lebih inovatif, yakni yang disebut dengan pendekatan komunikatif dengan suatu niat mengajarkan bahasa sasaran agar siswa mampu menggunakan bahasa yang dipelajari itu sebagai alat berkomunikasi. (The step of remediation in foreign language teaching system, by using the suitable method or technique of explanation in William F. Mackey, Language Teaching Analysis, (London: Longman, Greenland Co.ltd, 1996), p. 138. 7 ibid
purpose. The government today is enthuastic to communicative approach as implementation of curriculum 1984. In previous curriculum had been attempted the eclectic method to the traditional method namely is aural-oral approach, event cognitive-code approach. So now every teacher of English is suggested to use the move innovative approach, it is called “Communicative Approach”. In order the students, are able to use language that they are studying as device of communication).8
This statement means that the aural-oral and the cognitive-code approach cannot succed in reaching the aim of language teaching, unless teacher change the approach from aural-oral and cognitive-code approach to communicative approach. So, the learners are hoped to be able to use the English language communicatively either in listening, speaking, reading and writing. It is a fact that the communicative approach in teaching-learning process implicates to the student’s activity. Although the quality each activity is different. Their activities cannot be observed when the teaching learning process is running on. We can observe it when two or more students act to be questionnaires and answer the teacher’s questions. The optimal learning result can be achieved when students and teacher act intention activity, as Hans said: “… the crucial factor which contributed toward successful teaching are overall atmosphere and in particular the personal relationship between teacher and learners, learner and learner.”9 Although the optimal learning result and succesful teaching depend mostly on the activity of teacher and learners and relationship between them, it is the fact that teacher centered approached used in teaching learning process seems not to achieve good outcomes. Reading as one of the four language skills has been taught in an English as a second language (ESL) as well as in an English as a foreign language (EFL) context. Therefore, both ESL and EFL learners are expected to have ability in
Sunardi K, Beberapa Catatan tentang Pendekatan Komunikatif dan Penerapannya, Mimbar Agama & Budaya, (LPM IAIN) Jakarta, Nomor 10 th IV. 1986). P. 3 9 Hans Ebethared Piopho, Establishing Objectives in the Teaching English, in Christopher N. Candin. The Communicative Teaching of English Principles and Exercise Typology, (Singapore: Longman ltd, 1981). P. 10
readingf and understanding Enmglish texts since it is considered as an important skills.10 Because of that statement, the writer try to write about understanding English texts, which one of modelling of text of readiong is we know the one key component of the new 2006 curriculum is genre. Genre that appeare in the classical litterature on rhetoric, from Aristotle to modern day the toricians, are those of narative, descriptive, procedural, and suasive discourse.11 Descriptive text is one of specific instructional objectives in teaching English, one in a typical genre lesson activities using, includes in factual genres,12 and as a competence of achievement target, should to understand by students.13 But, in a fact in teaching – learning process as long as I do research, there are some problem was I faced by students, there are; students don’t understand clearly what is the descriptive text, how to identify the descriptive text and how to do an exercises of descriptive text. That statem,ent can approve by the test I gave to student with an approach as ussual their teacher used. So, the writer have some questions are: Is GTM method has been used by the teachers in the school effective? How if the teachers use Communicative Approach? Is it Effective? Based on the background above the writer takes a title of this paper “ The Effectiveness of Communicative Approach in Teaching Descriptive Text (An Experimental Study at MTs. Soebono Mantofani Jombang – Ciputat)”.
Limitation and Formulation of The Problem
Sri Wahyuni, In her summary paper of TEFLIN by title, Comprehension Assessment Through Retelling Different Types of Text, English Education Department UIN Jakarta. 2007. P. 21 11 Evelyn Hatch, Professor Emerita, Discourse and Language Education, University of California, Los Angeles: Cambridge University 1992, p.164 12 Rudi Hartono, S.S, M.Pd, Genre of Texts, English Department Faculty of Language and Art Semarang University. 2005. P.5 13 Dra. Helena I.R. Agustien, MA., Ph.D, New Let’s Talk, (Text Book of Eight Grade for Junior High School (SMP/MTS), Bandung: Pakar Raya, 2007. P.iii
In this section, the writer limits this study on descriptive texts, Communicative Approach, Grammar Translation Method, and problems in learning descriptive texts. From the explanation above, the writer would like to formulate the problems as follows: 1. 2. How do Communicative Approach and Grammar Translation Method influence the students’ comprehensive in descriptive text in teaching process. Whether Communicative Approach is more effective than Grammar Translation Method in teaching descriptive texts. A. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. C. Objective of Study
To find out the concept of descriptive texts. To find out the general concept of Communicative Approach. To find out the general concept of Grammatical Translation Method. To contribute about how effective to teach English descriptive text base on Communicative Approach. Is communicative approach effective in teaching descriptive texts or not. Method of Study This paper is written base on library study and a field research; in this case she takes Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs) Soebono Mantofani Jombang – Ciputat as place for investigation to be discussed. She observes some difficulties and problem found by the second years students in teaching learning process of descriptive text through communicative approach. After collecting and processing the data the writer would like to offer an alternative to solve the problem. The writer also reads and collects the data from books papers, and other note dealing with the topic of discussion. In short, she uses library study and a field research. In this way she hopes that she can derive good data for purpose of solving the problems of teaching and learning process concerning descriptive text through communicative approach.
Organization of Study This paper consists of four chapters. Chapter one is Introduction. It covers background of study, limitation and
formulation of the problem, objective of study, method of study and organization of study. Chapter two deals with the theoretical frame work. It discusses about Communicative Approach, Grammar Translation Method, and Descriptive Texts. Communicative Approach includes definition of communicative approach, communicative competence, characteristics and features of the communicative approach, and advantages – disadvantages of the communicative approach. Grammar Translation Method, includes background of Grammar Translation Method, design of Grammar Translation Method, characteristic of Grammar Translation Method, procedures in Grammar Translation Method and advantages – disadvantages of teaching descriptive texts by using Grammar Translation Method. Descriptive texts includes definition of descriptive texts, the role of description, example and structure text, the structure of description, and prewriting of description texts. Chapter three is about research methodology and research findings, research methodology will explain about the objective of the research, place and time, method of study, population and sample, technique of data collecting and technique of data analyzing. Research findings include description of data, data analysis, data interpretation and test of hypotheses. Chapter four is conclusion and suggestion.
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