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Networking Fundamentals

CCNA-Discovery 4.0, module 1, Cisco Certified


Networking Academy

References:
Data Communication and Computer Network,
Forozoun, TMH Publication
Data Communication and Network, Stallings,
PHI
Computer Network, Tanenbaum, PHI
Why Use Networks?

• Network: group of computers and other


devices that are connected by some type of
transmission media
• Advantages of using networks over
standalone computers:
– Networks enable multiple users to share the
network’s resources (devices and data)
– Networks allow you to manage, or administer,
resources on multiple computers from a central
location
Computer Networks were created with the
following benefits in mind
:-
a. Resource Sharing .
b. Information Sharing .
c. Fast Data Transfer .
d. Saving of Time .
Types of Networks:
Peer-to-peer Networks
• Every computer can communicate directly
with every other computer
• By default, no computer has more authority
than another
• Every computer is capable of sending and
receiving information to and from every
other computer
Peer-to-peer Networks (continued)

Figure 1-1: Resource sharing on a simple peer-to-peer network


Client/Server Networks

• Server: central computer used to facilitate


communication and resource sharing between
other computers on the network (called clients)
• Client/server network: uses a server to enable
clients to share data, data storage space, and
devices
• To function as a server, a computer must be
running a network operating system (NOS)
• Most of the concepts on the Network+ exam
pertain to client/server networks
Client/Server Networks (continued)

Figure 1-2: Resource sharing on a client/server network


Client/Server Networks (continued)
• Advantages of using client/server networks
over peer-to-peer networks:
– User logon accounts and passwords can be
assigned in one place
– Access to multiple shared resources can be
centrally granted to a single user or groups of
users
– Problems can be tracked, diagnosed, and often
fixed from one location
Client/Server Networks (continued)

• Advantages of using client/server networks


over peer-to-peer networks (continued):
– Servers are optimized to handle heavy
processing loads and dedicated to handling
requests from clients, enabling faster response
time
– Because of their efficient processing and larger
disk storage, servers can connect more than a
handful of computers on a network
LANs, MANs, and WANs

• Local area network (LAN): confined to a


relatively small space, such as a building or
an office
• Metropolitan area network (MAN): larger
than a LAN; connects clients and servers from
multiple buildings
• Wide area network (WAN): connects two or
more geographically distinct LANs or MANs
LOCAL AREA NETWORKS. A local area network (LAN) connects
two or more communicating devices within a short distance
(e.g., 2,000 feet), so that every user device on the network has
the potential to communicate with any other device.
The network gateway connects the LAN to public networks or
other corporate networks so that the LAN can exchange
information with networks external to it. A gateway is a
communications processor that can connect dissimilar
networks by translating from one set of protocols to another. A
bridge connects two networks of the same type. A router routes
messages through several connected LANs or to a WAN. A LAN
consists of cabling or wireless technology linking individual
devices, network interface cards (special adapters serving as
interfaces to the cable), and software to control LAN activities.
Wide area networks (WANs) are long-haul, broadband,
generally public-access networks covering wide geographic
areas that cross rights-of-way where communications media
are provided by common carriers.

WANs include regional networks such as telephone companies


or international networks such as global communications
service providers. They usually have very large-capacity circuits
with many communications processors to use these circuits
efficiently. WANs may combine switched and dedicated lines,
microwave, and satellite communications.
Wide Area Network (WAN)

• Telecommunications network that covers a large


geographic area
Typical Local Area Network
Connect computers within a limited physical
area such as an office, classroom, or building

PC PC PC Shared
Database and
Software Packages

Network
Server
Shared
Printer

PC PC

Internetwork Processor to Other Networks


LANs, MANs, and WANs
(continued)

Figure 1-4: A simple WAN


Elements Common to
Client/Server Networks
• Client
• Server
• Workstation
• Network interface card (NIC)
• NOS
• Host
• Node
• Connectivity device
Elements Common to Client/Server
Networks (continued)

Figure 1-5: A NIC


Elements Common to
Client/Server Networks
• Segment (continued)
• Backbone
• Topology
• Protocol
• Data packets
• Addressing
• Transmission media
Elements Common to Client/Server
Networks (continued)

Figure 1-6: A LAN backbone


ELEMENTS OF DATA COMMUNICATION

Communication is the process of transferring a message from


one point to another. The basic elements of any
communication system are:-
1. A sender (source) that creates and sends a message.
2. A medium that carries the message.
3. A receiver (sink) that receives the message.
4. Message – It is the information that is to be communicated.
5. Protocol- It refers to the set of rules that coordinates the
exchange of information. Both sender and receiver should
follow the same protocol to communicate data.
DATA TRANSMISSION MODES
• Data Transmission modes refers to the
direction of signal flow between two linked
devices. The three modes of data transmission
are simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex.
• Simplex- A simplex communication system can
transmit data in one direction only. Devices
connected to such a circuit are either send-
only (keyboard) or receive-only (printer).

Transmitter Receiver
• Half-Duplex - A half-duplex communication system
can transmit data in both directions, but in only one
direction at a time. Hence, it can alternately send
and receive data. It requires two wires.
• Full- Duplex - A full-duplex system needs to switch
directions each time the directions of data transfer
reverses. This requires a special switching circuit and
a delay of about 150 milliseconds. It is the fastest
directional mode of communication. Example of this
mode is conversation of the persons through
telephone.
DATA TRANSMISSION MEDIA
• The term transmission medium can also refer to the technical device which
employs the material substance to transmit or guide the waves. Thus an optical
fiber or a copper cable can be referred to as a transmission medium.
Guided Media
This media use a cabling system that guide the data signals along a specific path.
There are three basic types of guided media- twisted pair, coaxial cable and optical
fibre.
• Coaxial Cable
• Coaxial cables are groups of specially wrapped and insulated wire lines capable of
transmitting data at high rates. a thin copper wire inside a tube of insulation
material, surrounded by a sheath or mesh of conducting wire, again insulated on
the outside. This is similar to the wire used to connect antennas to video or TV
equipment.
• Twisted pair- Twisted pair cabling is a form of wiring in
which two conductors (the forward and return conductors
of a single circuit) are twisted together for the purposes
of canceling out electromagnetic interference (EMI) from
external sources; for instance, electromagnetic radiation
from Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cables, and crosstalk
between neighboring pairs.
• Optical fibre or fibre-optic- In comparison to
twisted pair and coaxial cable the optical fibre
consists of thin glass fibre that can carry
information in the form of visible light. It is a
translucent and flexible material through which
laser light can travel over long distances.
• Unguided Media Unguided media is data signals
that flow through the air.
• Wireless
Not all computer devices need a physical cable
connection. Because of the cabling costs and hassles
engineers have explored many methods of
transmitting data without the use of wires.
Wireless Media
Cable media (with the exception of fiber-optic cables) present several
problems, notably the expense of installation and change, as well as a fairly
limited capacity.

The alternative is wireless communication. Common uses of wireless data


transmission include pagers, cellular telephones, microwave
transmissions,communications satellites, mobile data networks, personal
communications services, and personal digital assistants (PDAs).

MICROWAVE. Microwave systems are widely used for high-volume, long-


distance, point-to-point communication. These systems were first used
extensively to transmit very-high-frequency radio signals in a line-of-sight
path between relay stations spaced approximately 30 miles apart (due to the
earth’s curvature). To minimize line-of-sight problems, microwave antennas
were usually placed on top of buildings, towers, and mountain peaks.
SATELLITE. A satellite is a space station that receives microwave signals from
an earth-based station, amplifies the signals, and broadcasts the signals back
over a wide area to any number of earth-based stations.

RADIO. Radio electromagnetic data communications do not have to depend


on microwave or satellite links, especially for short ranges such as within an
office setting. Broadcast radio is a wireless transmission medium that
distributes radio signals through the air over both long distances and short
distances. Radio is being used increasingly to connect computers and
peripheral equipment or computers and local area networks. The greatest
advantage of radio for data communications is that no wires need be installed.

INFRARED. Infrared light is light not visible to human eyes that can be modulated
or pulsed for conveying information. IR requires a line-of-sight transmission. Many
computers and devices have an IrDA port that enables the transfer of data using
infrared light rays. The most common application of infrared light is with television
or videocassette recorder remote control units.
WIRELESS APPLICATION PROTOCOL. Wireless Application Protocol
(WAP) is a technology that enable wireless transmissions.
NEWER WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES. Because of the requirements of faster speed
and strict security requirements that existing WAP cannot fulfill, newer wireless
technologies are being created for future purposes. Listed below are some of the
major new wireless technologies.

Bluetooth. A relatively new technology for wireless connectivity is called


Bluetooth. It allows wireless communication between mobile phones, laptops,
and other portable devices. Bluetooth technology is currently being built into
mobile PCs, mobile telephones, and PDAs.
Fiber optics without the fiber. Another new technology is “fiber optics without
the fiber.” With this technology, laser beams are transmitted through the air
between two buildings or other points.

Ultrawideband. Ultrawideband (UWB) is a superfast, short distance


wireless technology that will have data speeds 10 times faster than Wi-Fi,
which is actually a nickname for the 802.11b protocol
NETWORK DEVICES

All networks are made up of basic hardware building blocks to


interconnect network nodes, such as Network Interface Cards
(NICs), Bridges, Hubs, Switches, and Routers.

In addition, some method of connecting these building blocks is


required, usually in the form of galvanic cable (most commonly
Category 5 cable).

Less common are microwave links (as in IEEE 802.12) or optical


cable ("optical fiber").

An ethernet card may also be required.


Network Interface
Cards
A network card, network adapter, or NIC
(network interface card) is a piece of
computer hardware designed to allow
Repeaters computers to communicate over a
computer network. It connects clients,
A repeater is an electronic device server and peripherals to the network
that receives a signal and through a port
retransmits it at a higher power
level, or to the other side of an Hubs
obstruction, so that the signal can
cover longer distances without A hub is a box that connects
degradation. If the distance individual devices on a network so
between two network devices is that they can communicate with one
longer than this specification, a another. The hub operates by
repeater is needed to regenerate gathering the signals from individual
the signal. network devices; amplifying the
signals and then sending them onto
all other connected devices
Bridges

A bridge is a device that allows division of a large network into two smaller,
more efficient networks. It monitors the information traffic on both sides of the
network so that it can pass packets of information to the correct location.
Bridges come in three basic types:

Local bridges: Directly connect local area networks (LANs)

Remote bridges: Can be used to create a wide area network (WAN) link
between LANs. Remote bridges, where the connecting link is slower than
the end networks, largely have been replaced with routers.

Wireless bridges: Can be used to join LANs or connect remote stations to


LANs
Switches

A network switch is a device that forwards and filters chunk of data


communication between ports (connected cables) based on the
MAC(Media Access Control) addresses in the packets.

This is distinct from a hub in that it only forwards the packets to the
ports involved in the communications rather than all ports
connected.

Strictly speaking, a switch is not capable of routing traffic based on


IP address which is necessary for communicating between network
segments or within a large or complex LAN.
Router
It is an essential network device for interconnecting two or more
networks. Their aim is to trace the best route for information to travel.

A router creates and maintains a table called routing table that stores
the best routes to certain network destinations. Routers are generally
expensive and difficult to configure and maintain.

Gateway
It is an internet working device which joins two different network
protocols together. It is also known as Protocol converter. It accepts the
packet formatted for one protocol and converts the formatted packet
into another protocol. For example a gateway can receive email in one
format and convert them into another format
TOPOLOGY

Topology refers to the ways the channels connect


the nodes, whereas protocol refers to the rules by
which data communications take place over these
channels. Neither concept should be confused with
the physical cabling of the network.

There are five basic network topologies: star, bus,


ring, hierarchical, and hybrid.
STAR. A star network has a central node that
connects to each of the other
nodes by a single, point-to-point link. Any
communication between one node and another in a
star topology must pass through the central node. It
is easy to add a node in a star network, and losing a
peripheral node will not cause the entire network
to fail.
BUS. In a bus topology, nodes are arranged along a
single length of twistedpair wire, coaxial cable, or
fiber-optic cable that can be extended at the ends.
Using a bus topology, it is easy and inexpensive to
add a node to the network, and losing a node in the
network will not cause the network to fail. The main
disadvantages to the bus topology are that a
defective bus causes the entire network to fail. Also,
providing a bus with inadequate bandwidth will
degrade the performance of the network.
RING. In a ring topology, nodes are arranged
along the transmission path so that a signal
passes through each station one at a time
before returning to its originating node. The
nodes, then, form a closed circle. It is relatively
easy and inexpensive to add a node to the
network, and losing a node does not
necessarily mean that the network will fail.
The Internet (“the Net”) is a network that connects hundreds of
thousands of internal organizational computer networks
worldwide
The Internet grew out of an experimental project of the Advanced Research
Project Agency (ARPA) of the U.S. Department of Defense.

The project was initiated in 1969 as ARPAnet to test the feasibility of a wide
area computer network over which researchers, educators, military personnel,
and government agencies could share data, exchange messages, and transfer
files.
The Internet
Connection to the Internet is also
• No central computer available through commercial providers
system such as America Online (AOL), for which
you pay a fee. Many telephone providers,
• No governing body such as AT&T and MCI, also sell Internet
access, as do computer companies such as
• No one owns it Microsoft. Such companies are called
Internet service providers (ISPs).
Internet Service Provider

• ISP
– A company that
specializes in providing
easy access to the
Internet
– For a monthly fee, you
get software, user name,
password and access
• ISPs are connect to one
another through
network access points
Typical Internet Connection

Network Interface Card

Frame
NIC Relay
Ethernet
Hub Switch Router Switch Router

NIC

Corporate Local Area Network Internet Provider

Core Frame Remote


ATM Router ATM Router Relay Access
Switch Switch Switch Device

Modem
Internet Backbone Internet Provider Private Home
An Intranet
• A network inside an organization
– That uses Internet technologies (such as Web browsers
and servers, TCP/IP protocols, HTML, etc.)
– To provide an Internet-like environment within the
organization
– For information sharing, communications,
collaboration & support of business processes
– Protected by security measures
– Can be accessed by authorized users through the
Internet
The Role of Intranets Internet
Communication and
Collaboration
Communicate and
Everyone
Existing
E-Mail, Voice- collaborate with e-mail,
Mail Systems discussion forums,
chat, and conferencing Intranet
Intranet F
Enterprise
Business Operations Information I
and Management Portal
Existing R
Secure, universal
Databases access to view E
and and use corporate
Enterprise
and external data
W
Applications
Employees A
L
Web Publishing L
HTML, MS Office, Extranet
Author, publish, and
XML, Java, and
Other Document share hypermedia
Types documents
Customers,
Suppliers,
and Partners
Intranet Portal Management
Existing Centrally administer
Hardware clients, servers,
and security, directory,
Networks and traffic
Extranet

• Network links that use Internet technologies


– To connect the Intranet of a business
– With the Intranets of its customers, suppliers or
other business partners
The Role of Extranets
Connecting Enterprise to Consumers, Business
Customers, Suppliers, and Other Business Partners

Partners,
Consultants, Consumers
Contractors

The Internetworked
Enterprise

Suppliers and Distributors

Business Consumers
Internet Adds Value to Businesses

Inventory
Management
Systems

Headquarters Suppliers

The Internet

Business Partners Customers Remote Offices


Internet Applications
E-mail Telnet

File
E-Commerce Transfer
Protocol (FTP)

Internet
Relay Search Engines
Chat
COMMUNICATION TOOLS FOR THE INTERNET
Electronic mail (e-mail) allows multiple-access communication delivered
exclusively on a computer network. With e-mail, a person can send letters to
anyone connected to the system.
E-mail has become an important communication tool in many organizations.
Several vendors produce e-mail software. Some well-known software packages
are Microsoft Outlook, LotusNotes, QuickMail, Netscape Messenger, Eudora,
Groupwise, Pegasus Mail, and Xtramail.

Online Chatting Chat programs allow you to send messages to people who
are connected to the same channel of communication at the same time. It is like
a global conference call system, most often in written form.

Using a chat program requires you to communicate in real time. It may also be a
waste of time, if the chatters are not focused on a topic of interest to you. The
solution is to join (subscribe to) a newsgroup (also known as Usenet, or just News).
a portal is a Web site designed to offer a variety of Internet services
from a single convenient location. Most portals offer the following
services: search engine; news, sports, and weather; reference such
as yellow pages and maps; shopping malls; e-mail; and chat rooms.
Popular portals include Altavista, Excite, Lycos, Microsoft Internet
Start, Netscape Netcenter, Snap, and Yahoo

Internet vendors are providing products that emulate traditional


public switched telephone network (PSTN) applications. Internet
telephony (also called Voice over IP or VoIP) lets users talk across
the Internet to any personal computer equipped to receive the
call for the price of only the Internet connection.
Network Addressing
One of the most important topics in any discussion of TCP/IP is IP
addressing. An IP address is a numeric identifier assigned to each
machine on an IP network. It designates the location of a device on the
network. An IP address is a software address, not a hardware address—
the latter is hardcoded on a network interface card (NIC) and used for
finding hosts on a local network. IP addressing was designed to allow a
host on one network to communicate with a host on a different
network, regardless of the type of LANs the hosts are participating in.

To understand IP addressing and subnetting, it’s important to have


already mastered binary-to-decimal conversion and the powers of 2.
IP Terminology
Bit One digit; either a 1 or a 0.

Byte 7 or 8 bits, depending on whether parity is used. For the rest of this
chapter, always assume a byte is 8 bits.

Octet Always 8 bits. Base-8 addressing scheme.

Network address The designation used in routing to send packets to a


remote network, for example, 10.0.0.0, 172.16.0.0, and 192.168.10.0.

Broadcast address Used by applications and hosts to send information


to all nodes on a network. Examples include 255.255.255.255, which is
all networks, all nodes; 17.16.255.255, which is all subnets and hosts on
network 17.16.0.0; and 10.255.255.255, which broadcasts to all subnets
and hosts on network 10.0.0.0.
The Hierarchical IP Addressing Scheme
An IP address consists of 32 bits of information. These bits are divided
into four sections, referred to as octets or bytes, each containing 1 byte
(8 bits). You can depict an IP address using one of three methods:
Dotted-decimal, as in 172.16.30.56
Binary, as in 10101100.00010000.00011110.00111000
Hexadecimal, as in 82 39 1E 38

The 32-bit IP address is a structured or hierarchical address, as opposed


to a flat or nonhierarchical, address
Network Addressing
The network address uniquely identifies each network. Every machine on the same
network shares that network address as part of its IP address. In the IP address
172.16.30.56, for example, 172.16 is the network address.

The node address is assigned to, and uniquely identifies, each machine on
a network. This part of the address must be unique because it identifies a
particular machine—an individual—as opposed to a network, which is a group.

This number can also be referred to as a host address. In the sample IP address
172.16.30.56, .30.56 is the node address.

The designers of the Internet decided to create classes of networks based


on network size. For the small number of networks possessing a very large
number of nodes, they created the rank Class A network. At the
other extreme is the Class C network, which is reserved for the
numerous networks with a small number of nodes.

The class distinction for networks between very large and very small
is predictably called the Class B network.

Subdividing an IP address into a network and node address is


determined by the class designation of one’s network.
So, if you see an IP address that starts at 192 and goes to 223, you’ll
know it is a Class C IP address.
Network Address Ranges: Classes D and E
The addresses between 224 and 255 are reserved for Class D and E
networks. Class D is used for multicast addresses and Class E for
scientific purposes.
Network Addresses: Special Purpose
Some IP addresses are reserved for special purposes, and network
administrators shouldn’t assign these addresses to nodes
Subnetting
• …can be done for a variety of reasons
– Organization
– Use of different physical media
– Preservation of address space
– Security

• The most common reason is to control


network traffic

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Subnetting
• In an Ethernet network, all nodes on a
segment see all packets transmitted by
other nodes on that segment

• Performance can be adversely affected


under heavy traffic loads

• A router is used to connect IP networks


to minimize the amount of traffic each
segment must receive
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Subnet masking
• Applying a subnet mask allows you to identify the network and
node parts of the address. A router will then determine whether
the address is local or remote.

• Network bits are masked as 1s


• Node bits are masked as 0s

• Class A – 255.0.0.0
– 11111111.00000000.00000000.00000000
• Class B – 255.255.0.0
– 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000
• Class C – 255.255.255.0
– 11111111.11111111.11111111.00000000

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Subnet masking

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Subnet masking
• Performing a bitwise logical AND between the IP address
and the subnet mask results in the network address

• Ex: Class - B 140.179.240.200

10001100.10110011.11110000.11001000
11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000
10001100.10110011.00000000.00000000

Network Address = 140.179.000.000

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A Few Rules…
1. Each device on a node has a unique MAC address

2. Each device on a node needs a unique IP address

3. All devices on the same physical segment share a


common network ID (subnet mask)

4. Each physical segment has a unique Network ID


(subnet mask)

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Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
• Before an IP packet can be forwarded to another host, the
MAC address (usually 6 bytes written in hex (Ex: 02-FE-87-4A-
8C-A9) of the receiving machine must be known
• ARP determines the MAC addresses that correspond to an IP
address
• A router will choose direct paths for the network packets
based on the addressing of the IP frame it is handling
(different routes to different networks)

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Direct and Indirect Routing
• Direct – when nodes are on the same network

• Indirect – used when the network numbers of


the source and destination do not match
– Packet must be forwarded by a node that knows
hot to reach the destination (a router)

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Network Architecture and Protocols
The OSI
TCP/IP Model
• Provides communications services for
Application end user applications
Layer

Application or Presentation
• Provides appropriate data transmission
Process Layer formats and codes
Layer

• Supports the accomplishment of


Session telecommunications sessions
Layer

• Supports the organization and transfer of


Transport data between nodes in the network
Host-to-Host Transport Layer Layer

• Provides appropriate routing by


Internet Protocol (IP) Network establishing connections among network
Layer links

Data Link • Supports error-free organization and


Network Interface Layer transmission of data in the network

• Provides physical transmission of data on


Physical Layer Physical the telecommunications media in the
Layer network
Physical Layer

Data Link Layer


The network layer is a layer which as the name suggests concerned
with networking and its main jobs are network address resolution and
routing . The network layer can be compared to the sorting clerks and
the postmen on the postal system .

The Network layer is serviced by the Data Link Layer below and the it
in turn services the transport layer . The Network Layer devices are
also entrusted with connecting two different types of networks . What
we mean by two different type of networks is that networks running
two completely different protocols.
Network layer devices are supposed to connect these two networks .
It involves Protocol Conversion. This job is performed by a network
layer device called Gateway.
The most popular protocol running on the network layer is the
Internet Protocol.
The most popular protocol running on the network layer is the Internet
Protocol. The routing job is performed by executing Routing Algorithms ,
which can be adaptive and not adaptive .Some of the routing algorithms
are :-
a. Shortest Path Routing
b. Distance Vector Routing
c. Link State Routing .

Routing is used for taking a packet from one device and sending it through the
network to another device on a different network. If your network has no routers, then
you are not routing. Routers route traffic to all the networks in your internetwork. To
be able to route packets, a router must know, at a minimum, the following:

Destination address
Neighbor routers from which it can learn about remote networks
Possible routes to all remote networks
•The best route to each remote network
•How to maintain and verify routing information

The router learns about remote networks from neighbor routers or from an
administrator. The router then builds a routing table that describes how to find the
remote networks. If the network is directly connected, then the router already knows
how to get to the network. If the networks are not attached, the router must learn
how to get to the remote network with either static routing, which means that the
administrator must hand-type all network locations into the routing table, or use
dynamic routing.

Dynamic routing is the process of routing protocols running on the router


communicating with neighbor routers. The routers then update each other about all
the networks they know about. If a change occurs in the network, the dynamic routing
protocols automatically inform all routers about the change. If static routing is used,
the administrator is responsible for updating all changes by hand into all routers.
The Transport layer is the 4th layer from bottom,. It is an end to end layer . The job of the
transport layer is to ensure flow control and error control between end to end computers . i.e.
first Source computer and the last destination computer.

If some part of the data has not reached the destination the transport layer
resend the data.

All the jobs are performed using various protocols on the transport layer . Some of the protocols
are :-
a. Transmission Control Protocol
b. User Datagram protocol

Session Layer
This is a layer responsible for maintaining the various sessions on the
computer.
We can be connected to more than one computers on the network. One
to one connection or session is maintained by this layer . The start and
end of sessions is managed by this layer . all the sessions are opened
and closed according to preset procedures .
Presentation Layer

The presentation layer as the name suggests is involved in the presentation of data .
the upper layer , the Application layer is serviced by the presentation layer. It
understands the syntax of the upper layer and the syntax of the data which is
coming from the lower layer. The job of the presentation layer is to convert this data
to make it understandable for the application layer .

This provides a platform for conversion of various formats of data from one form to
another. It provides help in the compatibility issues . Today we are using Unicode ,
earlier we used ASCII , EBCDIC . This layer can convert the codes from one notation
to another .
Application Layer
The topmost layer of the OSI model is the Application Layer . It is the
layer with which the user interacts . Some of the implementations of
the Application Layer are Simple Mail Transfer Protocol , File Transfer
Protocol , HTTP .
File Transfer Protocol
It is a protocol of the network layer . the FTP is used to access files on a network . The
FTP is used on networks based on TCP/IP model. The earlier versions of TCP were
command based but now graphical user interface based versions of FTP are also
available. FTP protocols is used to access remote computers .

Telnet stands for Teletype Network . Telnet can be used on the operating systems
command line interface .This protocol can be used on the internet . It was developed
in the late 1960s . Telnet versions are available for all operating systems . It is a client
server based protocol and is a connection oriented protocol .

Email is the concept of transferring messages using network. There are servers on the
internet which store messages in between and then relay it forward as and when
possible depending upon the situation of the network.
Emails today can carry multimedia content also other than text
content . This has been made possible due to the MIME , Multi-
Media Mail Extension. Today the mail transmission is done using the
SMTP , Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.

SNMP stands for Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) . It


is network protocol . This protocol as the name suggests is used in
networks for the management of network devices . The devices
connected on the network can be administered through the simple
network management protocol by the network administrator .

POP stands for Post Office protocol. This is a protocol which is added
to the internet on the application layer. This protocol as the name
suggests is used for the purposes of mailing.
The pop protocol is used for downloading emails from the email
server by the local computer software .
IPv4 Address Classes

Class D Addresses
• A Class D address begins with binary 1110 in the first octet.
• First octet range 224 to 239.
• Class D address can be used to represent a group of hosts called a host
group, or multicast group.

Class E Addresses

• First octet of an IP address begins with 1111


• First octet range 240 to 255.
• Class E addresses are reserved for experimental purposes and should not be
used for addressing hosts or multicast groups.
Network IDs and Broadcast
Addresses
An IP address such as 176.10.0.0 that has all binary 0s in
the host bit positions is reserved for the network address.

An IP address such as 176.10.255.255 that has all binary 1s


in the host bit positions is reserved for the broadcast
address.
Private Addresses
Subnet Mask

• Determines which part of an IP address is the network field and which part is
the host field

• Follow these steps to determine the subnet mask:


– 1. Express the subnetwork IP address in binary form.
– 2. Replace the network and subnet portion of the address with all 1s.
– 3. Replace the host portion of the address with all 0s.
– 4. Convert the binary expression back to dotted-decimal notation.
Subnet Mask
Subnet Addresses
IPv4 Addressing
Subnet Mask
• One solution to the IP address shortage was thought to be the subnet
mask.
• Formalized in 1985 (RFC 950), the subnet mask breaks a single class A,
B or C network in to smaller pieces.
IPv4 versus IPv6
• IP version 6 (IPv6) has been defined and developed.
• IPv6 uses 128 bits rather than the 32 bits currently used in IPv4.
• IPv6 uses hexadecimal numbers to represent the 128 bits.
Long Term Solution: IPv6 (coming)
• IPv6, or IPng (IP – the Next Generation) uses a 128-bit address space,
yielding
340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456
possible addresses.
• IPv6 has been slow to arrive
• IPv4 revitalized by new features, making IPv6 a luxury, and not a
desperately needed fix
• IPv6 requires new software; IT staffs must be retrained
• IPv6 will most likely coexist with IPv4 for years to come.
• Some experts believe IPv4 will remain for more than 10 years.
Communicating on a Local Wired Network,
The most common set of protocols used on local wired networks is Ethernet.

The Ethernet protocol defines many aspects of communication over the local
network, including: message format, message size, timing, encoding, and
message patterns.

Standardization of Protocols
The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, or IEEE (pronounced eye-
triple-e), maintains the networking standards, including Ethernet and wireless
standards.

Each technology standard is assigned a number that refers to the committee that
is responsible for approving and maintaining the standard. The committee
responsible for the Ethernet standards is 802.3.
Since the creation of Ethernet in 1973, standards have evolved for specifying
faster and more flexible versions of the technology. This ability for Ethernet to
improve over time is one of the main reasons that it has become so popular. Each
version of Ethernet has an associated standard. For example, 802.3 100BASE-T
represents the 100 Megabit Ethernet using twisted pair cable standards. The
standard notation translates as:
100 is the speed in Mbps
BASE stands for baseband transmission
T stands for the type of cable, in this case, twisted pair.
Early versions of Ethernet were relatively slow at 10 Mbps. The latest versions of
Ethernet operate at 10 Gigabits per second and faster. Imagine how much faster
these new versions are than the original Ethernet networks. 87
Physical Addressing
All communication requires a way to identify the source and destination. The source and destination
in human communication are represented by names.

When a name is called, the person with that name listens to the message and responds. Other
people in the room may hear the message, but they ignore it because it is not addressed to them.

On Ethernet networks, a similar method exists for identifying source and destination hosts. Each
host connected to an Ethernet network is assigned a physical address which serves to identify the
host on the network.

Every Ethernet network interface has a physical address assigned to it when it is manufactured. This
address is known as the Media Access Control (MAC) Address. The MAC address identifies each
source and destination host on the network.

Ethernet networks are cable based, meaning that a copper or fiber optic cable connects hosts and
networking devices. This is the channel used for communications between the hosts.
When a host on an Ethernet network communicates, it sends frames containing its own MAC
address as the source and the MAC address of the intended recipient. Any hosts that receive the
frame will decode the frame and read the destination MAC address. If the destination MAC address
matches the address configured on the NIC, it will process the message and store it for the host
application to use. If the destination MAC address does not match the host MAC address, the NIC
will ignore the message. 88
Ethernet Communication

When messages are sent between hosts on an Ethernet network, the hosts format the
messages into the frame layout that is specified by the standards. Frames are also
referred to as Protocol Data Units (PDUs).

The format for Ethernet frames specifies the location of the destination and source MAC
addresses, and additional information including:
Preamble for sequencing and timing
Start of frame delimiter
Length and type of frame
Frame check sequence to detect transmission errors

The size of Ethernet frames is limited to a maximum of 1518 bytes and a minimum size of
64 bytes. In addition to the frame formats, sizes and timing, Ethernet standards define
how the bits making up the frames are encoded onto the channel. Bits are transmitted as
either electrical impulses over copper cable or as light impulses over fiber optic cable.

89
Preamble
Defined pattern of alternating 1 and 0 bits used to
synchronize timing.
Start of Frame Delimiter (SFD)
Marks the end of the timing information and start of
the frame.
Destination MAC Address
The Destination MAC Address field contains the
destination MAC address (receiver). The destination
MAC address can be unicast (a specific host),
multicast (a group of hosts), or broadcast (all hosts
on the local network).
Source MAC Address
The Source MAC Address field contains the source
MAC address (sender). This is the unicast address of
the Ethernet node that transmitted the frame.
Length/Type
The Length/Type field supports two different uses. A
type value indicates which protocol will receive the
data. The length indicates the number of bytes of
data that follows this field.

Encapsulated Data
The Data field contains the packet of information
being sent. Ethernet requires each frame to be
between 64 and 1518 bytes.
FCS
The FCS contains a 4-byte value that is created by
the device that sends data and is recalculated by the
destination device to check for damaged frames.

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Hierarchical Design of Ethernet Networks
Imagine how difficult communication would be if the only way to send a message to someone was to
use the person's name. If there were no street addresses, cities, towns, or country boundaries,
delivering a message to a specific person across the world would be nearly impossible.

On an Ethernet network, the host MAC address is similar to a person's name. A MAC address indicates
the individual identity of a specific host, but it does not indicate where on the network the host is
located. If all hosts on the Internet (over 400 million of them) were each identified by only their unique
MAC address, imagine how difficult it would be to locate a single one.

Additionally, Ethernet technology generates a large amount of broadcast traffic in order for hosts to
communicate. Broadcasts are sent to all hosts within a single network. Broadcasts consume bandwidth
and slow network performance. What would happen if the millions of hosts attached to the Internet
were all in one Ethernet network and were using broadcasts?

For these two reasons, large Ethernet networks consisting of many hosts are not efficient. It is better to
divide larger networks into smaller, more manageable pieces. One way to divide larger networks is to
use a hierarchical design model.

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A hierarchical, layered design provides increased
efficiency, optimization of function, and increased
speed. It allows the network to scale as required
because additional local networks can be added
without impacting the performance of the existing
ones.
The hierarchical design has three basic layers:

Access Layer - to provide connections to hosts in a local


Ethernet network.
Distribution Layer - to interconnect the smaller local
networks.
Core Layer - a high-speed connection between
distribution layer devices.

With this new hierarchical design, there is a need for a


logical addressing scheme that can identify the location
of a host. This is the Internet Protocol (IP) addressing
scheme.
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Logical Addressing
A person's name usually does not change. A person's address on
the other hand, relates to where they live and can change. On a
host, the MAC address does not change; it is physically assigned
to the host NIC and is known as the physical address. The physical
address remains the same regardless of where the host is placed
on the network.

The IP address is similar to the address of a person. It is known as


a logical address because it is assigned logically based on where
the host is located. The IP address, or network address, is
assigned to each host by a network administrator based on the
local network.

IP addresses contain two parts. One part identifies the local


network. The network portion of the IP address will be the same
for all hosts connected to the same local network. The second
part of the IP address identifies the individual host. Within the
same local network, the host portion of the IP address is unique
to each host.

Both the physical MAC and logical IP addresses are required for a
computer to communicate on a hierarchical network, just like
both the name and address of a person are required to send a
letter. 93
Access and Distribution Layers and Devices
IP traffic is managed based on the characteristics and devices associated with each of the three layers:
Access, Distribution and Core. The IP address is used to determine if traffic should remain local or be
moved up through the layers of the hierarchical network.
Access Layer
The Access Layer provides a connection point for end user devices to the network and allows multiple
hosts to connect to other hosts through a network device, usually a hub or switch. Typically, all devices
within a single Access Layer will have the same network portion of the IP address.
If a message is destined for a local host, based on the network portion of the IP address, the message
remains local. If it is destined for a different network, it is passed up to the Distribution Layer. Hubs and
switches provide the connection to the Distribution Layer devices, usually a router.
Distribution Layer
The Distribution Layer provides a connection point for separate networks and controls the flow of
information between the networks. It typically contains more powerful switches than the Access Layer
as well as routers for routing between networks. Distribution Layer devices control the type and
amount of traffic that flows from the Access Layer to the Core Layer.
Core Layer
The Core Layer is a high-speed backbone layer with redundant (backup) connections. It is responsible
for transporting large amounts of data between multiple end networks. Core Layer devices typically
include very powerful, high-speed switches and routers. The main goal of the Core Layer is to transport
data quickly.

94
Building the Access Layer of an Ethernet Network
The Access Layer is the most basic level of the network. It is the part of the network
in which people gain access to other hosts and to shared files and printers. The
Access Layer is composed of host devices, as well as the first line of networking
devices to which they are attached.

Networking devices enable us to connect many hosts with each other and also
provide those hosts access to services offered over the network. Unlike the simple
network consisting of two hosts connected by a single cable, in the Access Layer,
each host is connected to a networking device. This type of connectivity is shown in
the graphic.
Within an Ethernet network, each host is able to connect directly to an Access Layer
networking device using a point-to-point cable. These cables are manufactured to
meet specific Ethernet standards. Each cable is plugged into a host NIC and then
into a port on the networking device. There are several types of networking devices
that can be used to connect hosts at the Access Layer, including Ethernet hubs and
switches.

95
Function of Hub
A hub is one type of networking device that is installed at the Access Layer of an Ethernet
network.

Hubs contain multiple ports that are used to connect hosts to the network. Hubs are simple
devices that do not have the necessary electronics to decode the messages sent between
hosts on the network.

Hubs cannot determine which host should get any particular message. A hub simply
accepts electronic signals from one port and regenerates (or repeats) the same message
out all of the other ports.

Remember that the NIC on a host accepts messages only addressed to the correct MAC
address. Hosts ignore messages that are not addressed to them. Only the host specified in
the destination address of the message processes the message and responds to the sender.
All of the ports on the Ethernet hub connect to the same channel to send and receive
messages. Because all hosts must share the bandwidth available on that channel, a hub is
referred to as a shared-bandwidth device.

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Only one message can be sent through an Ethernet hub at a time. It is possible for two or
more hosts connected to a hub to attempt to send a message at the same time. If this
happens, the electronic signals that make up the messages collide with each other at the
hub.

A collision causes the messages to become garbled and unreadable by the hosts. A hub
does not decode the messages; therefore it does not detect that the message is garbled
and repeats it out all the ports. The area of the network where a host can receive a
garbled message resulting from a collision is known as a collision domain.

Inside a collision domain, when a host receives a garbled message, it detects that a
collision has occurred. Each sending host waits a short amount of time and then attempts
to send, or retransmit, the message again. As the number of hosts connected to the hub
increases, so does the chance of collisions. More collisions cause more retransmissions.
Excessive retransmissions can clog up the network and slow down network traffic. For this
reason, it is necessary to limit the size of a collision domain.

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Function of Switches
An Ethernet switch is a device that is used at the Access Layer. Like a hub, a switch
connects multiple hosts to the network. Unlike a hub, a switch can forward a message
to a specific host. When a host sends a message to another host on the switch, the
switch accepts and decodes the frames to read the physical (MAC) address portion of
the message.

A table on the switch, called a MAC address table, contains a list of all of the active
ports and the host MAC addresses that are attached to them. When a message is sent
between hosts, the switch checks to see if the destination MAC address is in the table.
If it is, the switch builds a temporary connection, called a circuit, between the source
and destination ports. This new circuit provides a dedicated channel over which the
two hosts can communicate. Other hosts attached to the switch do not share
bandwidth on this channel and do not receive messages that are not addressed to
them. A new circuit is built for every new conversation between hosts. These separate
circuits allow many conversations to take place at the same time, without collisions
occurring.

98
How does the MAC address of a new host get into the MAC address table? A switch builds
the MAC address table by examining the source MAC address of each frame that is sent
between hosts. When a new host sends a message or responds to a flooded message, the
switch immediately learns its MAC address and the port to which it is connected. The table
is dynamically updated each time a new source MAC address is read by the switch. In this
way, a switch quickly learns the MAC addresses of all attached hosts.
Sometimes, it is necessary to connect another networking device, like a hub, to a switch
port. This is done to increase the number of hosts that can be connected to the network.
When a hub is connected to a switch port, the switch associates the MAC addresses of all
hosts connected to that hub with the single port on the switch. Occasionally, one host on
the attached hub sends a message to another host attached to the same hub. In this case,
the switch receives the frame and checks the table to see where the destination host is
located. If both the source and destination hosts are located on the same port, the switch
discards the message.
When a hub is connected to a switch port, collisions can occur on the hub. The hub
forwards to all ports the damaged messages resulting from a collision. The switch receives
the garbled message, but, unlike a hub, a switch does not forward the damaged messages
caused by collisions. As a result, every switch port creates a separate collision domain. This
is a good thing. The fewer hosts contained in a collision domain, the less likely it is that a
collision will occur.
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Broadcasting a Message
When hosts are connected using either a hub or a switch, a single local network is
created. Within the local network it is often necessary for one host to be able to send
messages to all the other hosts at the same time. This can be done using a message
known as a broadcast. Broadcasts are useful when a host needs to find information
without knowing exactly what other host can supply it or when a host wants to provide
information to all other hosts in the same network in a timely manner.

A message can only contain one destination MAC address. So, how is it possible for a host
to contact every other host on the local network without sending out a separate message
to each individual MAC?

To solve this problem, broadcast messages are sent to a unique MAC address that is
recognized by all hosts. The broadcast MAC address is actually a 48-bit address made up
of all ones. Because of their length, MAC addresses are usually represented in
hexadecimal notation. The broadcast MAC address in hexadecimal notation is
FFFF.FFFF.FFFF. Each F in the hexadecimal notation represents four ones in the binary
address.

100
When a host receives a message addressed to the broadcast address, it accepts and processes
the message as though the message was addressed directly to it. When a host sends a
broadcast message, hubs and switches forward the message to every connected host within
the same local network. For this reason, a local network is also referred to as a broadcast
domain.
If too many hosts are connected to the same broadcast domain, broadcast traffic can become
excessive. The number of hosts and the amount of network traffic that can be supported on
the local network is limited by the capabilities of the hubs and switches used to connect
them. As the network grows and more hosts are added, network traffic, including broadcast
traffic, increases. It is often necessary to divide one local network, or broadcast domain, into
multiple networks to improve performance.

101
MAC and IP
On a local Ethernet network, a NIC only accepts a frame if the destination address is
either the broadcast MAC address, or else corresponds to the MAC address of the NIC.
Most network applications, however, rely on the logical destination IP address to identify
the location of the servers and clients.
What if a sending host only has the logical IP address of the destination host? How does
the sending host determine what destination MAC address to place within the frame?
The sending host can use an IP protocol called address resolution protocol (ARP) to
discover the MAC address of any host on the same local network.

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Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
ARP uses a three step process to discover and store the MAC address of a host on the local
network when only the IP address of the host is known.

1. The sending host creates and sends a frame addressed to a broadcast MAC address.
Contained in the frame is a message with the IP address of the intended destination host.
2. Each host on the network receives the broadcast frame and compares the IP address
inside the message with its configured IP address. The host with the matching IP address
sends its MAC address back to the original sending host.
3. The sending host receives the message and stores the MAC address and IP address
information in a table called an ARP table.

Once the sending host has the MAC address of the destination host in its ARP table, it can
send frames directly to the destination without doing an ARP request.

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•Thank You