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Course Title : Anatomy and Physiology

Course Code : MC 1
Course Description : The course deals with the basic understanding of the structure of the parts of human body and the basic principles on which the parts
perform their functions. It aims to provide a foundation of knowledge of cells, tissues, organs and body system.
Course Credit : 5 units (3 units lecture, 2 units laboratory)
Independent Study
Placement : First Year, First Semester
Pre-requisites : None
Program Outcomes 1. Apply knowledge of physical, social, natural and health sciences and humanities in the practice of nursing.
2. Apply guidelines and principles of evidence-based practice in the delivery of care.
3. Practice nursing in accordance with existing laws, legal, ethical, and moral principles.
4. Communicate effectively in speaking, writing and presenting using culturally-appropriate language.
5. Demonstrate responsible citizenship and pride in being a Filipino.
6. Uphold the nursing core values in the practice of the profession.
Level Outcomes : Given simulated situations in selected settings, the learners demonstrate basic nursing skills in rendering safe and appropriate care
utilizing the nursing process. (CMO-15, Section 6.5)
Course Outcomes : At the end of this course, given simulated conditions/situations, the student will be able to:
1.

LEARNING STRATEGIES

LEARNING OUTCOMES CONTENT/TOPIC ASSESSMENT

CLASSROOM T

I. ANATOMY

A. Definition
1. Types of Study
A. Systematic Anatomy
B. Regional Anatomy
C. Surface Anatomy

B. Physiology
1. Definition
2. Types of Study
A. According to the organism involved
B. According to levels of organism within a
given organism

C. Structural and Functional Organization


1. Seven Structural Levels
A. Chemical
B. Organelle
C. Cell
D. Tissues
● Types
- epithelial
- connective
- muscular
- nervous
E. Organ
F. Organ system
● Integumentary
● Skeletal
● Muscular
● Nervous
● Endocrine
● Cardiovascular
● Lymphatic
● Respiratory
● Digestive
● Urinary
● Reproductive
G. Organism

D. Characteristics of Life
1. Organization
2. Metabolism
3. Responsiveness
4. Growth
5. Development
6. Reproduction

E. Homeostatis
1. Negative feedback
2. Positive feedback

F. Terminology and the Body Planes


1. Directional Terms
A. Right and left
B. Inferior and superior
C. Dorsal and ventral
D. Proximal and distal
E. Lateral and medial
F. Superficial and deep
2. Planes/Sections
A. Sagittal/midsagittal plane
B. Transverse/horizontal section
C. Frontal/coronal section
D. Longitudinal section
E. Oblique section
3. Body Regions
A. Division
● Limbs
● Head
● Neck
● Trunk
● Abdomen
▪ (4) Quadrants
▪ (9) Regions
4. Body Cavities
A. Thoracic cavity
B. Abdominal cavity
C. Pelvic cavity
5. Serous Membranes
A. Locations
● Pericardial membranes
● Pleural membranes
● Peritoneum
● Parietal peritoneum
▪ Mesentery
▪ Retroperitoneal
● Visceral peritoneum

II. CELLS, TISSUES, GLANDS AND MEMBRANES

A. Cells
1. Cell Structure and Function
2. Whole Cell Activity
A. Movement through the plasma membrane
1. diffusion
2. osmosis
3. filtration
4. facilitated diffusion
5. active transport
6. endocytosis
7. exocytosis
B. Protein synthesis
1. transcription
2. translation
C. Cell division
1. mitosis
2. meiosis
D. Differentiation

B. Tissues
1. Basic Tissue Types
A. Epithelial tissue
1. Classification
 Simple epithelium
 Pseudostratified columnar
 Transitional epithelium
2. Functional characteristics
3. Glands
 Exocrine
 Endocrine
B. Connective tissue
1. Classification
 Dense Connective
 Tendon
 Ligaments
 Dermis of the skin
 Organ capsule
 Loose or Areolar
 Adipose Tissue
2. Matrix with both protein in fibers and
ground substances
 Cartilage
 Bone
 Blood

C. Muscle tissue
1. Types
 Skeletal
 Cardiac
 Smooth
D. Nervous tissue
1. Parts
 Dendrites
 Cell body
 Axon
 Support cells or neuroglia
E. Membranes
1. Categories
 Mucous membranes
 Serous membranes
 Other membranes
 Cutaneous membrane
 Synovial membrane
 Periosteum membrane
F. Inflammation
1. Function
2. Symptoms
G. Tissue repair
1. Types of repair
 Regeneration
 Replacement
2. Stages
 Clot formation
 Inflammation
 Formation of granulation tissue
 Regeneration or replacement of
tissue
C. The Chemistry of Life
1. Basic Chemistry
A. Structure of atom
B. Clinical application of atomic particles
C. Electron and chemical bonds
1. Ionic bonds
2. Covalent bonds
3. Hydrogen bonds
2. Chemical Reactions
A. Classification
1. Synthesis reaction
2. Decomposition reaction
3. Exchange reaction
3. Acids and Bases
A. Definition of acid and base
B. pH scale
C. Salts
D. Buffer
4. Water
A. Important Properties
5. Organic Molecules
A. Carbohydrates
B. Lipids
C. Protein
1. Enzymes
D. Nucleic acids

III. THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

A. Anatomy of the Respiratory System


1. Nose and Nasal Cavities
A. Position and structure
B. Function
 Respiratory function
 Olfactory function
2. Pharynx
A. Position and structure
B. Function
3. Larynx
A. Position and structure
B. Cartilages
C. Functions
 Respiratory function
 Voice production
4. Trachea
A. Position and structure
5. Bronchi and Smaller Air Passages
A. Structure
6. Lungs
A. Position and structure

7. Pleural cavities
A. Position and structure

B. Ventilation and Lung Volumes


1. Phases of Ventilation
A. Inspiration
B. Expiration
2. Mechanisms of Ventilation
3. Collapse of the Lung
A. Surface tension
B. Surfactant
4. Pulmonary Volumes and Capacities

C. Gas Exchange
1. Factors affecting exchange
A. Respiratory membrane thickness
B. Surface area
C. Partial pressure
 Diffusion of gases in the lung
 Diffusion of gases in the tissue

D. O2 and CO2 Transport in the Blood

E. Modification of Ventilation
1. Nervous control of ventilation
2. Chemical control of ventilation
3. Effect exercise on ventilation

IV. THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM


A. The Heart
1. Size, form and location
2. Anatomy
a. Pericardium
b. External anatomy
c. Blood supply
 Coronary arteries
 Cardiac veins
d. Heart chambers
 Right and left atrium
 Right and left ventricles
e. Heart valves
 Atrioventricular valves
 Semilunar valves
f. Routes of blood flow through the heart
g. Heart wall
h. Cardiac muscle
3. Conduction system of the heart
4. Cardiac cycle
a. Systole
b. Diastole
5. Heart sounds
a. Normal sounds: S1 and S2
b. Abnormal sounds:murmurs
6. Regulation of heart function
a. Intrinsic regulation of the heart
b. Extrinsic regulation of the heart

B. The Blood Vessels and Circulation of Blood


1. Structures and functions
a. Arteries
b. Capillaries
c. Veins
2. Blood vessels of the pulmonary circulation
a. Pulmonary arteries
b. Pulmonary veins
3. Blood vessels of the systemic circulation
a. Arteries
 Aorta
 Arteries of the head and neck
 Arteries of the upper limbs
 Arteries of the thoracic aorta and its
balance
 Arteries of the abdominal aorta and
its balance
 Arteries of the pelvis
 Arteries of the lower limbs
b. Veins
 Vena cava
 Veins of the head and neck
 Veins of the upper limbs
 Veins of the thorax
 Veins of the abdomen and pelvis
 Veins of the lower limbs
4. The physiology of circulation
a. Blood pressure
b. Pressure and resistance
c. Capillary exchange
5. Control of blood vessels
a. Local control
b. Nervous control
6. Regulation of arterial pressure
a. Baroreceptor reflexes
b. Chemoreceptor reflexes
c. Hormonal mechanism
 Adrenal medullary mechanism
 Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone
mechanism

V. THE BLOOD

A. Function

B. Composition of Blood
1. Plasma
2. Cellular content
a. Production of formed elements or
hematopoeisis
b. Varietes of blood cells
 RBC or Erythrocytes
- Functions
- Development and life span of RBC
- Destruction of RBC
- Blood groups
* ABO blood group
* Rh blood group
 WBC or Leukocytes
- Function
- Main types
* Granulocytes
- Neutrophils
- Basophils
- Eosinophils
* Agranulocytes
- Monocytes
- Lymphocytes
 Platelets or Thrombocytes

C. Preventing Blood Loss


1. Blood vessel constriction
2. Platelet plugs
3. Blood clotting
4. Control of clot formation
5. Clot retraction and dissolution

VI. THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM AND IMMUNITY

A. Functions

B. Lymphatic Vessels

C. Lymphatic Organs
1. Tonsils
2. Lymph nodes
3. Spleen
4. Thymus gland

D. Immunity
1. Innate immunity
a. Mechanical mechanism
b. Chemical mediators
 Complement interferons
c. Cells
 Phagocytes cells
 Cells of inflammation
 Natural Killer (NK) cells
d. Inflammatory response
2. Adaptive immunity
a. Origin and development of lymphocytes
b. Activation and regulation of lymphocytes
c. Types of adaptive immunity
 Antibody-mediated of humoral
 Cell-mediated
d. Ways to acquire adaptive immunity
 Active natural
 Active artificial
 Passive natural
 Passive artificial

VII. THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

A. Activities in the Digestive System


1. Ingestion
2. Digestion
a. Mechanical mastication
b. Chemical by enzymes
3. Absorption
4. Provide nutrients
5. Elimination

B. Trunks or Layers of the Digestive System


1. Mucosa
2. Submucosa
3. Muscularis
4. Either adventitia or serosa

C. Organs and Functions of the Digestive System


1. Alimentary tract
a. Oral cavity or mouth
 Tongue
 Teeth
 Palate and tonsils
 Salivary glands
b. Pharynx
c. Esophagus
d. Stomach
e. Small intestine
f. Large intestine
g. Rectum and anal canal
2. Accessory organs
a. Salivary glands
b. Pancreas
 As exocrine gland
 As endocrine gland
c. Liver and the biliary tract

D. Movements and Secretions in the Digestive System


1. Oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus
a. Secretions of the oral cavity
b. Mastication
c. Deglutition
2. Stomach
a. Secretions of the stomach
b. Regulations of the stomach secretions
 Cephalic phase
 Gastric phase
 Intestinal phase
c. Movements in the stomach
 Mixing waves
 Peristaltic waves
3. Small intestines
a. Secretions of the small intestines
b. Movement in the small intestines
c. Absorption in the small intestine
 Large intestine
 Liver
 Secretions of pancreas

E. Metabolism
1. Carbohydrates
2. Lipids
3. Proteins
4. Water and minerals
VIII. THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

A. Hormones
1. Categories
a. Proteins, peptides and amino derivatives
b. Lipid hormones

B. The Endocrine Glands and their Hormones


1. The Pituitary and Hypothalamus
a. Hormones of the anterior pituitary
 Growth hormone (GH)
 Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
 Gonadotrophins
- female-luteinizing hormone (LSH)
- follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
- male-interstitial cell-stimulating
hormone (ICHSH)
 Prolactin
 Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
b. Hormones of the posterior pituitary
 Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
 Oxytocin
2. The Thyroid Gland
a. Triodothyronine (T3)
b. Thyroxine (T4)
c. Calcitonin
3. The Parathyroid Gland
a. Parathyroid hormones (PTH)
4. The Adrenal Medulla
a. Adrenal medulla
 Epinephrine or adrenaline
 Norepinephrine
b. Adrenal cortex
 Glucocorticoids
 Mineralocorticoids
 Adrogens
5. The Pancreas
a. Beta cells - insulin
b. Alpha cells - glucagon
6. The Testes and Ovaries
a. Female
 Estrogen
 Progesterone
b. Male
 Testosterone
7. The Thymus Gland
a. Thymosin
8. The Pineal Body
a. Melatonin
C. Other Hormones
1. Prostaglandins
2. Erythropoietin
3. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

IX. THE URINARY SYSTEM AND FLUID BALANCE

A. Structure and Function


1. Kidney
a. Gross structure of the kidney
b. Microscopic structure of the kidney - nephron
c. Blood supply
d. Functions
e. Urine production
 Filtration
 Reabsorption
 Secretion
f. Composition of urine
g. Regulation of urine concentration and volume
 Hormonal mechanisms
 Effect of sympathetic enervation on
kidney function
h. Urine movement
 Micturition reflex
2. Ureters
a. Structure
b. Function
3. Urinary Bladder
a. Organs associated with the bladder
 In the female
 In the male
b. Structure
c. Function
4. Urethra

B. Fluids and Electrolytes


1. Body Fluid Compartment
a. ICF
b. ECF
2. Composition of Fluid in the Body Fluid Compartments
3. Exchange Between Body Fluid Compartments
a. Hydrostatic pressure
b. Osmotic pressure
4. Regulation of Extracellular Fluid Composition
a. Thirst
b. Ions
 Sodium ions
 Potassium ions
 Calcium ions
 Phosphate and sulfate ions
5. Regulation of Acid-Base Balance
a. Buffers
 Proteins
 Phosphate buffer system
 Bicarbonate buffer system
b. Respiratory system
c. Kidneys
6. Alterations in the Buffering Mechanism
a. Acidosis
b. Alkalosis

X. THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

A. Structure of the Skin


1. Layers
a. Epidermis
b. Dermis
2. Skin color
3. Functions of the skin
4. Effects of aging on the integumentary system
5. The integumentary system as a diagnostic aid

B. Accessory Skin Structures


1. Hair
2. Muscles
3. Glands
a. Sebaceous glands
b. Merocrine sweat glands
c. Apocrine sweat glands

XI. THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

A. Division of the Nervous System


1. Central Nervous System
2. Peripheral Nervous System

B. Cells of the Nervous System


1. Nervous or Nerve Cell
a. Types of nervous neuron on the basis of the
shape
 Multi-polar neuron
 Bipolar neuron
 Unipolar neuron
b. Functions
 Sensory of afferent nerve
- somatic, cutaneous, or common
sense
- proprioceptor senses
 Special senses
 Automatic afferent nerve
- motor or afferent nerve
2. Neurologic or Glial Cell
a. Structure
b. Function
3. Myelin Sheaths
4. Organization of Nervous Tissue
a. White matter
b. Gray matter
5. Propagation of Action Potential
a. Membrane potential and action potential
b. The synapses
c. Reflexes
d. Neuronal circuit
6. Properties of Nerve Tissue
a. Irritability
b. Conductivity

C. Central Nervous System


1. Parts of the CNS
a. Brain
 Medulla oblongata
 Pons
 Midbrain
 Reticular formation
b. Spinal Cord
 Thalamus
 Epithalamus
 hypothalamus
2. Brain Regions
a. Brainstem
b. Diencephalons
c. Cerebrum
 Hemisphere
 Lobes
− Frontal
− Parietal
− Occipital
− Temporal
 Functional areas of the cerebral cortex
 Speech
 Memory
 Basal ganglia
 Limbic system
d. Cerebellum
3. Pathways and Functions of CNS
a. Ascending Pathways
 Spinothalamic
 Dorsal column
 spinocerebellar
b. Descending Pathways
 Corticospinal
 Extrapyramidal
4. Meninges
5. Ventricles
6. Cerebrospinal Fluid

D. Peripheral Nervous System


1. Parts
a. 12 Pairs of Cranial Nerve
b. 31 Pairs of Spinal Nerve
 Plexuses
− Cervical
− Bronchial
− Lumbosacral

E. Autonomic Nervous System


1. Division
a. Sympathetic
b. Parasympathetic
2. Effects of Automatic Stimulation on Various Body
System

XII. THE SPECIAL SENSES

A. Major Groups
1. General Senses
2. Special Senses
a. Smell
b. Taste
c. Sight
d. Hearing
e. Balance

B. General Sense
1. Receptors
a. Mechanoreceptors
b. Chemoreceptors
c. Photoreceptors
d. Thermoreceptors
e. Noriceptors
2. Nerve Endings
a. Free Nerve Ending
b. Specialized Free Nerve Ending
 Cold receptor
 Warm receptor
c. Complex Nerve Ending
3. Pain
a. Types
 Gated
 Referred
 Phantom

C. Special Senses
1. Olfaction
2. Taste
3. Vision and Eye Visual System
a. Eyes
 Layers of funics
− Fibrous sclerae and cornea
− Vascular-choroid ciliary
− Nervous-retina
 Compartments of the eye
− Eyebrow
− Eyelid
− Conjunctiva
− Lacrimal apparatus
− Extraocular eye muscle
4. Hearing and Balance
a. The Ear and its Function
 External ear
− Auricle
− External auditory meatus
 Middle ear
− Openings
− Auditory
 Malleus
 Incus
 Stapes
 Inner ear
− Semicircular canals
− Vestibule
− Cochlea
b. Hearing
c. Equilibrium

XIII. THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

A. Major Components
1. Bones
2. Associated Cartilage
3. Joints

B. Connective Tissue

C. General Feature of the Bone


1. Types of Bone Based on Their Shape
a. Long
b. Short
c. Flat
d. Irregular
2. Types of Bone on Their Histological Structure
a. Compact
b. Spongy
3. Bone Ossification
4. Bone Growth
5. Bone Repair

D. General Classification of Bone Anatomy


1. Axial Skeleton
a. Skull
 Cranial nerve
 Face
b. Vertebral Column
c. Thoracic Cage
 Thoracic vertebraes
 Ribs
 Sternum
2. Appendicular Skeleton
a. Pectoral Girdle
b. Upper Limb
c. Pectoral Pelvic Girdle
3. Articulation
a. Functional Classification
 Synarthrosis
 Amphiarthrosis
 Diarthrosis
b. Structural Classification
 Fibrous
 Cartilagious
 Synovial
− Plane or gliding
− Saddle
− Hinge
− Pivot
− Ball of socket
− Ellipsoid or condyloid
c. Types of Movement

XIV. THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

A. Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle


1. Structure
2. Membrane Potentials
3. Nerve Supply
4. Muscle Contraction

B. Smooth Muscle Anatomy

C. Skeletal Muscle Anatomy


1. General Principles
2. Nomenclature
3. Muscles of the Head and Neck
4. Trunk Muscles
5. Upper Limb Muscles
6. Lower Limb Muscles

XV. THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

A. Male Reproductive System


1. Parts
a. Scrotum
b. Testes
c. Spermatogenesis
d. Ducts
e. Penis
f. Glans
g. Secretions
2. Physiology of Male Reproduction
a. Regulation of Sex Hormone Secretion
b. Puberty
c. Effects of Testosterone
d. Male Sexual Behavior and the Male Sexual Act

B. Female Reproductive System


1. Parts
a. Ovaries
b. Uterine Tubes
c. Uterus
d. Vagina
e. External Genitalia
f. Mammary Glands
2. Physiology of Female Reproduction
a. Puberty
b. Menstrual Cycle
c. Menopause
d. Female Sexual Behavior and the Female Sex Act