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Chapter 11

Motivation and Emotion

I. Motivation – Activating Behavior

A. Internal Factors
1. _____________________________________- unlearned
characteristic patterns of responding, controlled by
specific triggering stimuli.

2. ______________________________________- Psychological
state that arises in response to an internal physiological
need. The body seeks homeostasis- stable and constant
internal conditions.

B. External Factors

1. ________________________________- (Extrinsic) Goal directed

behavior- someone will be motivated to perform an action
based on the value of an incentive.

C. ________________________________________- Pushes people to seek

success and significant accomplishment. Depends on
expectation of success and how success is valued

D. _________________________________________– Behavior is entirely

self-motivated. External reward may have a negative effect if it is
seen as controlling behavior.

E. ______________________________________________________-prioritized
needs. He said that some needs must be satisfied before others
can be dealt with..

1. Physiological needs - Survival needs such as food, water,

and shelter.

2. Safety needs - To be safe and protected.

3. Need for belonging and love - Social and emotional needs.

4. Esteem needs - Self esteem and social status.

5. Self-actualization needs - Reaching true potential as a

human being.

II. Meeting Biological Needs: Hunger and Eating

A. Internal Factors Controlling Hunger

1. _________________________________________- Glucose and

insulin are monitored by the body to tell the organism
when to eat.

2. _________________________________________ - Regions of the

hypothalamus and brain stem influence the initiation and
cessation of hunger. * Ventro-medial and lateral
hypothalamus regulates eating. Exact roles are unclear.

B. External Factors Controlling Hunger- Food is reinforcing- signals

positive consequences- Cultural eating habits and the presence
of food cues influence the decision to eat.

C. Regulating Body Weight

1. ________________________________________ - is a natural body

weight probably determined by genetic factors. Metabolic rate
determines how calories are burned. Obesity may be caused by
biological and psychological factors.

D. Eating Disorders

1. ________________________________________- Person refuses

to maintain a normal body weight. Irrational fear of being
overweight. Most common in females ages 12-18.

2. __________________________________________- Principal
system is binge eating than vomiting or using laxatives to
stop potential weight gain.

III. Meeting Biological Needs: Sexual Behavior

A. Internal Factors - Hormones (estrogens and androgens) play a role
in human sexual behavior. Sexual behavior is influenced by social
factors but are primarily under individual’s control.

B. External Factors - Touch (erogenous zones) is an important external

source of arousal. Pheromones probably do not influence humans
very much.

C. Mate Selection

1. ___________________________________________- People
acquire the “hows, whats and whys” of sexual
interactions through culture.

2. ___________________________________________- Cross cultural

similarities exist such as men are more likely than women
to pursue “short term” sexual affairs.

3. _____________________________________________- Sexual
strategies of men and women must be understood within
the framework of evolution.

D. Sexual Orientation - Some correlational evidence exists to suggest

sexual orientation (gay or straight) is partly determined by
biology. No cause and effect relationship.

IV. Expressing and Experiencing Emotion

A. Are There Basic Emotions?

1. _________________________________________- A complex
psychological event involving physiological arousal,
expressive reaction and some type of subjective

2. Basic emotions - 4 agreed-upon emotional states -

___________________ ,

_________________, _____________________, __________________ (surprise and

disgust ?)

3. Facial expressions and culture - Cultural similarities in

expression of emotion- may have a biological or genetic

4. ________________________________________________- Muscles
in the face deliver signals to the brain that are interpreted
as subjective emotional states.

B. The Emotional Experience: Arousal

1. ___________________________________________- As level of
arousal or anxiety increases (up to moderate) so does
task performance. At some point too much arousal
(anxiety) leads to a breakdown and decreased

2. The polygraph test - Relies on the hypothesis that arousal

can be used as a reliable index of emotional experience.

C. Theories of Emotion: Body to Mind

1. _______________________________________________ -
Physiological reaction precedes and drives the subjective
experience of emotion. Unique physical changes
accompany each different emotional experience.

2. ________________________________________________ -
Emotions and physiological reaction may occur together
but one does not cause the other. Same physical reaction
to all emotions.

3. _____________________________________________________- This
experiment demonstrated that the experience of emotion
was determined entirely by expectation. Led to the Two –
Factor theory.

4. ____________________________________________________-
States that autonomic arousal and cognitive appraisal of
that reaction drives the subjective experience of emotion.