Instructional Design Models and Methods

Online Learning in Diplomacy Workshop
Geneva, May 30, 2006

Daniel K. Schneider

TECFA Faculté de Psychologie et des Sciences de l’Education Université de Genève

Code: diplo06
© TECFA 31/5/06

Menu of the talk
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What’s behind a pedagogical design ? Learning Education, pedagogy, instruction Instructional design models Tools & Methods Executive summary 3 4 8 11 27 34

© TECFA 31/5/06

1. What’s behind a pedagogical design ?


1. What’s behind a pedagogical design ?
Learning theory Learning level Affect and motivation Educational theory Instructional Pedagogic theory strategies Instructional design theory

Learning type

1.Learning Instructional design models Educational technologies


3.Howto Models

Instructional design methods 4.Tools & Methods

Objectives & constraints

Pedagogical design (scenarios)
© TECFA 31/5/06

in particular its taxonomies • Learning theory strongly influences pedagogical theory & practice © TECFA 31/5/06 . Learning Learning theory Learning level Affect and motivation Learning type 1. • It’s not obvious to identify learning goals .Learning Why bother ? • "Learning" is a complex multi-dimensional phenomenon • There are different learning types...2. learning theory can help a bit. learning levels etc. Learning diplo06-4 2.

Reasoning (Inference.. Learning Strategies: • learning how to learn. 6... being able to solve a certain task by applying a procedure. Deduction): • thinking activities that involve making or testing inferences 5. 4. Factual Information (Memorization): • Processing of factual information and remembering . Learning diplo06-5 2. Attitudes: • Disposition or tendency to respond positively or negatively ...1. It is not related to simple recall and must be constructed. Procedure Learning: • . Problem solving: • identification of subgoals.Types of Learning 1..2. 7... very difficult to teach ! © TECFA 31/5/06 .. use of methods to satisfy subgoals.. 2. how to discriminate and categorize things. Concepts (Discrimination): • .. 3..

calculate.. identify.. categorize.... summarize. defend. Learning diplo06-6 2. apply.. arrange.. demonstrate. arrange. change. interpret. .. compare.Levels of Learning (Bloom’s taxonomy of the cognitive dimension) 1. . compute. identify.. choose.. .. construct. combine. 2. appraise. write. . Evaluation: Make judgements. recall. Knowledge: recall data or information • . 4... © TECFA 31/5/06 . define. relate. give example.... .2. Comprehension: be able to translate into own words.. attach. 6. describe. explain.. analyze.. collect.2. 5. label. 3. categorize.. compose. list.. . break down. predict. assess... describe. • . argue. express. Analysis: split concepts into parts and understands the structure • . Synthesis: Produce something from different elements • . discuss. justify a solution.. compare. • . assemble. etc. classify.. appraise. Application: Use a concept in a new situation • . duplicate.

.2..Leaning theories look at learning in different ways . Learning diplo06-7 2.3. lead to different designs behaviorism (change behavior) constructivism (construct knowledge) social cognition (interact with others) higher learning levels cognitivism (reach knowledge objectives) situated & shared cognition (interact with the situation) © TECFA 31/5/06 .

Education. pedagogy. instruction diplo06-8 3.3. pedagogy. Education. try to have a "vocabulary" of strategies and tactics © TECFA 31/5/06 .Pedagogy Why bother ? • There are very few generally applicable principles • Different pedagogies relate to different learning goals & types & levels .. instruction Educational theory Instructional Pedagogic theory strategies Instructional design theory 2..

Memorization to teach. “know-how” Presentation of predetermined problems to do. pedagogy. Education.3. to help.1. to support Teaching III (see “Overview of pedagogic strategy models” [p.Major pedagogical approaches (strategies) (Baumgartner & Kalz). “know-that” Transfer of propositional knowledge to know. to demonstrate Teaching II Social practise. to explain Teaching I Procedural knowledge.. Ability to observe. instruction diplo06-9 3. to practise Selection of correct methods and its use Skill. to master Realization of adequate action strategies Social Responsibility to cooperate. “knowing in action” Action in (complex and social) situations to cope.. 15]) © TECFA 31/5/06 . Learning I Transfer Learning II Tutor Learning III Coach Factual knowledge. to remember Production of correct answers Verbal knowledge. there are many other typologies .

Khan’s (2000) list of Methods and Strategies Presentation Demonstration Tutorials Story Telling Role-playing Interaction Facilitation Debate Apprenticeship Generative Development Exhibits Drill and Practice Games Simulations Discussion Modeling Collaboration Field Trips Case Studies Motivation . pedagogy.Pedagogical strategies and methods? E. Education.3. some (combinations of) strategies work better for some learning goals © TECFA 31/5/06 .2.. instruction diplo06-10 3.g..

Functions of a learning environment 2. Change management models (not in this talk) 5.Howto Models Types of instructional design models: 1. Complementary models that will enhance a design (not in this talk) 4. Instructional design methods: how to implement a design (later) © TECFA 31/5/06 . Instructional design models Instructional design models 3.4. Instructional design models diplo06-11 4. Pedagogic strategy models 6. Quality of a design 3.

teacher role is central in activity-based designs • E. Learning material is important for mass-education © TECFA 31/5/06 .g.g.1.4. Instructional design models diplo06-12 4.Functions of a learning environment “School” curriculum & student administration “Teacher” guidance & instruction & design “Monitor” insures that something is learned Tools to produce things LEARNER Activities Fellow learners collaboration augments learning what has to be learned (courseware) additional knowledge Information sources Learning material modified from Sandberg • Focus can change • E.

several grids exist Example 1: Merril’s model for 5 Star Instructional Design’s Not applicable to transmissive (“spray-and-pray”) / or exploratory designs (“sink-or swim”). Does the courseware relate to real world problems? 2. 1.4. Does the courseware demonstrate what is to be learned ? 4. Are learners encouraged to integrate (transfer) the new knowledge or skill into their everyday life? © TECFA 31/5/06 .What is good learning design ? (Quality) • The debate is open. Instructional design models diplo06-13 4.2. Can learners practice and apply acquired knowledge or skill? 5. Does the courseware activate prior knowledge or experience? 3.

4. Peer Support : Is sensitive and encouraging support provided online by fellow students? 6. Interactivity : To what extent do students engage on-line in rich educative dialogue? 4. Tutor Support : How well do tutors enable students to participate in on-line learning? 5. Relevance : How relevant is on-line learning to students' professional practices? 2. Instructional design models diplo06-14 Example 2: Socio-constructivist features of on-line teaching (Taylor and Maor) 1. Interpretation : Do students and tutors make good sense of each other's on-line communications? © TECFA 31/5/06 . Reflection : Does on-line learning stimulate students' critical reflective thinking? 3.

... . Instructional design models diplo06-15 4.. on-demand tutoring.. simulation & gaming.. drill & practise. e-instruction... knowledge management. . © TECFA 31/5/06 .4.. simulations. ... Communities of practice Mentoring. Project-based learning formal e-portfolios .. exercising.... .. A few models sorted by 2 dimensions: formal Learning I (information) small scale Learning II (know how) large scale Learning II (know how) Learning III (knowing in action) Lecturing.. open / informal on-demand tutorials.... Problem-based learning. self-learning with textbooks. help desk model..Overview of pedagogic strategy models • There are dozens .3. Inquiry-based learning. "page turners". ... handbooks. on-demand e-instruction....

E-instruction model Part 1: A modular course architecture • collections of reusable learning objects + Objectives (Matter to be learned) +/Other module Pretest Entry test + - Previous Module +/Recall activity Next module Module © TECFA 31/5/06 . Instructional design models diplo06-16 4.4.4.

e. etc. let the learner do something with the newly acquired behavior. Enhance retention and transfer: inform the learner about similar problem situations. d. simulations. b. Elicit performance "practice". e. text. graphics. © TECFA 31/5/06 . figures.Gain attention e.Stimulate recall of prior knowledge (facts. At least use MCQ’s.g. rules.Present the material to be learned e. analyze learner’s behavior. Put the learner in a transfer situation. provide additional practice.4. procedures or skills) and show how knowledge is connected.Assess performance test and also more general progress information i. Provide guidance for learning (instructions on how to learn on a different channel) f. Gagne’s 9 steps of instruction a.g. practice skills or apply knowledge.g. h. show correctness of the trainee’s response. state what students will be able to accomplish.Describe the goal: e. c. Provide informative feedback. Instructional design models diplo06-17 Part 2: Module design • Should follow (some) sound behaviorist/cognitivist design principles. g. pictures.g. etc. present a good problem or a new situation.

d.4.a list of objectives that the student is expected to master while working on the problem. b. Students work in teams to complete the project. observation.the problem. Students receive the following learning materials: a. © TECFA 31/5/06 .each student has a particular role in the team . a. 2. interviews.5. Instructional design models diplo06-18 4. c. facilitator.questions that focus on important concepts and applications of the knowledge base.time allotted to each project is fixed c.Problem-based learning model • Main purpose: develop problem-solving skills in a subject area Outline of the model: 1.leader. peers. and accomplish the learning objectives.a reference list of materials that pertain to the basic objectives.the team schedules its own activities and decides how to use the allotted time 3. Student performance is evaluated by instructors. resolve the problem. recorder. or team member b. and other assessment methods. and self using questionnaires.

6.4. Instructional design models diplo06-19 4.Inquiry-based learning model Purpose: concept learning and investigation methodology Typical cycle of student activities (done several times) Ask students ask questions Investigate Reflect examine results and look at questions again collect information observe experiment Discuss share ideas confront ideas Create synthesize make links write report © TECFA 31/5/06 .

skills that will have to be acquired etc.g.Define timelines.Revision of the project specification and plan (if need return to steps 2 and 3) © TECFA 31/5/06 . form teams (2) Initial Team Activity . this should lead to a research design.g. milestones and timelines d.Identify prerequisites e.) f.Project-based learning model • Main purpose: "deep learning" (applicable knowledge) Outline of the model defined by "Moursund": • A typical project has 4 phases: (1) Getting started a.Define the topic of overall course b. formulate objectives and questions. e. e. At university level.Knowledge pooling by team members b.Initial project specification.Project Planning a. definition of work packages. milestones and assessment methods c.Planning. Instructional design models diplo06-20 4.Advance organization (project-methodology.4.7.Identify resources d.Formal teacher feedback e. c.

Provide feedback (this includes peer-to-peer tutoring.Students have to polish the final product and prepare associated presentations. c.Closing session with the whole class discussing the experience Notes: • There are many variants of this kind of model • ICT-enhanced models put more emphasis on intermediary products and exchange activities (see next) © TECFA 31/5/06 . etc. Make sure that students engage in regular meetings b.Assessment: The whole class should assist at the presentation of the results. Students may have the occasion to integrate a last feedback. Instructional design models diplo06-21 (3) Project Implementation a.) e.Move toward completion. global feedback to the class for all projects. you decide) d. f.4.Sharing between team members (make sure that there is collaboration and cooperation.Refining of project definition c. Repeat all steps until all milestones have been met (4) Completion a. b.Have students complete one task and milestone at a time.

© TECFA 31/5/06 . projects are done individually or in small groups • Teacher role is crucial & complex Teacher as designs the global project orchestrator designs flexible tasks designs exchange activities makes audits reads blogs controls project plans evaluates gives feedback answers questions writes tutorials provides examples provides links designs the environment Projects Scenario 1 Goals and questions stage 1 stage 2 stage 3 .Structured project-based learning model (variant) Level 1: Teacher roles and the overall design • Strong story-boarding.1 Teacher as facilitator ... Instructional design models diplo06-22 4...4. output: objectives+ research questions discussion at class level Teacher as monitor Scenario 2 R & D plans stage 1 stage 2 stage 3 output: plan v...8..

. this is just the “ur-loop” .. other variants ! living documents © TECFA 31/5/06 .4. Instructional design models diplo06-23 Level 2: Scenario orchestrations with workflow loops and ICT: • Scenarios are sequences of activity phases (stages) within which group members do tasks and play specific roles • Each activity leads to a product that can be discussed and reused Resources Tools exchange Produce Deposit Products authentic tasks Discuss Look ...

Instructional design models diplo06-24 4.9.A "help desk/knowledge management model" for life-long learning • Purpose: support informal workplace learning • Needs involvement of several organizational units Help desk submit dispatch Learner Specialists add Answer Problem consult Forums/ Chat Knowledge add Comment base Tutorials . support infrastructure Peers © TECFA 31/5/06 ....4..

.. to be. .. news etc. Instructional design models diplo06-25 4..g. e. . • A place to exchange. difficult to set up (people don’t collaborate naturally) © TECFA 31/5/06 . to reflect..Community of practise model Purpose: Engage actors in communities that learn • often used in professional development. help exchange fun open & free reflection communication informations "presence" news ... teacher training • members of a community tend to make better progress • knowledge through enculturation (collective memory) • good communities are knowledge management aware Use of portal software • A place to find informations.4...10..

Carrying out (implementation can include meetings with a facilitator). • Both have to sign it (and believe in it). • there is a supportive environment.Mentoring Purpose: Formal or informal "elder" to "younger" training 1. Mentor and protégé negotiate a mentoring agreement (see below). 3. Prepare/train mentor. © TECFA 31/5/06 . Contract: • Mentors and proteges should agree on a formal contract. 2.4. roles and expectations. Instructional design models diplo06-26 4. • Contents: development objectives. duration. Conditions: Mentoring works when: • individuals are committed to it. Stages to set up a mentoring program • • • • • • Identify development needs of protégé(s) Identify and recruit mentor(s). ground rules.11. Evaluation. • there is a goal (see the mentoring contract). other comments.

5.Tools & Methods • Provide methodologies for design and implementation • Note: Often instructional design methods are also called "instructional design models" © TECFA 31/5/06 . Tools & Methods Educational technologies Technologies Instructional design methods 4. Tools & Methods diplo06-27 5.

structures and relations between actors • 2. Teacher Tutor Designer Content Expert 3.Plan at least for 3 areas 2. during and after) • 1.5. Knowledge & Information space Courseware Learner 1.1. Roles. Learning activities © TECFA 31/5/06 . Learning Activities Define: who does what and where (before. Tools & Methods diplo06-28 5. Contents (including places for knowledge exchange) • 3.

Tools & Methods diplo06-29 5.g. Application of Teaching Methods and Approaches DP: Design of Pedagogical specifications 3. Delivery Planning DD: Design of Delivery Using such a complex method (see next slide) is worth the effort: • if you plan do it right • if your projects are large scale url: © TECFA 31/5/06 .Method: heavy duty industrial design ? E. Knowledge and Skill Representation DC: Design of Content (know-that and know-how) 2. MISA/MOT/ADISA: Course designer works on "4 models" 1.2.cogigraph. Specification of Learning Materials DM: Design of Materials 4.

Tools & Methods diplo06-30 © TECFA 31/5/06 .5.

materials specs.....5. . .3. Method: Medium-weight instructional systems design Analysis tasks and needs analysis constraints.. Implementation distribution conduct training Evaluation Design subject analysis learning objectives scenario specs. Delivery system. Tools & Methods diplo06-31 5. Development implementation of design. An ADDIE-like model © TECFA 31/5/06 .

Contextualizing: Setting and situations are particular.Iterating: The not-yet-known.Cooperating: all stake-holders (including learners) participate b. they may emerge during teaching c.g. e.Experimenting: ideas are or may be embedded within current conditions.Method: Rapid participatory prototyping Principles: a.4. each class may evolve differently d.5. Tools & Methods diplo06-32 5. e.g. draws from the point of view of use The implementation cycles: Learning goals Design of activities & environment Teach & learn Evaluation © TECFA 31/5/06 .

Technology (not part of this talk) Technology is not innocent ! . Wikis. reading) Groupware (help desk..5.. Teaching I know-that E-learning Systems Hypertext. do not trust vendors who make universal claims . Coll. linked blogs Comp.5. discussion) Microworlds (exercising. CMS (producing.. Supp. Wikis. collaborating) C3MS (community portals). Tools & Methods diplo06-33 5.. CMS (exploring.. Learning ** * * *** *** * Teaching II know-how * * *** *** * * *** Teaching III knowing-in-action ** * *** *** * © TECFA 31/5/06 . simulating) Hypertext..

i. monitoring) • There are many ways to implement these principles .6. Executive summary • Define objectives (what will your learners be able to do ?) => Only then look at pedagogical strategies and design models • Reading is not learning.. Executive summary diplo06-34 6. unstable until 9/2006) © TECFA 31/5/06 .ch/en/ (under construction. educational ICT is not just e-learning => One must “do” to learn. tutoring..e..unige. Some further reading: http://EdutechWiki. you must design learning activities • Most people need guidance to achieve instructional goals => External conditioning (teaching.

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