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UPSC IAS Mains Mechanical Engineering 1991

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= rll. (20) having a lift of I em operates the suction valve of a four-stroke SI engine. 2 em thick plate. What must be the velocity ratio b ･ｴｷ ｾ ･＠ 1cy e wheel and the arm.sectional area of the piston. For each cylinder the revolving ｭ｡ｳ･ ｾ ｡ ｯ＠ kg at crank pin radius of 32cm and reciprocating part 285 kg.) of the crank at the instant when pressure is applied will be given by the relation PA rsin (e+ 91) ｡Ｍｾｌﾭ J. d. Also determine the ｨｯｲｳ･ｰ ｾ ･Ｍｲ ｮｯｴｲ＠ driving this machine. Estimate (i) the maximum velocity of the value (ii) the maximum acceleration and retardation of the valve (iii) the minimum force to be exerted by the spring to overcome inertia of he valve parts which weigh 200 gm. The driving wheels are I. r = crank length 1. 2 ern and punches 6 holes per minute. The cam is of circular type with circular nose and flanks. when the suction valve closes. It is integral with cam shaft and operates a flat faced follower.5 mlsec. cos91+ W. I= length of connecting rod ｾ＠ <1> Wnc = angle made by connecting rod with the line of stroke at this instant =weight of the reciprocating parts Jr =moment of inertia of the crank about the axis of rotation. p. The maximum speed of the . The crank angle for the engine when suction valve opens is 4 ° after b . and it is 5 0° after b. Mlhen the engine runs 60 km per hour find (i) the swaying couple (ii) the · ·on · · ctive effort and (iii) the hammer blow. which are integral with one ｡ｮ ｯ ｾ ｾ Ｚ Ｂ＠ ｾ ｨ ･ｬ＠ C has 19 teeth and meshes with A and the wheel D with 2 0 teeth meshes ｊ ｴｨｾＧ＠ he iarneter of the bicycle wheel is 70 em. (I 0) . rest. Q0 (18) (b) A mechanism for recording the distance covered by the bicycle is as fu ows: There is a fixed annular wheel A of 2 2 teeth and another :0 r. Show that the angular acceleration (a. c.Jtel B of 2 3 teeth which rotates loosely on the axis of A An arm.m. 8 m di . (30) (c) In a Hooke's joint prove that if the angle between shafts is small. Find the weight of the flywheel so that ｩｴ ｾ ｾ ｳｰ･＠ a t e same radius does not fall below 24.vheel through gearing not described also revolves freely on the axis of A an ｣｡ｲｩ ｩ ｾ＠ on a pin at its extremity two wheels C and D. does 6 0 kg-m of work per square em of sheared area ｾ＠ as a stroke of I 0. (a) A twin cylinderｾ ＲＡ ＧＺＮ ｾ Ｎｾｯｴｩｶ･＠ has its cylinders 6 0 ern apart and balanced weights are 60° apart. 8 ern di er lie in a 3.d. the ｐ ｬｦＮｊＭＴ ｾ ｧ＠ symmetrically placed about the centre line. ｲ Ｒ ｛ｳｩｮ･ｾ＠ sin2e}n(e+ 91) where A= cross. The least of the cam is 2 em and nose radius is 0. 6 kilometers covered? (24) (c) A machine punching 3. 2 5 em. driven ｢ｹ ﾧｾ ［＠ . the total fluctuation of velocity ratio varies as the square of the shaft angle. All the ｾ ･ｶｯｬ＠ " and 2/3rd of the recipro eating masses are balanced. a 1ts radius of gyration is 27. if B makes one revolution per I..5 mlsec. The crank shaft speed is 20 00 r. 18 4. c.

. (d) (a) Distinguish between transportation model and assignment model. Answer any three of the following (each answer should not exceed 200 words): (20 X 3 = 60) (a) What is meant by machinability and how is it expressed? How do you interpret the mechanicability of metal on the basis of chip formation? (b) Enumerate the reasons responsible for development of newer machining methods. SECnONB 5. the conclition to be satisfied is f(r) = the probability density function of requirement of r quantity C2 =the shortage cost. . . sa ear : ｾ＠ stratn and work done tn deformation (24) (c) Compare convep flfl htgh veloctty formmg methods Dtscuss the effect of stratn and deformation vel ＮＺ ｾ ｦｯｲｭｧ＠ methods 7. nt = ｮｾ ｯ＠ of ｾ ｾｩｬＨ［Ｌ ＧＢ ﾷ＠ W • wid• • f ｾｲｬ＼＠ ｰｩｯｾＮ＠ (l8) (b) During orthogonal cutting of a !'i mlmm with an HSS tool having !5° rake the chip thickness ratio was Ｐ ｾ Ｓ＠ 5 d'"lj force on the tool chip interface measured by means of a sp ectal setup w ｾ ｾ ｜ｴ ｾ ｴｨ＠ co effictent of friction 0 6 Estimate the component of the cutting force. ｾ＠ Differentiate between up -milling and down -milling operations. What are the materials for each el ernen.'""·:ru: ｾｊｩＢＧ＠ milliog . What are the limitations of X and R charts? (18) Show that then considering the optimum I eve! of inventory Sub o which minimises the total expected cost in case of continuous (non-discrete) quantities. C1 =the holding cost per unit of quantity per unit of time.m. D milling cutter eli am. Ｂｾﾷ｢ｹ＠ r ｾ＠ + where Am= mean cross-sectional area of the ｴｹ｣ ＧｊＯｩ ｾ ｭＬ＠ N = cutter r. e P chart with X and R chart.c ｴＧ ｾ ｣ｩｲｬ･＠ cliagram derive the equations to find (i) specific energy of cutting. (c) What are the essential elements of a jig and fixture for milling ? Explain the fun ons each element with the help of sketches. In ate solving an assignment problem. d = depth of cut. the principle of ultrasonic machining and give its specific application. ?Q 6. (a) ｕｳｩ ｾ ｧ＠ <. she an ·on (ii) kinetic co efficient of friction (iii) normal and shear stresses on rake and sli .. ｓ ｾ r method of ｴ＠ the mean chip .. p.

Ja· &'(j Ｐｾ＠ + ｾ＠ . (20) (b) Describe the working principle of a (i) mechanical and (ii) pneumatic comparator. (24) 8. objective. Discuss their relative merits and demertis. a! ternatives and restrictions in the context of linear optimization models by assuming a sui table industrial situation. (a) What are the essential characteristics of a linear programming ? Explain the terms: key decision. Which of the two you would employ for co checking of shaft diameter during turning? (c) With reference to quality control discuss the following: (i) Operating characteristic curves (ii) Acceptance sampling (iii) ｓｴ ｾ＠ 0 ation. (20) .

................... and any ｔｈｒｅ ｾ ｦ＠ the remaining questions sliecting at ｬ･｡ｾ＠ ONE question from each Section...............··· ｾ＠ .....:........i.... li 'i t!1:?rt................................ (20) £} ......:................. (a) ｄｯ ｾ･ ＠ on -dimtnsional incompressible flow given by u y2 +by+C v w=O ｾ ｦ＠ 'A....lr..............1:? ｲｩＮｮｾｪＬＡﾷＺｦ＼［Ｑ＿ｴ＠ II Wli'APE:R· Ml Time Allowed: Three Hours Maximum marks: 300 Candidates should attempt Questions 1 and 5 which are compulsory....... f">........ Newton maybe conva-ted into kg using the equality ｾ ｾ＠ ＨｴｫｎＩｬｩｄｧｲｯｾ＼ＭｹＮ＠ SEC1ION A 0 Answer any three of the followmg (each answer should not exceed 20 0 wors : : .............. assume suitable wlue.... Sketch the velocity distribution for various pressure gradients.................................................. remams constant..........i """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 1 li Ｎｾ＠ ..................stem and 1ts surroundings wtll take place only 1fthenet entropy ｣ｨ｡ｮｧ･ ｾ ｳ＠ ｦｾ ｺ･ｲｯＬ＠ orm the hm1t............. one of wh1ch IS at rest and the other movmg wtth a velo a ty U parallel with the fixed plate........ ......... satisfy the contmu1ty equation? (l ) 5 Stanng wtth the momentum and contlnutty equations..................... Prove this ( 0) 2 (d) Wnte down the ｢ｯ ｾ ｾ Ｘﾥ ＭｍｵＺ ｴＱＰｮｳ＠ for the flow of an mcompress1bl e flu1d over a flat l jｳｩ ｾ plate and explatf the ｡ｮ｣･＠ of each term......... (45) 3.......［ｾＺＭＬﾷ＠ ........+ (20x3=60) (a) D1scuss the feas1b1hty of operatmg an automob1le by ｆＧｾ ･ｮｲｧｹ＠ stored in a tank of compressed atr ＠ｾ ｾ＠ (20) (b) Define the Joule-Thomson coefficient ｾ＠ Ｇ､ ｾ ｴｳ＠ 1mp ortance in low-temperature apphcat1ons ＠ｾ ｾ＠ (20) (c) Real processes mvolvmg an ｭｴ･ ｾ＠ ............... denve the velo a ty pro file for the flow between two parallel plates......... If any data ｊｗ ｾ､ ｾ ･､＠ insuffidmt................ Band care constants........ (a) What are the factors that render processes irreversible ? Explain the situations in real life which illustrates the above. How does the boundary layer thickness defined? ｾ＠ (20) 2................

Discuss a sui table method to coli ect ｾ＠ rgy without the costly metallic plates. the remaining being recalculate d. Mention the assumptions.. (40) 8 (a) ｄ ｾ＠ between the Summer atr cond1t1onmg and the wmter atr-cond1t1orung (10) (b). (30) (b) 7. (b) Starting from basic differential equation. (a) In the case of solar collectors which uses ｾ ｢｡ ｳ ｾ＠ surface. <:r from a low pressure boiler? Give examples of each.. Ｈｊｾ • Ｉ＠ (20 X 3 = 60) (a) Distinguish between the carburation and fuel injection I nes (b) Give the various classifications of hydraulic turbines with an ex e fo (c) Briefly mention the methods of utilizing the wind energy for ｰｯｷ ｾ ｯ＠ ctio with examples (d) Discuss the phenomenon of surge and choke in centrifugal ｾ ｲ＠ . ""-'my •= •<•• ｏｬｯｾＢ＠ . 6. (30) (b) Define the effectiveness of a heat exchanger ｾ＠ Denve an expression for the long-mean temperature d1fference for a count 1i at exchanger M entlon the assumptions made (3 0) 5. (a) How does a high ｰｲ･ ｾ ｳｵｲ＠ b I d.. Determine the (i) overall ｣ｩ･ ｾ＠ (ii) specific output (iii) fuel to air ratio (iv) speci fie fuel consumption.:port ohoWd bo " . derive an expression for the temperature eli stribution in a cylindrical rod in which a uniform heat generation occurs and the surface temperature of the rod is T.. (40) . (a) A large tank containing air at 180 kN/m2 and 3 00 K discharges into atmosphere through a convergent nozzle.24 for air and gas. (4 0) 4. ｾ ｾ ･＠ Freons expected to be phased out as refrigerants by the end ofth1s century? (10) ｾ Ｍ｡ｴｲ｣ｯｮ､Ｑ･＠ space 1s matntatned at 27°C dry bulb and 50 per cent relat1ve hum1d1ty The amb1ent condi tlons are 4 0°C dry bulb and 27°C wet bulb The space has a sens1ble heat gatn of 14 kW A1rts supphed to the space at 7°C saturated Calculate (1) mass of mo1st atr supphed to the space m kglh. there is a resistance to flow of hear on either side which is fairly high.. calorific value of fuel used is 10 00 ｫ｣ ｡ｬ ｬｲ［ｾ ｯｬｹｴｲｰｩ｣＠ efficiency of compressor and turbine is 0. Inlet air temperature is l5°C. The throat area for the nozzle is 5 cm2 and atmospheric pressure is 100 kN/m2. (20) (b) A gas turbine ollf8il>at pressure ratio of 6: I.:=. what would you do? Determine the maximum flow rate. Given for airy= 14 and R = 287 J/kg K. e cost of the metallic plate used is also high. Maximum gas temperature ｲ･｡ ｾＨｬｰ ｯ ｯ｣Ｎ＠ Assuming Cp = 0. (iii) cooling load of the air washer in kW if 30 per cent of the air supplied to the space is fresh.87. (ii) latent heat gain of space in kW.::.. What is the flow rate through this nozzle? If you have to obtain maximum flow rate through this nozzle.

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