Radio Transmission Theory


Chapter 3 Radio Transmission Theory
3.1 Rationale of Radio Transmission
Mobile telecommunications frequency network planning and building, from band determination, assignment, coverage area, telecommunication

probability calculation, and electromagnetic interference to the final confirmation of radio equipment parameters, depend on the study and strength forecast of the characteristics of radio transmission. Radio transmission theory is the foundation of system project design and subjects such as spectrum utilization and electromagnetic compatibility.

3.1.1 Radio Transmission Modes
As we know, radio waves can be transmitted from transmitter antenna to receiver antenna through different modes such as line-of-sight transmission, ground wave transmission, troposphere scattering transmission and ionosphere transmission. See III. For electric wave, the easiest transmission from transmitter to receiver is free space transmission. Free space is an isotropic (same attribute in each axial direction) and homogeneous (symmetrical structure) space.

I. Line-of-Sight Transmission
Line-of-sight transmission is a transmission under conditions in accordance with line-of-sight formula (3-14). It usually consists of perpendicular incidence waves and ground reflected waves, and also includes diffraction waves and scattering waves when there are obstructions and scattering objects.

II. Ground Wave Transmission
Ground wave transmission consists of space waves and land surface waves. Land surface waves transmit along the surface of the land. There are only ground waves in places far away from transmitters. Troposphere scattering transmission is based on the asymmetric scattering of troposphere.

III. Ionosphere Transmission
In ionosphere transmission, the waves reflected from ionosphere may have one or several leaps. See III(e). This kind of transmission is used in shortwave remote telecommunications. Because of the asymmetric refractive indexes,


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Radio Transmission Theory


scattering also occurs in ionosphere; besides, the meteor track left in ionosphere also leads to scattering waves. Radio transmission in cellular system is a multipath transmission. It belongs to line-of-sight transmission.

(a) Direct wave transmitting in straight line

(b) Application of Line-of-sight communications

(c) Ground wave transmission

(d) Irregular scattering of radio waves by troposphere Figure 1.1 Different transmission modes

(e) Radio wave reflected by ionosphere

3.1.2 Reasons for Transmission Study
There are two reasons for transmission study in cellular system design:

It provides necessary tools to calculate the strength covering different cells. The coverage area is usually from hundreds of meters to scores of kilometers and line-of-sight transmission is applicable in such conditions.

It can calculate adjacent channel and co-channel interference.

3.1.3 Signal Strength Forecast Methods
There are three ways to forecast signal strength:

The first one is pure theoretical way which is applicable for separated objects, such as mountains and other solid objects. But this way overlooks the irregularity of earth.


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especially the high frequency and low mobile station antenna.2 Radio Transmission Environment 3. including irregular terrains and man-made obstructions. Table 1. MF) Shortwave(high frequency.1 Frequency Band Allocation The frequency range of radio waves is from 3Hz to 3000GHz. See the following table. The frequency in different band has different transmission characteristics. ULF) Very long wave (very low frequency. Mobile telecommunications just concern UHF band.2. LF) Medium wave(medium frequency. VHF) micro wave Decimeter wave (ultrahigh frequency. VLF) Long wave(low frequency. It is based on measurement and the consideration of mountains and other obstructions. 3.1 Radio frequency category Band Extremely long wave (extremely low frequency.1 mm All Right Reserved Page 3 of 29 . EHF) Submillimeter(ultrahigh high frequency) 2009-10-24 Frequency range 3 Hz–30 Hz 30 Hz–300 Hz 300 Hz -3000 Hz 3 kHz -30 kHz 30 kHz -300 kHz 300 kHz -3000 kHz 3 MHz -30 MHz 30 MHz-300 MHz 300 MHz-3000 MHz 3 GHz-30 GHz Wavelength range 105 km–104 km 104 km–103 km 103 km–102 km 102 km–10 km 10 km–1 km 103 km–102 m 102 km–10 m 10 km–1 m 102 km–10 cm 10 km–1 cm 30 GHz-300 GHz 10 km–1 mm 300 GHz-3000 GHz 1 km -0. SHF) Millimeter wave (extremely high frequency.  The third way combines the above two together and makes certain improvement.Radio Transmission Theory Confidential  The second way is based on the test in various environments. ELF) Specially long wave (specially low frequency. divided into 12 bands. SLF) Ultra long wave (ultra low frequency. UHF) Centimeter wave (specially high frequency. HF) Very short wave(very high frequency.

2. Fast Fading 1) What is Fast Fading 2009-10-24 All Right Reserved Page 4 of 29 . therefore. See 3.2. the main transmission mode of electromagnetic waves from transmitter to receiver is reflection of buildings or diffraction of natural objects. 3.2 Multipath transmission models I. the line of sight path is always obstructed by buildings and other objects.Radio Transmission Theory Confidential Note: The table above is excepted from “Electromagnetic Wave.2. in a typical cellular mobile telecommunications environment. the communications between cellular base station and mobile station is usually carried out through many other paths.2 Fast Fading and Slow Fading As described above. In UHF band. Antenna and Electric Wave Propagation” written by Pan Zhongying. ① Building reflected wave ② Diffraction wave ③ Line of sight wave ④ Ground reflected wave Figure 1.

The distance between the places where the maximum strength occurs and the minimum strength occurs is about one fourth wavelength.Radio Transmission Theory Confidential All signal components combine together and produce an interference wave. The amplitude and phase of the synthesized wave changes a lot as the mobile station moves. The synthesized strength reduces by 20–30dB across several bodyworks. A large number of transmission paths results in the so called multipath phenomenon. which is usually called multipath fading or fast fading. Its strength changes according to each component. GSM simply takes frequency hopping to obtain frequency 2009-10-24 All Right Reserved Page 5 of 29 . they are regarded as two independent band classes. Multipath fading occurs very fast. GSM air channel coding scheme. Different code has different anti-fading properties. the probability distribution functions of phase θ and amplitude r of the synthesized signal are as follows: p() = p(r) = 1 2 r 2 0≤ 2 ≤ (3-1) (3-2) e (− 2 2 ) r2 r≥0 In the formulae above. Sufficient data shows 200 kHz or above difference between two frequencies mainly takes demonstrates spread this independency. Research shows that if a mobile unit receives wave components with random amplitudes and phases. If the antenna of mobile station happens to be at deep fading point (when a mobile station subscriber in a car stops at this point because of the red light). error detecting code and error correcting code.  Frequency diversity theory is based on bandwidth. Phase distributes uniformly from 0 to 2 and the probability distribution function of amplitude follows Rayleigh distribution. Deep fading points appear in every other half wavelength spatially (17 cm for 900 MHz. which means when the difference between two frequencies exceeds certain value. 2) How to Deal With Fast Fading The primary measures to deal with fast fading include time diversity. frequency diversity and space diversity (or polarization diversity):  Time diversity mainly depends on symbol interleaving. See II. therefore. 8 cm for 1900 MHz). σ2 is standard deviation. It is also the leading subject in today’s mobile telecommunications study. which leads to time dispersion. see the related section in chapter 2. multipath fading is also called Rayleigh Fading. Frequency diversity spectrum measures. certain skills such as frequency hopping can solve the problem of rather low voice quality.

forests. therefore. II. Statistics shows that the median value follows logarithmic normal distribution in a large scale as time or place changes. During the soft handoff in CDMA. the degree of median value affected by time is much less than that affected by place. The equalization of base station receiver to different delayed signals in certain time window is also a kind of space diversity. except the Rayleigh Fading of transient value. 2009-10-24 All Right Reserved Page 6 of 29 . In space diversity. which is also a kind of space diversity. fluctuant terrain. changes slowly with the shift of locations. If this happens to the mobile station.25 MHz). mobile station contacts several cell stations at the same time and choose the best signal to send to the switch. Slow fading is caused by shadow effect. while CDMA itself is a kind of spread spectrum communications with each channel in a relatively broad band class (narrowband CDMA is 1. the median of the receiving electromagnetic field strength changes. the change rate depends on both obstruction and speed of vehicles. the distance between main antenna and diversity antenna exceeds ten times of the wavelength of the radio signal. For mobile station. See II. When the transmission is obstructed by high buildings. This main and diversity receiving quality is ensured by the independency of main and diversity receiving antennas. it has no such space diversity function. which results in the slow fading of the median of signal strength with time in the same place. The degree of changes depends on the obstruction and frequency.Radio Transmission Theory Confidential hopping gain. so it is also called shadow fading. The base station receiver diversifies and consolidates the signals received through main and diversity channels with maximum likelihood sequence estimation equalizer (MLSE). The so called independency means the signals received by main antenna and diversity antenna fade at different time. because it has only one antenna. Study of this slow fading shows that the change of value follows logarithm logarithmic normal distribution. The reflection coefficient of electric waves changes because of the change of weather with time and the slow change of vertical slope of air dielectric constant.  Space diversity uses main diversity antenna receiving to solve the problem of fast fading. electromagnetic shadow occurs. This kind of phenomenon is called slow fading. In land mobile communications. the synthesized value also follows logarithmic normal distribution. Polarization diversity can also ensure the independency of the main and diversity antennas. Slow Fading Lots of researches show that the median of received signal strength.

signal transmission follows Rayleigh distribution of fast fading and logarithmic normal distribution of slow fading 3. f is frequency.Radio Transmission Theory Confidential so the influence of time in slow fading can be ignored. when d increases by one time. I. two factors influence the cellular system: The first one is multipath.2. Signals reflected or diffracted from buildings or other objects show slow fading and move scores of meters. the long term signal strength change. The second one is the slow change of main received signal strength in line of sight path. the time factor should be considered in slow fading. d is distance.4 + 20 lg(f MHz ) + 20 lg(d km ) (3-3) In the formula.3 Fast fading and slow fading Received power (dBm) - 20 Fast fading Slow fading -40 -60 10 20 30 Distance ( m) Generally speaking. When 2009-10-24 All Right Reserved Page 7 of 29 . This formula is inversely proportional to d. the primary task is to research the characteristics of two antennas in free space (Isotropic symmetrical medium with dielectric constant being one and no absorption). path loss increases by 6 dB. Figure 1. Which means. Take the ideal omni-directional antenna as example. But in designated communications. the path loss in free space is as follows: L p = 32. that is. The decrease of transmission signal due to the influences of transmission path and terrain is called transmission loss. Transmission Loss in Free Space In electric wave transmission study.3 Transmission Loss The signal power level received by the receiver is a main characteristic in telecommunications.

the formula above can be rewritten as follows: L p = L 0 + 10lg(d km ) lg In the formula. frequency f increases. A B (a) A B (b) A B A' (a) Multi reflection (c) (b) Single reflection (c) Imaging to find the difference between line-of-sight and land reflection Figure 1. (3-4)  is path loss gradient. When the working frequency is known.4 Transmission upon flat surface 2009-10-24 All Right Reserved Page 8 of 29 . = 2. In the actual cellular system. Suppose the surface of the entire transmission path is absolutely flat. the range of  is between 3 and 5 according to measurement. II. The loss can be compensated by radiation increase and receiver antenna gain. See II. that is. Transmission Loss in Flat Terrain With path loss formula. The heights of base station antenna and mobile station antenna are h c and h m respectively. the path loss increases. the study of actual transmission between two antennas in flat but not ideal surface is possible.Radio Transmission Theory Confidential wavelength λ decreases.

the obstruction is in transmission path. In path loss forecast. dense city. The receive power of mobile station changes with the fourth power of the distance d. slopes and terraqueous terrain. which means if d increases by one time. in the second case. Quasi-flat terrain is the terrain with mildly fluctuant surface. or “blade shape”. The rest is irregular terrain that can be divided into highland. and suburb according to density of the geographical area. There are two kinds of obstructions in IV. these obstructions are called sharp obstructions. 4. Its fluctuation height is equal to or less than 20 meters without too much height difference. medium sized city. the terrain can be divided into open area. their influences on the loss of electric wave transmission are also complicated. the received power decreases by 12 dB. the height of ten percent segments in terrain section exceeds this line. CCIR defines it as the height differences between more than ten percent height curve and more than ninety percent height curve within 10–50 square meters in front of the receiver. Transmission Loss in Complex Terrain Since terrains and clutters differ greatly. It shows the increase of the antenna height by one time can compensate 6 dB’s loss. Okumura defines fluctuation range as the height difference between ten percent height curve and ninety percent height curve within ten square meters in front of mobile station antenna along the transmission direction. V is given in the following formula: 2009-10-24 All Right Reserved Page 9 of 29 . III. Complex terrain is usually divided into two types: quasi-flat terrain and irregular terrain. Ten percent height curve is a horizontal line.Radio Transmission Theory Confidential Compared with the path loss of free space. Diffraction is another factor of transmission loss in mountainous areas or cities with dense skyscrapers. no obstruction for line-of-sight path at H. isolated mountains. There is no absolutely flat terrain in real life. Compare the height of obstruction with wavelength. Diffraction loss F can be calculated with diffraction parameter. Diffraction loss is a measurement of the height of obstructions and antennas. The loss can be calculated with common ways in physical optics. the path loss of flat ground is as follows: L p = L 0 + 10 lg d − 20 lg h c − 20 lg h m (3-5) = In the formula. Suppose the height of obstruction is negative in the first case and positive in the second case. Ninety percent height curve has the similar meaning. IV. In the first case. Transmission Loss in Urban and Surrounded Areas As for the transmission loss in urban and surrounded areas. The same height of obstructions results in less loss to long wavelength than to short wavelength.

With the rapid development of mobile network in China.5e 0. through actual measurement. which is a waste of resources. costs and time. and then compare and evaluate all the schemes from computer to choose the best one. Take high precision forecast and computing.12 − (0.225/v) (a) Negative height (b) Positive height Figure 1. 2009-10-24 All Right Reserved Page 10 of 29 .5 Radio transmission through blade 3. For example. the transmission environment varies alot in different provinces and cities. operators pay more and more attention to the match of transmission model and geographical environment. The only way besides forecast is attempt.4 − 0.5 + 0. It is very important to choose independent cell bases in coverage area before cellular system planning in certain area.4 (3-7) = 20 lg lg(0.45v ) v 1 0v<1 −1  v 0 − 2.1v + 0. This way requires lots of costs and manpower. Ignorance of different parameters such as terrains and buildings will definitely results in problems in coverage and quality of network.4  < −1 v v < −2. or the over density of base stations.Radio Transmission Theory Confidential v = −H 2/(1/d 1 + 1/d 2 ) (3-6) The approximation of different diffraction loss is as follows: F=0 = 20 lg lg(0. Model can guarantee the accuracy and save manpower. So the precision of transmission model is of vital importance to the soundness of cell planning and the fact that whether the operator satisfies subscribers with rational investment.3 Radio Transmission Model Transmission model is the basis of mobile transmission network cell planning.62v) = 20 lg lg(0. cities in highland and plain differ greatly in transmission environment and their transmission models also have great differences.38) 2 ) = 20 lg lg(−0. Measure the coverage area of cellular stations and choose the best addressing scheme. Since China has a vast territory.

1 Several common transmission models Name Okumura-Hata Cost231-Hata Cost231 Walfish-Ikegami Keenan-Motley ASSET(used in ASSET planning software) Application 150-1000 MHz macro cell forecast 1500-2000 MHz macro cell forecast 900 MHz and 1800 MHz micro forecast 900 MHz and 1800 MHz indoor environment forecast 900 MHz and1800MHz macro cell forecast 3. The transmission environment of still mobile station also varies a lot from that of mobile station with high translational speed. A good model should possess high recognition and acceptability. Model optimization requires lots of statistic data and rectification.Radio Transmission Theory Confidential A good mobile transmission model should be adjustable according to different terrains (plain. These factors concerns lots of important variables. valley etc) or different man-made environment (open area.1 Macro Cell Model Okumura-Hata Model and Cost231-Hata Model are built on the data measured in Japan. For details of model rectification. suburb. city etc). Table 5. distribution and materials of buildings Vegetation Climate Natural and man-made electromagnetic noise The system working frequency and the motion condition of mobile station also affect the transmission model. So a good transmission model is very hard to achieve. A good model should be simple and usable with clear description. Since different models may lead to different results. height. a high recognition is very important.4. leaving no room for subjective judgment and explanation that always result in different forecasts in the same area. highland. water area etc) Number. Transmission models are usually classified as outdoor transmission model and indoor transmission model. The main factors affecting the transmission environment in a certain area are as follows:      Natural terrain (mountain. Most models forecast the path loss of radio wave transmission. plain. different working frequency results in different signal fading. Transmission environment plays a key role in model building. In the same area. see 3. The median path loss in cities is shown as follows: 2009-10-24 All Right Reserved Page 11 of 29 .3. highland.

unit: MHz h b — height of base station. the model is revised as follows: L ps = L ( ci t y) − 2[ lg(f /28) ] 2 − 5.55 lg h b ) lg d − A Cost231h m + C m (Cost231-Hata) (3-8-2) L p — path loss from base station to mobile station.16 lg f − 13.9 lg f − 13.2(log 400 MHz) A Cost231hm =(1.56 lgf – 0.82 lg h b + (44.3 + 33.33 lg − 40.9 − 6. unit: m h m — height of mobile station antenna.75h m )) 2 − 4.8 ); In suburbs.7)h m − (1.7) hm – (1.97 in big cities ( frequency over than log in medium sized cities.78(lg ) 2 + 18.8) log(11. unit: km C m — modify in big cities.1 lgf – 0.Radio Transmission Theory Confidential L p = 69. the model is revised as follows: L po = L p ( ci t y)− 4. The model expression is as follows: L p = K 1 + K 2 lg d + K 3 (h m ) + K 4 lg h m + K 5 lg(H b ) + K 6 lg(H b ) lg d + K 7 diffn + K clutter (3-11) The following analysis is applied to macro cells: K 1 — frequency constant Medium sized cities: 2009-10-24 All Right Reserved Page 12 of 29 .4 (3-9) p In open areas. 3.1 lg f − 0. unit: m d — distance between base station and mobile station. unit: dB f — frequency of carrier. The model of ASSET planning software fully considers all kinds of terrains and clutters and improves the accuracy of coverage forecast.82 lg h b (Okumura-Hata) (3-8-1) + (44.55 + 26.5 m.55 lg h b ) lg d − A Okumurah m L p = 46. 0 dB in medium sized cities or suburbs with medium density of trees.56 lg f − 0.94 (3-10) lgf lgf In real transmission environment. I m to 10 m,average value: 1. 3 dB in big cities A Okumurahm — modified height of mobile station.9 − 6. terrain and clutter should also be considered. (1.

56)lg(Fc)-0. unit: m In radio transmissions.90 -2.56)lg(Fc)-0.Radio Transmission Theory Confidential K1=69.33log(Fc)-40.54/900 MHz Urban.9+1.160/1800 MHz Urban 146/900 MHz Large city.4{Fc=150-1000MHz} K1=46.88/1800 MHz Urban 2009-10-24 All Right Reserved Page 13 of 29 .56)lg(Fc)-0.16+1. features and environment of cities.56lg(Fc))-0.8-4.3+Cm+(33.16+1.16lg(Fc) {Fc=150-1000MHz} K1=46.4{Fc=1500-2000MHz} Open areas: K1= K parameters K parameter K1 Value 150/900 MHz Urban .55+(26. the signal strength of a given point is modified according to the clutter class at this point and is irrelevant to the clutter class in the transmission path.8 {Fc=1500-2000MHz} Big cities: K1=69.16+1.56lg(Fc))-0. d — distance between base station and mobile station. 3.3+(33. the value of K varies according to terrains.78(log(Fc))2+18.56)lg(Fc)-0.1 is a list of values of K and attenuation values of some clutters once used for radio transmission analysis in medium sized cities.3+(33.55+(26.56lg(Fc))-0.8 {Fc=150-1000MHz} K1=46.163/1800 MHz Large city K2 K3 44.8 {Fc=1500-2000MHz} Suburbs: K1=69.94 2000MHz} K 2 — distance attenuation constant {Fc=1500{Fc=150- K 3 、K 4 — correction coefficient of height of mobile station antenna K 5 、K 6 — correction coefficient of height of base station antenna K 7 — diffraction correction coefficient K clutter — correction coefficient of clutter attenuation. unit:km h m 、h b — effective height of antenna in mobile station and base station respectively.55+(26. Table 5.3.9+1.9+1.3+(33. All losses in the transmission path are included in the median loss.8 -2(log(Fc/28))2 .55+26.94 1000MHz} K1=46.8-4.8 -2(log(Fc/28))2 .-2.78[log(Fc)]2+18.33log(Fc)-40.9+1.

50 0 5 16 Calculate the median loss with these K parameters and modify them according to the complex environment. Because of the complex of variables. Building loss should also be considered in indoor cellular mobile system.00 -3.90 -2.-2.8 -3. Loss in areas with windows is less than that without windows.00 -13.00 -2.00 5. relative position of buildings to base station.82 -6. brick etc). Loss in indoor wide area is less than that at indoor wall area with corridor. GSM has two frequency bands: 900 MHz and 1800 MHz. Loss at street wall with aluminum bracket is greater than that at street wall without aluminum bracket. Building loss is a function of wall structure (steel. glass. percentage of window areas etc.00 -2. building loss can only be forecasted according to the surrounded environment.00 -1. Long wavelength comes with little diffraction loss and short wavelength comes with little building penetration      2009-10-24 All Right Reserved Page 14 of 29 .55 -0.50 -2.88/1800 MHz Large city K4 K5 K6 K7 Clutter attenuation value Inland Water Wetland Open Areas Rangeland Forest Industrial & Commercial Areas Village Parallel_Low_Buildings Suburban Urban Dense urban High building 0.00 13.Radio Transmission Theory Confidential 0/900 MHz Large city. Loss in building with interlayer at ceiling is less than that in building with interlayer both at ceiling and indoor wall. Each band has different transmission characteristics. building height. The following are some conclusions:  Mean building penetration loss in urban areas is greater than that in suburbs and remote areas.

The mean building penetration loss is a function of the height of the building. In cellular mobile system. The following is a brief introduction to this classic model: Frequency f: 800 MHz-2000 MHz Height of antenna Hb: 4 m. the gradient of loss line is -1. Because of the issues such as complex transmission environment and the direction of incident waves. In UHF frequency band. The preferable city micro cell models at present are COST231 Walfish Ikegami. tree leaves should also be taken into consideration. For the transmission loss in tunnels. the transmission loss increases by 12 dB. the indoor and outdoor level difference of 1800 MHz is greater than that of 900 MHz. when the wave transmits along the corridor direction vertical to outdoor window. quantify indoor and outdoor level difference is not very practical. 3. Experiments show that the transmission loss decreases as frequency increases within special distance. that is to say. The mean building penetration loss of the first floor is about 18 dB in urban area and 13 dB in rural area. The loss curve shows an exponential decrease with working frequency that is less than 2 GHz. and therefore. the transmission loss shows the fourth power inverse exponential change with distance. vertical polarization is better than horizontal polarization. The best way is to carry out level difference test in special environment for planning optimization. Most RF designs of this system need a micro cell model in a digital map with building information in it for RF design and emulation. the loss is about 0. For GSM frequency band. Tests show that the indoor loss has the characteristics of loss waveguide with attenuation. the cell radius is much smaller than before.Radio Transmission Theory Confidential loss.4dB/m. COST231 Walfish Ikegami model includes all the factors that micro cell model generally considers. the tunnel can be regarded as a waveguide with attenuation.3. so a micro cell model is necessary.50 m Height of mobile station Hm: 1 m-3 m 2009-10-24 All Right Reserved Page 15 of 29 .2 COST231 Walfish Ikegami Model For the network planning in dense cities.9 dB/floor. Volcano and WaveSight. For example. Diffraction component constitutes most of the wave component. when the distance between two antennas increases by one time. Research shows that the transmission loss in summer is usually 10 dB more than that in winter because of the flourishing leaves in summer. whereas 3G system that is based on CDMA also requires precise RF design to guarantee the result. Indoor wave component is the superimposition of penetration component and diffraction component. According to record.

Hroof) =0 ka = 54 = 54 .8*(Hb .075*(Phi-35) = 4.5*(f/925 .5 and Hb<=Hroof for 0<= Phi < 35° for 35<= Phi < 55° for 55<= Phi <90 ° for Hb > Hroof = 18 .114*(Phi-55) Lmsd is multi path loss (fast fading): Lmsd = Lbsh + ka + kd*log(d) + kf*log(f) .10*log (w) + 10 log(f) + 20*log(Hroof .7*(f/925 . in the street canyon) 2009-10-24 All Right Reserved Page 16 of 29 .354*Phi = 2.5) kd = 18 for Hb > Hroof for Hb <= Hroof for Hb > Hroof for d>= 0.15*(Hb .9*log(b) In the formula above: Lbsh = -18*log (1 +Hb .0.Hm) + Lcri In the formula above: Lcri = -10 + 0.1) for Hb <= Hroof for medium sized cities for big cities (2) With perpendicular incidence path between base station and mobile station (for example.Hroof) = 54.1) = -4 + and Hb <=Hroof for d<0.4 + 20*log (d) + 20*log (f) Lrts is diffraction loss and dispersion loss between roofs and streets (slow fading): Lrts = -16.0 .9 .Radio Transmission Theory Confidential Coverage distance d:0.5 + 0.Hroof)/Hroof kf = -4 + 0.8*(Hb-Hroof)*(d/0.02 km-5 km Other parameters Height of building: Hroof (m) Width of road: w (m) Distance between buildings: b (m) Angle between road direction and perpendicular incidence path:Phi (°) (1) No perpendicular incidence path between base station and mobile station (small cells) Lb = L0 + Lrts + Lmsd (or Lb = L0 for Lrts + Lmsd <= 0) (3-12) In the formula above: L0 is free space loss: L0 = 32.

path loss model as follows: Lb = 42. According to random theory.4.3 Globe Curvature Effect In broad coverage. refraction coefficient n= (ξr)1/2.4 Transmission Model Rectification 3. This kind of refraction equals the increase of globe radius. Suppose globe radius is  (given that equals the radius of equator. the modified formula is shown in (3-14) and the unit of h m 、h b is still m. Model rectification data is obtained through CW test and digital map. unit: m. (3-14) The mobile station beyond the distance calculated from the above formula is 3. unit: m). k = 4/3. Continuous wave (CW) test is a necessary step for model rectification. According to spherics. so multiply globe radius by a coefficient k.3.1 CW Test Theory Model rectification should be carried out in order to build a radio transmission model in line with local condition and improve the accuracy of coverage forecast for network planning. Which means. such as see area. and therefore. d 0 = 4. For standard air pressure refraction.12( hb + hm ) (km) considered in the shadow area. wave refraction occurs in troposphere.Radio Transmission Theory Confidential Micro cell (antenna lower than roof). The longitude and latitude information and received level form the source of model rectification.6 + 26*log(d) + 20*log(f) for d >= 0. the transmission in mobile communications can be represented as the following formula: r(x ) = m(x )r 0 (x ) 15) (3- 2009-10-24 All Right Reserved Page 17 of 29 . the globe curvature and refration may influence the transmission loss because of the long distance of perpendicular incidence. h m 、h b are the effective heights of antennas in mobile station and base station respectively. temperature and humidity change with altitude. line-of-sight distance is:  d = 2   h b + 2   h m (m)  Since air pressure.020 km (3-13) 3. the transmission track of electric wave in troposphere is a curve along globe curvature direction instead of a straight line. dielectric constant ξr decreases accordingly and tends to 0 as air attenuates.

the difference between measured data and actual mean value is less than 1 dB when the sampling number is 50 and the intrinsic length is 40 times of the wavelength (ignore the error of test equipment and digital map). The principle of addressing is to cover sufficient clutter classes (from digital map).2 CW Test Method I.6 Schematic drawing of addressing criteria 2009-10-24 5m All Right Reserved Page 18 of 29 . The value 2L decides the accordance of data measured and the actual local mean value and the accuracy of the forecast of transmission model rectified by CW test. the following criteria help to decide whether the addressing is proper or not: 1) 2) The height of antenna is over 20 meters. if intrinsic length 2L is too short. The number of test stations depends on the height of antenna in test station and effective isotropically radiated power (EIRP). while in small and medium sized cities. also called intrinsic length. therefore. in big cities with dense population. CW test tries to obtain the local mean value of the geographical position of each point in a certain area and minimize the difference between r(x) and m(x).4.Radio Transmission Theory Confidential In the formula. Addressing Decide the address and number of base station before CW test. Generally. When integrate a group of r(x). if 2L is too long. the number of test stations should be not less than five. the influence of Rayleigh fading still exists. the shadow fading may also be integrated. one test station is enough. r0(x) is Rayleigh fading. The famous telecommunication expert Li Jianye proved that in GSM. In real test. which is shown as follows: m(x ) = 1 2L x+L x−L  r(y )dy (3-16) 2L is the average length of sampling intervals. the synthesis of long term fading and space transmission loss. 3. m(x) is local mean value. x is distance. Antenna exceeds the nearest obstruction by over 5 meters Figure 1. local mean value requires removal of the influence of Rayleigh fading. r(x) is received signal.

but specifies a maximum speed (Vmax). When the mobile station is within three kilometers away from test base station. and then drive test with CW test equipment. General test equipment can only do sampling according to time. Distance sampling does not have strict limit on driving speed. Having installed the test base equipments in the selected place.8/T sample (3-18) Choose the paths with various kinds of clutters to do random drive test.Radio Transmission Theory Confidential The obstruction here mainly refers to the highest building over the roof where antenna locates. CW Test There are three ways of sampling with professional CW test equipments: samplings according to time. with or without frequency modulation. Vmax is relative to the maximum sampling period (Tsample): V max = 0. II. feeder. measure the transmission power and reflection power with power meter and calculate EIRP according to the following formula: E IR P= 1 0lg [P _ fo rw a rd W) − P _ re fle c m W) + T x_ A n te n n_aG a in (m (t ] 17) (3- P_forward is forward transmission power. CW Test Preperation CW test requires a test station to transmit RF signal. The height of antenna is the building height plus mast height and half length of antenna. Base station system includes transmitter antenna. test software and portable computer. high power and high frequency signal. Sweep frequency with portable tester to make sure normal operation of the equipments and no interfering signal around. GPS receiver. Tx_Antenna_Gain is test station transmitter antenna gain (dBi). Test system includes test receiver. goniometer. the received signal is greatly affected by the surrounding buildings and the height of 2009-10-24 All Right Reserved Page 19 of 29 . P_reflected is reflection power. range finder. After Installation and debugging. III. Sampling according to distance has high accuracy and can fully meet the requirement of Li Jianye’s theory about 36 to 50 samplings within 40 wavelengths. Record the antenna gain of test receiver Rx_Antenna_Gain (dBi) and the feeder loss of test receiver Rx_Feeder_Loss for later use. record the EIRP of the base station. Test receiver should have a sampling speed as high as possible. Measure the latitude and longitude of base station with global positioning system (GPS) and the height of building with triangulation method and the tilt angle of antenna with goniometer. impulse and distance. The height of the building used as base station should be higher than the average height of surrounding buildings.

The difference of signal strength between the signal parallel to signal transmission path and the signal vertical to the transmission path is about 10 dB. take as many data as possible. and then comes K(clutter) rectification. The parameters from K1 to K7 in ASSET model are decided by transmission environment. Keep on doing iterative rectification until the root-mean-square error (RMS Error) of forecast value and drive test data reaches minimum. Most transmission models used for computer aided analysis from different software developers are based on Okumura model and also provide rectification parameters. K3 and K4 are modifying factors. Of all the K parameters. 2009-10-24 All Right Reserved Page 20 of 29 . interference analysis and frequency planning. take same number of samples in longitudinal streets and lateral streets to remove this influence. K2 rectification usually comes first. K1 and K(clutter) are constant and irrelevant to transmission distance.5 m). The following introduces model rectification method in details on the basis of the planning software ASSET mentioned above. use it directly in planning forecast without the need for CW test and model rectification.4. The adjustment of K2 、K5 and K6 depends on test data and test path. According to analysis. coverage forecast. therefore. The parameter values under this circumstance are the required rectification values. different parameters have different influence on the model. This mean value is what the CW test tries to get and also the closest to the forecast. and then compare the forecast value with drive test data and use their difference to modify model parameters. Most planning software take default model for forecast at first. when do tests in the streets within this area. 3. Test for four hours or above for each station and stop recording at red light.Radio Transmission Theory Confidential antenna. ground type and other geographical information that influences mobile radio wave transmission. As the terrain and clutter are relatively fixed during a period of time. Please note that if the model parameters of a city with similar terrain and clutters are provided. This information is important basic data for planning software to do model rectification. the local mean value is definite for a base station in a certain place. K(clutter) is the correction coefficient decided y different clutters. K3 and K4 are regarded as a micro-adjustment in final stage. antenna height and other factors. These parameters can be fitted from the data in CW test by K parameter testing method or minimum variance method.3 Transmission Model Rectification with Examples Model rectification requires a digital map containing terrain height. As the height of mobile station does not change a lot (about 1. For each test base station. Do not choose express highway or broad and flat street but narrow street as test path.

K3 and K4 Rectification K3 and K4 are relative to the antenna height in mobile station and. Suppose K6log(Hb) is already a reasonable value.Radio Transmission Theory Confidential I. The gradient of the fitted line is the deviation of K2+K6log(Hb). K2 Rectification: 1) As Lp = [K1 +K3(Hms) + K4 log(Hms) + K5 log(Hb) + K7 diffn]+[K2+K6log(Hb) ] log(d) + K(clutter) . II. Planning software does not provide the value of K2 but forecast according to model and obtain the difference between forecast value and test value of each point. this deviation is the deviation of K2. K7 is usually not adjusted. because the adjustment is rather tiny. the intercept is the deviation of [K1 +K3(Hms) + K4 log(Hms) + K5 log(Hb) + K7 diffn]. IV. K7 Rectification K7 is diffraction parameter and is only effective beyond line-of-sight transmission range. Keep its default parameter setting. K(clutter) is 0. See VI. V. and Ploss is linearly proportional to log (d). and the intercept can be regarded as the deviation of K1). If their changes are small and the terrain fluctuation is mild. Distribute test data into this coordinate system Do linear fitting. See VI. Suppose [K3(Hms) + K4 log(Hms) + K5 log(Hb) + K7 diffn] is constant. [K1 +K3(Hms) + K4 log(Hms) + K5 log(Hb) + K7 diffn ] can be regarded as constant. Subtract K6log(Hb) from gradient and the difference is K2. 2009-10-24 All Right Reserved Page 21 of 29 . the changes of K5 and K6 can be replaced by the changes of K1 and K2 and no correction is needed. no correction is needed and their changes are made up by K1. III. As the current digital map lacks accurate information about building height. and the gradient of the obtained line is K2+K6log(Hb). and then do linear fitting of the difference. 2) 3) 4) 5) Build a coordinate system with the logarithm of distance as x-axis and signal strength as y-axis. K5 and K6 Rectification K5 and K6 are relative to the antenna height in base station. it means K2 has already been adjusted and the intercept in the coordinate system is the deviation of K1 (Actually. K1 Rectification: If Gradient is 0. Original K1 plus the intercept is the corrected value of K1.

Radio Transmission Theory Confidential VI. Figure 1. K(clutter) value is the deviation between a particular mean difference (the mean difference between the forecast value and the test value of a point in a particular class of clutter) and the overall mean difference. K(clutter) Rectification K(clutter) adjustment is a little complicated. adjusting K1 affects K(clutter) . Adjusting K(clutter) affects K2 . If the overall mean difference is 0. Adjustment is an iteration process. readjusting K2 affects K1. the mean difference between the forecast value and the test value of each point in a particular class of clutter is the recommended value of K(clutter). Forecast the transmission loss of a point according to the clutter class and the K(clutter) value of this point.7 K2 correction schematic drawing 2009-10-24 All Right Reserved Page 22 of 29 . This kind of cyclic iteration is convergent.

RMS Error above 8 shows the corrected model has great difference with the real situation and has no reference meaning. that is to say. Digital map is inaccurate. 2009-10-24 All Right Reserved Page 23 of 29 . such as inaccurate antenna drawing. wrong import of antenna information.  Poor subsequent data processing leads to the filtering of effective data and unfiltering of non-effective data.8 K1 correction schematic drawing Analyze the accuracy of the model after correction. When RMS Error>8 dB. it is necessary to take field investigation. the correction is accurate and can be used in the following planning as reference. There are four main reasons:  Error occurs in correcting process. It might be because this model is not applicable or because the transmission environment is too complex and the transmission condition is too volatile in this area. Under such circumstances. Accuracy is usually evaluated by RMS Error. no adjustment of map and improper clutter filter setting.Radio Transmission Theory Confidential Figure 1.   If RMS Error>8 dB and no problem is found having checked the four reasons above. The accuracy here refers to the accordance of the corrected model to the real test environment. Improper design of CW test leads to non-effective test data. check and do re-rectification according to the four reasons above. RMS Error less than 8 dB generally demonstrates the accordance.

Through FCCH channel in BCH channel. MS Moves to BTS Mobile station moves to base transceiver station (BTS) at a speed of v. the relationship between Doppler Effect and frequency change can be seen in the following formula:  Base station is the frequency source f.Radio Transmission Theory Confidential 3.5.9 MS moves to BTS The signal frequency of BTS is f1. Take “+” when mobile station moves to base station and “-” when mobile station moves away from base station.1 Doppler Effect and Frequency Change In GSM.  Mobile station is the frequency source f.5 Doppler Effect and Switchover 3. v is the translational speed of mobile station. c is the transmission Take “+” when mobile station moves to base station and “-” when mobile station moves away from base station. Because of Doppler Effect. 2009-10-24 All Right Reserved Page 24 of 29 ( k m / h ) .2 Discussions in Different situations Discussions in different situations are as follows: I.5. In the formula. and the received frequency fˊof base station is: fˊ=f/ (1±U/c) (3-20) In the formula. u is the translational speed of mobile station. See figure 3-9 f 1 f 3 f 2 V Figure 1. and the received frequency fˊof mobile station is: (3-19) fˊ=f(1±V/c) speed of electric waves (3X108 m/s). 3. c is the transmission speed of signals in the air (3X108 m/s). BTS controls mobile station to synchronize the frequency.

the values of f1.10 Mobile station moves away from BTS The signal frequency of BTS is f1. the values of f1. According to the formula above. Because of Doppler Effect. MS Moves Away from BTS Mobile station moves away from BTS at a speed of v. and then mobile station transmits f2 signal to base station. Through FCCH channel in BCH channel. the relative frequencies in the two situations above are pretty much the same but with opposite directions. Because of Doppler Effect. the frequency increases. see II. the frequency that BTS receives is f3. According to the formula above. BTS controls mobile station to synchronize the frequency. f2 and f3 are as follows: f2=f1 (1+v/c) f3=f2/ (1-v/c) f3=f1 (1+v/c)/(1-v/c)=f1(c+v)/(c-v) The fractional frequency deviation is:(f3-f1)/f1=2v/(c-v) (3-21) II.Radio Transmission Theory Confidential the signal frequency that mobile station receives is f2. The relation between fractional frequency deviation and translational speed of mobile station is shown in II: 2009-10-24 All Right Reserved Page 25 of 29 . f 3 f 1 f 2 V ( k m / h ) Figure 1. the signal frequency that mobile station receives is f2. f2 and f3 are as follows: f2=f1 (1-v/c) f3=f2/ (1+v/c) f3=f1 (1-v/c)/(1+v/c)=f1(c-v)/(c+v) The fractional frequency deviation is (f3-f1)/f1=-2v/(c+v) (3-22) Since the translational speed of mobile station is much lower than the transmission speed of signal. in the second situation. the frequency that BTS receives is f3. the frequency decreases. and then mobile station transmits f2 signal to base station. In the first situation. Because of Doppler Effect.

Doppler Effect may interferer the normal reception of signals from neighboring cell.Radio Transmission Theory Confidential Figure 1.11 Relationship between fractional frequency deviation and translational speed of mobile station In the figure above. The signal f2ˊmobile station receives may appear between the adjusted frequencies of two mobile stations and the mobile station cannot detect the signal level of BTS1. Adjust the frequency of mobile station and add several kHz to monitor the level of neighboring cell. which also affects the switchover. the Rxlev information reported in SACCH should be sent in every 30s. 2009-10-24 All Right Reserved Page 26 of 29 . and such long time may also lead to abnormal monitoring of neighboring cell level and unsuccessful switchover. therefore. in III. the fractional frequency deviation is 0. Mobile station acquires information about neighboring cell BCCH through BA list. The frequency change by Doppler Effect leads to the fact that the base station receives signals with the frequency of f1(c+v)/(c-v) while receives the data according to the sampling clock of f1. The switchover superimposes the two situations above. On the other hand. base station receives the wrong data. MS Moves Within Two BTSs Mobile station moves within two base stations at a speed of v as shown in III. The frequency deviations are 171 Hz for 900 MHz and 342 Hz for 1800 MHz. when the translational speed of mobile station is 100 km/h. For example. III. mobile station monitors the level of BTS1.19ppm.

See 3. the square of the ratio of total received field strength to free space field strength (V/m)is as follows:  E rec   E free  2009-10-24  2 ∆ 2 2πht hr )  ≈ 4 sin ( ) = 4 sin ( 2 λd   All Right Reserved 2 (3-23) Page 27 of 29 .12 Mobile station moves within two BTSs 3. d is the horizon distance between transmitter antenna and receiver antenna.6.13 Schematic drawing of perpendicular incidence and reflection Ignore part signals from transmitter to receiver through ground wave (these signals can be ignored in ultrahigh frequency and very high frequency). Figure 1. When the angel between reflected wave and ground tends to 0°.6 Fresnel Region There are perpendicular incidence wave and reflected wave in the transmission path from transmitter to receiver. the direction of the electric field of reflected wave is opposite to the original direction with the phase difference of 180°. ht and hr represent the heights of transmitter antenna and receiver antenna respectively. The path difference between perpendicular incidence wave and reflected wave is phase difference 2h t h r and the d = 4h t h r d .Radio Transmission Theory Confidential f 3 ' f 1 ' f 2 ' V B T S 1 M ( k m S / h ) f 2 f 3 f 1 B T S 2 Figure 1.

When d < d> In real transmission environment. The change of angle may be induced by the height of antenna. The radius of the nth Fresnel region is as follows: h n (m) = nd t d r d = 548 nd tkm d rkm d km f MHz (3-25) 2009-10-24 All Right Reserved Page 28 of 29 . the signal equals 2n the two kinds of waves offset each . when 4h t h r    ,2 < 2. the diffraction loss is minimal.Radio Transmission Theory Confidential In the formula above. The first Fresnel region is the main transmission region. 4h t h r    . Fresnel region defines the transmission space of radio wave. the ray path difference is less than half wavelength as shown in 3. the radium of the first Fresnel region of this point is h 0  5m. other. For 900 MHz frequency. n is natural number. the transmission path in the nth Fresnel region is half wavelength longer than that in the (n-1)th Fresnel region. On the basis of the first Fresnel region. 2 > 2 . or both.14 Radius of first Fresnel region For example: There is a point in the transmission path of a typical urban base station with coverage of 2 km. If no obstruction occurs in this region. The radius of Fresnel region of a point (d t away from transmitter. receiver) in a path with the length d is as follows: dr away from h 0 (m) = 24) d t d r d = 548 d tkm d rkm d km f MHz (3- Figure 1. when  equals(2n-1) .6. the change of transmission distance. In one Fresnel region. Suppose this point is 100 m away from transmitter antenna. when frequency gain is 6 dB.

33 lg − 40. the rest area will not affect diffraction loss. if 55% Fresnel region is unblocked. otherwise.94 lgf lgf 2009-10-24 All Right Reserved Page 29 of 29 . reflected wave shows active effect to perpendicular incidence wave.Radio Transmission Theory Confidential If line of sight path skip the fluctuant terrain and buildings.78( lg )2 + 18. it may become a multipath interference and its destructive effect increases with frequency. in the line of sight microwave link design. L po = L p ( ci t y)− 4. Actually.

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