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CULTURAL HERITAGE

AND
TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
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A Report on the
International Conference on Cultural Tourism
Siem Reap, Cambodia
11-13 December 2000

WORLD TOURISM ORGANIZATION


Madrid, Spain
2001
Copyright ã 2001 World Tourism Organization

Cultural Heritage and Tourism Development

ISBN: 92-844-0484-3

Published by the World Tourism Organization


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All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form
or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any
information storage and retrieval system without permission from the World Tourism
Organization.

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not
imply the expression of any opinions whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the
World Tourism Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city
or area or of its authorities or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

Printed by the World Tourism Organization


Madrid, Spain
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The World Tourism Organization expresses its thanks and deep appreciation to the
Royal Government of Cambodia, particularly the Ministry of Tourism, for successfully
hosting and organizing the International Conference on Cultural Tourism.

WTO is equally grateful to all participants including speakers, moderators and


interpreters whose valuable inputs and deliberations contributed greatly to the success
of the conference.

The report was edited and produced by the Regional Representation for Asia and the
Pacific of the World Tourism Organization.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE
I. Background 1

II. Organization 1

III. Participation 1

IV. Objectives 2

V. Structure of the Conference 2

VI. Summary of the Proceedings 4


6.1 Definition and Characteristics of Cultural Tourism 4
6.2 Trends in Cultural Tourism 4
6.3 Strategies in Managing the Negative Impacts of Tourism on Culture 5
6.4 Marketing Cultural Tourism 7
6.4.1 The Product 7
6.4.2 Promoting the Product 7
6.5 Education and Training 8
6.6 Summary of the Presentations 8
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VII. Conclusions and Recommendations 28

VIII. Introduction to the Conference and Background Papers 31


· Opening Statement from H.E. The Minister of Tourism of the Royal
Government of Cambodia 33
· Opening Statement by the Representative of UNESCO in Cambodia 35
· Opening Statement by WTO Secretary-General 37
· Inauguration Declaration by H.E. The Prime Minister of the Royal
Government of Cambodia 40
· Introduction by the WTO Representative for Asia and the Pacific 42
· Trends and Profiles of Cultural Tourism in the Global Tourism Scenario 44
· Development and Promotion of Cultural Tourism in the Asia-Pacific Region 49
· Tourism as a Cultural Policy for Development 59
· Angkor Wat – The Pillar of the Cambodian Tourism Industry 67
· Development of a Work Programme for the Protection and Preservation of
the Cultural Heritage 73
· Presentation by the APSARA Authority 77

IX. First Technical Session – Impacts of Tourism on the Preservation of Cultural


Heritage 83
· Cultural Heritage Tourism and Sustainable Development 85
· Impact of Tourism for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage – Historic Cities 90
· Impacts of Tourism on Cultural Heritage in Sri Lanka – A Case Study 96
X. Second Technical Session – Policies and Guidelines for Successful Cultural
Development at National and Local Level 103

· Iran, the Major Destination for Cultural Tourism 105


· Policies and Guidelines for Cultural Tourism Development in the Republic 110
of Korea
· Policies and Guidelines for Successful Cultural Tourism in Yunnan 117
· Promotion of Traditional Cultures for Sustainable Tourism in East New
Britain Province 121
· Highlights of Shandong – Confucius’ Native Town. A Cultural Destination
in China in the 21st Century 128

XI. Third Technical Session – The Silk Road and Cultural Tourism 135
· The Silk Road and Cultural Tourism 137
· An Introduction to the WTO Silk Road Project 141

XII. Fourth Technical Session – Tour Operating Perspectives of Cultural Tourism 145
· Viewpoints on Cultural Tourism 147
· Cultural Tourism in the Japan Market: Present and Future 155
· India – Untapped Potential 160
· Practical Operation of Cultural Tourism 164
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XIII. Fifth Technical Session – Human Resource Development in the Cultural


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Tourism Scenario 169


· Statement of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia
and the Pacific 171
· Human Resource Development for Cultural Tourism Development 173
· The Austrian Educational System and Cultural Tourism:
How to Make Young People Fit for the Job in Cultural Tourism 179

XIV. Sixth Technical Session – Marketing and Promotion of Cultural Tourism 189
· Strategic Marketing Campaign – Amazing Thailand and GMS
Cultural Tourism 191
· Visitor Management and E-Commerce at Historic Sites 197

XV. Open Forum – Questions and Answers 199

XVI. List of Participants 205


I. BACKGROUND

Tourism has grown at an accelerated pace over the last few decades and forecasts indicate
an ever faster rate of growth into the new Millenium, with Asia and the Pacific becoming
the second most important tourism destination of the world by 2020. One of the pillars of
the tourism industry has been mankind's inherent desire to see and learn about the cultural
identity of different parts of the world. In domestic tourism, cultural heritage stimulates
national pride in one's history. In international tourism, cultural heritage stimulates a
respect and understanding of other cultures and, as a consequence, promotes peace and
understanding.

The Asia-Pacific continent is the most diverse in terms of cultural heritage. It has been the
birthplace of all the world's major religions - Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and
Judaism - and a great many of its minor ones. The interchange of cultures over thousands
of years has resulted in some of the best historical monuments and a plethora of religious
and cultural mix. Famed for archaeological rarities of immense beauty such as Angkor
Wat, Borobudur, the Great Wall, and the Taj Mahal, Asia undoubtedly forms an extremely
attractive and diversified tourism product which has something to offer to tourists from all
walks of life.

Aware of the wealth and diversity of culture to be found in Asia, and realising that Asia
would become a leading tourism destination in the near future, tourism planners and
tourists alike are learning to beware of mass and unplanned tourism and strive for
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sustainable tourism development. Cultural heritage attractions are, by nature, unique and
fragile. Therefore, it is fundamental that tourism authorities study how best to develop
these cultural heritage sites while protecting and preserving them for the long-term. If not,
irreparable and irreversible damage can be done to the very heart of Asia's cultural identity.

In this regard, WTO has welcomed the extremely generous and gracious offer of the Royal
Kingdom of Cambodia to host this important conference on cultural tourism. The aim of
the conference is to provide a forum for countries from all over the world to present their
case studies on successful policies, guidelines, and strategies for cultural tourism
development and promotion to assist the Asia-Pacific region in taking advantage of its
immense cultural heritage and to develop a tourism industry that would directly benefit the
Asian people.

II. ORGANIZATION

The conference, which was held at the generous invitation of the Royal Government of
Cambodia, was jointly organized by the World Tourism Organization and the Royal
Government of Cambodia. It was held at the Sofitel Royal Angkor Hotel in Siem Reap
from 11 to 13 December 2000.

III. PARTICIPATION

The Conference brought together many of the world's tourism leaders, senior tourism
officials, experts, and travel trade representatives from Austria, Bhutan, Brunei Darussalam,

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Cambodia, China, Egypt, France, Germany, Hong Kong SAR, India, Indonesia, Islamic
Republic of Iran, Japan, Republic of Korea, Lao P.D.R., Macau SAR, Malaysia, Maldives,
Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, United
Kingdom, USA, Vietnam, and the Holy See. Also represented were WTO affiliate
members and regional and international organizations such as the UNESCO, the United
Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN ESCAP); the
United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and non-governmental organizations such
as World Vision Cambodia. In total, there were 155 participants, a list of which is attached
as an annex to this report.

The Conference was extensively covered by local media. BBC Radio (U.K) interviewed
the WTO Consultant about the conclusions of the Conference.

IV. OBJECTIVES

The aim of the Conference was to raise awareness of the importance of cultural heritage
sites in tourism development and to discuss sustainable development practices to not only
maintain tourism growth in Asia, but also to preserve these invaluable resources; to
identify the key issues surrounding the growth of cultural tourism in the Asia Pacific
region in order to provide a sound framework for its development, especially in policy-
making and promotions. With a sound framework, a fine balance between economic and
social growth and environmental sustainability would hopefully be achieved.
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V. STRUCTURE OF THE CONFERENCE

After the inauguration of the Conference by His Excellency, Samdech Hun Sen, Prime
Minister of the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC); the WTO Secretary General
Francesco Frangialli; and the UNESCO representative Mr. Etienne Clement; and after the
welcoming speech by the Minister of Tourism of the Royal Government of Cambodia,
there was a brief introduction by the WTO Regional Representative for Asia and the
Pacific detailing the aim of the Conference and informing the participants of the structure
of the Conference.

The first session consisted of technical presentations by two WTO Consultants, Mr.
Vicente Granados and Ms. Narzalina Z. Lim, followed by the presentation of Mr. Hervé
Barré of the UNESCO.

This was followed by a case study on the Angkor Wat which was introduced by the
Minister of Tourism of the RGC, Veng Sereyvuth and presented by Mrs. Chau Sun Kerya,
Director of the Angkor Tourist Development Department of the APSARA Authority and
Mr. Pich Keo, Deputy Director General of the Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts. Angkor
Wat, being one of the most excellent examples of the cultural heritage to be found in Asia,
is an ideal case study of a cultural heritage monument playing a pivotal role in the
development of the tourism industry of an entire nation. The development and promotion
of this enormous complex of monuments while retaining and preserving it from the effects
of tourism, has made Cambodia's tourism industry a promising success.

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Leading on from the Cambodia example, the Conference invited senior officials from
Egypt and Sri Lanka to speak about the impacts of tourism on cultural heritage. Before that,
however, the WTO Chief for Sustainable Development, Mr. Eugenio Yunis, presented
WTO's policies on the enhancement of benefits through cultural tourism and the mitigation
of the impacts of tourism on cultural heritage.

The second technical session provided a broad overview of cultural development policies
and guidelines. Whereas the previous session focused on specific monuments, many Asian
nations and nations from other parts of the world have a general cultural interest with many
important monuments. The Islamic Republic of Iran; the Republic of Korea; Yunnan
Province, Peoples Republic of China; Papua New Guinea; and Shandong Province,
Peoples Republic of China are examples of countries whose tourism industry provides a
tourism product with a general cultural interest.

On the second day of the Conference, there were two presentations on the Silk Road - a
trans-border, in fact, a trans-continental cultural tourism product. These presentations were
made by the Director General of the International Tourism Development Institute of Japan
and by the WTO Regional Representative for Asia and the Pacific. UNESCO and the
WTO have been promoting and furthering the development of this unique cultural tourism
product which played such an important role in shaping the history of Asia and Europe and
which has been experiencing a resurgence since the independence of the five
Commonwealth Independent States.
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The fourth technical session dwelt on the points-of -view of the travel trade who face the
day-to-day requirements of the cultural tourist and who have a more direct grasp of what
kind of cultural tourism appeals to tourists.

The development of human resources is a very important aspect in cultural tourism,


considering that the preservation, promotion and interpretation of culture needs highly
skilled and competent people. This was addressed in the fifth technical session by
representatives from the Austrian School for Tourism and the Hong Kong Polytechnic
University who talked about education and training.

The last technical session dwelt on the Marketing and Promotions of cultural tourism. An
official from the Tourism Authority of Thailand talked about the "Amazing Thailand"
campaign, an active, efficient, and successful marketing campaign which brought Thailand
out of the financial crisis which plagued the Asian countries in 1997. The campaign
revived Thailand's tourism industry and has many features which could be adopted by the
Asia-Pacific nations in their endeavor to promote and market their cultural tourism product.

The other speaker from Austria described the use of e-commerce and new technology in
managing visitor flows in historic sites to mitigate negative impacts.

The Conference concluded with a summary of the Conference's proceedings as well as


general conclusions and recommendations given by the WTO Consultant, Ms. Narzalina
Lim, followed by concluding remarks given by Tourism Minister Veng Seryvuth and
WTO Secretary General, Francesco Frangialli. The WTO Regional Representative for Asia
and the Pacific, Dr. Harsh Varma, then acknowedged and thanked all the persons and
organizations who contributed to the success of the Conference.

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A technical tour of Angkor Wat was conducted on the third day, December 13, to
demonstrate some of the principles and issues discussed during the Conference.

VI. SUMMARY OF THE PROCEEDINGS

6.1 Definition and Characteristics of Cultural Tourism

Culture is the lifeblood of tourism. People travel, not just to relax and recreate but to
satisfy their need for diversity and their curiosity on how other people live in environments
different from their own. Other people’s lifestyles are expressed through their religion;
festivals; costumes; cuisine; arts and crafts; architecture; music and dance; folklore; and
literature. These cultural manifestations differentiate one group of people from another.
They make life colorful and interesting.

People also travel for the specific purpose of visiting the great monuments and sites of the
world such as the Angkor Wat in Cambodia; the Taj Mahal in India; the Great Wall of
China or the Borobudur and the Prambanan in Indonesia. Thus, culture is manifested in
both the living and dynamic aspects of a people’s everyday life as well as in built heritage,
i.e., monuments and sites.

There are tourists who also travel for the specific purpose of attending religious and non-
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religious festivals, art and museum exhibits, musical events (opera, concerts, etc.) and
theatrical presentations. Some tour operators in Europe refer to these trips are “art
holidays” or “educational holidays”.

All the aforementioned activities describe what one may call “cultural tourism”.

Culture and tourism have a symbiotic relationship. Arts and crafts, dances, rituals, and
legends which are at risk of being forgotten by the younger generation may be revitalized
when tourists show a keen interest in them. Monuments and cultural relics may be
preserved by using funds generated by tourism. In fact, those monuments and relics which
have been abandoned suffer decay from lack of visitation.

On the other hand, culture can be commercialized and simply become a commodity to
serve tourists. In the process, it gets despoiled and degraded. Culture and tourism must be
mutually supportive of each other to make the relationship sustainable. The nurturance of
this relationship needs the full cooperation of the public and private sector working side by
side with local communities.

6.2 Trends in Cultural Tourism

Studies reveal that tourists, especially from European countries to the developing
countries, tend to look for destinations where they can actually experience and learn about
the way of life of the local people. They prefer simple hotels with local atmosphere; to
travel independently; to have as much contact with the locals as possible and to learn about
their living conditions. This particular market segment which might be referred to as the
cultural tourist, has been growing in number, by as much as 15% per annum in the last

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decade. This implies that the traditional tour products meant for mass tourism, such as
passive sight-seeing and pure beach holidays, will now have to be modified to allow for
more opportunities for interaction between guests and hosts. Ideally, during that
interaction, both sides must learn from each other to make the tourism experience a truly
memorable one.

Conversely, a study conducted by the European Commission discovered that 20% of


tourist visits to Europe were made for cultural purposes. Furthermore, culture was a main
component of travel for 60 % of the visitors.

Tourism has grown at an accelerated pace over the last few decades. Forecasts indicate an
even faster rate of growth in the next Millenium. WTO’s Tourism 2020 Vision study
forecasts that tourist arrivals worldwide would grow to 1.5 billion – a tripling in growth in
arrivals within the space of a generation. WTO also forecasts that Asia and the Pacific will
become the second most important tourism destination of the world by 2020 and China
will become the most popular tourism destination of the world.

This accelerated and massive growth in worldwide tourism has fundamental implications.
It means that tourism resources, especially cultural sites, monuments and museums are
becoming heavily congested. Congestion is also being experienced in air traffic, airports,
destinations and city centers, leading to inadequate transport infrastructure, public facilities
and utilities. Furthermore, the mounting demands of water and energy resources compete
with those of the local population. Above all, the imposition of a tourism industry above
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local needs places local cultures and traditions under threat.

Aware of the dangers of mass and unplanned tourism, as well as the opportunities for a
more humane type of cultural encounter between local hosts and guests, tourism authorities,
local communities, and the tourism private sector have to work closely together and apply
the principle of sustainability in the planning and management of tourism. A balance must
be achieved between tourism development on one hand and cultural preservation on the
other. Achieving this balance is a challenge.

6.3 Strategies in Managing the Negative Impacts of Tourism on Culture

Carrying capacity was a concept that was intensely discussed during the conference.
There was consensus on the fact that carrying capacity is a complex issue and that there is
no formula that can set carrying capacity for a specific site or destination. There is physical
carrying capacity, i.e., the number of people which a site can comfortably accommodate
without the place deteriorating, the visitor experience declining, or the local community
suffering. There is also social carrying capacity, meaning that society may not be ready or
is not in a position to receive a large number of tourists either because it does not have
adequate facilities and infrastructure or the people are not socially and educationally
equipped to handle visitors. The discussion on this issue concluded that it is the host
community or those who are tasked to manage the tourism site who have to make practical
judgments on how many visitors their particular site can take. This implies that the
community and the tourism managers have to have technical training in sustainable
tourism practices.

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The subject of “cultural consent” was also discussed, meaning that local communities must
agree to host tourists, after discussing and deliberating on the merits of tourism. Tourism
should not be imposed on them.

Some strategies recommended by the various paper presentors to mitigate overcrowding


and other negative impacts of tourism in cultural destinations and sites are:

I. In Heritage Sites:

· Control tourist flows by setting up tour routes during peak periods;


· Design shuttle transportation services which control visitor flows;
· Increase entrance fees;
· Limit the number of visitors per day/establish daily quotas;
· Extend the opening hours of museums up to the evening;
· Accept advance bookings for very popular exhibits;
· Build well-equipped visitors’ centers which can be used as holding centers to
manage visitor flows;
· Decongest guests in large museums by building smaller museums with attractive
exhibits in other city centers;
· Increase available museum space;
· Use technology to recreate the authentic atmosphere of fragile heritage sites so
people don’t have to visit those sites;
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· Use customized technology suited to the heritage site to manage visitor flows; Use
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the same technology to set up a management information system;


· Close off very fragile sites which are threatened with damage until mitigating
measures can be put in place;
· Identify new cultural attractions and develop them for tourism visitation so that
demand can be better spread, thus reducing the pressure on existing sites.

II. In Fragile Ethnic Villages:

· Limit visitors to just a few villages which are prepared to receive visitors;
· Train other villagers to open up their villages to tourists, only if they are inclined to
do so;
· Train the local people to develop tourism which is acceptable to them and
complementary to their local customs;
· Develop a code of conduct for visitors, tour operators, and tour guides;
· Develop demonstration or model villages; show success and use these villages as
examples to others on how to run their tourism program.
· Craft and strictly enforce legislation which protect ethnic cultural resources and
heritage.

Another issue which was extensively discussed was the need to involve local communities
in tourism planning and ensure that they directly benefit from tourism. Some of the
strategies recommended by the paper presentors were:

· Train the informal sector in the local community to run micro-businesses such as
guest houses and restaurants serving local cuisine;

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· Create a “Small Business Advisory Council” to assist local communities to
become small entrepreneurs serving the tourism industry;
· Train and employ locals in tourism-related jobs.

· On the need to maintain and upgrade the quality of arts and crafts, the following
recommendations were put forward by the paper presentors:

· Organize non-profit foundations or non-governmental organizations which will


assist the locals in upgrading their arts and crafts and in marketing these directly to
customers, thus bypassing middlemen;
· Make seed capital available to local communities on a soft loan basis so they can
purchase raw materials for their crafts;
· Tap international organizations to assist local communities with technical expertise
and funding.

6.4 Marketing Cultural Tourism


6.4.1 The Product

It is essential that the destination address basic issues such as infrastructure, easy access,
safety and security. Additionally, since cultural tourism requires a very high level of
interpretation, guide services especially in foreign languages, must be of excellent quality.
Other forms of interpretation such as maps, guidebooks, pamphlets, signages, story
boards, and audio-visual/interactive displays must be made available to tourists to
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supplement or complement guide services. Visitor centers, where tourists are oriented
about the cultural attraction they are about to visit, have become very important
interpretation tools.

The needs and wants of the customer should be considered when designing or upgrading
the cultural tourism product.

6.4.2 Promoting the Product

Tourists who travel to experience the culture of the destination they are visiting are looking
for rich experiences which require interaction with local communities. This characteristic
of the cultural tourist implies that the tour operator who is packaging the cultural
experience must customize the tour to suit the needs of his client. Information technology
and e-commerce are useful tools for marketing cultural tourism. Detailed information can
be given out electronically to enable tourists to make informed choices about the
destinations they are visiting and to choose the activities they want to participate in.

Cultural tourism products are distributed through specialized channels such as cultural
associations, museum mailing lists, arts and culture patrons, ecotourism societies,
archeological and anthropological societies, and universities.

Cultural tourism may be promoted by using the thematic approach, such as the Silk Road.
Cooperative marketing programs at a regional level, such as the Greater Mekong Sub-
Region (GMS), which promotes the cultural jewels of the region, is another model.

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Collaboration amongst international organizations such as the WTO, UNESCO, ESCAP
and the UNDP as well as regional groupings such as the GMS, is a useful way of
promoting cultural tourism.

6.5 Education and Training

The Conference participants were unanimous in their agreement that the education and
training of tourism personnel as well as of host communities should be given the highest
priority. Since tourism is a service industry which requires a high degree of human
interaction, people involved in this industry must have good public relations skills. They
must also be able to interpret the culture of the destination in a meaningful way so that the
visitors understand and appreciate the cultural values of the destination. In this connection,
tour guides should be given intensive foreign language training. In the absence of
qualified foreign language guides, it was suggested that foreign tour operators be allowed
to field their own guides in the destinations being visited to ensure that the cultural tourism
experience is of a very high quality. This proposal was made in view of the liberal and
global economic system prevailing in the 21st century.

Education and training should be experienced-based; interdisciplinary in nature; and


customer-focused. It should emphasize foreign languages; cross-cultural understanding and
skills; the ability to solve problems; comfort with technology; and a high sense of ethics.
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6.6 Summary of the presentations

Paper of Mr. Vicente Granados Cabezas, WTO Consultant


“Trends and Profiles of Cultural Tourism in the Global Tourism Scenario”

Prof. Granados introduced his paper by citing the aims of cultural tourism among which
are to promote it as an incentive for travel; to use it as a platform for economic and social
development; and to strengthen local pride and self-enforcement.

According to WTO estimates, cultural tourism has been one of the market segments which
has shown the highest rate of growth, representing one fifth of the tourism market. The
prospects for the next two decades, given that certain source markets will be evolving, look
very promising. The European market for cultural tourism has increased by as much as
20% in the past decade, reaching 30 million visitors in 1999. Germany was the main
source market, with 7 million visitors and France was the main receiver, with 5 million.
Among the market trends which affect cultural tourism are media, which have shaped
today’s new cultural products; the growth of an affluent and cultivated middle class in the
source countries; massive use of the internet (50% of the population in OECD countries are
expected to be internet users in 2010); and the increase in the ageing population which, by
2010, will be 65% for those in the 55-64 age bracket; and 35% for those in the 45-54 age
bracket.

The paper ended with a set of criteria on how to create a cultural tourist product. The
product’s uniqueness; its intrinsic quality as perceived by the tourist; the degree of
knowledge and attitude towards it by the potential customer; the level of sustainability; the

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degree of involvement by the local society where the product is located; and the quality of
the management of the cultural product, are some of the criteria cited in the paper.

Paper of Narzalina Z. Lim, WTO Consultant


“Developing and Promoting Cultural Tourism in the Asia Pacific Region”

The first part of the paper attempts to define culture and cultural tourism. Culture is
manifested through religion, festivals, costumes, cuisine, arts and crafts, architecture,
music, dance, folklore, and literature. It is also manifested in monuments and sites- built
attractions which are testimonies to a people’s history. The traveller who purposely travels
to experience various cultures and to view monuments and sites as well as to attend
festivals and religious events is what might be called the cultural tourist.

Studies show that tourists from European countries to developing countries indicate that
nature and culture are their main motivations for travel. German tourists prefer to travel
independently; stay in simple hotels with local atmosphere; are interested in the living
conditions of the local population and to have as much contact with the locals as possible.
These trends imply that tour operators must move beyond passive sight-seeing tours and
restructure their tour products to allow for more interaction between guests and local
communities.

The paper presents two case studies – one from the Philippines and another from Indonesia
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– to illustrate certain problems in developing cultural tourism and the solutions which were
arrived at to solve these problems. The first case describes how an ancient ethnic
community, the Ifugaos who live in the rice terraces in Northern Philippines, addressed the
problem of too many tourists visiting their villages, thus posing a threat to their traditional
way of life. Education and training of the local communities as well as involving them in
decisions affecting their lives was one solution. They decided to limit tourists to certain
villages until such time that other villages felt prepared to host visitors. The declining
quality of arts and crafts due to lack of financial capital and the temptation to cater to the
demands of tourists was solved when a private, not-for-profit Foundation intervened to
provide seed capital and to help the community market their products directly to buyers,
thus eliminating middlemen.

The other case study was on Borobudur, a world heritage-listed Buddhist monument
located in Central Java. The case illustrated the need to empower and directly benefit the
local community surrounding the heritage site, specifically the informal sector which is
relegated to peripheral economic activities such as hawking and vending. This community
is under threat because of the tendency of authorities to clean up the heritage site of
hawkers and vendors. Should these people be displaced, they may become hostile and
resort to vandalism and theft. The preferred solution is to organize these people and train
them to put up their own small businesses such as running guest houses and restaurants
serving local food. A Small Business Advisory Council may be created to encourage and
assist these local communities to become entrepreneurs.

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Paper of Mr. Herve Barré, Chief – Research and Development Unit, Division of
Cultural Heritage, UNESCO, Paris

The introductory portion of the paper summarized the action of UNESCO at the historical
site of Angkor over the past decade. In 1991, UNESCO assisted the Cambodia authorities
in drafting legislation for cultural and natural property and national statutes for the
protection of Angkor, including measures against illicit traffic in antiquities. These
measures led to the cooperation of organizations such as the International Council of
Museums (ICOM), which published a booklet containing the descriptions and photographs
of 100 stolen objects and INTERPOL, whose assistance resulted in locating some of the
objects. UNESCO also prepared, with the help of 25 experts from 11 countries, working
alongside local counterparts, a Zoning and Environmental Management Plan (ZEMP) for
the site. This Plan aimed at defining the boundaries of Angkor Park and buffer zone as well
as their management guidelines.

The paper then proceeded to present UNESCO’s views on culture. It believes that
sustainable development and the eradication of poverty are closely linked with self-
fulfilment and greater emphasis on culture. Thus, in UNESCO’s view, tourism, if correctly
conceived, can be a tremendous development tool and an effective means of preserving the
cultural diversity of our planet. In this context, the following selected examples of
UNESCO’s action can be seen as a contribution to the harmonious combination of
economic development and the safeguarding of the cultural and natural heritage:
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· The programme of UNESCO Chairs in cultural tourism for peace and development,
which involves the establishment of a university network offering training to future
decision-makers in the principles of sustainable cultural tourism;
· A project for integrated development and safeguarding of the cultural heritage by
the local communities in Asia and the Pacific;
· A project for enhancing heritage related to historic memory, such as the Slave
Route project;
· The organisation of and participation in seminars at national and international
levels, and publications on the theme of “culture, tourism, and development.”

The paper suggested four principles which may be used as guidelines to achieve the
objective of economic development and the safeguarding of the cultural and natural
heritage. The first principle is that the policy of cultural tourism must be closely linked
with action to safeguard the cultural and natural heritage and to enhance the touristic value
of that heritage so that the local populations can enjoy not only the economic spin-off but
also the associated cultural and social advantages.

The second principle is that priority should be given for the safeguarding of the cultural
heritage. There should be strict implementation of the principles embodied in the 1992
Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage; the 1970
Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export, and
Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property; and the 1954 Convention for the Protection of
Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, in addition to the other international
instruments adopted under the auspices of UNESCO. The International Cultural Tourism
Charter adopted by ICOMOS and the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism drawn up by the
WTO also constitute useful references for high-quality tourism policies.

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The third principle is to strengthen the partnership between public and private sector
partners. The goals of such a partnership should be to transfer high technology skills and
training in the field of tourism and to ensure that local communities living in the area
surrounding the sites derive greater benefit from the spin-offs of tourism, in the form of
business creation and income generation.

The fourth principle is the commitment of civil society in tourist destination countries and
in tourist-generating countries to cultural tourism as a policy. Programmes to raise
awareness of cultural tourism should be encouraged especially amongst young people.

The paper concluded by advocating joint international action on “Tourism, Culture and
Development” issues, in Cambodia in particular. It called on citizens and travellers to
move gradually from a passive attitude of respect for the heritage to an active approach.

Presentations by H.E. Mr. Veng Seryvuth, Minister of Tourism of the RGC; Mrs.
Chau Sun Kerya, Director, Angkor Cultural Development Dept. of the APSARA
Authority; and Mr. Pich Keo, Deputy Director General of the Ministry of Culture
and Fine Arts.

The papers presented by these three distinguished speakers dwelt on the preservation,
conservation, and use of the Angkor temples for tourism.
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Min. Veng introduced the subject by stating that Cambodia has a rich cultural heritage
consisting of some1,080 ancient temples located in 14 provinces throughout the country.
The Angkor Wat temples have provided cultural and spiritual inspiration for Cambodians
for over 1,000 years and the Cambodian people now have the opportunity to share this
experience with the world through tourism. However, tourism development must be
sustainable in ecological, cultural, social, and economic terms. Several policies are being
observed by the RGC in the implementation of sustainable tourism. First, tourism must
benefit the local people. Therefore, local people must participate fully in formulating
tourism policies. Second, archaeological and historic sites must be properly conserved and
interpreted and that tourists’ use of them is well-managed so that they are not degraded by
tourism. Third, through marketing techniques, Cambodia is able to attract the types of
tourists who will respect the cultural heritage and traditions of Cambodia. Fourth, the local
people are educated about tourism, its concepts and benefits, and how they can participate
in tourism.

The paper then describes the steps taken by the RGC in ensuring that Angkor Wat remains
as the pillar of the Cambodian tourism industry. Following the 1991 Paris Peace Accords
which paved the way to peace and democracy in Cambodia, the RGC acceded to the World
Heritage Convention which is the international law designed to protect, preserve, and
present the world’s outstanding natural and cultural heritage. This led to the listing of
Angkor Wat in the World Heritage List in 1992. Then, the RGC established the Authority
for the Protection of the Site and Development of the Angkor Region (APSARA) in 1994.
The APSARA Authority came up with the Zoning and Environmental Management Plan
for Angkor (ZEMP) to ensure the protection and preservation of the site and the
sustainable development of the Siem Reap area and community. A 1994 Master Plan on

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the Integrated Development of Siem Reap and Angkor was also prepared by the Japanese
International Cooperation Agency (JICA).

The ongoing management of Angkor involves site maintenance work; involvement of the
local community; and protection of the monuments. Site maintenance work is one of the
basic steps towards conservation. Extensive maintenance and restoration work has been
carried out at various sites of the Angkor complex of temples. Each monument calls for a
specially designed approach suited to its particular history and geography and its state of
preservation. Environmental considerations are taken into account and the required
archaeological research is undertaken. To protect the Angkor site from theft and looting of
art objects, the local inhabitants surrounding the site have been involved in the
safeguarding of the monuments. The monuments are also protected from natural
deterioration and decay.

The paper presented by the APSARA Authority presented its tourism policy for Angkor.
For the Siem Reap region, tourism will feature the cultural sites of Angkor, ancient villages,
vernacular architecture, and ecological tourism featuring the Greak Lake or Tonle Sap.
APSARA Authority has adopted the policies of various international organizations
regarding sustainable cultural tourism such as recognizing the economic functions of
tourism but exposing the risks inherent in overcrowding; supporting restoration and
development activities that respect and enhance the authenticity of the monuments and
sites; and supporting development efforts that promote the social role of the heritage.
Additionally, it has adopted measures to control tourist flows by setting up tour routes that
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must be followed during peak periods; education of the communities surrounding the
historic site; involving the park communities in the tourism development process by
creating tourism-related jobs in keeping with their skills; training tourism staff with a keen
awareness of heritage; raising the awareness of tourism professionals as well as their
clients regarding national heritage protection; setting up quality tourist information
facilities; and designing shuttle transportation services which control visitor flows.

The paper presented by the Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts shared the experiences of the
RGC regarding theft and illegal exportation of artefacts from Angkor, vandalism,
clandestine excavations, and looting, due primarily to the political instability in the country
in the last 30 years. Priceless antiquities have been shipped to collectors in Thailand and
countries in the Western world. On the local level, the Ministry has taken steps to ensure
that existing regulations for the protection of cultural heritage are applied to the fullest
extent and that sanctions are taken against the offenders with the full force of the law. On
the international level, the Ministry wishes to obtain the cooperation of all countries,
organizations, and institutions in preserving and restoring the temples. Governments which
have in their possession archaeological pieces smuggled out of Cambodia are urged to do
all in their power to return them to the RGC as soon as possible. The International Council
of Museums (ICOM) in cooperation with the Ecole Francaise d’Extrême Orient (EFEO)
has published a list of “100 Missing Objects in Angkor”. Out of this list, five pieces have
been found and returned to Cambodia. The government of Thailand has also returned 122
artefacts smuggled out of Cambodia.

The Ministry’s program is to clean and protect all the temples in the Angkor site and to
continue to make scientific inventories of the artefacts in various museums and throughout
the monuments.

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Paper of Mr. Eugenio Yunis - Head, Sustainable Development of Tourism
World Tourism Organization
“Cultural Heritage, Tourism, and Sustainable Development”

The main purpose of the paper is to examine the factors that need to be taken into account
to ensure that the development and management of tourism at cultural heritage sites is
sustainable from an economic, environmental, and socio-cultural point of view. It posits
the fact that tourism and cultural heritage can establish a mutually sustainable and
beneficial relationship. Such a relationship is unique, in that the conservation of cultural
heritage sites, buildings, and objects finds its full justification, as well as a significant part
of the financial resources needed, in making available those sites to the people through
tourism.

In face of increased pressure from a higher proportion of the population wanting to travel;
to experience and learn about foreign cultures; and to visit their built heritage, it is
necessary to:

· Strengthen conservation efforts at cultural heritage sites likely to be visited by high


numbers of tourists;
· Establish better regulations for visiting existing cultural heritage sites and strictly
enforce them; and
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· Identify new cultural heritage attractions and develop them for tourism visitation,
so that demand can be better spread, thus reducing the pressure on existing sites.

The key questions which must be addressed in developing cultural tourism are how to
establish the right balance between the needs, interests, and facilities required for the
tourists and the conservation objectives and how to make compatible both objectives
without affecting the site’s physical fabric and its symbolic or spiritual value for the local
community.

The paper proposed fourteen (14) conditions for achieving a mutually beneficial
relationship between tourism and cultural heritage:

· Understanding by the tourism sector of the holistic nature of culture;


· Understanding, by the cultural heritage specialists and conservation professionals in
general, of the importance of tourism and of the needs and legitimate desires of the
tourist;
· Involving the local community in the definition of a tourism policy and in the
decision-making process concerning heritage tourism;
· Preparing a tourism Master Plan or a site management plan for the heritage object.
· Identifying capacity constraints at the sites and setting up a maximum carrying
capacity;
· Responding to the needs and preferences of cultural travelers and of other
categories of visitors;
· Interpreting the heritage sites for the tourists, so that they leave the place with a real
understanding of its cultural value;

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· Managing tourists at heritage sites in order to avoid possible damages and to
enhance the tourists’ experience;
· Setting up a marketing strategy and a pricing policy for tourism at heritage sites;
· Establishing appropriate mechanisms for ensuring that a significant proportion of
tourism earnings revert to conservation purposes;
· Monitoring the impacts of tourism on the site to serve as early warnings of major
problems;
· Introducing remedial actions whenever and wherever needed;

Paper of Ms. Laila Bassiouny - Undersecretary, Ministry of Tourism, Egypt


“Impact of Tourism for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage – Historic Cities”

The image of Egypt to most peoples is focused on Pharaonic civilization. Egypt is


considered as the world’ greatest open-air museum, filled with awe-inspiring monuments
of ancient civilizations. Luxor is considered the main gallery of this museum. Located 670
kms. south of Cairo, Luxor has several monuments which are a “must see” for visitors to
Egypt. Among these are the temple of Luxor; Karnak Temple; the Collosi of Memnon; the
Tombs of the Valleys of the Kings and Queens and the Commemorative Temples and the
Tombs of the Nobles.

Some of the policies and management strategies adopted by the government to protect the
fragile archaeological sites at Luxor are to increase the entrance fee and to limit the
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number of visitors per day to a certain number, e.g., for the tomb of NEFARTARI, wife of
RAMSES II, which will be reopened in November after restoration, visitors will be limited
to only 200 persons per day, with each group staying only 10 minutes. The entrance fee
will be L.E.100 or ten times the fees for the visit to the Pyramids area.

Other policies are to raise the standards of tour guiding and of service by hotel and tours
personnel through a comprehensive human resource development program. The protection
of the natural environment is also of paramount importance. The increased use of the Nile
River through cruise tourism as well as the number of floating hotels (currently there are
200 of them) have certain impacts which have to be mitigated. The development and
upgrading of infrastructure such as existing docks and berthing facilities to avoid
overcrowding and the construction of facilities for the repair, servicing, and building of
floating hotels are some of these mitigating measures.

To solve the seasonality problem, special events and festivals for tourists are being
arranged during the off-season months. Another management technique to minimize
overcrowding in Luxor is to encourage tour operators to arrange comprehensive programs
covering other areas outside of Luxor. These areas are being publicized intensively so that
they will also be internationally known, just as Luxor.

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Paper of Mr. P.P Hettiarachchi - Director, Community and Industry
Relations,Ceylon Tourist Board, Sri Lanka
“Impacts of Tourism on Cultural Heritage in Sri Lanka – A Case Study”

Sri Lanka is an island in the Indian Ocean blessed with an array of natural and built
attractions which include seven world heritage sites and a large number of pre-historic sites
scattered in many parts of the country. It has a recorded history of 2500 years going back
to the 6th century BC. The remains of this history can still be seen in many parts of the
country, particularly in the three ancient cities. This is known as the Cultural Triangle.

Sri Lanka launched a major heritage conservation project in 1981 under the Cultural
Triangle Development Program with technical and financial assistance from UNESCO.
The primary reason which prompted sponsors to undertake a project of this magnitude was
the rapid development of international tourism to Sri Lanka in the latter part of the 1970s
and the increasing volume of foreign tourists visiting the Cultural Triangle sites located at
Anuradhapura; Polonnaruwa; Sigiriya; Dambulla; and Kandy.

A positive impact of tourism on cultural heritage is the use of revenues collected from
entrance fees to heritage sites to conserve these sites and other archaeological sites as well.
Thus, the development of tourism has been the major contributory factor for the heritage
conservation projects undertaken by Sri Lanka.

Tourism has also become a new patron of the arts in Sri Lank. Tourists have become the
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new consumers of handicrafts and indigenous dance and music. As a result, the living
condition of traditional sculptors, weavers, wood carvers, and dancers have become better.
Tourists in Sri Lanka spend 10% of the daily average expenditure of US$60 on purchasing
souvenir items.

Among the negative impacts of tourists at religious places and historical sites are over-
visitation and congestion; litter; vandalism; and disturbances at places of worship.

To avoid these negative impacts, community awareness programs are being conducted by
the Ceylon Tourist Board. Tourism as a subject is included in the school curriculum and
seminars and presentations are conducted for teachers and school children. Law
enforcement officers from the police, customs, and the national tourist organization are
included in the education and training programs. Articles on tourism are printed in
newspapers and weekly radio broadcasts are aired to reach people in traditional and
widely-dispersed areas. Television programs on cultural heritage and social values are also
being arranged. Additionally, a brochure entitled “Sri Lanka, a Way of Life” is printed and
distributed among the tourists through information outlets, hotels, and guides in order to
inform them on the local customs, dress codes, acceptable social behavior, and right
conduct in religious places.

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Paper of Dr. Nasrollah Mostofi - Vice-Deputy Minister for Research and Training
Affairs, Iran Touring and Tourism Organization
“Iran, the Major Destination for Cultural Tourists”

Iran is one of the most strategically located countries in the world. It occupies the entire
2,440 km. Eastern coast of the Persian Gulf that borders six oil-rich Gulf States. It also
borders Pakistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkey and Iraq.

The country has a very colorful and diversified landscape, ranging from high plateau to
mountain ranges and to plains bordering the Persian Gulf and Caspian Sea. There are two
big mountain chains, the Alborz to the north and the Zagross to the south. Two thirds of
the country is desert and it has only one navigable river. Its largest lake is almost as salty
as the Dead Sea.

The cultural attractions of Iran include Persian art and architecture which reflect a 5,000
year old cultural tradition shaped by the diverse cultures that have flourished on the vast
Iranian plateau. Persian design has stressed decorative forms rather than the human figure.
These designs are both geometrical and floral and very similar motifs appear in works
produced hundred of years apart. This continuity of forms, executed in such media as stone,
plaster, brick, tiles, pottery, and textiles, is the most distinctive feature of Persian art.
Calligraphy, manuscript illumination, miniature painting, ceramics, textiles, carpets, and
metalwork all achieve great distinction in the Islamic art of Iran.
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In terms of architecture, a distinctive mosque type has been developed. Adopted from
Sassanian architecture, the basic plan of the Iranian mosque is a square sanctuary chamber
surmounted by a dome; the mihrab or minaret, usually appeared at the center of the
sanctuary’s rear wall. This sanctuary chamber was located on the axis of the structure, at
one end of an open court.

Persian gardens are also a cultural attraction. The archetypal garden, Paradise, derives its
name and its symbolism from the Old Persian, Pardeiza, meaning an enclosed area. The
concept of an enclosed garden was influenced partly by the climate of Iran with its strong
light, its high altitude, and its lack of permanent rivers and partly by the culture of the
Iranian people themselves whose antinomian tendencies separated them from the
mainstream of Islam and gave them a concept of an earthly paradise as well as a heavenly
one, in which the garden fulfilled several roles: as a place of spiritual solace; as a meeting
place for friends; and as a formal adjunct to the house or palace which it surrounded.

Paper of Mr. Kim Jean-Sae - Director, Korea National Tourism Organization


(Thailand Office), Republic of Korea
“Policies and Guidelines for Cultural Tourism Development in Korea”

The cultural tourism products of Korea are divided into cultural heritage tourism; folk art
tourism; historical/educational tourism; and tourism which allows visitors to experience
traditional life. Some examples of these are interactive activities such as manufacturing
ceramics and handicrafts, preparing kimchi, learning traditional and military arts, and
experiencing traditional markets. Data from the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and the

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Korea National Tourism Organization indicate that out of 2 million foreign tourists in
1998, 49.4% or 980,000 participated in cultural tourism activities.

Among the strategies for promoting cultural tourism are to increase the budget for culture
through increase in tax collections and tax rate adjustments. Private businesses are also
being tapped to support cultural and art activities.

In terms of developing the cultural product, it is important that themed tours are planned,
so that the cultural product projects a dynamic, not a static effect. Themes based on regions
may be introduced and private travel planning agencies may be tapped to design
specialized advertising and promotions materials. Since interpretation is very important in
cultural tourism, highly qualified guides must be fielded to interpret the culture. These
guides must be certified through a “Cultural Tourism Qualification System”.

The participation of non-government organizations and citizens groups should be enhanced.


These groups can be used to monitor tourism impacts on built heritage and to volunteer
their services as professionals in various fields. Local residents should also be involved in
the development and promotion of cultural tourism to elevate their pride in their
community.

Paper of Mr. Shao Qiwei - Vice-Governor, People’s Government of Yunnan Province,


People’s Republic of China
Delivered by http://www.wtoelibrary.org
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“Policies and Guidelines for Successful Cultural Tourism”

Yunnan is located in the southwest frontiers of China. Located in the middle reaches of
the Lancang-Mekong River, Yunnan borders Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar. Therefore,
Yunnan is China’s important gateway leading to southeast and south Asian countries.

Yunnan has beautiful scenic wonders including the largest natural Stone Forest in the
world with the greatest number of singlebody limestone peaks showing strange shapes and
the three major river systems of the Lancang, Nujiang, and Jinsha Rivers running abreast to
form the world’s most spectacular geographic miracle. Yunnan is also the kingdom of a
myriad flora and fauna species. On this piece of land, 26 ethnic groups, each with their
unique history and culture, live.

The government of Yunnan Province has played an important role in developing and
promoting tourism and turning it into one of Yunnan’s pillar industries. Tourism has been
built into the overall economic development plan for the province. Institutions in the
provincial and prefectural levels have been strengthened and tourism administrative
organs set up in sixteen prefectures, municipalities, and counties. Measures have also been
taken to speed up construction of infrastructure such as roads, railways, airports,
telecommunications. Because of improved access, land-locked areas which heretofore
were difficult to reach could now be accessed in a very short period of time.

Yunnan has embarked on cultural tourism based on its ethnic nationalities who exhibit rare
and precious treasures of human culture. A Yunnan Nationalities Village and an Ethnic
Nationalities Museum have been constructed. Events such as the First Ethnic Arts Festival
and the Third China Arts Festival have also been staged to showcase ethnic cultures and

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arts. The provincial government has also taken active measures, such as promulgating a
series of local laws and government decrees, to protect ethnic cultural resources.

To quicken the pace of tourism development and bring tourism up to international


standards, the People’s Government of Yunnan Province and the WTO have cooperated in
drafting the Yunnan Tourism Master Plan 2001-2020. This project started on July 24, 200
and work has progressed smoothly.

Paper by Mr. Nelson Paulias, Tourism Executive Officer - East New Britain Tourism
Bureau, Papua New Guinea
“Promotion of Traditional Cultures for Sustainable Tourism in East New Britain
Province, Papua New Guinea (PNG)

East New Britain is one of the nineteen provinces which make up Papua New Guinea
(PNG). It is also the biggest of the five island provinces which make up the New Guinea
Islands Region. It is a tropical island paradise which offers diverse and unique tourism
products that cater to the varied needs of different tourists. Some examples of these
products are natural tropical scenery with green vegetation and swaying palm trees; sandy
beaches; clean and warm blue waters full of colorful fish, corals of different sizes and
World War II relics for scuba diving; six volcanoes that surround and fence in the most
beautiful and deepest Rabaul Simpson Harbour and the Town of Rabaul which provide
excellent location and facilities for cruise ships.
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Since 1996, the East New Britain Provincial Government has been giving top priority to
the development and promotion of tourism which resulted in the formulation of a Five
Year Corporate Tourism Development Plan, 1999-2003. This Plan outlines the following
cultural policies:

· To support conservation of important cultural heritage such as songs, dances,


traditional arts and crafts;
· To promote in the province, the revitalization of local cultural identity and pride as
well as cross cultural exchange between visitors and the local people, thus resulting in
greater understanding and respect or at least tolerance of different cultural values,
traditions, and expectations;
· To promote the development of traditional inland villages and coastal villages by
providing them with modern facilities and services so that the standard of living of the
people can be improved and so that tourists can stay with local people and be
entertained with traditional cultural songs and dances as well as local cuisines;
· To ensure that adverse socio-economic effects on traditional local cultures are reduced
and that cultures are enhanced;
· To promote the development of provincial theatres that will enhance local cultures and
entertain both tourists and local people;
· To encourage the development of films on traditional cultures to educate the people
about the importance of cultures and to entertain tourists and local people alike;
· To document traditional music, stories, legends and instruments aimed at keeping local
cultures alive for the benefit of current and future local generations and for tourists’
entertainment;

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· To establish a number of entertainment centers in selected areas of the province that
will provide venues and modern facilities and services which will enable groups to
perform traditional dances, musical concerts, and cultural festivals from the province,
the New Guinea Islands Region, and PNG as well as from overseas.

It should be noted that one of the cultural development strategies is to use cultural
performances as a way of promoting more social interaction between tourists and the local
people. It is believed that cultural entertainment promotes learning and exchange of ideas
and experiences between tourists and local people, thus broadening understanding,
tolerance for one another’s cultural differences, and respect for one another.

Paper of Mr. Zhu Mao-min, Deputy Director, Shandong Provincial Tourism


Administration, People’s Republic of China (this paper was read by Mr. Yu Fenggui,
Deputy Secretary-General, People’s Government of Shandong Province)
“Highlights of Shandong – A Cultural Tourist Destination in China in the 21st
Century”

Shandong Province is situated along the east coast of China, on the lower reaches of the
Yellow River. With a long history, a flourishing culture, a magnificent landscape and a
number of outstanding historical personages, Shandong is very rich in tourism resources.
Among the historical characters from Shandong are Confucius, the great thinker and
educator; Su Wu, one of the most famous military strategists in ancient China who wrote
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“ Sun Tsu -The Art of War”; the calligraphy sage,Wang Xizhi; the famous military
strategist Zhuge Liang; and writers Li Qingzhao, Xin Qiji and Pu Songling.

Shandong’s tourism resources are widely distributed among 600 tourists sites including 2
world heritage, 6 national historical and cultural cities and 3 national tourist sites. Qufu,
the native town of Confucius and birthplace of Confucianism, has the grand Confucius
Temple, Confucius’ Mansion and Confucius Forest. It has been listed as a World Cultural
Heritage site. Mt. Tai, First of the Five Sacred Mountains in China, is also listed as a
World Natural and Cultural Heritage site by UNESCO. The attractive coastal cities of
Qingdao, Yantai, Weihai and Rizhao are located in the Shandong Peninsula.

Different economic and social sectors have been encouraged by the Provincial Government
to develop tourism, thus making tourism, especially cultural tourism, a new investment
generator which speeds up the development of Shandong’s provincial economy.
Marketing activities have been mounted internationally as well as locally and tourism
publicity on Shandong has been intensified, using tri-media ( print, radio and television) as
well as through the internet through Shandong’s website. Furthermore, tourist services,
especially in hotel and travel, have been upgraded through a rating system which is
rigorously enforced. Hand in hand with this is the education and training of tourism
manpower in academic and vocational institutions. Tourism personnel are taught to love
their country and province and a high sense of morality is instilled in them.

In order to develop and promote the tourism industry in an orderly manner, the Provincial
Government has cooperated with the WTO in formulating the Shandong Tourism
Development Master Plan which will be finalized soon. The Plan focuses not only on the

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development of natural resources but also on the development of cultural tourism products,
the management of cultural sites, and the representation of cultural heritage.

Paper by Mr. Koichi Arai - Director General, International Tourism Development


Institute of Japan
“The Silk Road and Cultural Tourism”

The paper describes the nature of the study called the “Research Project for the Promotion
of Tourism Exchange with Developing Countries and Areas Along the Silk Road” which
began in 1995. The project was initiated by the Asia Pacific Tourism Exchange Center
(APTEC). To implement the study, APTEC set up the Silk Road Tourism Promotion
Committee chaired by Dr. Takayasu Higuchi, a distinguished authority on Silk-Roadology.

The Silk Road is recognized as one of the most popular travel products for international
travelers in China where the focus is mainly on the Buddhist ruins, especially in Dunhuang.
In Turkey, Syria and Iran, one finds a wealth of diversified historical and cultural resources
influenced by the Greco-Roman, Byzantine, Christian, and Islamic eras.

According to Dr. Higuchi who is an archaeologist and with whom the writer has worked
with closely on the Silk Road Project, the purpose of studying the remarkable Buddhist
ruins in Dunhuang is to showcase them to tourists. He is of the opinion that cultural
treasures should be preserved with care. However, preserving them does not mean closing
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them up or burying them underground. They should be shown to people. The challenge is
to harmonize the need to preserve valuable tourism resources and opening them up to the
public. By doing so, people can understand man’s outlook in life and the world and their
views on good and evil and religion. According to Dr. Higuchi, the best way to understand
a country or her people is to actually visit that country to see the objects which man has
created. This is the best way to forge international friendship and understanding and to
enrich our lives. Ultimately, this is what the Silk Road Project is all about.

Paper by Dr. H. Varma - WTO Regional Representative for Asia and the Pacific
“An Introduction to the WTO Silk Road Project”

The Silk Road served as the fundamental link between the East and the West, exchanging
cultures, crafts, ideas,technologies, beliefs and peoples. Since 1991, coinciding with the
independence of the five central Asian republics, there has been a revival of Silk Road
interests – for cultural exchange, trade, and tourism. Encouraged by this development,
WTO decided to create a long-term tourism project that would promote a special Silk Road
tourism concept. Hence, the Samarkand Declaration on Silk Road Tourism was adopted in
1994 by 19 participating countries.

Three concentric circles in the Silk Road were identified. The first circle consisted of the
Turkestan countries which had just started opening up their borders for tourism. The
second circle comprised countries that had already opened up their sites on the Silk Road
and gained certain experiences with this tourism product. These countries included China,
Pakistan, Islamic Republic of Iran, and Turkey. WTO’s efforts in this circle is to

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strengthen their ongoing activities of tourism development and promotion. The third circle
covered the terminals of the Road on both ends such as Japan, the Korean Peninsula, the
ASEAN countries, the Arab countries, and Europe. WTO’s aim is to create Silk Road
awareness in these areas as they are the main generating markets for Silk Road Tourism.

Among the accomplishments of the Silk Road project are the production of a colored
brochure on the Silk Road’s tourism product which was funded by the Government of
Japan; the creation of an exclusive Silk Road stand in all major international travel fairs
such as ITB Berlin; WTM London, and FITUR, Madrid; the completion of a draft study on
visa facilitation along the Silk Road which includes a country-wide analysis of the visa
requirements for each Silk Road country as well as proposals on how to set up cooperation
between countries to facilitate multiple entry visas, transit visas, and ultimately, the
establishment of a Silk Road visa; and the production of a report on the Japanese outbound
market for the Silk Road. Another study on the North American outbound market is
forthcoming.

Cultural tourism and the Silk Road are synonymous. Culture forms the mainstay of the Silk
Road tourism product. From China to Italy, through Central Asia and the Near East, the
Silk Road abounds in cultural tourism attractions such as the Great Wall and the Terra-
cotta soldiers of China through to Persepolis in the Islamic Republic of Iran. It has been
through the revival of interest in the Silk Road that countries have discovered the
importance of tourism and this new awakening is leading countries to make exhaustive
efforts to preserve and conserve their cultural heritage.
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The WTO has been cooperating with other international organizations such as UNESCO,
the World Bank and the UNDP Inter-Regional Silk Road project to push forward many
plans and programs which will make tourism a contributor to the economic, social, and
cultural development of the countries along the Silk Road.

Paper of Ms. Barbara Peisert, Product Manager, Southeast Asia, TUI


“Viewpoints on Cultural Tourism”

The paper was written from the point of view of a representative of a large international
tour operations business, TUI, based in Hannover, Germany. The paper starts out with
developments and trends in cultural tourism in Germany and Central Europe.

In Germany the term “cultural holidays” is not widely used. Rather, the terms “study trips
or holidays”; “sightseeing trips”, “educational trips”, “art holidays” or just “tours” are used.
Tour operators employ separate advertising for these types of tours which involve visiting
places of interest such as churches and mosques, castles and palaces, temples and museums,
artistic and historical monuments, i.e., objects of the past. These types of tours are of high
quality and cater to tourists who are keen on education; more information; more scientific
lectures; and high quality tour guides.

There are some problems associated with educational tours based on culture. One is the
sheer number of people who go on these tours. Some of the solutions to control visitor
flows are to regulate access by means of daily quotas; closing off certain fragile areas to
visitors; extending the opening hours of museums into the evening; advance bookings for

21
popular museums; linking museum capacity to the number of tickets issued per day and per
hour.

Other management solutions are to increase available space for museum and art exhibits or
to create smaller but very attractive museums outside the main urban centers, such as those
in Tubingen and Hildesheim in Germany. Through modern technology, it is possible to
recreate the authentic atmosphere of a stone-age cave located in the Pyrenees and view
stone-age cave paintings in a museum in Hildesheim, Germany, instead of having to visit
the caves themselves. The use of interactive technologies and multimedia shows have also
become popular in modern museums.

In view of the fact that study tours require a high level of tour guiding, protectionist
policies which create a monopoly for the local tour guides should be reviewed. Very often,
there are not enough qualified tour guides in the destination countries who can interpret
those countries’ cultural products to the visitors. Yet, employees of foreign tour operators
who know the product and speak the language of the visitors, are banned from guiding.
This causes irreparable damage to the educational tour organizers and to cultural tourism in
general. This policy also ignores the fact that high quality tourism can only grow and
flourish in a liberal, global economic system.

Paper of Mr. Yoshio Koteda - General Manager, International Relations, Japan


Travel Bureau, Inc.
Delivered by http://www.wtoelibrary.org
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“Cultural Tourism in the Japan Market: Present and Future”

The Japan Travel Bureau, Inc. is a private operator which sends approximately 3 million
Japanese travelers overseas each year, although most of its business still comes from
domestic travel.

Japan’s travel industry has been on a recovery mode since 1998. The number of overseas
travelers in 1999 reached 16.36 million and in 2000, it is expected that 17 million Japanese
travelers would have gone overseas. The biggest increases in this market came from men
and women over fifty, followed by women in their thirties. Demographically, the
population of persons over 50 years of age stands at about 48 million or nearly 40% of the
total Japanese population. Thus, an increase of overseas travel among middle-age and
elderly persons is guaranteed. This is the segment which shows the greatest interest in
historic and cultural attractions, making them the number one target for cultural tourism.
They want to visit museums, art galleries, and even ancient ruins in remote areas. This
market segment is not dependent on their monthly wages but pay for travel from their
savings and personal assets. This market also has few restrictions on departure dates.
Instead, they prefer travel offering the most reasonable conditions and prices.

In organizing cultural tours for the Japanese market, there are four factors which have to be
taken into consideration. These are access to the site; security; facilities; and guide services.

In terms of access, the world’s famous monuments such as Angkor Wat are characterized
by poor access in terms of road conditions and inconvenient or sparse flight connections.
As a result, air fares are usually high.

22
Security concerns are a big factor in hindering overseas travel, next to the language barrier,
particularly for senior travelers. In remote and isolated places, special measures against
attacks by bandits and terrorists must be taken.

In terms of facilities, it is not essential to have luxury hotels. However, clean toilet
facilities are a “must” for Japanese tourists who need quite a few rest stops at regular
intervals on bus tours and at sightseeing spots.

Also essential is competent and informative guide service. In cultural tourism, participants
want to know about the history and associated legends or interpretation of the cultural
product and works of art they are looking at. For Japanese tourists, Japanese-speaking
guides who can explain things in their own language to satisfy their curiosity are required.
Very often, they get incompetent guides who can speak only very basic language. Without
effective interpretation, cultural tourism cannot succeed as it should.

Paper by Mr.Pradip Madhavji - Chairman,Thomas Cook (India) Ltd.


“India – Untapped Potential”

The paper starts out with a policy framework for tourism. It maintains that tourism fosters
better understanding between people; is a known unifying force, nationally and
internationally; creates better understanding of geographic and cultural diversity; helps
preserve and protect the natural resources, ecology and heritage; brings about faster
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economic growth and balanced development of backward areas; enhances employment and
income generation opportunities, including foreign exchange earnings for the nation.
However, tourism can have negative impacts such as the escalation in the prices of
commodities; the temptation to make quick money out of tourism; and the destruction of
monuments and sites due to mass tourism. The latter is especially true in India where
domestic tourists outnumber international tourists by a ratio of 75 domestic tourists to 1
international tourist.

The paper also raised a question about the wisdom of regulating the number of visitors to
popular monuments such as the Taj Mahal. The Minister of Culture of India raised the
entrance fees to the Taj, perhaps in an effort to rationalize visitor numbers. This move was
perceived by the travel trade as arbitrary, abrupt, unilateral and ill-timed. Fears have been
raised about this decision leading to the lessening of income of the local community due to
lower tourist demand. With less tourism revenue going to the community and to the
monument itself, there may be ripple effects on the economy and on the social fabric.
There is thus need to measure the carrying capacity of a specific monument so that
decisions such as when to regulate visitor numbers will not appear arbitrary.

Paper of Mr. Zhang Likun - Vice Director-General, Yunnan Provincial Tourism


Administration, People's Republic of China
“Practical Operation of Cultural Tourism”

One of the principles in the planning of cultural tourism inYunnan Province is that Yunnan
will not focus on man-made scenes or theme parks. Instead, beautiful natural scenery will
be developed and integrated with the culture of the people, especially of the 26 ethnic

23
nationalities who are scattered throughout the province. Their architecture; ethnic songs
and dances; lifestyle; and unique folk customs would be highlighted. Six tourism zones
with dissimilar characteristics have been designated for development and promotion. These
zones complement and support one another. Tour routes have been designed so that many
isolated tourist sites are combined with major tourism products, thus meeting the varied
needs of the tourists. Among these major tour routes are the ancient Yunnan culture in
central Yunnan; the Shangri-la ethnic culture route in northwest Yunnan; and the folk
custom tour route of the Dai ethnic minority in southwest Yunnan.

The Provincial Government has intensified promotions and publicity to make Yunnan
better known to the world. Participation in tourism fairs in and out of China; attendance in
tourism conferences to introduce Yunnan’s tourism products; familiarization trips by
media and travel trade groups from overseas; production of slides and CDROMs; and the
development of a website are among the promotions activities undertaken by the Provincial
Government in the last decade. The organization and hosting of several large events such
as the Third China Art Festival; the Yunnan Arts Festival; and the 1999 Kunming
International Horticultural Exposition, are among such events. Starting from 2001, Yunnan
will host the China International Tourism Mart every other year.

Last but not least, Yunnan has emphasized the importance of education and training,
realizing that trained manpower is important to the sustainability of its tourism plans and
programs. To date, senior, intermediate, and junior level continuing education and on-the-
job training systems have been established in the Tourism School of Yunnan University,
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the tourism departments of eight other universities and colleges, and tourism vocational
schools. Each year, graduates from these education and training institutions include 1,500
tourism professionals and 8,000 service people. 300,000 personnel get on- the-job training
and over 3,000 tour guides are trained in the English, Japanese, French, and Thai languages.

Statement by Mr. Jean-Louis Vignuda - Transport, Communications, Tourism and


Infrastructure Development Division, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and
the Pacific (ESCAP)

ESCAP is one and the largest of the five regional commissions of the United Nations. It
currently comprises 52 members and 9 associate members. The primary function of
ESCAP is to promote economic and social development through regional and sub-regional
cooperation.

In April 1999, ESCAP launched the Plan of Action for Sustainable Tourism Development
in the Asian and Pacific Region (PASTA). The Plan of Action provides members and
associate members of ESCAP with a structured framework for the implementation of
regional and national actions in the fied of tourism development. It sets proposals for
action in six theme areas, namely, human resources development in the tourism sector;
economic impact of tourism; environment management of tourism; infrastructure
development and investment for the tourism sector; facilitation of travel; regional and sub-
regional cooperation in tourism development.

The Asia and Pacific region possesses a rich diversity of cultural heritage. The region is
also the birthplace of the world’s major religions. Against this background, ESCAP is

24
contemplating the implementation in 2001 of a program aimed at promoting Buddhist
circuit tourism in selected Asian countries. The program will culminate in the organization
of a Seminar on Promotion of Buddhist Tourism Circuits, scheduled to be held in Kisarazu,
Japan in September 2001. Asian countries possessing considerable potential to develop
Buddhism tourism such as Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Lao PDR, Myanmar,
Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam will be invited to attend the Seminar.
Representatives of the tourism industry and international organizations like WTO and
UNESCO will also be invited.

Paper by Mr. Paul Leung - Department for Hotel and Tourism Management
Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong SAR
“Human Resource Development for Cultural Tourism Development”

Cultural tourism is a service and a people industry that requires a high level of human
resource input to make it a success. The skills needed for a cultural tourism practitioner
covers technical, human and conceptual skills. He needs to have extensive knowledge
about a particular attraction and to interpret this to tourists. He should have good
presentation techniques to be able to present what he knows in an interesting and
comprehensible manner. He has to have good human relations skills to deal with different
people who have different needs. Additionally, conceptual skills are needed to understand
the total experience of the tourists. A cultural tourism practitioner also needs to have pride
in the cultural assets and empathy to be able to withstand the possible cultural shock he
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may have to face as part of his daily routine.

The paper quotes excerpts from a speech delivered by Mr. Ryuji Yamakawa in 2000 which
listed down the major problems and constraints facing human resources development in the
tourism sector. Among these are shortage of qualified manpower, particularly at the
managerial level; shortage of qualified and experienced teaching staff; shortage of training
materials and facilities; lack of strategies and policies for human resources development;
difficulty in keeping pace with rapidly changing technological innovation and dynamic
changes in the global marketplace; and the gap between training/educational institutions’
training capacity and the tourism industry’s actual needs. Another major problem of the
tourism industry is that it is growing in such a rapid manner tht the devleopment of human
resources can hardly keep up with the demand.

To solve these problems, Mr. Yamakawa suggests that in the planning of a tourist
destination, the short and long term needs for HRD should be assessed. Based on the
demand, the government authorities can then work out the training requirements which
include both hardware and software. The government should also formulate long-term
training strategies and action plans and establish internal and external networking and
strategic alliances and solicit assistance from international training institutes. Last but not
least, tourism workers should be well treated, i.e., they should receive proper remuneration,
comparable to that being given to workers in other industries. They should be properly
motivated and be given opportunities for advancement.

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Paper by Mr. Christian Matzka - Director, Austrian School for Tourism
“The Austrian Educational System and Cultural Tourism – How to Make Young
People Fit for the Job in Cultural Tourism”

All regions in Austria advertise their culture and traditions. The Austrian monarchy, the
history and legends of the Habsburgs, Schonbrunn in Vienna, the Cities of Salzburg and
Graz and the railway across the Semmering are some of the cultural products of Austria.

One of the most important facets of cultural tourism is the organization of events such as
concerts, opera, theatre, and open air events. Events are organized for the cultural tourist
and are also used as marketing attractions. This kind of marketing is called event
marketing. It is important to train students in this type of marketing and organization.

In the Austrian educational system, tourism education starts at the secondary level from the
age of 15. The aims and curricula content of schools and colleges are linked closely to the
aims of the cultural tourism industry. The compulsory subjects for cultural tourism are
History, Touristic Geography, Tourism Management, Urban Tourism and Event
Management, and Cultural Animation. In Urban Tourism and Event Management, the
teachers use an experience-oriented approach in teaching culture. They also ensure that
students are familiar with the cultural traditions and the holiday behavior of guests from
various countries and are able to react accordingly. Additionally, they ensure that students
are able to orient themselves in the various fine and performing arts and develop attitudes
of politeness, self-confidence, and sensitivity when dealing with guests. Compulsory work
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placement prepares the students for jobs.

The Austrian educational system also practices apprenticeship training which is based on a
dual system. It is called “dual” system becuase vocational training is carried out on two
parallel levels- by the employer and at vocational school. Apprentices receive their
practical training mainly at work while being taught the theoretical aspects of their
occupation as well as general interest subjects at vocational school.

Teacher training is organized by the Federal Ministry of Education. The teacher training
program is an adult education program which includes experiential learning in the tourism
regions which are practically oriented. The teachers study new teaching methods like
project development, learning through group work, role play, and discussion techniques.
The program is completed with an exam which enables the teachers to teach the subject
“Cultural Tourism

Paper of Ms. Walailak Noypayak - Asst. Director, Research and Statistics Division,
Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT)
“Strategic Marketing Campaign – Amazing Thailand and GMS Cultural Tourism”

The Asian financial crisis which hit the Asian countries in 1997 resulted in a decrease in
overall volume of demand, especially from the important intra-regional markets. National
tourist organizations restructured their operations in response to leaner budgets. TAT’s
marketing budgets were affected as a result of which it had to lower its advertising budgets
and close two of its overseas offices. It also had to reduce its overseas staff.

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The Amazing Thailand 1998-199 campaign was launched amidst this economic crisis. It
was primarily focused on the occasion of the King’s 6th cycle birthday anniversary on
December 5, 1999. The campaign was designed to steer Thailand away from the promotion
of mass market tourism into niche markets and focus on the country’s tremendous variety
of products, especially its food, shopping attractions, health and culture. This is very much
in line with global travel trends as travellers become more sophisticated and repeat travel
by individuals and small groups of families and friends replaces mass market tourism.

Culture is an integral part of Thailand’s tourism products as shown in four out of nine
Amazing products, namely, “Amazing Cultural Heritage,” “ Amazing World Heritage”,
“Amazing Arts and Lifestyle” and “Amazing Taste of Thailand.”

Among the marketing strategies adopted by the TAT to offset the Asian financial crisis
were as follows:

· Greater emphasis on long-haul markets from Europe and North American which were
not affected by the economic crisis. More budgets were allocated to these markets;
· Strengthening TAT’s marketing presence in the Japanese market which still had high
purchasing ppower;
· Working with the private sector in informal partnerships. Emphasis was placed on
joint marketing and matching funds with tourism.
· Encouraging the private sector to price in Thai currency instead of in US dollars in
order to give more value for money for the tourists.
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· Pursuing an “open skies” policy for aviation to increase and facilitate incoming flights.
Immigration regulations were relaxed for tourists from China, Taiwan, and Malaysia as
well as senior tourists aged 55 and older.
· Building awareness among Thai people to be a good host to welcome tourists. TAT
also developed a domestic Amazing Thailand campaign to persuade Thai people to
travel in Thailand all year round particularly in the low season.

There were five factors which contributed to the success of the Amazing Thailand
campaign. First, the slogan was short and easy to remember, thus attracting the attention of
the people. Second, every individual and office in Thailand could use the slogan for free,
thus it became an effective promotion tool. Third, the development of tourism products
was an integral part of the campaign . Fourth, TAT adjusted its marketing strategies to suit
changing situations in Asia. Fifth, TAT received excellent support from public and private
offices throughout Thailand.

Aside from the Amazing Thailand campaign, TAT has also been working closely with its
neighboring countries in the Greater Mekong Sub-Region (GMS).The GMS members are
Cambodia,Lao PDR,Mynamar, Thailand, Vietnam, and Yunnan Province, PROC. These
countries are home to some of the world’s “must see” cultural icons such as Angkor Wat in
Cambodia; Luang Prabang in Lao; Pagan and Mandalay in Myanmar; Sukhotahi and
Ayutthaya in Thailand and Hue in Vietnam.

There are marketing efforts to promote the whole GMS region as a tourist destination. This
is considerd more effective than if countries marketed themselves individually. The
Agency for Coordinating Mekong Tourism Activities (ATMA), based in the TAT, is the
regional marketing agency which acts as an initiator and an organizer of the Mekong

27
tourism campaign. The success of cultural tourism in the GMS depends to a large extent on
the cooperation among country members.

Paper of Dr. Alexander Keil, Schonbruun Kultur & Betriebs Ges.m.b.H., Austria
“Visitor Management and E-Commerce at Historic Sites”

Every year, around 1.5 million people visit Schonbrunn Palace. In order to cope with an
influx of up to 10,000 visitors a day in the confined spaces of the palace, it was necessary
to establish visitor management strategies that would take account of the historic fabric of
the building yet also accommodate the needs of visiting tourists.

In collaboration with a software developer, a tailor-made system for visitor management


was designed which covered the following important criteria: Flexible Tour Planning; Staff
Capacity Planning; Booking; Sale, Accounting; Access Control; Shopping; and Security.
The visitor management system is linked to a management information system (MIS) as
well as a visitor information system. The MIS provides convenient mechanisms for
analysis and evaluation of data. The following areas are covered: visitor data; customer
data; shop data; and administration.

On the visitor information system, monitors have been installed which carry information
about the various types and prices of tours offered. By means of a series of monitor screens
from the entrance to the ticket offices, visitors gradually receive all the information they
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need in order to make a decision about which ticket to purchase. Visitors are also kept
permanently informed about the availability of free time slots and waiting times.

VII. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The Conference arrived at the following conclusions and recommendations which serve as
guiding principles in the development of sustainable cultural tourism:

· Priority must be given for safeguarding of the cultural heritage. There should be strict
implementation of the principles embodied in various international conventions such as
the Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage; the 1970
Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export, and
transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property; and the 1954 Convention for the Protection
of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict.

· The partnership between the public and private sector should be strengthened.

· Civil society in tourist destination countries and tourist generating countries must be
committed to cultural tourism as a policy.

· Cultural tourism must benefit the local people living around the heritage or cultural
tourism site. Therefore, local people must participate in formulating tourism policies
and plans;

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· Community awareness programs must be conducted to educate the public about the
benefits of tourism and how they can effectively participate in tourism programs as well
as their responsibilities as tourism hosts;

· A tourism Master Plan must be prepared for the destination to ensure that sustainable
tourism practices are observed.

· Very high standards of interpretation should be applied so that visitors leave the place
with a real understanding and appreciation of the site’s cultural values;

· Appropriate mechanisms must be established to ensure that a significant proportion of


tourism earnings revert to conservation purposes;

· Revenues from tourism-related activities such as hotel room taxes, duty free shopping,
and gaming are possible sources of funds which may be used to protect and conserve
cultural resources for tourism purposes.

· Education and training of tourism personnel, especially those involved in interpretation,


must be given great importance and priority.
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31
AND BACKGROUND PAPERS
INTRODUCTION TO THE CONFERENCE
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32
OPENING STATEMENT FROM
H.E. THE MINISTER OF TOURISM
OF THE ROYAL GOVERNMENT OF CAMBODIA1

H.E. Samdech Hun Sen, Prime Minister of Royal Government of Cambodia


H.E. Mr Francesco Frangialli, Secretary General of the World Tourism Organization
Excellencies,
Distinguished Guests,
Ladies and Gentlemen,

First, on behalf of the Ministry of Tourism of Cambodia I would like to express my


profound thanks to Samdech Hun Sen, Prime Minister of the Royal Government of
Cambodia and Lok Chumteav to preside over today’s Opening Ceremony of the WTO
International Conference on Cultural Tourism.

I would like to take this precious opportunity to deeply thank His Excellency Mr.
Francesco Frangialli, Secretary General of the World Tourism Organization for giving the
honor to the Kingdom of Cambodia to host this Conference on Cultural Tourism for the
first time in the beautiful historic venue home of Angkor Vat.
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It is my pleasure and honor to welcome all international and national participants to the
beautiful and historic venue of Siem Reap home of Angkor Wat for the International
Conference on Cultural Tourism, which is being jointly organized by the Royal
Government of Cambodia and the World Tourism Organization.

Cambodia is proud to have a rich cultural heritage encompassing about 1,080 ancient
temples located in 14 provinces across the country. Angkor Wat was listed as a World
Heritage in 1992. However, this great cultural heritage wonder has been the symbol of this
nation and its people for over 1,000 years. Today these temples present some of the
greatest challenges and opportunities for cultural tourism. We are honoured to be your
hosts for this international conference.

Tourism is becoming one of Cambodia' s largest and most important industries. Our
tourism policy is formulated to develop tourism in a sustainable manner so it will provide
economic and social development, protect our natural environment while presenting and
preserving our distinctive cultural heritage.

Without careful planning and management, the pressures of tourism can damage and even
destroy the very sources of attraction. Tourists walking on monuments and gathering in
enclosed areas to look at features in monuments can cause extensive wear and deterioration
through time. The quantum effects of thousands of people walking on monuments wear
them down. Tourism dollars must not become the ultimate aim allowed to override social
and cultural considerations, it must be socially as well as economically as viable.

1
H.E. the Minister of Tourism of the Royal Kingdom of Cambodia, Mr. Veng Sereyvuth

33
For tourism to be sustainable, we must develop the capacity and the infrastructure required
to promote tourism while preserving our natural and cultural resources. We recognize and
willingly accept our duties as the custodian of this outstanding historical and cultural
heritage. Several policy measures need to be managed and implemented to reinforce
positive cultural impact and to minimize the risk of negative impacts. The main steps we
are taking to achieve these objectives at Angkor Wat include: World Heritage Listing,
Management Authority and Plan, Heritage Management and Visitor Management. Of
course, considering the size and number of temples the ongoing workload and demand for
resources is a challenge for our country. We greatly appreciate the assistance and support
of UNESCO and other international donors and agencies, particularly the World Tourism
Organization, who have jointly organized this conference with us.

It is also important to recognize the wider potential for tourism of this country that
embraces everything from the " colonial " architecture to the music and dance exhibitions,
from the craftsmanship to the traditional life in the villages, from the historical system of
water control to the traditional festivals and celebrations, from the attractions of the ethnic
cuisine to the colorful markets spread all over the country.

We strongly believe that tourism is not only the industry of today - it is also the industry
for tomorrow. It is up to us to set down the parameters how to control the development of
tourism to maintain a balance so our cultural and natural attractions can be enjoyed by one
and all today and be maintained for our future generations as well.
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I am confident that with the outstanding caliber of our speakers and delegates and the rich
experience and expertise you bring to our deliberations, this International Conference will
produce valuable case studies and principles to guide Cultural Tourism in the challenges
and opportunities which lie ahead.

My best wishes for a productive and successful conference and an enjoyable stay in
Cambodia.

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OPENING STATEMENT BY THE REPRESENTATIVE
OF UNESCO IN CAMBODIA2

His Excellency Samdech Hun Sen, Prime Minister,


His Excellency Mr. Veng Sereyvuth, Minister of Tourism,
Mr Francesco Frangialli, Secretary-General of the World Tourism Organisation,
Excellencies,
Ladies and Gentlemen,

It is a great honor and pleasure for me to represent the Director-General of UNESCO,


Mr. Koichiro Matsuura, at this International Conference on Cultural Tourism.

First of all, I would like to express my sincere congratulations to the Government of


Cambodia, for its decision to host this Conference and my deepest gratitude to invite
UNESCO to participate. The theme of the Conference is indeed of great interest nowadays
and fully in line with the UNESCO’s recommendations to promote the development of
culturally appropriate tourism.

As you are aware, almost ten years ago the Director-General of UNESCO launched an
international appeal from this very place of Siem Reap, for the safeguarding of the
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exceptional archaeological site of Angkor, which suffered from serious and extensive
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damage during the years of abandonment.

Now in Angkor and in other renowned cultural sites in the world the cultural heritage is the
focus of a steadily-growing movement, mass tourism, which is adding a new dimension to
UNESCO’s mission to ensure that cultural diversity is recognised and appreciated, and to
foster dialogue and understanding between peoples.

Tourism may indeed play an instrumental role in sustainable development and poverty
alleviation in many countries, particularly in the south, while at the same time serving
culture and heritage promotion and safeguarding cultural diversity. It nevertheless calls for
a keen sense of responsibility on the part of all those concerned, from political leaders to
tourists, from tourism professionals to intergovernmental and nongovernmental
organisations, as they seek to forge new conceptual tools for tourism in the twenty-first
century.

UNESCO intends to promote the implementation of tourism policy projects that respect
cultural identities, societies and the environment and encourage intercultural dialogue,
while at the same time bringing long-lasting solutions to development needs of local
communities. Its aims include better integration of the cultural heritage with the social and
economic life of local communities.

Acting in the spirit of solidarity that in times past enabled it save so many endangered
monuments, UNESCO is determined to encourage responsible behaviour in tourism
activities, and to help shape models of tourism development that will enable tourism to

2
Mr. Etienne Clément, Representative of UNESCO in Cambodia

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contribute, as it most certainly can, to peace and development in the world. In this regard,
The Director-General, while asking me to represent him at this Conference has also
requested one of my colleagues from UNESCO Paris and one of the best specialists and
advisors in the field of cultural tourism to participate with you at all the sessions of the
Conference.

I am convinced that the international cooperation, which will be developed here, will serve
as a model case to promote further international solidarity in this crucial field.
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OPENING STATEMENT BY WTO SECRETARY-GENERAL3

Excellencies,
Distinguished Delegates,
Ladies and Gentlemen,

First and foremost, I would like to extend my warm welcome to you all on this auspicious
occasion. I would like to take this opportunity to convey my sincere gratitude and
appreciation to the Royal Government of Cambodia for their most gracious hospitality in
organizing a Conference of this nature in this beautiful and historic location of Siem Reap
– home of the Angkor Wat. I would also like to thank H.E. the Prime Minister of the Royal
Government of Cambodia for taking the time out from his hectic schedule to be with us
today. His Excellency’s presence is a manifestation of his Government’s commitment to
further development of tourism in the country and, more significantly, to the preservation
and conservation of Cambodia’s rich and unique cultural heritage.

This is the first time that WTO is organizing an international conference in Cambodia
which has been a most valued member of the WTO family. I have been pleased to note that
over the past few years, the Government of Cambodia has made painstaking efforts to
develop its tourism industry as a source of social and economic betterment for the
Cambodian people. I would specifically like to commend Cambodia for its endeavour to
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maintain a fine balance between the economic benefits of its tourism industry on one hand,
and the long-term sustainability of the industry and the resources it exploits on the other.
As the Hon. Minister once told me, Angkor Wat is not a cultural heritage of the
Cambodian people only but rather of the world and Cambodia has therefore an added
responsibility not only to conserve it but also enhance its appeal for the future generations.

On our part, we have rendered our technical assistance to the Government of Cambodia in
many forms and, in particular, in formulating a Tourism Development and Management
Plan which provides a logical framework for the development and promotion of tourism in
the long-term. I would like to take this opportunity to assure you, Hon. Prime Minister and
the Hon. Minister of Tourism, that WTO will continue to support your policies and
programmes and provide its technical assistance to those aspects of tourism which
contribute to sustainable growth of the industry – growth which is sustainable for the
society, the economy and the environment.

Tourism is a people’s industry – catered for people and run by people. The driving force
behind the global tourism industry is the inherent desire of every human being to learn of
different cultures and traditions. In a study conducted by the European Commission, it was
discovered that 20 per cent of tourist visits to Europe were made essentially for cultural
purposes. Furthermore, culture was a main component of travel for 60 per cent of the
visitors. It goes without saying that cultural tourism can go a long way in the promotion of
world peace and understanding. In domestic tourism, cultural heritage tourism stimulates a
national pride in one’s history, and, in international tourism, cultural heritage tourism
stimulates a respect and understanding of other cultures.

3
Mr. Francesco Frangialli

37
The Asia-Pacific region is home to a very diverse cultural heritage – numerous ethnic
groups with their own languages, customs, traditions, folklore, cuisine and history call Asia
their home. Asia has also been the birthplace of all the world’s major religions –
Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism – and a great many of its minor
ones. All these features have made Asia the toast of the world and the interchange of
cultures over thousands of years has resulted in some of the best historical monuments and
a plethora of religious and cultural mix.

Tourism has grown at an accelerated pace over the last few decades and forecasts indicate
an ever faster rate of growth in to the next Millennium. International tourist arrivals
worldwide amounted to 664 million in 1999. In WTO’s Tourism 2020 Vision study, we
predict that tourist arrivals worldwide would grow to 1.5 billion – that is a tripling in
growth in arrivals within the space of a generation. We also predict that Asia and the
Pacific will become the second most important tourism destination of the world by 2020
and China will surpass the all important tourism destinations of France and Spain to
become the most popular tourism destination of the world. The fact that China will become
the most visited destination of the world could be greatly beneficial to Cambodia’s tourism
industry insofar that China and Cambodia are both part of the Mekong sub-region and the
rippling effect of China’s inbound tourism will be mostly felt in its neighbouring countries.
Cambodia itself is slated to record the highest growth in tourist arrivals which would
average almost 14 per cent between 2000 to 2010, reaching a total of 855, 000
international tourist arrivals.
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What do these figures imply? The fundamental implication is that tourism resources
worldwide, and especially cultural sites, monuments and museums, are becoming heavily
congested and thus, are being submitted to immense pressures. This congestion is not
being limited to tourism and cultural heritage sites alone. Rather, we are already witnessing
congestion in air traffic, overcrowded airports, unrestrained expansion of certain
destinations and unreasonable building densities which, in turn, affect city centres, leading
to inadequate transport infrastructure, public facilities and utilities. Furthermore, the
mounting demands of water and energy resources compete with those of the local
population. And, above all, the imposition of a tourism industry above local needs places
local cultures and traditions under threat.

Therefore, taking into consideration the excellent future augured for the Asia-Pacific
region, and, aware of the wealth and diversity of culture to be found in Asia, tourism
planners and tourists alike are learning to beware of mass and unplanned tourism and strive
for sustainable tourism development. Cultural heritage attractions are, by nature, unique
and fragile. Therefore, it is fundamental that tourism authorities study how best to develop
these cultural heritage sites while protecting and preserving them for the long-term. If not,
irreparable and irreversible damage can be done to the very heart of Asia’s cultural
identity. This pressing need to apply the principles of sustainability in the planning and
management of tourism is the integral component of the WTO Global Code of Ethics for
Tourism – a project which has been, and is being, promoted through a worldwide, large
scale awareness campaign by WTO.

Let us take the example of Cambodia and the Angkor Wat, in particular. The temples of
Angkor have suffered from a civil war, plundering, climatic effects, encroachment of

38
forests and from lack of upkeep. The temples have not suffered from an overabundance of
tourism but rather from a lack of tourism. Through the establishment of Angkor as a
UNESCO World Heritage Site as well as international efforts to assist the Government of
Cambodia in preserving the temples, we are on the way in developing the Angkor Wat, and
the Cambodian, tourism industry to its full potential. Again, every form of development
has its adverse effects and I would like to draw the attention of the Cambodian
Government to take the necessary action to diversify its tourism attractions not only in
Angkor Wat but also in Cambodia. The Angkor Wat consists of hundreds of temples and a
means to mitigate the negative impacts of visits to the temples is to spread tourists evenly
throughout the complex so that a single location does not suffer from strain and fatigue.
Through this simple means, the carrying capacity of Angkor Wat, at a given time, would
stand increased.

This is the age of information and technology and recent advances have given a new
dimension to the global tourism industry. New technology is being increasingly adapted by
both public and private sectors not only for marketing and promotion but also for
dissemination of information relating to tourism products. Tourism websites are fast
gaining prominence and can be an effective tool in providing information on cultural
tourism products as well as increasing awareness of cultural heritage and, on the need to
preserve and conserve it by hosts and guests alike. Other implications include marketing
techniques such as booking in advance for visits or cultural exhibitions and interactive
technologies at the sites themselves to facilitate information for visitors and to avoid
congestion and queuing.
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We have all gathered here today united by a common interest and a common bond. Based
on technical presentations and the various sessions encompassing various sectors of the
development of cultural tourism, such as policies and strategies for development,
marketing and promotion, human resource development, and preservation of cultural
heritage sites, as well as the all important view of the private sector – in particular tour
operators and guides, the conference aims to familiarize the participants with various
issues and aspects relating to the preservation and conservation of cultural heritage, and,
provide policy and strategic guidelines for countries to adopt and implement in the new
Millennium.

I sincerely hope that the intensive programme we have prepared for you, the varied social
programme graciously organized by the Government of Cambodia and the unique
opportunity of experiencing Angkor Wat will make your stay a meaningful and an
enjoyable one. For many of us, this is probably our first visit to Cambodia and I am sure
that we will all carry back with us fond memories of a warm, courteous and friendly
people.

39
INAUGURATION DECLARATION BY H.E. THE PRIME MINISTER
OF THE ROYAL GOVERNMENT OF CAMBODIA4

His Excellency Mr. Francesco Frangialli,


Secretary General of the World Tourism Organization
Excellencies,
Ladies and Gentlemen,

On behalf of the Royal Government of Cambodia, allow me, first of all, to extend my
warm welcome to our Kingdom, to all Your Excellencies, distinguished guests and
delegates. It is a great honor for the Kingdom of Cambodia to have been entrusted to host
this International Conference on Cultural Tourism, which is being jointly organized by the
World Tourism Organization and the Ministry of Tourism of Cambodia. This is a
significant landmark in the history of relations between the Kingdom of Cambodia and the
World Tourism Organization since its foundation in 1975 with its leading role in the field
of travel and tourism. The World Tourism Organization has considerably succeeded in
promoting mutual understanding, encouraging sustainable tourism development, and thus
realizing common shared value among all the nations of the world.

We pride ourselves to be a nation rich in tradition, archaeological treasures and natural


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beauty when selecting the beautiful and historic venue of Siem Reap - home to Angkor
Tuesday, January 12, 2010 1:50:12 AM

Wat for the International Conference on Cultural Tourism.

Yet tourism is not only an economic activity with a great capacity for generating
employment and income. It provides an opportunity for personal growth, education,
tolerance and appreciation of what is different, human communication, respect for the
environment, the promotion of peace and encounters between peoples. All in all, tourism
offers a great opportunity for improving the well being and the quality of life. International
tourism is generated by peace, and contributes to peace, Cambodia strongly support the
activities of WTO.

Cambodia has made significant progress in stabilizing the economy, in restoring economic
growth, and also in undertaking policy reforms to transform the economy into a market
oriented one. Progress has been rapid since the formation of the Royal Government in its
second mandate in 1998.

The significance of tourism to economies around the world is enormous. In Cambodia’s


economy, it provides the greatest sources of foreign exchange and forms the backbone of
the economy. The geographical characteristics of our country bestow on diversity of
natural and cultural attractions that stand out at international level. The Royal Government
has defined Cambodia as a “Culture and Nature Tourism Destination”. We have therefore
considered that tourism offers the country a realistic and promising outlook.

Cambodia's tourism industry is extremely young, which needs a systematic and persistent
effort to meet the growing and varied levels of demand. Aware of this reality and as part of
4
H.E. Mr. Samdech Hun Sen, Prime Minister

40
our productive development policy, it is properly and carefully planned and organized to
ensure the sustainability of tourism development.

The conference will enable to understand the importance of the inter-relationship between
culture and tourism and their long-standing and fruitful partnership in the sustainable
development of tourism.

I am sure that the International Conference on Cultural Tourism will be a great success and
I sincerely hope that the technical presentations and case studies would be of benefit, and
that you will be able to experience the magic of the Kingdom of Cambodia an receive
many tokens of appreciation from our people during the technical tour of the enormous
Angkor Wat complex. Tell others, when you return home, that this is a country that is
advancing and overcoming its problems. That we are confronting the impressive task of
meeting the challenges of the new millennium with hope, confidence in our own abilities
and spirit.

I wish you a pleasant and enjoyable stay in Cambodia


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41
INTRODUCTION BY THE WTO REPRESENTATIVE
FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC5

Thank you very much Mr. Chairman. It is indeed a pleasure and an honour for me to
introduce the WTO International Conference on Cultural Tourism being organized at the
historic location of Angkor Wat, which is one of the unique cultural sites in the world.

As most of you are aware, tourism has grown at a very fast pace over the last few decades
and forecasts indicate an even faster rate of growth into the new millennium, with Asia and
the Pacific becoming the second most important destination of the world by the year 2020.

Over the years, one of the mainstays of the tourism industry has been mankind’s inherent
desire to see and learn about the different cultures all over the world. And there is so doubt
that cultural tourism would continue to be a major source of motivation for people to
undertake travel, whether domestic or international. As the Secretary-General said in his
speech earlier today, in domestic tourism cultural heritage generates a national pride in
one’s history and, in international tourism, cultural heritage stimulates a respect and
understanding of other cultures and as a consequence promotes peace and understanding.

The Asia-Pacific region is the most diverse in terms of cultural heritage. The interchange
of cultures over thousands of years has resulted in some of the best historical monuments
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and a plethora of religious and cultural mix. Famed for archaeological rarities of immense
beauty, such as the Angkor Wat, the temples of Borobudur, the Great Wall, and the Taj
Mahal, Asia undoubtedly forms an attractive and diversified tourism product which has
something to offer to tourists from all walks of life.

But we all are well aware that most of these sites are being put to tremendous pressure
because of the sheer number of people who visit them every single day. Tourism planners
are waking up a bit late. To realize the need for planned and sustainable development, the
kind of development which not only preserves and conserves, but also enhances the appeal
of these sites. It goes without saying, Mr. Chairman, that if unplanned and uncontrolled
development continues to take place, the day is not very far when these resources which
form the very basis of the tourism industry would be lost forever.

We in WTO therefore thought that an international conference on various aspects of


cultural tourism would go a long way in providing a forum to countries from different parts
of the world to present their case studies or successful policies, guidelines and strategies
which they have adopted for the development and promotion of cultural tourism. A
conference of this nature would also provide an opportunity to participants to share ideas
and experiences, and learn from each other.

Mr. Chairman, the major aim of the conference is to provide a sound framework for policy
making and promotional activities for the development of cultural tourism in the Asia-
Pacific region, thereby striking a fine balance between economic and social development

5
Dr. Harsh Varma

42
on one hand, and a high degree of sustainable development on the other. And we propose
to achieve this by covering a number of major issues involving cultural tourism.

The profile of cultural tourism, the impacts of tourism on cultural heritage sites, policies
and guidelines for sustainable development of cultural tourism at national and local levels,
the tour operating perspectives of cultural tourism, human resources development in
cultural tourism, and finally, marketing and promotion of cultural tourism: during the
course of the conference, which is divided into five technical sessions, we intend to cover
issues which relate to the operation and management of various aspects of cultural tourism.

First and foremost, we will identify what exactly constitutes cultural tourism, the various
components of cultural tourism, what is the impact of cultural tourism on international and
local communities. We shall then proceed to analyze the trends and profiles of cultural
tourism worldwide and within Asia and the Pacific region. Having done this, and after
having created the base, we shall go on to discuss the positive and negative impacts of
tourism on the preservation and conservation of cultural heritage sites. We shall hold in-
depth discussions on what could be the essential elements of successful policies and
guidelines for sustainable development of cultural tourism. We shall then study trans-
border, or regional cultural tourism themes such as the Silk Road, and how they have been
developed and how they are being promoted. We will get tour operators’ perspectives from
major source markets as well as receiving markets on the profiles of cultural tourists to
Asia and the strengths and weaknesses of Asia’s cultural tourism product. Finally, we will
have case studies of successful marketing and promotional techniques for cultural tourism.
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Mr. Chairman, all the sessions would provide ample opportunities to the participants to ask
questions, or seek clarifications from our speakers. We shall conclude the conference by
presenting a set of conclusions and recommendations which we hope would be extremely
useful to the public and private sector alike in formulating their policies and strategies for
achieving a high degree of sustainable cultural tourism.

We have a galaxy of speakers with us for the conference, ministers and civil servants,
international organizations, academics and professionals, practitioners and operators. I am
sure, Mr. Chairman, that all the participants would draw maximum benefits from the
experience and expertise of our speakers.

43
TRENDS AND PROFILES OF CULTURAL TOURISM
IN THE GLOBAL TOURISM SCENARIO6

His Excellency Samdech Hun Sen, Prime Minister,


His Excellency Mr. Veng Sereyvuth, Minister of Tourism,
Representative of the WTO,
Ladies and Gentlemen,

First of all I have to thank the WTO for inviting me to open this conference on cultural
tourism. My function is to put on a broad sense what cultural tourism means, which is
something that has been said this morning, what are some of the threats if we organize
cultural tourism in the wrong way. There are a lot of experiences in the world, good
experiences and bad experiences which will be commented all along this conference. This
is basically what I was planning to tell you in the next twenty minutes or so. Some of the
things have been said in the morning so I will leave them for you to read in the
presentation, and because some of the data have been mentioned by some of the speakers
already I will leave that for discussion rather than wasting time during this session.

Aims in the Management of Cultural Tourism

First of all, the most important thing to start with is to recall the aims of cultural tourism
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management. The main thing, as the UNESCO presentation and the Prime Minister of
Cambodia were saying, is to protect and enhance the cultural heritage. Secondly, and it is
the task of the WTO and other tourism organizations in the world, and the particular
countries and regions, to promote it – I wouldn’t use the word to use it – but to promote it
as incentive for travel. Thirdly, which is very important for the local communities and both
regional and national communities, to use it as a platform for economic and social
development. Fourthly, and it is the view from the tourist part, to encourage the human
understanding of the “otherness”. One aspect of culture tourism is obviously to understand
and to be respectful of the manifestation of culture in the other countries, in the other
regions, in the other people. From the local point of view, it is to strengthen the local pride
and self enforcement, because it has been observed in the past and even in the present, that
people are quite shameful to show certain local manifestations of culture, because they
think that they are backward. But precisely what the tourists want to see, especially the
tourists we are going to talk about, is not the backwardness but the uniqueness, the
particular ways of manifesting culture. Fifthly, and this is one of the key aspects of this
conference, it is the risk of “banalizing” local cultures and heritage sites by misleading
marketing practices and wrong design in the tourist product: this is what I would call
making a Disneyland everywhere. That is happening in quite a lot of places, and because it
starts selling very well and the media are talking about it constantly, it is a big danger
because even the local cultures eventually could think that it is the product the tourists
want. Some tourists, mass tourists, probably want that, but the tourists who are interested
in cultural understanding do not want it, and if that happens, they will not come. That is a
big subject which I suppose we will be discussing in this conference. Finally, we should
stress the role of education, education of the local part but also education of the tourist.

6
Mr. Vicente Granados Cabezas, WTO Consultant

44
This is the role of the tourist operators as the marketing is done from the source markets -
they want to understand what is happening and what is going to be seen in those countries.

Traditional Versus Modern Definitions of Cultural Heritage as a Potential Tourist


Product

I am going to point out the difference between what is being called the traditional
definition of cultural heritage and the modern one (the modern one in the proper sense, not
in the sense of the “Disneyland” I was talking about a minute ago). The first definition
(traditional) of cultural heritage is “the examples (cultural products) of built environment
and anthropological manifestations that a previous generation has handed to its
descendants”. That is fair enough, but what happens when that is going to the market is the
following (modern definition): “once the conscious selection of what should be preserved
is taken into consideration, the concept of creativity should be included”. This means that
you can make sort of virtual works or manifestations of culture but they have to be
designed very well in order not to be mistaken with the culture itself. Like this, a product
could have a market value or could be commercialised and the ownership of the product
could be either public, private or mixed, depending on the characteristics of the product.

Quantitative Importance of Cultural Tourism Nowadays

According to WTO estimations for the year 2000, cultural tourism has been one of the
market segments showing highest rates of growth. Cultural tourism represents already
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approximately a fifth of the global market. If you take an ever wider definition of cultural
tourism, this figure could easily reach a quarter. This is a problem with statistics regarding
cultural tourism and other kinds of tourism as well. It has been improved in the last years
with specific satellite statistics – eventually we can get more proper data on that because it
is a very vague concept. In the past, cultural tourism was only understood as study tourism,
people who go to particular places to study particular things, but cultural tourism is
obviously something broader than that.

The prospects for the next two decades look very promising once the evolution of some
important source markets are taken into consideration. According to the European Travel
Monitor, the European market for cultural tourism has increased as much as 20% over the
past decade to reach 30 million in 1999 – Germany being the main source market and
France the first receiver. Most of this concerns intra-regional tourism, which also means
short breaks. Cultural tourism is very sensitive to this kind of holidays since the average
stay in Europe is 1.9 nights. Hopefully, for instance in Angkor, people will have to stay
more than one day because otherwise they will only see a small part of the complex; you
need quite a lot of time to be there – I’ve been there for two days and have only seen about
10% of it. People who are looking for proper cultural tourism want to actually experience
the place as well, not only seeing it and taking a picture, for them it is something more
important than that.

Some Historical Notes

Believe it or not, cultural tourism is the oldest kind of tourism. In principle, it was not
related “to go away” for the sake of it as even Roman thinker Seneca justified it more than
20 centuries ago within Roman patrician society in peace times – “men travel widely to

45
different sort of places seeking different distractions because they are tired of soft living,
and always seek after something which eludes them”. I am sorry I could not find many
quotes by Asian travellers in Asia, I am sure there would be some quotes of that (I could
find things about strategy because the oldest book – 3000 years old - on strategy is Chinese
and we can take some lessons from that as well). The first tourist guide was done by a
Greek, explaining how you can actually see monuments and how you can enjoy the
environment (Pausanias, 2nd century A.D.). Obviously, the world today is very different
but since we are talking about cultural tourism, it is important to see how our ancestors
actually thought about these things and we can learn quite a lot of things from that.
Regarding the more recent history, we must mention the Grand Tour of the British
aristocracy. There were two kinds of Grand Tour: a classical one to see the old Greek and
Roman monuments, from the 17th century onwards, and a second type of grand tour later
on, to see the place and to feel the atmosphere and things happening there. For the second
type we can use the word “curiosity”. People are curious to see and to learn about other
countries, about other cultures and about other ways of living and other ways of feeling. It
is an important factor to take into consideration when we create a tourist product today. We
are not only visiting the unknown, we are visiting something from the other people’s
culture in which we want to be involved.

Market Trends Affecting Cultural Tourism

Let’s look at market trends affecting cultural tourism in general, since the title of this
conference makes reference to cultural tourism in the global world.
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First of all, we must mention the relative lack of time in the working population in the
main source markets. People go out for 2, 3, 5 days, which is important for intraregional
tourism – as I have said before, in Europe the average is 1.9 nights per trip. Secondly, it
concerns the relative affluent and cultivated middle classes. Thirdly, it has to do with
sustainability, the existing limitation and constraints to consume some emblematic cultural
products (during the conference, there are some other papers which will mention that);
with quotas or how to diversify the interests in a particular spot or even how to – I
wouldn’t say lie – how to create virtual products around in order to diversify tourism. A
great proportion of people travelling are doing it with children, which can get bored in this
kind of places, which means it is important to create virtual products or interpretation
mechanisms and interpretation centres to avoid this carrying capacity. The concept of
carrying capacity is as important in cultural tourism as it can be in beach tourism. I was the
director a few months ago of the Plan for the Dominican Republic on tourism, and you
have to use carrying capacity for the beaches, because in all-inclusive hotels and small
spots people are getting up at 6 o’clock in the morning to put their towel in the beach, go
back to bed and then return to the beach at 10 o’clock. This is crazy because people are
supposed to be relaxing and that situation has nothing to do with relaxation. Although this
is another kind of tourism, the concept of carrying capacity and quotas have to be taken
seriously otherwise tourism could be in danger. Fourthly, from the demand point of view,
there is a high environmental consciousness amongst the potential consumers, and high
concern about food security and health.

Fifthly, why we have this cultural heritage is because in the past either empires or religions
all wanted to prove to the rest of the country or to the rest of the world that they were the
most important thing happening, and they wanted to show who had the power, who had the

46
emblematic thing. Today, the same thing is happening. We can see it in the way the media
are working, and the way we organize new museums, new emblematic things: all the cities
in the world want to compete with a lot of strategic planning and all of them want to have
an emblematic symbol which will be sold in the media. This is why I find it important to
recall history, because human beings are doing, with different means, basically the same
things. See for example the Italian cities with their monuments and houses: prominent
families will build prominent towers as a sign of their importance. This happens in Europe,
in Asia, in Latin America.

Sixthly, two points on the importance of internet and technology. The OECD countries
(basically Western Europe, Canada, United States, Australia, Japan) are expected to have
50% of the population using internet within 5 to 10 years. Some countries have already
reached or passed that figure, for instance Finland. New technologies will change the
tourism world completely. It is changing already and travel agents are aware of it and are
even changing their marketing strategies. In comparison to other industries, the tourist
industry is the highest technological consuming industry and it is the most important one in
creating new products using technology and new products of management for the tourist
product. Under these new circumstances, cultural tourism has been reinvented, new virtual
activities have been created: as I mentioned it before regarding carrying capacities, theme
parks are now widespread and can be very important as tourist attractions as well.

Seven, another important point related to the first one (lack of time) concerns the kind of
people who consume cultural tourism. In the European Union, United States, Canada and
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Japan, the oldest population will increase quite dramatically, it is increasing already.
Between now and the year 2010, the increase of the people between 55 and 64 will be
65%, 35% between 45 and 54, and –10% for the people between 24 and 44. You can
therefore forecast which kind of people will be consuming cultural tourism in the future. It
is very important because the senior population tends to be more educated, wealthier, and it
is increasing in numbers. That does not mean that you should not prepare a cultural product
for young people but the most important share of the market will be the ageing population.

New Trends: Traditional vs. Sustainable Tourists

This is a comparison between the attitudes of tourists consuming mass tourism and the new
consumers, which is very important to create a product.

TRADITIONAL SUSTAINABLE

Tourist Passive, low education, static, Dynamic, imaginative, educated,


homogeneous, follow the masses, hybrid, want to be in charge,
precautious adventurous

Motivation for travel Sun, having Experiences, culture, business,


being

Trip organization / frequency Large Operators Individual, specialized travel


Main vacation periods agencies
Seasonal Off-seasonal (aged pop.)

Demand for activities at Eat in hotel, fast food, attractions, Local food, sports, cultural
destinations night life at bars and discos heritage, music and arts festivals
wild nature

47
Behavious vs. environment and Superiority, aggressive (here Understanding, sustainable (see
locals today gone tomorrow), and enjoy but not destroy),
uncontrollable controllable (acceptance of
carrying capacity)

Criteria to create a cultural tourist product:

· Its “uniqueness”
· Intrinsic quality perceived by the tourist
· Degree of knowledge and attitude towards it by the potential consumer
· Level of sustainability
· Internal coherence of the different elements that conform and define it
· Degree of involvement by the local society where the product is located
· Forms, agents involved and quality of the management of the cultural product

A proposed structure for a SWOT analysis of a cultural product

How to create a structure to analyse each product and how the product could be improved
and even created through all these criteria.

STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES OPPORTUNITIES THREATS

IMAGE IN EXTERNAL MARKETS


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DESIGN OF THE TOURIST PRODUCT

SUSTAINABILITY (Carrying capacity)


MAINTENANCE COST OF THE SITE

ACCESSIBILITY TO THE ATTRACTION


(Physical, information supports)

ENTERPRENEURIAL TOURIST
STRUCTURES (Private, Public or mixed
ownership and management):

- RECEPTION STRUCTURES
(Local travel agencies and operators,
information offices, guides…)
- ACCOMODATION
(Capacity, categories, quality levels)
- RESTAURATION
(Capacity, quality, local gastronomy)

ENTERTAINMENT (Events, activities,…)

SHOPPING; LOCAL CRAFTS

LOCAL INVOLVEMENT IN THE DESIGN


AND EXPLOITATION OF THE PRODUCT

PRIVATE-PUBLIC COLLABORATION

48
DEVELOPMENT AND PROMOTION OF CULTURAL TOURISM
IN THE ASIA PACIFIC REGION7

This paper will dwell on the practical aspects of developing a country’s cultural assets and
promoting these to visitors. I will draw upon my experiences as a former Minister of
Tourism and currently, as a tourism consultant and educator.

In February 1986, immediately after the late dictator Ferdinand Marcos fled the Philippines
and Corazon Aquino was installed as the legitimately-elected President of the Philippines,
I was appointed as Deputy Minister for Tourism, in charge of Policy, Planning, and
Development. A new team of leaders, from Minister down to Director level, was appointed
to the Ministry of Tourism (MOT). We went through a soul-searching exercise – an
evaluation of the state of tourism in our country and where we wanted to take it in the next
six years. The results of our assessment were not exactly pleasant. The MOT was very
unpopular with the public. It was perceived to have been organized in 1973, a year after
martial law was declared, as a reward for one man who saved Imelda Marcos from an
assassination attempt. He was appointed Minister of Tourism and stayed in that post until
the People Power Revolution of 1986 deposed the dictator. The Ministry was also
perceived to be a tool of the government to window dress the dictatorship, to make it
appear that everything was all right in a country where the leaders of the land were
involved in the systematic plunder of the nation’s coffers and where there were arbitrary
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arrests of its citizens and the torture and killing of political prisoners. In a move touched
with supreme irony, the Ministry of Tourism chose a slogan which read like this: “The
Philippines- Where Asia Wears a Smile”. That smile, sported by a beautiful Filipina who
graced all the promotional posters and brochures, masked the deteriorating economic,
social and political conditions in the country until the assassination of Sen. Benigno
Aquino in 1983. The simmering political unrest exploded like a time bomb, rendering all
promotional programs of the MOT inutile. Tourist arrivals dropped drastically and only
intrepid foreign journalists, who came in droves to cover the exciting events of that period,
boosted hotel occupancies.

During the martial law period, the First Lady Imelda Marcos, staged expensive
international events such as the Miss Universe contest; the International Film Festival; and
an extravagant pageant showcasing Filipino history and culture in order to boost our
sagging image abroad. She invited international celebrities and journalists who wrote for
society and “culture” pages, expecting that they would write positive articles about the
country. Instead, these journalists wrote about the demonstrations and protest rallies which
greeted these extravaganzas, staged by Filipinos who were angry about public funds being
used for what they perceived as irrelevant tourism promotions. The unpopularity of the
MOT, which Mrs. Marcos used as her personal machinery for her wild ideas about how to
improve the image of our country, continued to increase.

This was the situation we found ourselves in when we took over the Ministry of Tourism.
It was a Ministry alienated from the people and subject to their anger and ridicule. We had
to move immediately to change that image. We invited the heads of the tourism

7
Ms. Narzalina Lim, WTO Consultant

49
associations; the Cultural Center of the Philippines, the National Historical Institute, the
National Museum, and representatives from the private sector, to a series of dialogues to
help us change the image of tourism in the eyes of Filipinos so that it would be acceptable
to them, worthy of their trust and confidence. We decided to launch a strong domestic
tourism campaign with the theme, “Don’t be a stranger in your own country.” We viewed
domestic tourism as a vehicle for fostering national identity, pride, and unity as a people.
Our campaign went as far as subsidizing the tours of public school children, government
workers, and the disabled. We took them on visits to museums, historical monuments and
sites as part of a cultural heritage appreciation program. A “North-South” Cultural
Exchange Program brought the indigenous peoples of Northern Philippines to Mindanao,
the most southern island of the country and home to Muslim Filipinos, to meet and form
friendships with their fellow Filipinos there and vice-versa. Thus, we used tourism as a
vehicle for promoting understanding and peace amongst our own people.

We developed this domestic tourism program because we believed that tourism should
begin in our own country first before it is promoted to international visitors. This is an
important principle which I wish to emphasize, especially for developing countries. If the
citizens of a country understand why tourism is important, actively participate in it by
being tourists themselves and crafting programs which they believe would directly benefit
them, a tourism program is bound to succeed. A country’s tourism program should
emanate from the people through consultations and not imposed on them by the
government. This implies that education and training on tourism planning, development,
and marketing must be conducted amongst host communities and local government leaders.
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Planning for cultural tourism should be an important component of this training program.

Recognizing that education and training are important to the success of a cultural tourism
program, the governments of Southeast Asia, through the Association of Southeast Asian
Nations or ASEAN, have recently embarked on a structured cultural appreciation program
for the young people of Southeast Asia. This program is meant to enhance their
appreciation for the common strands which connect their cultures to one another as well as
for their great diversity. In Hong Kong, a travel and tourism awareness subject was
introduced in secondary level schools in 1993. Funded by the Hong Kong government with
financial assistance from the American Express Foundation, this program aims to instill in
young people an understanding of the tourism industry and its economic, social, cultural,
and environmental impacts. Culture and tourism are important topics which are given
much emphasis in these classes.

Another reason why the Philippines adopted a policy of putting emphasis on domestic
tourism was that we believed that it is the Filipinos themselves who have to interpret their
culture and heritage to the international visitor. We believed that only a people with a
strong sense of national identity and who understand and appreciate their culture can
successfully interpret that culture to foreigners. As a scholar describes it, “a nation which
has a clear understanding of its culture is in the very best position to make use or to project
an understanding of that culture to a wider audience (1). Today, 14 years after we
introduced our domestic tourism program, the Philippine Department of Tourism is still
putting emphasis and attaching great importance to domestic tourism. Their current theme
is “Pride of Place”.

50
After the Filipino people successfully and peacefully restored democracy to their country
in 1986, tourists who previously shunned our country started to come back. They were
curious about us and wanted to see for themselves how we could have overthrown a
dictator without bloodshed. They were also curious about the housewife who suddenly
became President and who became the world’s icon for democracy. I suppose this
phenomenon was not unique to the Philippines. I remember that South Africa enjoyed the
same popularity and prestige in the international community when the policy of apartheid
was lifted and when a new government of national unity was elected into power, with
Nelson Mandela as head of state. South Africa became a popular tourist destination
immediately after that. People were curious to see how a people so bitterly divided in the
past, were able to reconcile and reunite. They wanted to trace the steps of Nelson Mandela
from prison to liberty to the Presidency as they wanted to trace Sen. Benigno Aquino’s
road to martyrdom. This curiosity on the part of the tourist stems from his desire to know
how other people live their lives in circumstances different from his own. This is part of
what we call cultural tourism. “A sense of place or a sense of nationhood will distinguish
one destination from another.” This is what the Philippines and South Africa shared in
common in their peaceful transitions to democracy.

The leadership at the new MOT realized that international euphoria over the Philippines
would not last very long. Many other tourist destinations were beckoning and competition
was stiff. So, we embarked on a promotional campaign based on our country’s rich culture
and history. Again, we brought in the private sector - hotels, travel agencies, tour operators,
restaurants - and agreed on a cultural theme, “Fiesta Islands Philippines”, to showcase the
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hundreds of festivals which reflect the diversity, color, and unique heritage of the country.
This campaign was particularly important in the light of the negative perception of the
Philippines as a sex tour destination during the mid ‘70s and early ‘80s. The government
and the tourism industry jointly adopted this theme and it remained our theme for ten years.
All brochures and promotional materials carried the logo designed for the purpose. In
every international travel fair we participated in, that theme was reinforced in terms of the
design of our booths; the cultural shows that we mounted; and the costumes everyone wore.
In mid-1992, a new President was voted into office in a smooth and orderly transition of
power. I continued to serve in that government for a brief period to ensure the continuity of
tourism programs. We started to plan more promotions in our major markets, still carrying
the cultural theme. Our biggest promotion was in Europe, in Paris in particular where we
had a Philippine Festival of Arts and Culture. A major exhibit from our National Museum
was brought to the Musée de l’Homme. With the active involvement of the French
Embassy in Manila, French companies with investments in the Philippines as well as
Filipino businesses were invited to sponsor this event. The activities we planned around
this exhibit, the core of which were the treasures found from a sunken Spanish galleon in
the 17th century, aimed to reach that segment of the European market which was primarily
interested in culture. We worked with museum curators, scholars and anthropologists who
had conducted studies amongst our ethnic tribes and French citizens who had been to the
Philippines and had fallen in love with our country and were enthusiastic enough to speak
about it on our behalf. We soon found out that museums have their own clientele – their
own mailing list of museum friends, supporters and habitués – whom we could invite for
future promotion programs or keep in our own mailing list. In addition to the museum
event, we brought performing arts groups which toured Europe; visual artists who
exhibited in a number of museums and galleries; a festival of Filipino films; an
ethnographic exhibit; a trade and food fair; and a series of seminars on how to invest and

51
do business in the Philippines. For this event, no less than our new President, Fidel V.
Ramos and his wife graced the opening, attended by several dignitaries from the French
government, business people, and members of the diplomatic corps in Paris.

This festival was a major effort which involved, not just the Philippine Dept. of Tourism
but all our culture agencies, our artists; the travel trade, business associations, our embassy
in Paris, and the Dept. of Foreign Affairs. It took two years to organize, cost a lot of money
and entailed a lot of work and coordination. However, the awareness and the extensive
publicity it generated for the Philippines, not just in France but in other European countries,
contributed to the success of our tourism campaign and helped tremendously to change the
public’s misconceptions about the Philippines as a tourist destination.

A festival I have just described is a huge project which does not happen too often.
However, mini-festivals, performing arts tours, and exhibits, especially museum exhibits
may be staged abroad on a regular basis. They may be costly, in fact just as costly as an
advertising campaign, but I believe they are cost effective because of the public relations
and media value they generate and the people-to-people contact established which after all,
is what tourism aims to generate.

During our deliberations on what cultural theme to project to the world, an interesting
debate took place. The marketing people bewailed the fact that the Philippines has no built
heritage which the world could associate it with. They said we have no cultural monuments
the size and significance of Cambodia’s Angkor Wat; India’s Taj Mahal; China’s Great
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Wall or Indonesia’s Borobodur which could readily attract tourists and give our country
instant recall in the minds of the consumer. It was felt that in the context of tourism
promotions, the Philippines suffers a disadvantage because of this. While this line of
thinking may be partially correct, I believe that it is dangerous to attribute successful
promotions of cultural tourism only to tangible cultural heritage. This kind of logic
oversimplifies culture and overlooks the fact that behind each monument frozen in time is
a history, in fact, layers and layers of history, of a people who built that monument. Behind
that built heritage is a culture that is alive and dynamic whose story is waiting to be told.
The sophisticated and discriminating tourist of the 21st century understands this and will
expect a close encounter with this culture when he visits the destination. It is up to the
people living within this culture to tell their story as accurately as possible in an interesting
and entertaining manner. This is what we call interpretation. Interpretation is both an art
and a skill for which rigorous training is needed. The most interesting form, of course, is
the use of tour guides. However, visitor centers with detailed charts, maps, and films about
the site being visited have become very effective means of interpretation. Information
technology is very useful in analyzing, presenting, and storing data and facilitates the task
of interpretation.

There are several issues to be considered in developing cultural tourism. Two cases from
the Philippines might serve to illustrate these issues.

Preserving Traditional Cultures - The Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras

As you know, Philippine culture has been extensively influenced by a series of


colonizations. We were a colony of Spain for 300 years, from 1521 to 1898, after which
we were a colony of the United States for 50 years, from 1898 until 1946. Each colonizing

52
power left cultural monuments to mark the achievements of its regime. The only Philippine
monument constructed without any influence of foreign intervention is the rice terraces of
the Philippine Cordilleras. Due to the difficult terrain and the remoteness of the region, the
Cordillera tribes were among the few peoples of the Philippines who successfully resisted
any foreign domination. Their authentic tribal culture survived. The rice terraces network,
scattered in five provinces, is the most extensive monument in size and area existing in the
country. Without question, it is recognized by the Filipinos as a primary symbol of its
cultural heritage. It is now listed in the World Heritage List as a cultural landscape.

Scholars believe that the construction of these terraces started approximately 2,000 years
ago. Their history is intertwined with that of its people, their culture, their traditional
practices in environmental management and agricultural systems. The high level of craft
production from the area reflects the richness of the culture and talent of the indigenous
peoples. Each tribal group continues to produce, up to this day, its own unique style of
textile weaving, basketry, and wood carving, always maintaining constant touch with their
deeply ingrained cultural roots. The successful conservation of the site therefore depends
on the continuation of the delicate balance of environmental, agricultural, and socio-
cultural factors. This interaction is now severely threatened by the demands of the 21st
century. Today, only the older generation remains in the terraces. Their children have been
sent to the cities to be educated, where most prefer to seek employment. There now exists a
shortage of agricultural workers. The restricted economic conditions of most terrace
owners do not allow the hiring of help for the agricultural and maintenance requirements of
the terraces. Thus, many of the terraces are slowly being abandoned at an alarming rate and
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left to decay.

This is a good case study on how culture and tourism can work together. Although the
Ifugaos, as the indigenous people are called, are fiercely proud of the terraces as a
manifestation of their tribal culture, the members of the younger generation do not see
themselves as the custodians of the country’s most precious treasure. They are not
conscious of their responsibility of maintaining the site for the survival of their own culture
as well as for the future generations of their lowland brothers. The Philippine approach to
this challenge is education and what we call “consciousness raising”. We are making the
tribal people aware of the value of their culture and how cultural tourism can bring
economic benefits to their communities, if planned and developed properly. They are
already aware of this, as the area is a popular destination amongst European tourists. In
fact, there have been some problems associated with the steady growth of tourist arrivals in
the area over the last three decades. Among these problems are the intrusion of tourists into
the Ifugao villages, disrupting their lifestyle. One management solution to this has been to
limit tourism to just a few terraces and villages, keeping the rest of the traditional villages
intact. Another solution, still to be implemented, is to build a visitor’s center with
interpretation facilities which will guide the visitors to one or two villages. Young people
from these villages will be trained to act as guides and interpreters of their culture and
show visitors around without being intrusive or disrespectful. In this connection, a code of
conduct for tour operators, tour guides, and tourists should be discussed at the vistor’s
center so visitors will know how to behave when they are in the villages. By the same
token, the host communities should have also undergone a training program on how to
receive visitors so that the meeting between them and their guests becomes a mutually
educational and pleasant encounter and not a traumatic one.

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A second management solution to a problem similar to ours and which I believe has been
implemented elsewhere, is to construct a demonstration village, replicating the actual
village itself, so that visitors need not enter the village and disrupt the lives of the
community. While this may be an expensive proposition, it is an excellent, long-term
solution to the possible ruining of a traditional culture from too much direct contact with
highly urbanized ones.

Another problem which has been encountered is the deteriorating arts and crafts of the
tribal peoples. This is because they lack financial capital and raw materials. There is also a
tendency by villagers to commercialize their crafts and produce them in bulk to sell to
tourists. They tend to produce what they think the visitors would buy, rather than what they
are traditionally used to creating. To solve this problem, the former First Lady, Mrs.
Amelita Ramos, founded the Katutubong Filipino Foundation (KFF) or the Foundation for
Indigenous Peoples in 1992. The Foundation assists indigenous communities in upgrading
their arts and crafts through better design, colors, and products which can fetch higher
prices. The marketing of these products is also being done by the Foundation. In this
manner, middlemen are eliminated and the producers directly benefit from their work, thus
encouraging them to produce better quality crafts.

It should be pointed out that tourism is a way of revitalizing, not just arts and crafts but
dances, rituals, and legends which may have been forgotten or at the risk of being forgotten
by the younger generation. The keen interest shown by visitors on these aspects of a
people’s culture can inspire tribal communities to revive and preserve them. In keeping
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with a dynamic, living culture, new and higher art forms may evolve as a result. However,
the whole experience must be carefully managed and controlled. Intensive education and
training of these communities must take place before ambitious projects are embarked
upon. The money that tourists pay to experience authentic ethnic lifestyles should be
plowed back to the community so that the villagers directly benefit from tourism and will
not feel that they were just used as tools by middlemen to please tourists. Their economic
conditions should improve as a result of tourism. This is one of the many paradoxes in the
highly complex and symbiotic relationship between culture and tourism. Whilst tourism
may have some negative impacts as described earlier, it can also be the reason for the
revival of lost traditions and the revitalization of dying arts, crafts, dances, and rituals.

Financing and Managing the Redevelopment of a Historic District - The Case of


Intramuros, A Historic City within a Bustling and Crowded Metropolis

In Latin, “intramuros” means within the walls. Intramuros was the old walled city of
Manila built by the Spaniards in the 16th century, shortly after they came to colonize the
group of islands which eventually called itself the Philippines. For 300 years, it was the
Hispanic center of government, religion, and education. The Philippines was ruled, both by
the Spanish colonial government and the Catholic Church, from within this walled city. It
was also the center of a thriving Pacific trade, better known as the Galleon Trade which
lasted 250 years.

The plan of Intramuros followed the classic Italian Renaissance formula for the layout of
streets and buildings. The Manila Cathedral was the central focus of the town. It was built
facing the plaza. During the 17th century, the religious orders spearheaded the construction
of edifices for religious and charitable functions. By the end of the 18th century,

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educational institutions occupied a large portion of the district. Three major buildings were
located there at that time. These were the Palacio del Gobernador; the Ayuntamiento, and
the Real Audiencia. In the 19th century, the utilities were upgraded and the district was
beautified. The ambiance of Intramuros was religious, with the presence of seven churches
and over seven chapels. One of these churches, the San Agustin Church, is now on the
World Heritage List.

By 1903, the moats of Intramuros were filled up with unsanitary waters from the nearby
Pasig River. A harbor and port area were built through reclamation, thus shutting off the
historic district from the seafront. After World War II, the restoration and historic
preservation of Intramuros became imperative because the Japanese totally destroyed it in
1945. Intramuros was transformed into a squatter community. Rapid urbanization
encouraged migration, with spontaneous settlements mushrooming in the district. The use
of lots and buildings by business establishments created a type of architecture that was not
compatible with the colonial roots of the area.

In 1973, the Spanish Ministry of Information and Tourism funded a development plan for
Intramuros. It was used by the Philippine government as a basic technical reference and
framework for the future development of the historic district. It was not until 1979
however, that the Intramuros Administration (IA) was formed by Presidential Decree. The
IA is responsible for the restoration and development of Intramuros as a monument to the
Hispanic period of Philippine history. The Decree stipulates that the general appearance of
Intramuros shall conform to Philippine-Spanish architecture of the 16th-19th centuries.
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Among the powers of the IA are the expropriation of properties within the district; the
regulation of land uses, zoning, building heights, architectural design and standards, and
archaeological excavations. The formulation, coordination, and implementation of
programs are also among the powers of Intramuros.

The Mayor of Manila is a member of the Board of Administration of the IA, because the
district is located within the city. The Chair of the Board is the Minister of Tourism.
Private sector representatives appointed by the President of the Philippines sit on the Board
as well. Funding for the restoration of Intramuros comes from the government through an
annual budget appropriation as well as from a portion of the travel tax which is collected
by the Ministry of Tourism. For special events and cultural functions held within the
district, funding is provided by the Duty Free Shops which are being operated by the
Ministry of Tourism. The rest of the funds for the upkeep of Intramuros come from gate
receipts, lease rental of space for restaurants, shops, travel agencies, photo shops, and other
tourism-oriented establishments. This institutional set-up is a good example of how funds
from tourism are being utilized to restore a historic district with immeasurable cultural
values and meanings.

To date, the Intramuros Administration has reconstructed 80% of the Spanish walls and
fortifications. These are being put to use for open-air cinemas, concerts, theater
performances, on-the spot painting competitions, and wedding receptions as a means of
creating awareness of the district and for generating income to maintain it. Chambers front
the schools and universities have been transformed into food stalls to service the student
population of 40,000. The Plaza San Luis complex, a construction of nine replica period
houses, showcases a house museum, craft shops, art galleries and function rooms for
exhibits and receptions. The Puerta del Parian (Chinese Gate) has been leased out to the

55
Rotary Club of Intramuros for its social and civic activities. Building owners contribute to
the cleanliness and beautification projects of the IA. A hawker’s plaza is being developed
as an alternative to illegal sidewalk vending.

There are many problems connected with the restoration and conservation of a historic
district like Intramuros. Its economic development is slow compared to nearby
municipalities and districts. Developers and owners of real property find IA’s height and
architectural regulations too restrictive for economic viability. The squatter problem has
not been fully solved and poor infrastructure and public utilities contribute to its slow
progress. The financial crisis which hit Asia in 1997 also affected the Philippines.
Therefore, the grant of incentives to prospective investors, normally extended to similar
heritage sites in other cities of the world, is not currently possible. Nevertheless, the IA has
succeeded over the last twenty years, to transform this historic neighborhood into a living
community with its traditional day-to-day activities.

Institutional Mechanisms Welding Culture and Tourism

In the Philippines, the management of cultural issues falls under the purview of the
National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA). This body was established in 1992
through an Act of Congress which also established a National Endowment Fund for
Culture and the Arts. The Department of Tourism is represented in the NCCA by an
Undersecretary who sits on the Board as a Commissioner. Thus, issues which pertain to
both culture and tourism, especially in the area of cultural dissemination, are addressed in
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an integrated manner. Funds from tourism activity support the NCCA. 10% of travel tax
collections collected by the Department of Tourism are remitted to the NCCA to fund
cultural projects and activities. Based on current exchange rates, this would be equivalent
to approximately US$2.8million. It should be noted that the travel tax is generated by
outbound travellers. I would personally like to see a system whereby inbound tourists also
contribute to a cultural fund to be used for cultural preservation, restoration of monuments
and sites, and the management of these sites. After all, these tourists are consumers, so to
speak, of culture, so they should share the responsibility of preserving this culture. One
idea is to allocate a portion of the hotel room tax collected by the Bureau of Internal
Revenue to the National Endowment Fund for Culture and the Arts.

The seed capital of the NCCA in the amount of Pesos 100 million(US$2 million) came
from the Philippine Amusement and Gaming Corporation (PAGCOR), the government
agency authorized to operate gaming outlets throughout the country. Additionally, for the
first two years of NCCA’s existence, PAGCOR had to remit Pesos Five Million
(US$100,000) every month to the NCCA to fund its operations.

Today, the NCCA is actively carrying out its mandate of encouraging a balanced
development of a pluralistic culture and the free expression by the people of their
aspirations and talents. It has also succeeded in decentralizing opportunities for creative
expression through the establishment of local cultural and arts councils in various regions
throughout the country. These councils assist the NCCA in formulating cultural plans and
policies, thereby ensuring a broad-based, people-oriented formulation of such plans and
policies.

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Malaysia has its own model for institutionalizing the dialogue between culture and
tourism. In 1988, its government created the Ministry of Culture, Arts, and Tourism,
headed by a Minister. Tourism and cultural policies and plans are the responsibility of the
Ministry while tourism promotion is the responsibility of the Malaysian Promotions Board,
a quasi-government body which is also chaired by the Minister of Tourism.

Conclusion

In summary, allow me to reiterate the policies, principles, and management tools for
developing and promoting cultural tourism.

1.) Tourism begins at home. A solid domestic tourism program should be the basis
for international tourism promotions.

2.) The nationals of a country are in the best position to interpret their culture to
visitors. Thus, they must be involved, at a community level, in planning,
developing, and promoting their culture. “Top-down” approaches may succeed
in the short term but cannot be sustained over the long term.

3.) Domestic tourism is a vehicle for fostering national pride and appreciation of a
people’s heritage and culture.

4.) The education and training of host communities is an investment which


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governments should make. The returns are high and the rewards are long-term.

5.) For tourism programs to succeed, tourism planning should always involve the
government, the travel trade, and host communities acting together as a unit.

6.) Culture is a living, dynamic, and complex phenomenon which must be


interpreted to visitors in an accurate and interesting manner. Communities,
especially indigenous communities, and not just tour guides, need rigorous
training in cultural interpretation.

7.) The arts and crafts of indigenous communities must be preserved or


encouraged. Assistance should be given to raise their quality and marketability.
Revenues generated from the sale of these to tourists should directly benefit the
producers and plowed back to the communities for their development.

8.) Management techniques, such as the creation of visitors’ centers,


demonstration villages, and buffer zones to shield traditional villages from
intrusion by too many tourists, should be used to preserve the culture of fragile
host communities.

9.) Arts and culture festivals staged overseas are a good way of promoting a
country’s culture. Museum exhibits, food and performing arts festivals on a
smaller scale are also excellent tools for tourism promotions.

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10.) Historic cities are great tourist attractions. Funds from tourist activities, such as
travel and hotel room taxes, gaming, and duty free shopping may be used to
fund the redevelopment and promotion of historic cities.

11.) On the institutional side, culture and tourism should be planned in an integrated
manner. Tourism officials may be invited to sit in cultural bodies or a Ministry
of Culture, Arts, and Tourism may be created to institutionalize the dialogue
between culture and tourism.

It is hoped that the ideas outlined in this paper may be useful to other developing countries
like the Philippines and may serve as guides on how to develop cultural tourism in a
sustainable manner.

Footnotes: (1 & 2) Borley, Lester 1992, “Principles for Revitalizing the Cultural Heritage”,
Universal Tourism: Enriching or Degrading Culture? Gadjah Mada University Press,
Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
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58
TOURISM AS A CULTURAL POLICY FOR DEVELOPMENT8

Mr. Prime Minister,


Mr. Secretary-General of the World Tourism Organization,
Your Excellencies,
Ladies and gentlemen,

It is a great pleasure and a great honour for me to participate in this International


Conference on Cultural Tourism organized by the Royal Government of Cambodia and the
World Tourism Organization. I should like to congratulate the organizers of the
Conference which deals with a subject that is so important for the future of our cultures
and our landscapes, for local and national development, and I should like to thank them for
their warm welcome. What better place than the prestigious World Heritage site of Angkor
to debate the issues of the relationship between culture and tourism and the action to be
carried out in this field.

In the first part of my address, I will present UNESCO's views on culture, as a source of
identity and of development.

In the second part, I will propose some principles of action that combine the objectives of
economic development and the safeguarding of the cultural and natural heritage.
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But, first, and as an introduction, I would like to recall briefly the action of UNESCO at
Angkor over the last ten years.

In 1991, UNESCO embarked upon an ambitious plan to safeguard and develop the
historical site of Angkor. The embargo on international assistance having been lifted,
UNESCO was able to help the Cambodian Authorities draft legislation for cultural and
natural property and national statutes for their protection, including measures against illicit
traffic in antiquities.

Internationally, these measures led to the cooperation of organizations such as the


International Council of Museums (ICOM), which published a booklet containing the
descriptions and photographs of 100 stolen objects, and INTERPOL, whose assistance
resulted in locating some of the objects. In another UNESCO project, some 25 experts
from 11 countries, working alongside local counterparts, have prepared a Zoning and
Environmental Management Plan (ZEMP) for the site, aimed at defining the boundaries of
Angkor Park and buffer zone, as well as their management guidelines. As the United
Nations organisation responsible for the implementation of the 1972 Convention
Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage, UNESCO is in charge
of monitoring the state of conservation of the Angkor site, and in this respect, has co-
ordinated various restoration projects.

8
Mr. Hervé Barré, Chief, Research and Development Section, Division of Cultural Heritage, UNESCO

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This ambitious programme of safeguarding and enhancing the World heritage site of
Angkor has taken on the same importance for UNESCO as the safeguarding of the Nubian
monuments of Egypt in the sixties.

Culture, a source of identity and of development

As we move into the new century, and societies must face the challenges of peace and
development in the new context of globalization, the relationship between culture and
development emerges as one of the key issues.

Tourism constitutes a planetary vehicle for cultural discovery, on an unprecedented scale,


whilst technical advances in communications and transport facilitate the conveyance of
tourists in search of new horizons. Tourism is changing perspectives and increasingly
turning towards culture. Economic and cultural exchanges remain intimately linked in this
new, widespread phenomenon of tourism. In order to understand the changing nature of
tourism progression, the interaction between culture and tourism must be better understood
and articulated.

UNESCO has endeavoured in recent years to promote awareness within the international
community of the cultural dimension of development. This means recognizing that the
cultural heritage and cultural creativity provide the basis for flourishing economic
activities and represent an economic potential stimulated by strong demand on the part of a
public with an insatiable appetite for knowledge, discovery and emotion. This awareness
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must be complemented by an acknowledgement of the fact that culture represents the very
foundations of each individual’s identity and sense of belonging, that it shapes attitudes
towards work and also behaviour patterns which inspire community action and thus
represent a powerful factor of enrichment and motivation for development in the broadest
sense of the term, in other words development which includes economic, social, cultural
and educational dimensions. A strong correlation has been observed between repressed
identities and cultures, ill-conceived and uneven development and situations of conflict,
economic decline and destruction of the cultural heritage. In other words, UNESCO
upholds the idea that sustainable development and the eradication of poverty are closely
linked with self-fulfilment and greater emphasis on culture. Thus, in UNESCO’s view,
tourism, if correctly conceived, can be a tremendous development tool and an effective
means of preserving the cultural diversity of our planet.

The Intergovernmental Conference on Cultural Policies for Development, which met on


the initiative of Sweden and UNESCO in Stockholm from 30 March to 2 April 1998,
adopted an Action Plan encouraging Member States to “design and establish cultural
policies or review existing ones in such a way that they become one of the key components
of endogenous and sustainable development”. The Action Plan also requested Member
States to “ensure that tourism is respectful of cultures and of the environment and that the
income it generates is also used for equitably preserving heritage resources and for
strengthening cultural diversity”. The international conference which was held in Florence
from 4 to 7 November 1999 on the joint initiative of the World Bank, the Italian
Government and UNESCO, had, as a sequel to the Stockholm Conference, the objective of
strengthening dialogue between the worlds of finance and culture in order to elaborate
“new strategies for culture in sustainable development”.

60
The importance of these matters may be measured by the current scale of tourism, which
shows strong, sustained growth and which spreads each year into new areas, catering for
ever increasing numbers of tourists. In this respect, South East Asia, including Cambodia,
is today one of the fastest growing tourist destinations and is expected also in the future,
apart from its cultural attractiveness, to be one of the regions experiencing a "boom" in
business connected with international tourism.

Against this background, what can be done to improve the contribution of tourism to
sustainable human development, that is to say, the kind of development which achieves a
harmonious combination of the objectives of economic development and the safeguarding
of the cultural and natural heritage?

The following examples of UNESCO's action can be seen as a contribution to these


objectives.

Examples of UNESCO’s action

As part of its programme, UNESCO endeavours to promote tourism strategies which are
consonant with the Organization’s objectives of protecting the cultural and natural heritage
and are compatible with the demands of a competitive, sustainable form of tourism that
preserves the human, cultural and natural resources upon which it is founded. I shall quote
the following projects as examples:
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• the programme of UNESCO Chairs in cultural tourism for peace and development,
which involves the establishment of a university network offering training to future
decision-makers in the principles of sustainable cultural tourism;

• a project for integrated development and safeguarding of the cultural heritage by


the local communities in Asia and the Pacific;

• a project for the implementation of strategies for the sustainable development of


tourism in the Sahara;

• a project on tourism management in the historic cities of Europe and the


Mediterranean region, which consists of a network for exchanges of experience with a
view to developing urban tourism policies;

• a project for enhancing heritage related to historic memory, such as the Slave Route
project;

• a project involving specific approaches linked to the local cultural context:


gastronomic traditions and cultural tourism in Mexico; integrated village tourism in
Gabon; museums and cultural tourism in Peru; cultural heritage and regional
development in Moscow;

• the organisation of and participation in seminars at national and international levels,


and publications on the theme of “culture, tourism and development”.

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I take this opportunity to inform the Conference that in 2001, as a follow up to this meeting,
UNESCO is planning to organize a seminar on cultural tourism management and strategies,
in cooperation with the Ministries of Culture and Tourism, APSARA, the Cambodian
National Commission for UNESCO, and WTO.

Drawing on its experience, which was built up through dialogue and cooperation with
many public and private bodies concerned with development, including the
intergovernmental organizations such as the World Tourism Organization and the World
Bank, and also through its implementation of many projects in the field, UNESCO is in a
position to make a number of observations and suggest principles for action in response to
the question raised above.

First principle:

Towards a global, integrated approach

We must begin by recognizing that tourism has become a complex process in recent years,
with unprecedented economic, social and cultural dimensions, one that opens up new
opportunities for development but also constitutes a challenge – involving both risks and
opportunities – for the cultural heritage and the cultural identities upon which its
spectacular expansion is based. It is therefore important to recognize that a clearly
understood policy of cultural tourism must be closely linked with action to safeguard the
cultural and natural heritage and to enhance the touristic value of that heritage so that the
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local populations can enjoy not only the economic spin-off but also the associated cultural
and social advantages.

Hence the ability of the present generations to transmit the cultural heritage to future
generations will depend on the extent to which cultural policies based on the enhancement
of that heritage are properly integrated in the global development process. Such integration
is achieved largely through cultural tourism, for this activity creates links between the
following objectives:

· The safeguarding of the cultural heritage and cultural identities, which are
the basic resources of tourism. The heritage of universal value should be regarded as
what some people call the "common good" to which all human beings should have
equal access. In addition, UNESCO now adds to its mission the safeguarding of the
"oral and intangible" heritage.

· Recognition by tourists of cultural diversity and the experience of cultural


interaction. The latter concerns both the relationship between visitors and hosts, and
the interaction between visitors and the cultural properties visited, whether they be
museums, sites, historic cities, cultural landscapes or regions known for their
gastronomy, crafts or live performances;

· A contribution to the economic, social and cultural development of local


populations through the creation of jobs, the enhancement of cultural identity and a
whole range of skills linked to arts, crafts or even agriculture and industry – tourism
acts as a spur to various economic activities. One of the spin-offs is that the local
communities concerned forge new links with their cultural heritage and are proud to

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see that it represents something of universal importance for the visitors who come
from far away to look at it and understand its significance.

· At so outstanding and complex a site as Angkor, decisions have to be made


with regard to the major questions of what kind of tourism should be considered, and
for the benefit of whom?

Second principle:

Priority for the safeguarding of the cultural heritage

The cultural heritage, which is tourism’s main resource, is fortunately spread far and wide
throughout all the regions of the world and represents an immense opportunity for tourist
development, particularly for the most deprived countries. The special feature of the
cultural heritage is that it cannot be removed from its site and tourists are obliged to travel
in order to visit it. Another feature of this resource is its great fragility. Top priority must
therefore be given to implementing the principles embodied in the 1992 Convention for the
Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, the 1970 Convention on the Means
of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of
Cultural Property and the 1954 Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the
Event of Armed Conflict, in addition to the other international instruments adopted under
the auspices of UNESCO.
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The International Cultural Tourism Charter adopted by ICOMOS and the Global Code of
Ethics for Tourism drawn up by the World Tourism Organization also constitute useful
references for high-quality tourism policies.

In this respect, I would like to quote the report prepared for UNESCO in 1993 "Tourism
Development in Angkor", which states that :"ANGKOR is not primarily regarded as a
marketing problem, because there will be great demand centered on its monuments. The
most pressing problem will be the protection of the monuments and the organization of
tourism flows".

Third principle:

Strengthening the partnership between public and private partners

In order for the development of tourism to become the fulcrum of a development strategy,
harnessing the new communication technologies, an ambitious policy of partnership
between tourist agencies and governments must be launched. The goals of such
cooperation should be, on the one hand, to transfer high technology skills and training in
the field of tourism and, on the other, to ensure that the local communities living in the
area surrounding the sites derive greater benefit from the spin-offs of tourism, in the form
of business creation and income generation.

These partnerships should also help to evaluate the costs of maintaining, protecting and
managing the sites and to co-ordinate the sharing of those costs among those involved in
tourism – local authorities, businesses and the tourists themselves. Particular attention
should be paid to the level of site entry fees, which should include those costs, and to the

63
level of the salaries paid to local employees of companies in the tourist industry,
particularly hotels, in the tourist-destination countries. Consequently, we recommend a
high entrance fee for foreign visitors, that should be interpreted as the expression of
international solidarity for the safeguarding of cultural site of universal value, while local
visitors and domestic tourists should benefit from a low entrance fee.

Such cooperation should lead to arrangements ensuring that the concern to preserve one’s
identity through a preserved and authentic heritage is compatible with the legitimate aim of
offering cultural tourism services which are competitive in an increasingly competitive
global market. In choosing destinations, the tourists’ main criteria are naturally the price
and quality of the services, but also – and above all – the quality and the preserved
authenticity of the towns, landscapes, cultural identities and multiple expressions of culture.

With regard to partnership with the private sector, so important to tourism, Kofi Annan,
Secretary-General of the United Nations, in an address given to the World Economic
Forum, held in Davos, Switzerland, in January 1999, asked business leaders, both in their
individual corporate practices and by supporting appropriate public policies, to embrace
and ensure respect for a series of shared values and practices concerning human rights,
working conditions and the protection of the environment in the broad sense, including the
cultural heritage. He suggested that the private sector and the United Nations conclude a
“global compact” based on shared values and principles which would give a human face to
globalization. We endorse this proposal for a global compact, which would make all the
difference in the tourism sector where the private sector plays the principal role.
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Fourth principle:

The commitment of civil society in tourist-destination countries and in tourist-


generating countries

Tourism must first of all be seen as a factor in local development. It is certainly the activity
through which the inhabitants of a region, those active in its economic and cultural life,
and the local institutions best express their development projects and also the identity of
their territory. Faced with the threats of globalization and urbanization, the capacity to
offer safeguarded and human settings will surely constitute a major issue in the near future
and an opportunity for places that have managed to enrich and affirm the diverse aspects of
their identity. The region’s past and present, the native soil, the old historic quarter,
contemporary cultural events, crafts, as resources that can be shared – these should be the
focus of the host communities. Tourism then becomes the ideal way for peoples to
peacefully proclaim their cultural diversity.

One example of the involvement of local communities I would like to mention involves the
mayor of an historic town inscribed in the World Heritage List, who explained that the
development of tourism in his town had nothing to do with economics but was the result of
the respect, of the care that the town’s population put into protecting and promoting its
cultural heritage and of its commitment to that task. Thus the touristic functions related to
the safeguarding and enhancement of the heritage were not incompatible with economic
functions such as transport, communication and trade or with functions linked to the daily
life of the inhabitants such as education, health and leisure activities. This example testifies

64
to the importance of the political will of the local authorities and of local democracy in the
implementation of tourist policies of high quality.

At the same time, we must accept the idea that the protection of the heritage can no longer
be the exclusive responsibility of experts and that civic awareness of the matter must be
developed both within host communities and among tourists, so that they can become
involved in this task. In a similar vein, programmes to increase awareness - in schools, in
airplanes, at pre-departure meetings for tourists - should be developed. Let us take the
example of the municipality of Campeche, in the Yucatan peninsula in Mexico, which set
up a programme to raise the awareness of children through educational handbooks and
guided visits of the town. We are glad to note that the great majority of visitors to Angkor
come from Cambodia itself, and that many of them are young people.

In fact what is at stake, through sustainable and culturally sensitive tourism development at
Angkor, is much more than making a success of tourism: it is the worldwide promotion
and dissemination of the values of Khmer civilization, of past and present times, including
modern Cambodian culture and its global image; it is key to the flourishing of Khmer
culture at the level of universality.

As a conclusion, I would advocate joint international action on "Tourism, Culture and


Development" issues, in Cambodia in particular.

Tourism, culture and development: towards joint international action


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We are convinced that the question about the kind of tourism that would generate
development, both economic and cultural, can be answered through an interdisciplinary,
global approach, through the implementation of a policy for tourism viewed as a cultural
policy for development.

We must be convinced that there is no inevitability about the kind of poorly designed
tourist development that has harmful consequences for the environment, the cultural
heritage and society and that makes an inadequate contribution to development. The
success of tourist policies that are economically effective and respectful of culture depends
in large measure on the political will of the elected authorities, the wisdom of investors and
managers, and the professionalism and motivation of the individuals working in the
businesses and services concerned.

This ambitious enterprise will be easier to manage when we, citizens and travellers, move
gradually from a passive attitude of respect for the heritage, as consumers of the heritage,
to an active approach as individuals responsible for the preservation of a lifestyle and a
region which does not belong only to the communities living there today but also to the
rest of humanity, present and future.

This kind of approach to tourism can help humanize the process of globalization, reduce
poverty and cultural tensions and build a world where the growing cultural interactivity –
owing to tourism in particular – fosters the diffusion of values shared by all humanity,
including respect for human rights and acceptance of the multiculturalism of societies as a
treasure.

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The ultimate aim of tourism, conceived as a cultural policy, should be the preservation and
promotion of cultural diversity. At the G8 meeting of the 8 richest countries in the world,
at Okinawa, July 2000, a communiqué was adopted stressing that "Cultural diversity is a
source of social and economic dynamism which has the potential to enrich human life in
the 21st century, as it inspires creativity and stimulates innovation". The G8 members
"welcome the work of relevant international organizations, in particular UNESCO, in this
field".

UNESCO is willing to cooperate with other intergovernmental organizations - the World


Tourism Organization in particular - with States, with businesses and with associations on
projects designed to win support for the kind of tourism that contributes to the preservation
of cultural diversity, and brings with it cultural expansion, economic development and
peace.
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66
ANGKOR WAT - THE PILLAR OF THE
CAMBODIAN TOURISM INDUSTRY9

Excellencies,
Distinguished Delegates,
Ladies and Gentlemen,

It is my great pleasure to stand before you today and share with you the presentation on
“Angkor Wat – the Pillar of the Cambodian Tourism Industry”.

National Tourism Policy


Tourism is one of Cambodia’s largest and most important industries. The Royal
Government strategy is to position Cambodia as a leading "Culture and Nature Tourism
Destination". Our tourism development policy is formulated to develop tourism in a
sustainable manner so it will provide economic and social development, protect our natural
environment and preserve and present our distinctive culture and heritage.

Cambodia Tourism Development


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The main tourism areas in Cambodia are:

· Phnom Penh the capital city and its surrounding, which include the Royal Palace,
the Silver Pagoda, the National Museum, Toul Sleng Museum, Udong, Tonle Bati,
Phnom Chiso, the Mekong River.

· Siem Reap, home of Cambodia's famous Angkor Wat complex is the main tourism
draw card and the most visited place in Cambodia. The ancient World Heritage listed
Angkor Wat temples have played a key role for over 1000 years. Today they still
present some of the greatest challenges and opportunities for cultural tourism and the
international community.

· Sihanouk Ville, which is the premier beach resort, Keb coastal zone and eco-
tourism in the north-east provinces, Ratanakiri, Mondulkiri & Stoeung Treng.

Achievements and challenge

30 years of war and turmoil have left Cambodia a shattered country. In these circumstances
it is a great challenge that Cambodia has been developing tourism to restore the economy.
Tourism in Cambodia has been able to attract and maintain an average of 20% increase per
year in tourist arrivals between 1993 to 1997.

According to the statistics, the international tourist arrivals to Cambodia by air in 1999
have reached 262,907. It increased by 41% from the figures of 1998. In the first nine

9
Presentation by H.E. Mr. Veng Sereyvuth, Minister of Tourism of the Royal Government of Cambodia

67
months of 2000, the international arrivals to Cambodia by air have reached 247,234. This
shows an increase of 34.22% compared to the same period for 1999. From this figure, the
direct flights to Siem Reap were 54,515, which is 22.05% of total arrivals, an increase of
231.3%. The total of tourist arrivals to Cambodia in the first nine months by all means, air,
land, water are 334,236 persons. This shows an increase of 27.12% compared to the same
period of 1999. Basing our forecasts on the present levels of growth, in 2003 Cambodia
should receive one million tourists.

Major Tourism Projects

The foreign tourists who visited Siem Reap in the first nine months of 2000 have reached
131,988. The increase of 100%, included:

- By air: 103,750, accounting for 78.61%


- By land: 13, 965, accounting for 10.58%
- By water:14,273, accounting for 10.81%

As the tourism infrastructure is insufficient and tourism service industries have not been
adequate, it is urgently required to improve them so as to support the rapid increase of
tourist demand and maintain the quality of tourism services for sustainable development in
the future. The Ministry of Tourism will take initiatives and concentrate in the
development of tourism infrastructure, recreation centers, and eco-tourism sites as well as
other major related tourism development, which have been elaborated in the 5-year plan.
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In order to achieve a fair level of sustainable development, Cambodia tourism needs to


continue adopting certain policies such as:

1) Airport rehabilitation

Construction and upgrading of the two international airports in Phnom Penh and Siem
Reap are essential.

Phnom Penh: the Pochentong airport in Phnom Penh needs to be upgraded, with new
runways, new terminals and air bridges to handle more tourists. The project is moving
along and looks set to be completed by the year 2003.

Siem Reap: Siem Reap, near the Angkor temples, is currently served by direct links only
to Bangkok (Thailand), Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam) and Shanghai (China), Singapore and
Mandalay (Myanmar) forcing most tourists to travel to Cambodia's number one tourist
attraction via the capital Phnom Penh. The open sky policy has been approved on direct
commercial tourism flights and landings of aircrafts from other countries, especially those
in the region, into Siem Reap airport. Airport renovations are part of a large project funded
by the Asian Development Bank loan to the government. The government unveiled a
project to upgrade tourist facilities around the ancient Angkor temples.

2) Road rehabilitation and construction

Road rehabilitation and construction, whether international, national, regional roads or


roads that give access to major tourist sites, is essential. National Road Number 6 needs to

68
be constructed to connect the Thai border to Siem Reap City where the ancient Angkor
Wat complex is located.

3) Water transport

Water routes, using the potential of the Mekong river and Tonle Sap as access ways to the
cultural historical sites in Siem Reap Province, must be developed and the standard and
quality of transportation facilities in the country must be improved.

General Information on Preservation and Conservation of Cultural Heritage

Cambodia is proud to have a rich cultural heritage encompassing about 1,080 ancient
temples located in 14 provinces throughout the country. The Angkor Wat temples have
provided cultural and spiritual inspiration for Cambodians and all others who have known
them for over 1,000 years. We now have the opportunity to share this experience with the
world through tourism. With careful planning and management, tourism can make a great
contribution to helping us rebuild our country. We must ensure tourism today is conducted
so that the temples are protected, preserved and rehabilitated for future generations – in
other words tourism must be sustainable in ecological, cultural, social and economic terms.

In these circumstances it is a great challenge for us to protect, preserve and rehabilitate this
outstanding world cultural heritage site. With the help of the international community we
have now begun the huge task of rebuilding our society, economy, infrastructure and
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facilities. We are very grateful for the tremendous international support to help us
overcome these challenges.

For tourism to be sustainable, we must develop the capacity and the infrastructure required
to promote tourism while preserving our natural and cultural resources. We recognize and
willingly accept our duties as the custodian of this outstanding historical and cultural
heritage and our responsibilities to protect, restore, manage, present and interpret this
wonder of the world.

Since sustainable tourism must benefit the local people, they must participate fully in
formulating the tourism policy. Thus, in the national tourism development plan, we have to
ensure that the integrity of the local community is preserved.

Several policy measures need to be managed and implemented to reinforce positive


cultural impact and to minimize the risk of negative impacts: We must ensure that:

· The archaeological and historic sites are properly conserved and interpreted,
and that tourists' use of them is well managed so that they are not degraded by
tourism.

· Through marketing techniques, we should attract the types of tourists who


will respect the cultural heritage and traditions of Cambodia.

· The local people must be educated about tourism, its concepts and benefits,
the policy and planning for tourism and how they can participate in tourism.

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Tourism can and should be used as a means to build up a modern cultural identity, open to
international contacts and exchange, building up an industry that is not only productive in
terms of economy but also rich in term of cooperation and cultural growth.

In order to set up policies for the development and management of cultural tourism it is
important to know and understand the cultural assets of a country in its various and
multifaceted aspects.

The national tourism development plan for Cambodia, which we have developed with the
assistance of the United Nations Development Program and the World Tourism
Organization, aims to position Cambodia as a leading destination for cultural and nature
based tourism.

As “Angkor Wat is the Pillar of the Cambodian Tourism Industry”, let me briefly describe
the steps we are taking to achieve these objectives at Angkor Wat. The main steps are:

1) World Heritage Listing

Cambodia recognizes that Angkor Wat belongs not only to the Khmer people but to the
whole world. In 1991, following the Paris Peace Accords and general agreement upon the
way forward to peace and democracy, we acceded the World Heritage Convention which is
the international law designed to protect, preserve and present the world’s outstanding
natural and cultural heritage. Angkor Wat was listed in 1992.
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2) Management Authority and Plan

The Royal Government established the Authority for the Protection of the Site and
Development of the Angkor Region (APSARA) in 1994. Extensive investigation and
studies have been undertaken into the planning, management and development issues and
the 1993 Zoning and Environmental Management Plan for Angkor (ZEMP) has been
adopted. A 1994 Master Plan Study on Integrated Development of Siem Reap and Angkor
has also been prepared by the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The
zoning and development plans are designed to ensure the protection and preservation of the
site and the sustainable development of the Siem Reap area and community.

3) Heritage Management

Let us take the concept of heritage management in terms of monuments and archaeological
sites.

The initial planning and research on the restoration and conservation of a monument,
should always be done with, not for, the local community. In the same fashion, a tourism
development plan for a potential heritage tour site should incorporate the interests of the
community who live amongst it.

Without careful planning and management, the pressures of tourism can damage and even
destroy the very sources of attraction. Tourists walking on monuments and gathering in
enclosed areas to look at features in monuments can cause extensive wear and deterioration

70
through time. The quantum effects of thousands of people walking on monuments wear
them down.

a. Site Maintenance Work

Site maintenance work is one of the basic steps towards conservation. To protect the sites
from encroaching vegetation and to carry out ongoing site management and maintenance,
local teams have been organized and trained with the help of international assistance.

Extensive maintenance and restoration work has been carried out at various sites. Each
monument calls for a specially designed approach, suited to its particular history and
geography and its state of preservation. Environmental considerations are taken into
account and the required archaeological research is undertaken.

b. Involving the Local Community

To encourage the Cambodian people to promote their national culture, the local inhabitants
are now involved in the safeguarding of the cultural environment of the site. With a view
to reinforcing protection and development measures, and in response to the urban and rural
development caused by the rapid influx of tourists, a general methodology for community
development has been worked out.

c. Protection of the Monuments


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Protecting the Angkor site against natural deterioration and decay and against the theft and
looting of art objects is an enormous on-going task.

The challenges which lie before us should not be underestimated and success should not be
taken for granted. Tourism dollars must not become the ultimate aim allowed to override
social and cultural considerations, it must be socially as well as economically viable.
Tourism can be used as the most powerful tool to sustain heritage, provided sufficient care
and sensitivity is taken in planning, development, management and marketing. Cultural
tourism has the potential to enrich appreciation of the past and forge stronger links between
the past and the present. It can empower us to meet the future with confidence – and to
tackle the challenges that will grow as the pace of change accelerates dramatically in our
increasingly borderless world.

Tourism, which is one of the world’s largest and fastest growing industries, has a very
complex nature. Since it supports economic and social development, it favours cultural
exchanges, but at the same time it creates exploitations, and a sense of loss of identity.

Tourism exerts a double influence on ethnic crafts. It is a factor for change, but also
implies a certain commercialization of culture. In the process tradition can be lost, but it
can also be conserved or acquire new forms. Cultural tourism can contribute to the
preservation of traditional culture and to the development of culture contact and exchange,
while underpinning the economic development of the country as a whole.

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Cultural and natural tourism, when done well, are a source of pride to the countries
involved, beneficial for the people, bringing revenue and employment to a country. They
also provide an avenue to better understanding of other cultures and societies.

We welcome the opportunity to share these challenges and opportunities with you. Thank
you for your interest and attention.
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72
DEVELOPMENT OF A WORK PROGRAMME FOR THE
PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION
OF THE CULTURAL HERITAGE10

Cambodia is a country rich in historical monuments scattered throughout its territory. The
Khmer cultural background has received foreign influences in historic times (first century
AD). This means that the tangible and intangible cultural assets did not derive only from
the local culture but also from ancient India and China.

We can divide Khmer architectural remains from the past into 6 periods:

1. Megalithic (300 BC – 1st Century BC)


2. Founan (1st – 4th Century AD)
3. Chenla (7th – 8th Century AD)
4. Angkorian (9th – 14th Century AD)
5. Post-angkorian (15th – 18th Century AD)
6. Modern colonial period (19th Century AD to the present days)

We also have in our possession a great number of art objects: sculptures, various
decorative objects in stone, wood, bronze and precious metal. The importance of this
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material culture heritage attracts the interest of scholars, researchers and visitors from all
Tuesday, January 12, 2010 1:50:12 AM

over the world, but it also incites the covetousness of some merchants and unscrupulous
collectors.

The sad events of the last three decades and the insecure situation in the country have
caused irreparable losses and illegal exportation of artifacts belonging to our cultural
heritage. Most of the stolen and missing objects are stone representations of deities,
sculptures of architectural component, stolen from the isolated sites, such as Koh Ker, Prah
Khan of Kompong Svay, Sombor Prei Kuk, Kulen, Banteay Chhmar and Prah Vihear.

After 1975 we have noticed many losses. Pieces have been stolen from the Wat Poveal
Museum in Battambang province, some hundreds of statues are missing from the Angkor
conservation Office, and others broken apart on the site of Angkor Wat itself.

Profiting from the political instability, malefactors have multiplied the acts of vandalism.
Numerous monuments are victims of looting or clandestine excavations, those situated in
the Angkor park are particularly targeted. This is the case of the gateway to Angkor Thom
where the heads of the gods and demons which line the access ways have disappeared. It is
also the case of the Preah Khan of Angkor where some seventy apsaras carved on the
walls of the sanctuaries have been beheaded.

The illicit traffic involves objects previously inventoried which were stolen from museums
and collections belonging to Cambodia, and also involves pieces not recorded and

10
Mr. Pich Keo, Deputy Director General, Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts, Kingdom of Cambodia

73
discovered during clandestine excavation or broken off from a monument’s architectural
ornamentation.

Until now, priceless antiquities continue to be stolen and secretly cross the border before
being shipped out to collectors in the Western world. Thefts have caused irreparable harm
to Cambodia’s heritage, and constitute not only moral and material damage to the country,
but are also a desecration of the world’s cultural heritage.

In this context, the Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts is compelled to protect, to preserve,
to restore and to promote the historical sites. It has requested the local authorities, civilian
and military, to establish or reinforce effective measures of surveillance and patrols. In this
regard, it is desirable that Khmer demobilized soldiers be employed in the surveillance,
maintenance and cleaning of the monuments.

The Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts has requested the authorities of the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation as well as the Ministry of Tourism to give
precise information to visitors concerning the prohibition of the export of protected
objects.

The armed forces and the police will have to play, among other roles, that of reinforcing
the existing laws against the illicit traffic, against the clandestine excavation or the looting
of cultural property. The administrative authorities have to ensure that the existing
regulations for the protection of cultural heritage be applied to their full extent, and that
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sanctions be taken against the offenders with the full force of law.

At the international level, the Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts wishes to obtain the
cooperation from all countries, organizations and different institutions to preserve and
restore the temple. Before 1970, the Royal government and the Ecole Française d’Extrême
Orient (EFEO), with the financial support of France, undertook the restoration of some
monuments in the Angkor complex. At present, the Royal Government does not have the
necessary budget for the restoration works, that is why the Khmer authorities must
undertake the preservation and restoration of Angkor with the help of the EFEO, the World
Monuments’ Fund, the Archaeological Survey of India, the Indonesian team, the Japanese
team for Angkor, the team from Sophia University (Japan), and others. Finally, the
Ministry has requested all the governments of the countries which have in their possession
archaeological pieces smuggled out of Cambodia to do all in their power to have them
returned.

Cultural Properties returned:

Among the pieces included in “One Hundred Missing Objects – Looting in Angkor”
(Paris, 1993), a publication of the International Council of Museums (ICOM), in
cooperation with the EFEO, five pieces stolen from the Dépôt de la Conservation
d’Angkor have been found and returned to Cambodia:

1. December 4th, 1996: A head removed from a statue of Brahma, 11th Century (DCA
3489). Origin: Trapeang Phong temple (Roluos group). Returned by Mr. Eliot
Taniewska (London)

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2. January 1997: Body of a female deity, end of 12th – beginning of 13th Century
(DCA 1429). Origin: Ta Prom temple (Angkor). Returned by Mr. Jean-Michel
Beurdelet (Paris)

3. March 17th, 1997: A head removed from a statue of Siva, beginning of 10th Century
(DCA 5729). Origin: Phnom Krom temple. Returned by Dr. Martin Lerner
(Metropolitan Museum, New York)

4. March 17th, 1997: A head removed from a male statue, end of 11th Century (DCA
5602). Origin: Trapeang Chhuk site (Angkor Region). Returned by Dr. Martin
Lerner (Metropolitan Museum, New York)

5. June 1997: Body of a female deity, end of 10th Century (DCA 7081). Origin:
Trapean Khna site (Angkor Region). Returned from Switzerland

Referring to the friendly relation between the Kingdom of Thailand and the Kingdom of
Cambodia, and the cooperation existing between the two countries relating to the
restitution to the Kingdom of Cambodia of movable cultural property, the Royal
government of Thailand returned, in 1996, 13 artifacts believed to have been smuggled
from Cambodia. With a sincere spirit of cooperation in the fight against illegal traffic, the
Royal government of Thailand has returned to Cambodia 122 artifacts which were in the
possession of the Thai authorities. After verification by means of photographs and other
evidence, these artifacts were proved to have their origin in Cambodia, in an area near the
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Thai border. Ms. Kanchana Silpa Archa, Deputy Minister of Education, presided the
ceremony with Cambodian Minister of Culture and Fine Arts, Princess Norodom Buppha
Devi, at the National Museum of Phnom Penh, on 3rd April 2000.

Political program for cultural properties:

The ancient Khmer monuments and all national cultural properties are under the
responsibility of the Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts. To participate in the national
rehabilitation and safeguarding of the complete national heritage, the Ministry has
developed its own programme in the short and long term:

· To clean and protect all the temples.

· To continue with the scientific inventories of the artifacts in museums and


throughout the monuments.

· To develop a project to safeguard and restore the five principal groups of


monuments: Sambor Prei kuk (in Kampong Thom), Banteay Chhmar (in
Banteay Meanchey), and the group of Koh Ker, Prah Vihear and Prah Khan in
Kampong Svay (all in Prah Vihear province). The Ministry has planned to create
a conservation office in each site.

The Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts is preparing the application for the inclusion in the
World Heritage List of Banteay Chhmar temple (from where 117 of the 122 artifacts
mentioned above originated).

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The Ministry sincerely hopes that this plan will be able to be implemented with the
financial and material support of all countries, especially the countries in the region, and
with the understanding of the peoples of the world, because the national cultural heritage
of the Cambodian people is part of the cultural heritage of humanity.
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PRESENTATION BY THE APSARA AUTHORITY11

Your Royal Highness,


Excellencies,
Distinguished Guests,
Ladies and Gentlemen,

First of all, I would like to welcome you to Angkor. I am in charge of the Angkor Tourist
Development Department of the APSARA Authority. I am very proud to be here today and
have the opportunity to outline our tourism policy for Angkor.

Angkor, the capital of the Khmer Empire from the 9th to the 15th centuries, is a truly unique
cultural heritage and a symbol of Khmer identity. Following a twenty-year period of war
and neglect, King Norodom Sihanouk publicly declared that Angkor was in danger,
launching an appeal for it to be safeguarded. The international community responded
positively to the appeal, and in December 1992, the site was included on the World
Heritage List. The Royal Government of Cambodia was given three years in which to
create an authority empowered to take charge of the protection and conservation of the
sites and ensure the management thereof. Once this condition was met, the World Heritage
Committee gave permanent status to the classification of the Angkor temples, which
include the sites of Angkor as well as the Roluos group and Banteay Srei temple. Many
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other monuments in Siem Reap province could not be listed because of their inaccessibility
at the time and the impossibility of giving them adequate protection.

Tourism in Cambodia must first and foremost be cultural tourism. Enhancement of the
level of services offered in connection with this prime asset would give visitors an
incentive to stay longer. However, implementation of such a policy is most challenging.
Indeed, how can we say "no mass tourism", since this is seen as a fast-track revenue
solution for a people whose income is among the lowest in the world and who have
suffered from the trauma of war? How can they resist the temptation to make money
quickly?

Already back in the 1960s, when Cambodia's economy was such that it was reasonably
self-sufficient, King Norodom Sihanouk felt that no special emphasis should be put on
tourism, that the number of visitors to Angkor should be kept low, in order to preserve the
Angkor site. The policy of cultural tourism that Cambodia intends to implement must have
specific goals in order to prevent it from turning into commercial tourism, which would
give rise to helter-skelter, wildcat development in the region.

Four key objectives have been identified:

· Achieve economic development through tourism


· Protect the archaeological heritage
· Control tourism development

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Mrs. Chau Sun Kerya, Director, Angkor Cultural Development Department, APSARA Authority,
Cambodia

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· Become a benchmark achievement with regard to economic development

I would like to refer to cultural tourism as defined in the Brussels Charter, signed in 1976
at a convention of the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS):
Article 1: "Tourism is an irreversible social, human, economic and cultural fact."

In order to achieve the goals identified for cultural tourism development, Cambodia has set
up a number of support mechanisms to serve as a basis for it. The Angkor site was
included permanently on the World Heritage List in 1995. This status is monitored by a
coordinating committee (International Coordinating Committee for the safeguarding and
Development of the Historic Site of Angkor) which has been meeting three times a year
since 1993, overseeing the safeguarding and development operations on the site. The two
co-chairs of this committee are France and Japan, the leading donors with regard to
rehabilitation of the Angkor site. UNESCO provides the services of standing secretariat,
while Cambodia is represented by the APSARA Authority.

The APSARA Authority was created by Royal Decree in 1995 in order to protect and
develop the historical site of Angkor, with emphasis on tourism in close relationship to
culture. The activities of its three line departments are clearly set in keeping with its terms
of reference:

· The Urban Development Department, which controls urban planning and


construction in the Angkor / Siem Reap region, in compliance with the zoning
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laws and in liaison with the Ministry of Land Planning, Urban Development and
Construction,

· The Culture and Monuments Department, which is responsible for maintenance


and safeguarding the monuments, in liaison with the Ministry of Culture.

· The Tourism Development Department, with responsibility for planning,


regulating and controlling the flows of tourists, in liaison with the Ministry of
Tourism.

The APSARA Authority's Tourism Policy for Angkor

Statistics collected by the company holding the concession for ticket sales to Angkor
Archaeological Park confirm that the number of tourists has been on the rise for over a
year now. In view of this increased flow of visitors, tourist management of the Angkor site
has become a matter of paramount concern with regard to the protection of Cambodia's
historic and cultural heritage.

What tourism policy has the APSARA Authority framed for the historical site of Angkor,
a product that is both authentic and original? In the Siem Reap region, Angkor itself will
feature cultural tourism, the ancient villages vernacular architecture, and the Great Lake
ecological tourism.

The dominant aspect of tourism in Cambodia must necessarily be cultural. But how can a
balance be achieved between tourism development and heritage protection? The Minister

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of Tourism, H.E. Mr Veng Sereyvuth, in his speech, quite properly pointed out that
"tourism is not just the industry of today, it is also the industry for tomorrow", and this
gives clear focus to the policy that Cambodia must adopt in order to ensure sustainable
development.

The Angkor Tourism Development Department is in the process of preparing a work plan
based on recommendations made by various international organizations at their
conferences and seminars, but which take the realities of our country into account. For
example, the Brussels Charter of 1976 -ICOMOS (which warns against the dangers of
mass tourism on cultural sites), the Sustainable Tourism Charter adopted during the
International Tourism Conference held at Lanzarote, Canary Islands, in 1995, as well as
the doctrine developed by ICOMOS in 1994 at Budapest. which:

1. "Recognises the economic functions of tourism but exposes the risks inherent in
overcrowding".

2. "Supports restoration and development activities that respect and enhance the
authenticity of the monuments and sites",

3. "Supports development efforts that promote the social role of the heritage - a
showcase of cultural exchange.

Can the APSARA Authority implement sound management practices in dealing with
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tourist flows?

- Tourism is a necessary partner, but its vitality must be channelled. This means
understanding clearly the ins and outs of the industry, as well as the complex nature of its
relationship with culture.

- How can development and modernisation be achieved, while promoting human


betterment, taking into account elements of social and cultural uniqueness without
damaging the cultural identities that make our world so rich, given that maintaining
cultural identity is also among the economic assets involved in the development policy.

- A tourism policy must be framed that respects societies, cultures and nature while
contributing to development. Tourism development must be part of overall development.
Can sustainable tourism development be achieved if there is no overall development
strategy? Can heritage be accessed as a means of showcasing the past for the present, while
preserving it for the future?

- Sustainable development, mass tourism and sustainable tourism go together. Tourism and
environment have long been considered as an antinomy, the development of one being at
the expense of' the other. But we now understand that they can be mutually supportive.
They are obviously closely interconnected, the success of the first - the contribution it can
make to the overall economy of societies - depends on the quality of the second.

- For Cambodia. preservation tourism is the by-word. The key concepts are that nature has
an intrinsic value that can never be replaced, and that heritage must be seen as a legacy
received and to be passed on. There must be joint liability for the management of natural

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and cultural heritage and solidarity among the generations - past, present and future. The
quality of the intake facilities will have considerable impact on the long-term appeal of a
tourist site. Objectives can no longer be thought out in the short term, but foresight is
needed for proper adaptation to needs in the mid-term and long term.

Conclusion

Tourism will be the leading industry of the Angkor / Siem Reap region. The number of'
visitors has constantly increased since the political situation in Cambodia has stabilized, as
confirmed by park visitor statistics. The development of international tourism must not
cause us to overlook the majority share of domestic tourism. Indeed, in-country tourism is
prompting a much greater flow of visitors than international tourism.

What measures is the APSARA Authority promoting, through the Angkor Tourism
Development Department, in order to maintain control over spiralling tourism?

The fact that the historical site of Angkor has been granted world heritage status does not
mean than Cambodia can use this national treasure without taking due precautions. This
symbol of the great Khmer civilization must be safeguarded for future generations and the
conditions set down by the World Heritage Committee in order for the site to be
maintained permanently on the list must be complied with.
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A proper balance must be struck between cultural heritage and environmental protection
activities and the inevitable development of the tourist economy, in order to meet the need
for social and economic development in a country now fully in a reconstruction phase.
This places Cambodia in a position that is both a strength and a weakness.

A public observatory must be set up in order to frame a master plan for tourist
development, to:

- Promote quality cultural tourism

- Avoid mass tourism - for the time being, this involves peak times when nationals visit the
monuments (education of the communities) - by raising the level of accommodation and
the quality of services offered. Extend tourist stays by providing quality animation

- Control tourist flows by setting up tour routes that must he followed during peak periods

- Develop sound basic infrastructure

- Education of the communities

- Involve the park communities in the tourism development process by creating tourism-
related jobs in accordance with their skills

- Train tourism staff with a keen awareness of heritage: tourism professionals must raise
awareness among their customers regarding national heritage protection

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- Set up quality tourist in-take and information facilities

- Design shuttle transportation services that enable control to be maintained over the flows
of visitors.
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82
FIRST TECHNICAL SESSION

IMPACTS OF TOURISM ON THE PRESERVATION OF


CULTURAL HERITAGE
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84
CULTURAL HERITAGE TOURISM
AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT12

It is generally acknowledged that tourism has become an international economic, social


and cultural activity, suffering from and contributing to globalization. Many people desire
tourism; some as tourism practitioners - for enjoyment, relaxation, adventure and/or
educational purposes - and some others as recipients or hosts - for the benefits that they
expect to derive from it. Tourism contributes to a better inter-cultural understanding among
nations, and in so doing it is also believed to reduce political tensions and contribute to
peace. But tourism is also feared and taken with suspicion by many tourist recipient
communities, since it can harm their social habits, affect their physical environments, and
damage their cultures, beliefs and vernacular traditions.

The importance of tourism as an income generator is now so widely accepted that


economic planners and even finance ministers make many decisions encouraging the
expansion of tourism, very often without full appreciation of what this may mean for the
continued preservation of cultural heritage.

Simultaneously, the last quarter of the 20th century has seen a renewed interest in the
conservation of cultural heritage, in its widest sense. New efforts have been undertaken, at
both the international and national levels, with a view to preserving ancient historical
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buildings and sites, local traditions and folk expressions, traditional villages with
vernacular architecture and other aspects that reflect the world's cultural diversity.

The main purpose of this presentation is to examine the factors that need to be taken into
account to ensure that the development and management of tourism at cultural heritage
sites is sustainable from an economic, environmental and socio-cultural point of view. This
means that:

a) tourism contributes to heritage conservation;


b) it is beneficial to the host societies;
c) it is meaningful and pleasant to the visitor.

The tourism profession has been particularly interested in heritage conservation efforts,
since it finds in cultural heritage a very precious source for a continuous diversification of
tourism supply. Indeed, in drawing raw materials from the abundant cultural heritage
wealth accumulated throughout the world's history, tourism is somehow returning to its
origins when travel was eminently an activity of learning and discovery, but reserved to a
few.

Indeed, an often ignored dimension of cultural heritage tourism is that it appears to many
travelers as one of the few remaining antidotes to the cultural standardization process that
is currently taking place in parallel with economic globalization.

12
Mr. Eugenio Yunis, WTO Chief for Sustainable Development

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We support the view that tourism and cultural heritage can establish a mutually
sustainable and beneficial relationship. We further state that such relationship is unique,
in that the conservation of cultural heritage sites, buildings and objects finds its full
justification, as well as a significant part of the financial resources needed, in making
available those sites to the people through tourism. And reciprocally, that tourism can find
in the wide diversity of cultural sites an endless well of attractions to give to travel and
tourism its full meaning: a sense of discovery, cross-cultural understanding and personal
enrichment.

In other words, we view sustainable tourism as a key element in ensuring the sustainability
of cultural heritage and hence its preservation. In return, sustainable and well-preserved
heritage sites and objects can provide an endless source of raw materials for tourism to
return to its origins and become sustainable in the long term.

In face of increased pressure from a higher proportion of the population wanting to travel,
To experience and learn about foreign cultures and to visit their built heritage, it is
necessary to:

a) strengthen conservation efforts at cultural heritage sites likely to be visited by high


numbers of tourists;
b) establish better regulations for visiting existing cultural heritage sites and strictly
enforce them; and
c) identify new cultural heritage attractions and develop them for tourism visitation,
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so that demand can be better spread, thus reducing the pressure on existing sites.

Cultural heritage sites and museums, as well as tourism, appeal now strongly to the middle
classes all over the world, while in the early part of the century and before, both tourism
and the appreciation of heritage were elite activities.

This is certainly a very positive contemporary development, which goes hand in hand with
overall social and economic development and with the democratization of society. What, if
not, is the use for the nations of preserving and investing moneys in their heritage if it
cannot be enjoyed by its citizens? if it does not contribute to their collective self-esteem
and cultural enrichment? if it cannot be shown to other peoples in an effort to improve
cross-cultural understanding? In this respect, it can be stated that cultural heritage has
value and is preserved only if it is used, and if it is used in a reasonable, sustainable
manner.

Tourism is among the main reasons for conserving the cultural heritage. In fact, experience
shows that heritage sites that remain closed to tourism and visits from the general public
tend to fall in decay. They suffer abandonment, looting and spoilage; climatic conditions
and other natural phenomena act destructively upon them; the surrounding nature enwrap
them up and contribute to their destruction; the absence of any economic returns from their
existence does not allow to provide funds even for a minimum level of maintenance and
upkeep; and the local community loses all respect for their cultural and symbolic value in
view of their abandonment.

On the contrary, when open for tourism, heritage sites must be kept in good conditions in
order to present them to the public in a decent form. A minimum and periodical level of

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maintenance then becomes compulsory. But over and above that, and from the public
sector and cultural conservation perspective, the main value of tourism at heritage sites is
that it serves as an introduction to the historical and cultural background of a country or
place which people might never approach otherwise.

The efforts made by UNESCO since the late 1970's - when the inscription of monuments
and sites in the World Heritage List started - have certainly helped to develop further
awareness throughout the world on the value of heritage and the need to preserve it. In
most cases, the designation of a site as part of the world heritage has meant that additional
funds are devoted to its preservation and conservation and, most important, that a
management plan is established for it.

Implicit in the UNESCO listing is the outsiders' recognition of value in the designated site,
which is perhaps the most effective triggering for tourism. Thus, it may be argued that
while inscribing a site or monument in the list is intrinsically beneficial, it may also
represent adding a further element of risk, due to the appeal that such inclusion will exert
among the public at large. Yet, as we indicated before, without heritage tourism, many
sites and artefacts would be less able to stop urban development and other pressures.

High concentrations of tourists are common at most World Heritage Sites. At the same
time, very attractive and rich monuments, villages or archaeological sites, equally
representative of the same culture or historical period remain outside the tourist circuits
and do not get any political or financial support for their conservation. Therefore, it is also
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implicit in the listing of heritage buildings or sites and in the tourism-led conservation
efforts that such designation carries with it, a lack of uniformity of concern vis-à-vis
cultural heritage, which is one of the principles of conservation.

It might be a good initiative for governments and the international community to start
considering fresh, innovative policies vis-à-vis the valorisation and conservation of the
built cultural heritage. More equitable and less selective heritage recognition forms are
needed than purely through inscription in a list. Heritage conservation policies and
incentives could be established to promote, for instance, the development of additional
heritage destinations in towns or villages that have direct historical and cultural links with
a nearby major heritage site.

A policy of this kind, if properly conducted, would enable a better physical distribution of
tourists and would provide opportunities to many more people and places to preserve their
heritage and generate economic and cultural benefits from it. Reciprocally, it would
provide tourists a wider choice of heritage destinations and the possibility of enhancing the
quality of their travel experience. It might also allow tourism and heritage managers to
segregate the different layers of consumers according to their different levels of cultural
interest in the heritage to be visited.

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CONDITIONS FOR A MUTUALLY BENEFICIAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
TOURISM AND CULTURAL HERITAGE

The key questions are:

a) How to establish the right balance between the needs, interests and facilities
required for the tourists and the conservation objectives. And,

b) How to make compatible both objectives without affecting the site's physical fabric
and its symbolic or spiritual value for the local community.

We propose 14 conditions for achieving a mutually beneficial relationship between tourism


and cultural heritage:

Condition 1: understanding by the tourism sector of the holistic nature of culture.

Condition 2: understanding, by the cultural heritage specialists and conservation


professionals in general, of the importance of tourism and of the needs and legitimate
desires of the tourist.

Condition 3: involving the local community in the definition of a tourism policy and in the
decision-making process concerning heritage tourism.
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Condition 4: committing the support of the local community to the tourism project.

Condition 5: strengthening the capacity of the local community to have a meaningful role
in the management of heritage tourism.

Condition 6: preparing a tourism master plan or a site management plan for the heritage
object.

Condition 7: identifying capacity constraints at the sites and setting up a maximum


carrying capacity.

Condition 8: responding to the needs and preferences of cultural travelers and of' other
categories of visitors.

Condition 9: interpreting the heritage sites for the tourists, so that they leave the place with
a real understanding of its cultural value.

Condition 10: managing tourists at heritage sites, in order to avoid possible damages and
enhance the tourists' experience.

Condition 11: setting up a marketing strategy and a pricing policy for tourism at heritage
sites.

Condition 12: establishing appropriate mechanisms for ensuring that a significant


proportion of tourism earnings reverts to conservation purposes.

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Condition 13: monitoring the impacts of tourism on the site to serve as early warnings of
major problems.

Condition 14: introducing remedial actions whenever and wherever needed.

In conclusion, the systematic application of the above conditions should guarantee that
cultural tourism at heritage sites is socially, economically and environmentally sustainable
and contributes to the conservation of sites.
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IMPACT OF TOURISM FOR THE PRESERVATION
OF CULTURAL HERITAGE – HISTORIC CITIES13

Introduction

When I read what is being published on “the end of history” and “confrontation between
cultures ", I feel highly proud being an Egyptian, belonging to the oldest human culture, to
a country which has witnessed a continuity of several civilizations, with its monuments
scattered all over its deserts and on the banks of the Nile still witnessing the march of
history, inviting visitors and guests from all over the world to come and enjoy visiting
these monuments and treasures.

Culture tourism was born in contemporary Egypt with the arrival of the French military
expedition led by Napoleon in 1798. This event was the beginning of direct contact and
cultural interaction between modern Egypt and Europe. Thanks to the French scholars and
scientists who accompanied the expedition and published the volume entitled “Description
de l’Egypte", which is considered as the first international complete “guide book” and the
main reference illustrating and describing social activities, habits and national traditions of
the Egyptian people at that time, Egyptian monuments were properly recorded in detail.
The information contained in this book was then transferred from France to the rest of
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Europe, arising the interest of the whole world towards the treasures and civilizations of
Egypt.

The discovery of the “Rosetta Stone” in 1799 (by which Champolion was able to decipher
the mysteries of hieroglyphics) - is considered the beginning of the true interest in
restudying pharaonic history.

Development of Culture Tourism in Egypt

The tourism industry in Egypt has traditionally been based upon culture tourism and at the
early stages of its development depended mainly on the cultural dimension. However,
under the pressure of mass tourism, coastal tourism began to attract the attention and
consideration of officials and investors alike. At present, we must restore the balance
between the different components of the tourism product by strengthening the cultural part.

Country Image

To most peoples, the image of Egypt is focused on Pharaonic civilization. Libraries and
bookstores all over the world display a large selection of books in different languages,
published annually by international publishing houses, which throw more light on the
Pharaonic history, monuments and civilizations which have flourished in the Nile valley.

13
Laila Bassiouny, Undersecretary, Ministry of Tourism (Egypt)

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Every student in every school or college all over the world studies the history of Egypt
and the Pharaonic civilization. This civilization and its glory is not only “the gift of the
Nile” but can also be considered as "the gift of the Egyptians, contributing to the wealth of
knowledge and culture and representing a genius created by a given geographical situation
and time".

Egypt is mentioned in the Bible and in the Koran, it was the focus of many events recorded
in the holy books: Joseph and his brothers in Egypt, Moses and the Pharaohs of Egypt and
the exodus, the Ten Commandments over Sinai, or the flight of the holy family from
Palestine to Egypt.

Experts assure that it is rather easy to sell a good product if it is properly wrapped and
properly promoted and presented. The exterior appearance is important to a product such
as tourism, and it is vital for the Egyptian culture tourism, which is a superb product, to
pay great attention to the restoration and the embellishment of the archaeological sites.

LOUXOR

Egypt is considered as the world’s greatest open-air museum, filled with awe-inspiring
monuments of ancient civilizations, and Luxor is considered as the main gallery of this
museum.

Located 670 km south of Cairo, Luxor, which was the seat of power from 2100 to 750 BC,
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is unique among the cities of the world. Wherever you walk, you feel that you are
experiencing the past and the present at the same time. There is hardly a place in the city
that does not have a relic that tells of the grandeur of the ancient Egyptians several
thousand years ago. The future of the city is related to both its present status and of course
its glorious past.

Since the first organised tour arranged by Thomas Cook over a hundred years ago, Luxor
has become a must in any program for tourists visiting the monuments of Egypt. The city's
huge pillared monuments are situated along both banks of the Nile, in the City of the
Living, in the east, where the life giving sun rises, and in the City of the Dead, in the west,
where the sun, in its never-ending orbit, bids farewell to life. Today, you can walk through
history; past statues with the heads of gods or beneath pillars carved with lotus buds and
papyrus, ride in a horse-drawn calèche, sail in a felucca, take a sunset cruise or see the city
from a hot-air balloon.

The fame of the city started with the international interest in Egyptology and the findings
of the excavations carried out through the years by international scholars (the climax was
of course the discovery of the tomb of king Tutankhamon. intact and complete). The
cinema industry has also contributed to promote Luxor to the general public thanks to
numerous movies featuring the different stories related to the history of the Pharaohs.

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Main monuments in Luxor

East Bank

- Temple of Luxor, built by the two Pharaohs Amenhotep III and Ramses II. The temple
was dedicated to Amun-Ra' whose marriage to Mut was celebrated annually, when the
sacred procession moved by boat from Karnak to Luxor temple.

- Karnak temple, considered one of the greatest places of worship in history. It includes
many singular temples dedicated to Amun, his wife Mut and their son (Khonsu, the moon
deity).

West Bank

- The Colossi of Memnon, the only remnants of a temple commemorating Amenhotep III
(legend has it that when they suffered cracks they sang, so the Greeks named them after
Memnon, the legendary hero killed during the Trojan war, who, called every morning his
mother Eos, the dawn goddess; she bewailed him, shedding tears that were said to be the
dewdrops).

- The tombs of the Valleys of the Kings and Queens: these are the tombs ordered by the
kings and queens of the new kingdom to be carved in the rock faces of the valley to
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safeguard them against grave-robbers (one of the most beautiful tombs is that of Queen
Nefartari, wife of Ramses II, which has been closed several years for restoration and will
be opened to the public next November. The entrance fee will be L.E. 100 (ten times the
fees for the visit of the Pyramids area!) and the number of visitors per day will be limited
to only 200 persons, each group staying only 10 minutes. This is an example of the ideas
which, if they are successful, could be implemented in the future in similar sites.

- Commemorative temples and the Tombs of the Nobles, the most important being Deir-el-
Bahari temple, built by Queen Hatsheput and composed of three impressive rising terraces
split by a road.

Tourist traffic to Luxor

After studying the current tourist traffic and the forecast of future movements of tourists
into the city, we have reached the following conclusion: although the hotel capacity of the
city represents only 10% of the total hotel capacity on the national level, the influx of
tourists to Luxor allows us to measure the success of our cultural tourism policy, since
Luxor is exclusively a cultural tourism destination.

The outlook of Luxor as a touristic destination is axed mainly around four pivots:

1) Vast archaeological wealth: this is the sinew of Luxor’s attraction. This wealth is
expected to grow due to the fact that more than 140 foreign expeditions are excavating in
the different archaeological sites, while 50 Egyptian missions belonging to the Antiquities
Department and Egyptian universities are doing the same with fruitful results.

92
Improving the accessibility between the archaeological sites and the areas where tourists
stay is a must, that is why we ask the organizations and authorities concerned (national and
local) to do their utmost to collaborate in this respect and to focus on the embellishment of
the landscaping of the different sites.

The maintenance and restoration of all the historical sites, under the authority of the
Ministry of Culture and the Antiquities Department, is of prime importance.

2) Professionalization of tourism: we are very concerned about the negative effects on


the monuments of the increasing numbers of tourists visiting the archaeological sites and
tombs. Steps must be taken to control and schedule the traffic to Luxor and within the city
and its archeological compounds (a special “visitors center" was established recently but
its opening has been postponed to a later date).

To improve the standard of guides and the personnel of hotels and travel agencies, the
Ministry of Tourism is co-sponsoring several programs to be implemented in the
framework of the national program for the development of human resources. Our aim is to
upgrade the services of these establishments and their employees.

3) The Nile and the environment: The World Bank stated in its “World Development
Report 1992” that “without adequate environmental protection, development will be
undermined, and without development, environmental protection will fail”. Development
in Luxor is also focused towards the improvement of services in the current 200 floating
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hotels, and aims to provide infrastructure and other services for up to 300 by the year 2000.

Nile cruise tourism has always been a traditional form of tourism, and great attention is
given to the environmental impact of the increased use of the Nile. Certain projects are
underway which include the development and improvement of the existing docks and
berthing facilities by supplying the necessary services and infrastructure, and the
construction of new berthing facilities to avoid overcrowding; the construction of facilities
for repair, servicing and building of floating hotels; the establishment of a center for
navigation control and for the provision of health, safety, fire and other emergency
services; and the restoration and embellishment of surrounding areas.

4) From the city to the region: it is important to stress that the relationship between the
city and its region is not only a matter of development or planning, but that it can be
considered a dynamic tool in the promotion and marketing of our cultural tourist product.

Luxor is qualified to attract a large segment of our international tourists currently visiting
the Red Sea (for recreation and water sports). Hurgada, the main tourist resort on the Red
Sea and an international center for aquatic sports, is only 3 hours away from Luxor (by air-
conditioned bus or limousine). Daily trips to the archaeological sites in Luxor, which are
now offered as an optional activity to most groups of tourists, could become in the future
an integral part of the program for all. To solve the seasonality problem in the area, special
tourist events and festivals could also be arranged during the off-season months.

Why should our promotional activities be limited only to Luxor? Is it because its
antiquities enjoy an international fame? We could include other important archaeological
sites and monuments north of Luxor up to the Middle Egypt (places like Minya) and

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towards the south to Asswan and Nobia. Why should we limit ourselves to the traditional
visits to Luxor? We must encourage the tour operators to arrange comprehensive programs
covering Luxor, Bani, Hassan, Ashmounin, Tuna el Gabal, Tel el Amarnah, Abydos,
Akhmeem, Dendera, Esna or Edfu. At present, only a few trips from Luxor to some of
these sites are arranged by cruises or buses as optional tours, but we should promote the
other sites intensively so that they are internationally known, just as Luxor.

Studies regarding the near future

Studies regarding the future of the city have been carried out by the World Bank as well as
several international and Egyptian consultant firms, which all agree on the following
recommendations:

· Select 3 locations as the main docks for Nile cruises (one in the middle, a second in
the south and a third in the west)

· Implement strict regulations controlling the construction of new dwellings near the
archaeological sites, and take the necessary steps to move the existent communities
surrounding these sites and tombs to new areas.

· Develop 3 new communities (to be completed by the year 2010). The first one, for
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housing purposes, is located 14 kms from Luxor and will also include a new golf
city; the second community will respond to the new demand for farmlands; and the
third one, located between the two previous communities, will serve the region as a
center for small agricultural industries.

Luxor is a competitive cultural product. I witnessed the success of the opera "Aida”
performed in Luxor (in 1987 and1994), which was attended by thousands of tourists. The
worldwide coverage of the events encourages us to create similar events to promote our
heritage in a sophisticated style.

MEDIEVAL CAIRO

Cairo, the capital of Egypt, is the largest city on the African continent. With its "thousand
minarets", the picturesque oriental bazaars, stylish hotels along the Nile and gracious
residential districts, it perfectly combines the exoticism of its past and the sophistication of
its present. To understand the secret of Cairo’s magnetism, and to appreciate the spirit of
this living entity, one must travel back in time some fifty centuries to imagine the birth of
this radiant city which abounds in the splendours of the Pharaohs, the earliest achievements
of Christianity, and the glories of Islam.

The history of the region starts on the west bank of the Nile, in Memphis, Egypt’s oldest
capital. Babylon was originally established by the Persian emperors and later became a
Roman fortress. It was also to Egypt that St. Mark, the first evangelist, came and settled in
the latter half of the first century A.D. From that time, the teachings of Christianity spread
in Egypt, leaving everlasting imprints in the form of churches and monasteries that are

94
filled with paintings of the saints, testifying to the grandeur, beauty and mastery of
Egyptian Coptic art. Several churches and monasteries were built at the locations where the
Holy Family found shelter during their flight to Egypt. The Coptic period is of special
significance since it constituted a link between the Greco-Roman and Islamic periods.
However, it was the role of Islam to propel the area to its lofty position of power and
prestige in the modern world.

Egypt’s first Islamic capital emerged from the military camp of the Moslem leader Amr Bn
el As (641 A.D.), followed by the foundation of several other new communities in the
same area. All these Islamic capitals were to become the nucleus of Cairo itself, founded
by the Fatimids who came to Egypt in the year 969 A.D. The growing capital then
flourished with palaces, mosques and a surrounding wall.

Saladin – the hero of the crusades - ordered the building of a more massive wall to
surround Fatimid Cairo and the remains of the previous Islamic capitals. Saladin’s famous
citadel towering above the city in the Mokattam hills is still considered one of the
prominent features of Cairo to this day.

During the subsequent periods of Mameluke and Turkish domination of Egypt, Cairo’s
architecture flourished and its beauty was complemented by a multitude of stately palaces
and mansions as well as magnificent mosques built during that time.
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95
IMPACTS OF TOURISM ON CULTURAL HERITAGE
IN SRI LANKA – A CASE STUDY14

Historical Background

Sri Lanka is an island in the Indian Ocean blessed with an array of natural and built
attractions, which include seven world heritage sites and a large number of prehistoric sites
scattered in many parts of the country. It has a recorded history of over 2500 years, going
back to the 6th Century BC, and was ruled by an unbroken succession of Kings starting
with king Vijaya in 541 BC and ending with king Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe in 1815, when
the Kandian kingdom fell to the British and the entire Island came under the colonial rule
of the British. Sri Lanka gained her independence in 1948.

The early Sinhalese kings established their kingdom in the north-central part of Sri Lanka,
with Anuradhapura as the capital, in the 6th Century BC. One thousand five hundred years
later (early 11th Century AD) the capital shifted to Polonnaruwa, in the south-eastern part
of the island. From the 13th Century AD, the capital was shifted from place to place for
short periods and finally firmly established in Kandy in the 16th Century AD.
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The single most important factor that influenced the reigns of Sinhala kings from the
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ancient times and the civilization, art and culture of the Sinhalese people was the
introduction of Buddhism into Sri Lanka in 247 BC. The Sinhala kings and the people
embraced Buddhism with devotion and enthusiasm and modeled their life according to the
teachings of the Buddha, and consequently Sri Lanka gradually became a very prosperous
nation. There was also a rapid development of aesthetic culture including music, dancing,
paintings and sculpture, as well as literary work, etc. These kings engaged themselves in
building giant stupas (pagodas), monastery complexes, shrine rooms, institutions of
learning, palaces, moats, rock fortresses, pleasure gardens, ponds, works of sculpture,
audience halls, theaters etc. In addition, they also built giant irrigation reservoirs for the
storage of water for agricultural and other purposes, along with magnificent and
technically advanced irrigation canals to move water to agricultural fields. The remains of
this glorious historical past, which spans over a period of nearly 2000 years, can still be
seen in many parts of the country particularly in the three ancient cities which are now
known as the Cultural Triangle.

Cultural Heritage and Tourism

Sri Lanka launched a major heritage conservation project in 1981 under the Cultural
Triangle Development programme, with technical and financial assistance from UNESCO,
and continued until the end of 1998 handling six major heritage sites in Anuradhapura (two
sites), Polonnaruwa (two sites), Sigiriya, Dambulla and Kandy. There had been no
conservation and restoration programme of this magnitude undertaken in the past. It
appears that the primary reason that prompted sponsors to conceive such a project is the

14
Mr. P.P. Hettiarachchi, Director, Community and Industry Relations, Ceylon Tourist Board

96
rapid development of international tourism in Sri Lanka in the latter part of 1970s and the
increasing volume of foreign tourists visiting the Cultural Triangle sites.

Sri Lanka's tourism development programme, initiated in 1966, was based on a 10 year
Tourism Development Master Plan covering the period from 1967 to 1976. The master
plan identified the above cities as "Ancient Cities Zone", encompassing the major cultural
attractions of Sri Lanka. The plan recommended the development of tourist facilities and
services in these ancient cities for the promotion of cultural heritage as one of the major
tourist attractions of Sri Lanka.

Since the inception of the tourist development programme in 1966, tourist arrivals to Sri
Lanka gradually increased from around 19,000 in 1966 to nearly 232,000 in 1980 and
407,000 in 1982. Thereafter the tourism industry has faced various difficulties and tourist
arrivals have been fluctuating within the range of 180,000 to 407,000 from 1983 to 1999.
Tourism in Sri Lanka is regarded as one of the principal sources of foreign exchange
earnings, generating new employment opportunities, and as a catalyst for regional
development. The majority of tourists (70%-80%) buy packaged tours, which consist of
sightseeing tours with a beach stay. The rest of the tourists buy one of the components:
either a beach stay or a round tour. Combined tours, which include a beach stay in the
regional destinations and sightseeing tours in Sri Lanka, have become popular among the
South European and East Asian tourists. The main component of sightseeing tours is the
Cultural Triangle. A fair number of tourists go on special interest tours on heritage and
nature.
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Positive Impacts of Tourism on Cultural Heritage

a) Contribution for conservation

With the introduction of the Cultural Triangle in 1981, the number of tourists visiting
Kandy and Sigiriya increased to around 90% of the total arrivals while the number of
tourists visiting other cultural sites in Polonnaruwa and Dambulla increased to around 65%
of the total by 1999. The total cost of completing the planned project activities in the major
heritage sites was initially estimated to be in the region of US$ 450 million.

A major portion of the estimated cost was expected to come from the sale of entrance
tickets to tourists visiting these sites. A round trip ticket, which permitted entry to all the
sites in the three ancient cities, which was originally priced at US$ 10 in the early 80s, was
gradually increased to US$ 32.50 in 1996. The tickets are also available to individual sites,
priced at a range from US$ 5 to US$ 15, which is considered a relatively high rate for an
entrance ticket to an archaeological site in the region. The average annual income derived
from selling entrance tickets at these sites increased from US$ 3 million in the early 1990s
to US$ 4.7 Million in 1999. The money collected at the gates is directly used for the
conservation of the Cultural Triangle sites and other archaeological sites as well. Three
modern Interpretation Centers were set up in Polonnaruwa, Jetawana and Abayagiriya as
part of the conservation programme. This income meets around 80% of the recurrent
expenditure of the conservation activities carried out in these sites. The bulk of the actual
financing of the project activities comes from the tourism sector as seen from the following
figures in 1999.

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Source Percentage

1. Sale of Tourist tickets 79.7


2. Government Grants 12.0
3. Foreign Sources 4.0
4. Other Sources 4.3
--------
Total 100.0
=====
Source – Central Cultural Fund.

Thus, it can easily be seen that development of tourism has been the major contributory
factor for these heritage conservation projects undertaken by Sri Lanka.

b) Revival of Arts and Crafts

Tourism has become a new patron of the arts in Sri Lanka. In ancient times the arts were
patronized by the King or aristocratic families who could afford to commission
performances of dance, music, paintings or sculpture, but modern day entertainments were
gradually neglected by the traditional local rich class. In this broad vacuum, where arts and
crafts of the people had become stagnant, came a new patron, namely tourism. Today
tourism is the largest singular stimulator of the indigenous arts and crafts in Sri Lanka.
Tourism brought the consumer to the doorstep of the artisan. The arts and crafts did not
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need to be packaged and exported: although neglected, they were there as a living form of
our social and cultural life. Thus the tourists became the new consumer of handicrafts and
indigenous dance and music. As a result, the living conditions of traditional sculptors,
weavers, wood cavers and dancers have improved as their services and products satisfy the
demand of tourists. Tourists in Sri Lanka spend 10% of the daily average expenditure of
US$ 60 on the purchasing of souvenir items.

Negative Impacts

a) Over visitation of tourists at religious places and historical sites.

Most of the historical sites visited by tourists are Buddhist temples currently open for
worship. Disturbances at the places of worship have become an issue, discussed in the
media. Religious traditions are seen as eroded when they become a commodity to be
marketed for tourists. An angry devotee at one of the most sacred Buddhist temple in Sri
Lanka remarked that "it will no longer be a place of sanctity, the place of worship of a
living religion, but a trampling ground for hordes of tourists".

Over-visitation of archaeological sites, litter and vandalism, congestion, and souvenir


taking are some of the negative effects of tourism which could be controlled (eg. during the
week-ends, around 50,000 tourists, both domestic and foreign, visit Sigiriya).

98
b) Illegal export of antiques

Tourism is blamed for the loss of antiques and articles of historic value as a result of the
artificial situation created by high-spending tourists who have the benefit of a better rate of
exchange.

c) Degradation of the cultural tradition

It is argued that tourism demand is responsible for the commercialization of traditional


crafts, dance and music (rituals). In order to adjust to the time that tourist can spend;
suppliers of tourist services have brought traditional and ritual dance and music forms to
the stage, which resulted in a considerable erosion of authenticity. Traditional crafts too
lose their authenticity and artisan skills. They tend to modify the traditions to please
tourists, and start large-scale production by using machines in order to meet the increasing
demand (e.g. instant cultural shows, fire walking on the stage, low quality souvenir items
etc.).

Mitigation of negative impacts

a) Planning and monitoring tourism development

The Ministry of Tourism is one of the representatives of the high-powered Board of


Governors of the Cultural Triangle in which the Prime Minister acts as Chairman. The
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Board holds regular meetings and takes decisions regarding the administration,
conservation, promotion and regulation of the development in the Cultural Triangle sites.
Effective and proactive tourism management is essential to mitigate the ill effects of
tourism.

b) Community Awareness Programmes

It is of paramount importance to educate residents around heritage sites and other areas
where tourists visit in large numbers on tourism, its benefits, its influence on society, as
well as the problems it conveys and how to overcome them.

Some of the Community Awareness Programmes conducted by the N.T.O. (Ceylon Tourist
Board) in collaboration with the respective agencies are as follows:

1. Inclusion of tourism as a subject in the school curriculum.

2. Conduct seminars and presentations for teachers and school children.

3. Educate law-enforcing officers of the police, customs, NTO and other related
institutions on new laws, and how to implement them effectively.

4. Organize community and village meetings involving direct contacts between


tourism officials, residents and persons who are already in the business: vendors,
beach boys, touts etc.

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5. Conduct workshops for artists on how to maximize their skills in keeping with the
traditions and authenticity and how to increase their income by producing a piece
of art.

6. Publish newspaper articles on tourism events and issues.

7. Organize regular weekly radio broadcasts (regional). Radio is often the best way to
reach a large number of people in traditional and widely dispersed areas.

8. Arrange regular television programmes on cultural heritage and social values.

c) Behavioral Guidelines for tourists

A brochure titled "Sri Lanka, a Way of Life" is printed and distributed among the tourists
through information outlets, hotels and guides in order to inform them on the local
customs, dress codes, acceptable social behaviors, how to conduct in religious places,
curtsies and traditions to observe, taking photographs etc.

d) Legal Enactments/Regulations

Introduction of new laws or amendments to the existing codes, which mitigate negative
impacts of tourism:
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1. Enforcement of tourist guide codes: only the licensed guides are allowed to
practice.

2. Reinforcing existing punishments against antique smuggling and other antisocial


activities

3. Making the registration of suppliers of goods and services for the tourist industry
with the Government regulatory bodies compulsory.

Conclusion

Tourism contributes to the conservation and promotion of the cultural heritage in Sri Lanka
to a great extent. Proactive management and community participation paves the way to
minimize the negative impacts of tourism while optimizing the benefits.

Annex I

Video Presentation - A glimpse of the past

The main cultural centers of the country for tourists are the monuments in the Cultural
Triangle Area, which were known and visited by Buddhist tourists of the Asian Region
from early periods; this has increased later with the development of tourism in the country.

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The main Heritage Sites

Anuradhapura;

Sri Lanka's first capital, founded about the 5th Century BC, was known as far as the
Mediterranean in the 3rd Century BC

Sri Maha Bodhi –

The sacred Bodhi Tree (Ficus religiosa), a sapling from the tree under which Prince
Siddhartha became the Buddha in India, is a living monument for the entire Buddhist
world.

Abayagiri Monastery Complex

An educational and religious institution, particularly renowned from the 1st Centry BC to
the 9th Century AD, where the traveler monks from China Fa Hsian and Huan Tsang
studied and kept contemporary records. According to them, about 5,000 monks lived in the
monastery. At present 27 ruined sub-monasteries and two stupas (pagodas) have been
discovered in the area. The central stupa measures 370 ft, second only to Jetawana. A
modern museum was built with the assistance of the Government of China.

Jetawana Monastery Complex


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Jetawana Monastery developed between the 3rd and the 9th Century AD. The Jetawana
Stupa was built by king Mahasena, a great tank builder in the years – 275 –301 AD, at the
time of the collapse of the Roman Empire in the 4th Century AD. The Stupa was the third
tallest building in the world, surpassed only by the two tallest pyramids of Giza. Seventy
buildings in the complex were either excavated or conserved.

Apart from the two main monastery complexes, statues of Buddha, moonstones (stone
carved doorstep), beautiful ponds, guard stones, stone bridges, pools and many other
monuments scattered around Anuradhapura are a proof of the genius craftsmanship and
advanced knowledge of architecture of our ancestors.

Mihintale

Over twelve kms east of Anuradhapura is Mihintale, where Buddhism was introduced in
Sri Lanka in the 3rd century BC. A grand stairway of 1840 steps, an ancient hospital for
monks, beautiful ponds, stupas which are in their original forms and many other
monuments show the Sri Lankan identity. This site is considered as the oldest declared
sanctuary in the world (3rd Century BC) to have survived to this date.

Polonnaruwa

The medieval capital of Sri Lanka, Polonnaruwa, is more popular among the tourists who
are on round tours. Statues of Buddha which are sculpture masterpieces at Galviharaya,
royal palaces, audience halls, royal ponds, Buddhist shrines, image houses and stupas of
different styles, including Siam style, from the 11th to the 13th Century AD can be visited

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within a short period of time. The modern museum, which was established recently,
exhibits the artifacts excavated, models, artist impressions and photographs of the glory of
the past.

Sigiriya

One of Asia's major archaeological sites, Sigiriya presents a unique concentration of 5th
century urban planning, architecture, gardening, engineering, hydraulic technology art and
poetry. It was essentially a royal walled capital of the 5th century AD with a palace
complex on top of a rock 200 meters high. Elaborate pleasure gardens, extensive moats and
ramparts and well known paintings already attract visitors as far back as the 6th Century
AD.

Dambulla – Painted Caves

The five caves at Dambulla, dating from the 1st Century BC and consisting of 22,000
square feet of Buddhist paintings, were considered in the 17th Century as the largest area of
ceiling and wall paintings found in the world. More than 150 statues of Buddha from the
5th to the18th Century AD, statues of kings, gods and deities are depicted in a very colorful
manner.

Kandy
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A living city with ancient monuments centered around the Royal palace and the Temple of
the Sacred Tooth Relic of Buddha. The temples dedicated to Vishnu, Kataragama
(Skanda), Pattini (Hindu gods and goddesses) and Natha ( a local deity) aas well as a large
number of ancient Buddhist temples with paintings and statues around Kandy city attract
visitors. The main religious buildings, the audience hall, and 30 other private buildings
have been conserved under the heritage city programme. It is one of the rare cities where
there is a lake and a rain forest in the middle of the City. Kandy Perehera, an ancient
pageant with thousand dancers and about hundred elephants held in July/August, has
become a showcase of our traditional art and music.

Galle Fort

A sea fort built by the Portuguese in 1505 AD was extended and fortified by the Dutch and
the British. At present it is a living walled city in the capital of Galle, south of the country
displaying Dutch and early British architecture, narrow pathways, bastions and esplanades.

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SECOND TECHNICAL SESSION

POLICIES AND GUIDELINES FOR SUCCESSFUL


CULTURAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT AT NATIONAL
AND LOCAL LEVEL
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IRAN, THE MAJOR DESTINATION
FOR CULTURAL TOURISM15

In The Name of Allah

Excellencies, distinguished guests, ladies and gentleman,

First of all, I would like to thank the government of Cambodia for hosting such an
Important Conference and congratulate WTO for a relevant venue selection.

The history and rich culture of Iran is known to all worlds. According to the definition of
cultural tourists and their needs, Iran could be the destination best suited to satisfy those
tourists.

Let me give you some brief information about the country, of which I know I will only be
able to reflect part of the attraction.

Facts about Iran


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The name of Iran comes from an ancient term "a-eer-ya-nem va-ee-jo" in Avesta, the holy
Tuesday, January 12, 2010 1:50:12 AM

book of Zoroastrianism, meaning the land of the Aeers. This term refers to a certain
plateau, which the Indo-Iranians, a branch of Aryans selected for their settlement. With the
passage of time, the term "Aeer" changed to "Er" and later to "Ir". "Er" or "Ir", in the
ancient languages of the time, meant “noble”. The official name of our country in the
Sassanid period (400-600 A.D.) was Iranshatr or Iranshahr. "Shatr" or "Shahr" meaning
country. Thus Iranshahr means The Country of The Nobles.

Iran, which has an area of 1,648,000 km2, and a population of 64,878,000 (1994 est.), is
one of the most strategically located countries in the world. To give an idea, Iran's
population tops the total population of all the other Persian Gulf countries, including Saudi
Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, UAE and Jordan! Iran occupies the entire 2,440 km eastern coast of
the Persian Gulf that borders six other oil-rich Gulf states. Iran also borders Pakistan,
Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkey and Iraq, and shares its 740 km
Caspian Sea coast line with Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Russia. Iran was a
constitutional monarchy, and turned to a republic after an Islamic movement in 1979.

Iran has a very colorful and diversified landscape, ranging from high plateau to mountain
ranges, and to plains bordering the Persian Gulf and Caspian Sea. The dominant color is a
delicate high brown, like the coat of a dear, but the countryside can vary enormously
according to the altitude and vegetation.

The Iranian plateau is very high, ranging at an average of 1,000 to 2,000 meters (3,000 to
6,000 feet). The plateau, besides being of varying heights, is edged by two large mountain

15
Dr. Nasrollah Mostofi, Vice-Deputy Minister for Research and Training Affairs

105
chains, the Alborz to the north, rising to 5,670 meters and forming a continuous wall above
the banks of the Caspian sea; and the Zagross, perhaps less impressive than the Alborz,
which forms a formidable barrier on the west and south, with its peak rising to 4,500
meters. The massive volcanic peak of Damavand, in the Alborz mountain range, separates
the Iranian plateau from the moist coastal regions bordering the Caspian Sea. Apart from
the plateau and the mountains, the central desert covering one-third of the surface of the
country, as large as the whole of France, must also be taken into account. Its two parts, the
Dasht-e-Kavir and the Dasht-e-Lut represent practically impassable barriers of pebbles,
sand and salt.

Iran is a vast country made up of very different climatic regions, whose climate can change
from one time of the year to another, as well as between different regions at the same time
of the year. There are generally four seasons: Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter. Spring
starts from mid-March and the weather is pleasant with warm and sunny days and
occasional spring showers. The average temperature during Spring is around 20-25C
degrees. In summer the heat is often overwhelming, with the temperature frequently rising
above 35°C in Tehran. In the summer time, the pleasant weather and beautiful sceneries in
Northern Iran and the Caspian Sea attract many people who want to escape from the heat
and spend their holidays in the mountain areas and the sea side. Autumn starts from mid-
September with rather cool and sunny days. Beautiful sceneries with colorful yellow, red
and brown autumn leaves can be seen just an hour drive from Tehran. In winter, the cold
can be intense and the thermometer frequently drops below zero centigrade to -5 or -10
degrees centigrade at night, even in Tehran. Shemshak and Dizin Ski slopes in Northern
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Tehran are popular during the winter.

Iran is very rich in terms of natural resources. Almost one-tenth of the world's oil and one-
fifth of the world's natural gas reserves are in Iran. Iran's total oil reserves stands at 92.9
billion barrels. At the present extraction rate, it will last 70 years. Iran is ranked second in
the world as regards its natural gas reserve, totalling 20.7 trillion cubic meters, and at the
current daily consumption rate, it will take Iran 360 years to exhaust it! Besides natural
resources, unlike many other Middle Eastern countries, Iran possesses strong agricultural
and service sectors. These assests, together with a population of more than 60 million,
make Iran a substantial domestic power from the political and economical point of view.

The official Iranian calendar is the Jalali calendar, which was designed by Omar Khayyam
(1048-1122), a famous philosopher, poet and a mathematician. The Iranian Calendar has
365 days and 12 months. The Iranian new year begins on March 21 and is dated from the
Hejira in 622 A.D. when the prophet Mohammed migrated from Mecca to Medina. In
religious matters, the Moslem calendars usually give three systems, Jalali, Islamic and
Georgian. The official week-end holiday in Iran is Friday. The Iranian school year starts
from September 21, with either 3 quarters in junior or 2 semesters in senior level
education. Iranian school year usually ends around the end of June.

Introduction
The Persian art and architecture reflect a 5,000-year-old cultural tradition shaped by the
diverse cultures that have flourished on the vast Iranian plateau occupied by modern Iran.
The history of Persian art can be divided into two distinct eras whose demarcation is the

106
mid-7th century AD, when invading Arab armies brought about the conversion of the
Persian people to Islam. Whereas during the pre-Islamic centuries artistic expression was
at the service of the kings and the worship of fire was pre-eminent, during the Islamic
period the arts served Allah, and religious structures and artifacts were the focal points of
artistic interest.

Despite this sharp break between the ancient and Islamic eras, Persian art throughout the
centuries displays an underlying unity. Subject to many foreign invasions, the Persians
were always ready to absorb artistic influences from abroad and to re-express them with
new meanings. Persian design has almost invariably stressed decorative forms rather than
the human figure. These designs are both geometrical and floral, and very similar motifs
appear in works produced hundreds of years apart. This continuity of forms - executed in
such media as stone, plaster, brick, tiles, pottery, and textiles - is the most distinctive
feature of Persian art. In addition, a continuing relationship has existed between design in
different media, as evidenced by the fact that the designs of the great Persian carpets are
also found in the glazed-tile patterns on the wall surfaces of mosques.

History
Recent archaeological excavations have shed new light on the earliest arts of the Iranian
plateau. These newly discovered prehistoric sites date back to at least 5,000 BC, and
handsome decorated pottery, some of which is eggshell thin, has been found in great
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quantities at sites dated 3,000 BC and later. Located in Luristan - a region of mountain
valleys at the western edge of the Iranian plateau -were the settlements of a people who
bred horses, served as mercenaries in the armies of Assyria, and employed smiths who
made marvelous works in cast bronze (c.2,000 BC - c.700 BC), including bits and other
horse trappings, weapons, religious totems, embossed shields and belts, and hosts of
miniature animals. Countless bronzes have been recovered from the graves of this culture,
whose precise ethnic origin is not known.

The other eras known as: Earlu Kingdom, Achaemenid Period, Sassanian Period, and
Islamic Period cannot be discussed in this short period.

Architecture
Ancient architecture

550 years before the birth of Christ, Cyrus I forged the Persian empire and built a palace
and garden for himself on a high plateau in the south-west of Iran which he named after his
tribe - Pasagardae. The outlines of his garden remain to this day. Its stone watercourses and
basins link the palaces, temples and pavilions, which constituted the complex and provided
water for his orchards which were said to have been planted in quincunxes.

Islamic Architecture

According to Islamic precepts, mandatory daily prayer was best recited in a masjid,
literally a "place of prostration", called a mosque in the West. Each mosque had a mihrab,

107
an arched niche that indicated the direction of Mecca, and a minar, or minaret, from which
the believers were called to prayer. Throughout the Islamic world, which stretched from
Spain to India, the structure of the mosque was influenced by local materials and
architectural traditions, and within Iran a distinctive type of mosque had been developed by
the time of the Seljuks. The basic plan of a square sanctuary chamber surmounted by a
dome was adopted from Sassanian architecture; the mihrab usually appeared at the center
of the sanctuary's rear wall. This sanctuary chamber was located on the axis of the
structure, at one end of an open court.

The Arts

Calligraphy, manuscript illumination, miniature painting, ceramics, textiles, carpets, and


metalwork all achieved great distinction in the Islamic art of Iran. Calligraphy enjoyed the
status of a major art. Although most inscriptions, including the large-scale ones used in
mosques, were written in Arabic rather than Persian, both languages employed the Arabic
script, which had limitless decorative possibilities. Over the centuries a vast number of
Korans were handwritten and illuminated in color, primarily in gold and blue. Illustrations
in epics and works of poetry were peopled with kings and courtiers, men and women,
without regard for the alleged Islamic prohibition against the portrayal of living beings.
Lacking the perspective drawing familiar in the West, Persian miniature paintings offer
views of the world that seem frozen in time and space, their exquisitely drawn figures
statically posed against timeless azure skies.
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The Artists
Hafez

The greatest of Iran's lyric poets, Mohammed Shamsoddin Hafez, c.1325 - c.1390, spent
virtually all of his life in the city of Shiraz. Although orphaned early, he obtained a
thorough education in the Islamic sciences - Hafez means one who has memorized the
entire Koran. His lyrics, ghazals, are noted for their beauty and bring to fruition the erotic,
mystical, and bacchic themes that had long pervaded Persian poetry. Widely acclaimed in
his own day, he greatly influenced subsequent Persian poets and left his mark on such
important Western writers as Goethe and Emerson.

Firdawsi

Firdawsi, c.935 - c.1020, whose original name was Abolqasem Mansur, is considered one
of the greatest Persian poets; he is the author of the Iranian national epic, the Shah Namah
(Book of Kings). Little is known about his life except that he lived and died in the eastern
Iranian province of Khorasan. Most of what is written about him appears to be legend.

108
Land and People

Iran is a land of contrasts; in its people and in its culture. Two thirds of the country is
desert, it has only one navigable river and its largest lake is almost as salty as the Dead
Sea, yet our very notion of garden, the oldest word that we have, is Persian in origin. The
archetypal garden, Paradise, derives its name and its symbolism from the Old Persian,
Pardeiza, meaning an enclosed area. This has translated directly into our own European
tradition as the hortus conclusus, the enclosed garden, which came to symbolise Eden. I
shall aim to show how the concept was influenced partly by the climate of Iran with its
strong light, its high altitude and its lack of permanent rivers, and partly by the culture of
the Iranian people themselves, whose antinomian tendencies separated them from the
mainstream of Islam, and gave them a concept of an earthly paradise as well as a heavenly
one, in which the garden fulfilled several roles; as a place of spiritual solace, as a meeting
place for friends, and as a formal adjunct to the house or palace which it surrounded.

Contrasts
Let us talk more of the contrasts so that you may have a better understanding of the
difficulties faced by non-Iranians in comprehending their approach to gardens. On the one
hand Iranians are famous for their friendliness and hospitality, their unrestrained
emotionality, their love of luxury, the profligate ornamentation of their art and their sense
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of amour proper; yet their gardens show all the polite formality of their language with its
Tuesday, January 12, 2010 1:50:12 AM

inbuilt metaphors and phrases, its lack of gender and its simple rules of syntax. Here we
will see that just as the stylised expressions of the language provide a stable environment
within which the most vehement and antithetical emotions can be developed, so the
enclosed and carefully structured Pardis, provides a setting in which a wide variety of
spiritual and secular activities can also take place.

Ladies and Gentlemen, thank you for giving me your time and I hope to see you all in Iran
in 2001 which is the year of Dialogue between Civilizations and we will be hosting the
World Tourism Day.

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POLICIES AND GUIDELINES FOR
CULTURAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA16

1. Cultural Tourism Status and Its Policies in the Republic of Korea


1.1 Trend of Cultural Tourism Demand

Domestic tourism in the Republic of Korea totalled 33 million persons in 1999. The
expenditure in tourism amounts to Won 8.8 trillion (US$ 7.7billion). According to the
National Tourism Survey (1999), the main activities of Koreans are seeing nature/famous
sights and scenery, followed by entertainment(19.0%), swimming/sea bath(11.2%),
visiting historic places (10.0%), and climbing/camping/hiking (7.3%).

1.2 Trends of Cultural Tourism Products

The cultural tourism products of the Republic of Korea can be divided into cultural
heritage tourism; folk art tourism; historical/educational tourism; and tourism which allows
visitors to experience traditional life. Some examples of these are interactive activities such
as manufacturing ceramic and folk handicraft objects , preparing kimchi, learning
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traditional and military art, and activities related to the religious culture (Buddhism and
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shamanism). Products related to the regional festivals traditional markets are also being
highlighted.

Data from the Ministry of Culture and Tourism and the Korea National Tourism
Organization indicate that there are 200 cultural tourism courses offering a total of 39
activities. It also indicates that out of 2 million foreign tourists in 1998, 49.4% or 980,000
participated in cultural tourism activities.

1.3. Cultural Tourism Policies

1) Trend of Major Cultural Policies

The government's main policy has been focusing on joint development for culture and
tourism since 1998. Our government is expecting the culture and tourism industry to
become the national industry for the 21st century and has made concrete proposals to that
effect.

A two-step cultural tourism project has been developed to promote the regions, of which
the first is scheduled from 1999 to 2001 and the second from 2002 to 2003.

16
Presentation by Mr. Kim Jean-Sei, Director, Korea National Tourism Organization (Thailand Office). It
was mainly excerpted from the paper written by Dr. Kangwook Lee & Ms. Jiyoon Yoo, Korea Tourism
Research Institute, Republic of Korea.

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The total investment planned for tourism promotion and development funds and for
autonomies is Won 30 billion (US$ 26 million) - Won 15 billion (US$ 13 million) for each
plan. Our government projects an expenditure of Won 10.4 billion (US$ 9 million) for
1999 and Won 2 billion(US$ 1.7 million) for 2000, for support purposes.

2) Financial Support in the Culture and Tourism Sector

The total national investment to support the culture and tourism sector was Won 2.3 trillion
(US$ 2.0 billion) from 1999 to 2000: Won 16.7 billion (US$ 14.5 million) for Confucian
cultural regions in 2000, Won 1.6 billion(US$ 1.4 million) and Won 6.2 billion (US$ 5.4
million) for developing cultural tourism resources in 1999 and 2000.

3) Cultural Tourism Policies

The Korean government has launched the Tourism Vision 21 (1999) and Culture Industry
Vision 21 (2000) plans and is now actively encouraging the culture and tourism industry
through the development of infrastructure and the modification of relevant laws .

The following table summaries the major strategies for the promotion of cultural tourism in
the 21st century:

Promotion Strategies for the Cultural Tourism Industry


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Classification Strategies

Tourism Vision 21 - Boosting low-cost and high-efficiency business


- Promoting employment (job creation) and foreign
investment
- Establishing knowledge-based cultural infrastructure
- Realizing sustainable tourism development
- Strengthening collaborative relationships among public
and private sectors and related organizations

Cultural Industry - Encouraging culture industry as an industry


Vision 21 representative enough to control national competition
in the 21st century
- Creating and developing knowledge-based industry
infrastructure to strengthen national cultural
competition
- Modernizing a logistical system for creating demand
in the culture industry
- Developing unique, global cultural products

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2. Case Studies of Cultural Tourism in Korea
2.1 Kwangju Biennale: Connection between Exhibition Art and Tourism

1) Overview

The Kwangju Biennale, launched in 1995, has become the major art event in the Asia-
Pacific region and a cultural and economic center for the new millennium. The objective of
the Biennale is to explore ways to overcome conflicts in the world through the arts. It is
organized to reflect the character of Kwangju focused on "the flow of history" and "the
transition of Kwangju". All the exhibitions and events of the Kwangju Biennale are
designed to achieve the goals and themes of the Biennale. In the first Biennale, visitors
totalled more than 1,650,000 and the receipts of the Biennale amounted to more than Won
20 billion (US$17.4 million).

2) Major Program

The Biennale includes a main exhibition, a special exhibition, ceremonies and other
performances. Each Biennale has its own theme, which is expressed through the
exhibitions and events. In addition to the main exhibitions and performances, a variety of
other events are offered. Therefore, visitors have a choice of artistic and cultural events
during the same period.
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3) Results

The Biennale is held every other year, and is a very special event. It gives people many
opportunities to explore the trends of modern art. However, even though the budget of the
Biennale is constantly increased, the benefit has decreased because of a decrease in the
number of visitors (in the first Biennale: 1,500,000, the second: 850,000, the third:
450,000). Therefore, the Biennale has suffered from a financial loss. The results of survey
indicate that the problems are a decrease in the number of repeat visitors, the lack of
programs in which the visitors can participate, and a level of art that is difficult to
understand. In conclusion, to promote the interest of the public and attract more visitors,
the organizers have to diversify the level of art and develop interactive programs.

2.2 Andong Mask Dance Festival: An International Festival Based on Cultural


Heritage.

1) Overview

The Andong Mask Dance Festival ranks second among the 10 festivals selected by the
Ministry of Culture and Tourism. It is recommended as the “special event” in the "Visit
Korea Year 2001" program. In particular, the Andong's Hahoe mask is regarded as a
national treasure among the many masks due to its cultural value.

The Andong Mask Dance Festival is held from the end of September to the beginning of
October. In 2000, some 608,000 visitors attended the festival and the returns from the
festival reached Won 5 billion (US$ 4.3million).

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2) Main Program

The Andong Mask Dance Festival consists mainly of folk events with a variety of other
events. The organizations participating in the event include 19 Korean troupes which
perform traditional Korean dances, and several foreign dance troupes - from China, Japan,
Senegal, Guatemala, Thailand, etc. In addition, a traditional event called Hahoe is
performed. It is very popular amongst domestic and overseas visitors.

There are many exhibitions such as the exhibition of world masks, the tourism exhibition
and many activities in which the visitor can participate, such as a mask dance workshop,
face-painting, etc.

3) Results

Hahoe Village in Andong became very popular when British Queen Elizabeth visited this
traditional village in 1999. After her visit, the number of visitors reached more than 1
million. The factors of success are the following. Firstly, the cultural heritage in Andong is
alive and plays and important role in the people’s daily lives, thus it is very attractive for
the tourists; secondly, the festival organizers developed many interactive activities for the
visitors; thirdly, the organization promoted the festival through many channels.

3. Issues in Cultural Tourism Policies


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This section provides some suggestions for the promotion of cultural tourism in
conjunction with Korean cultural tourism policies. The Korean experience could also
benefit other countries.

3.1 Promotion Strategies of Cultural Tourism

1) Expansion of Culture-Related Budgets

The budget for cultural heritage and tourism allocated to national and regional culture-
related institutes is far from being able to meet the demand. The infrastructure for the
promotion of culture is not fully established at the national level, and it is also true that the
financial support of the promotional programs for culture is insufficient.

Firstly, national and local authorities should avoid cultural events held only for
demonstration purposes or the repetition of similar projects, and should try to harmonize
the investment with the infrastructure and the software. The cultural budget allocated to
local authorities should be increased gradually so that the benefits of cultural projects can
finally be returned to citizens. In addition, in order to increase the budget for culture, new
revenue resources should be developed, and the tax rate adjustments and tax collection
should be increased reasonably.

Secondly, for efficient fund raising and operations, the promotion funds for culture should
be expanded. Additionally, certain principles should be established regarding the use of
raised funds: In case of national support to the private sector or to regional agencies, these
principles should be applied in order to contribute to the expansion of the financial scale
and to prohibit moral relaxation.

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Thirdly, to increase cultural investments by the private sector and develop cultural welfare,
businesses should fulfill their responsibilities by extending their financial support not only
to the culture industry field, which has great economical effects, but also to purely cultural
and artistic activities.

2) Tourism Product Development

Cultural heritage tourism has static characteristics distinct from other tourism patterns.
Accordingly, a variety of theme tours need to be planned based on region, theme, and
heritage characteristics. When a region establishes its master plan focusing on cultural
heritage, it is desirable to introduce the CI (Cultural Imagination) concept. There are
numerous cases in which regional events within the regions, designated as cultural assets,
cannot provide enough scenery because they conflict with cultural asset conservation
policies in those regions. Material and immaterial cultural assets could be combined and
valued as tourism resources, which would promote the understanding of our cultural
heritage.

3) Development of Interactive Tourism Products

A common feature among countries which have strived to maintain their cultural heritage
is the diffusion of programs aimed at developing the sensitivity of the population towards
their cultural heritage. Letting students themselves display exhibition products in museums
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and running experimental schools for the recovery of ancient architecture or prehistoric
camp programs are essential projects to elevate cultural sensitivity.

4) Advanced Advertising Strategies

Most cultural heritage-related advertising materials are focused on regional cultural


heritage and cultural events. Private travel planning agencies may be tapped to design
specialized advertising and promotions materials.

5) Highly Qualified Guide Service System

Since interpretation is very important in cultural tourism, highly qualified guides must be
fielded to interpret the culture. These guides must be fielded to interpret the culture. These
guides bust be certified through a “Cultural Tourism Qualification System”.

6) Discovering World Heritage and International Cooperation

Selective strategies, such as the World Heritage listing, which are also of importance to
nearby sites, should be implemented. Active and long-term efforts like the establishment of
an international cooperation system should be made. Goindol heritage, the area around
Kyong-ju Namsan, and Ha-hoi village, An-dong, which are being processed to be
designated as UNESCO World Heritage, and Chang-duk palace, Hwa-sung, Su-won and
the area around Hap-chun Hae-in temple, which have already been designated as World
Heritage sites, are given world class value.

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7) Enhancement of Participation and Network of NGOs

The activities of citizen organizations related to cultural assets are characterized by their
specialization, fractionalization and regionalization. These groups can be used to monitor
tourism impacts on built heritage and to volunteer their services as professionals in various
fields, and their activities are deep-rooted in their community.

3.2 Local, governmental and international levels

1) Role of Local Population

a) Promotion of Cultural Tourism Development based on Participation by Local Residents.

The development of cultural tourism based on the regional cultural heritage is in the
limelight because that maximum results can be obtained with minimum physical
development and investment. Apart from the economic advantages, development at the
regional level has other beneficial effects on the local population, such as an identification
to the community, elevation of the local resident's pride, and the reconsideration of their
region’s image.

b) Conservation and Applications of Cultural Heritage in a Region

Converting cultural heritage into cultural products can have beneficial effects for the
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cultural image of a region and its pride as well as economic benefits. In the case of Korea,
local governments have made considerable efforts to source and market the cultural
resources of their region since the implementation of the local autonomy policy in '95.

c) Establishing an Interpretation System for Regional Cultural Resources

An important condition when developing and marketing regional cultural resources is to


establish an interpretation system and to offer tourists accurate interpretation works on the
regional cultural heritage.

2) Role of Central Government

a) Financial support

The protection of cultural resources is a public (joint) benefit. It is of public interest


because the protection of a country’s cultural heritage and art reinforces its identity and
dignity. Thus, cultural tourism can contribute to the improvement of the image of a
country. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the financial support to cultural tourism.

b) Legislative System

It is a nation’s responsibility to enforce laws for a better protection of culture. As there is a


close relationship between culture heritage and tourism, there could be a law to allow part
of the tourism profits to be used in the development of cultural property policies (e.g.
maintenance of cultural properties or management of cultural property guides).

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3) International Level

a) Establishment of a Joint Information System for the Cultural Tourism Industry

To create a synergy effect within the cultural tourism industry, we need to promote the
development of cultural tourism information networks which can be shared through the
new information technology.

b) Intensification of International Exchange

Cultural tourism requires highly qualified knowledge and know-how. That is why cultural
tourism can be classified as knowledge-based tourism. Therefore, international exchange
programs and cooperation activities of knowledge-based cultural tourism industry need to
be intensified.

c) Establishment of Monitoring Body Organization on Global Cultural Heritage

The cultural heritage of a nation can be an important ingredient to improve the well-being
of humankind. Therefore, we need to raise funds and establish a monitoring body for the
protection of our global cultural heritage, while minimizing environmental damage.

4) Conclusion
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The objective of this presentation is to share the Korean experiences in cultural tourism
development. Cultural tourism has a significant potential as a basic industry in the nation's
future development. The Korean government is implementing various cultural tourism
policies as the demand in this area increases, and developing knowledge-based industry
For the future development of cultural tourism there needs to be a greater cooperation
between nations, regions, and divisions of government so that knowledge can be profitably
shared.

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POLICIES AND GUIDELINES
FOR SUCCESSFUL CULTURAL TOURISM17

Ladies and Gentlemen,

I come from Yunnan Province, which is a wonderful and picturesque area in western China.
First of all, allow me to extend my heartfelt gratitude to the Royal Kingdom of Cambodia
and the World Tourism Organization for offering me this opportunity to meet and
exchange ideas with you for the development of cultural tourism.

Yunnan is located on the southwest frontiers of China, in the middle reaches of the
Lancang-Mekong River which is a famous oriental international waterway. Yunnan
borders with Vietnam, Laos and Myanmar through national boundary lines 4,061
kilometers long. Therefore, Yunnan is China’s important gateway leading to southeast and
south Asian countries and regions.

On this land measuring 394,000 km2, there are enchantingly beautiful scenic wonders
including the largest natural Stone Forest of the world with the greatest number of single-
body limestone peaks showing strange or grotesque shapes, and the three major river
systems respectively of the Lancang, Nujiang and Jinsha Rivers running abreast to form
the world’s most spectacular geographic miracle. Yunnan is the kingdom of a myriad of
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flora and fauna species. 26 ethnic groups live in Yunnan. People of those ethnic groups
have not only conserved their long-standing history and culture, but also colorful and
diversified folk customs. Scenes of their daily life, their unique pattern of production and
life in particular, have woven into most vivid pictures of ethnic folklore. Such diversified
ethnic cultures concentrated in one province can hardly be found elsewhere, not only in
China but also in other countries of the world.

Moreover, archaeologists have discovered in Yunnan paleoanthropological fossils that help


to explain every link of the evolution process of the humans and thus enable scientists to
decipher the origin of mankind. In Yunnan, there are pictographs that are still being used
and a brilliant bronze culture. The cliff paintings hidden in Yunnan's mountains are
treasures of the earliest arts, and the Province has ethnic and folk literature and art that
have been passed orally from generation to generation. Yunnan has a magnificent and
unique ancient architecture, and the Province has all the three religions of the world in
addition to many other primitive religions, all of which co-exist in perfect harmony.

In the last decade, and under the vigorous support and guidance of the Central Government
and the State Tourism Administration, Yunnan's tourism industry witnessed a rapid
development with an annual growth rate of 30%. In 1999, Yunnan hosted 1.04 million
overseas tourists and 36.73 million domestic tourists, and tourism-generated revenue in
1999 amounted to RMB 20.4 billion. The rapidly mushrooming tourism industry has made
Yunnan an important tourism destination for both domestic and overseas tourists.

17
Mr. Shao Qiwei, Vice-Governor of Yunnan Province, China

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Regarding Yunnan's practices in tourism development, the major policies and measures we
have adopted can be summarized as follows:

First, the government has played an important role to promote tourism development.
Owing to the fact that tourism promotes the development of other industries, and that
Yunnan has unique and advantageous tourism resources, the People's Government of
Yunnan Province has decided to act in line with the tourism development trend of both
China and the world. Starting from 1988, the Yunnan Provincial People's Government
adopted important strategies, “taking tourism as a major industry and strengthening
planning to promote overall development”, and “building tourism into one of Yunnan's
pillar industries”. Based on the overall planning for economic development, tourism
development is planned in the master-plan strategy for Yunnan's economic construction
and social progress. Planning for tourism development at the provincial and prefectural
levels was made and the provincial tourism administration was strengthened, while tourism
administrative organs with distinctive layered structures and clear-cut functions were set
up at 16 key prefectures, municipalities and key tourism counties. All the social sectors
were mobilized to participate in building tourism into a pillar industry. All those measures
have created an excellent overall environment for rapid and healthy tourism development.

Second, measures were taken to speed up the construction of infrastructure facilities and to
fully display Yunnan's brilliant ethnic cultures. 94% of Yunnan's territory is mountainous,
and most of the unique natural scenes and abundant cultural heritage created by the ethnic
people of Yunnan are located deep in the mountains and valleys, or by the highland lakes.
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In order to meet the needs of development, governments at respective levels of Yunnan


Province have given priority to the construction of the tourism infrastructures, while input
is being continuously increased for this purpose. During the last decade, great
improvement was witnessed in the tourism infrastructure facilities all over Yunnan. To
date, highways opened to traffic have added up to over 100,000 kilometers, ranking 2nd in
China. With Kunming in the center, over 2,000 kilometers of expressway or high-grade
highway have been constructed. The Guiyang-Kunming, Chengdu-Kunming and Nanning-
Kunming railways have linked Yunnan with all parts of China. Yunnan has renovated or
newly built 10 civil aviation airports, and 98 domestic or international air routes are flown.
Computerized telephone switchboards of Yunnan have now a capacity of over 3.7 million
lines, and computerized telecommunication and digitized data transmission are realized. In
Yunnan Province, there are 250 tourist scenic spots of different types, 420 travel agencies,
670 tourist hotels, over 2,500 deluxe tourist buses, more than 100 tourist ships, and over
200,000 employees are working in Yunnan's tourism sector. Thanks to the improvement of
accessibility and daily perfection of tourist reception facilities, tourists are pouring into
Yunnan's previously land-locked areas such as Lijiang and Diqing within a very short
period of time.

Third, by bringing into fuller play its advantages with ancient, mysterious and unique
features, Yunnan has embarked on the road of ethnic and cultural tourism. To fully utilize
its advantages of ethnic folk custom resources, under the slogans “we have what you don’t
have”, and “what you see in Yunnan can not be found elsewhere”, is of vital importance to
stress Yunnan’s attractive and unique local and ethnic characteristics. Yunnan has 26
ethnic nationalities, and the Province is the province in China with the greatest number of
ethnic minority groups, 15 of which are indigenous and found only in Yunnan. Due to
historic reasons, Yunnan has abundant and well preserved “living fossils” of ethnic

118
cultures, including the Dongba pictographs and ancient music of the Naxi minority people,
the “big matriarchal families” of the Mosuo people and the “Ten-month Calendar” of the
Yi people which is still being used today. All those are rare and precious treasures of
human culture. It would not be boastful to say that all the cultural patterns emerged in all
evolution processes of the human history can be found in Yunnan. Moreover, such cultural
patterns are still closely linked with the daily life of Yunnan's ethnic people. History does
not vanish, it is embedded in real life in a wonderful way.

From the very beginning of tourism development, Yunnan has been attaching great
importance to the development of its unique ethnic folklore tourism. Yunnan has
successively hosted grand events such as the First Ethnic Arts festival and the Third China
Art Festival. It has constructed Yunnan Nationalities Village and Yunnan Ethnic
Nationalities Museum, and is the first province in China to give ethnic song and dance
performances to accompany restaurant meals. Yunnan has developed special tourism
products that are related with ethnic minority festivals. The Water-splashing Festival of the
Dai people, the Third Month Fair of the Bai people, the Torch Festival of the Yi people
and the Munao Zongge Festival of the Jingpo people have become important celebrations
that attract numerous domestic and overseas tourists. The “Azhu marriage” and the
“Females’ Kingdom” of the Mosuo people have aroused intense interest from many
domestic and overseas tourists. Naxi ancient music, which has been neglected for decades,
is now being played for visitors. Shangri-la, which is cherished as the “Heaven of Peace
and Happiness”, and which people have been searching in the last 50-plus years, has been
identified to be right in northwest Yunnan by over 40 scientists who spent over 10 months
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in repeated investigation and verification. After their discovery, those cultural phenomena
that were hardly known to people before have met people’s psychological needs and
satisfied their curiosity to seek for new and exotic things or search for their origins.
Moreover, those cultural phenomena are in line with the overwhelming development trend
of the modern times, and have vigorously promoted the development of the tourism
industry.

Fourth, all social circles are mobilized to vigorously develop the tourism industry. All over
Yunnan Province, many families who for many generations depended on farming for a
living have now become participants of the tourism industry. In Xishuangbanna,
restaurants with song and dance accompaniments have been opened by the Dai ethnic
people in their stilted bamboo cottages, and many families of the Mosuo people have
opened private inns to host visiting tourists. Folk songs and dances, which had previously
been played to worship the gods and for self entertainment, have now become important
tourism activities in which tourists participate for enjoyment.

Up to the present, the high and intermediate grade tourist hotels and deluxe tourist buses
have been constructed or purchased by enterprises, whereas many little inns, tourist shops,
local food restaurants and plain motor vehicles were privately owned. Many enterprises
and individuals have joined forces in developing the scenic sites. Running the tourism
industry by all social circles has not only helped the governments to solve funding
problems, but also enhanced tourists’ experiences because they may participate in the folk
custom activities to know people’s intense feelings. Moreover, such an approach helps to
create more job opportunities, with which people of the host communities would gradually
lead a better-off life.

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Fifth, active measures were taken to protect ethnic culture resources, which are the most
attractive tourism resources for developing Yunnan's tourism industry. The true-to-life
history is the exclusive and special resource of Yunnan Province. However, with the
continuous impact of modern civilization and under the influence of market-oriented
economy, the ethnic culture resources might either disappear or would be assimilated.
Therefore, we have given priority to the protection of the ethnic cultures in every link of
planning, development and utilization of Yunnan's tourism resources. In order to reinforce
the protection of the tourism resources and ethnic cultures, the People's Government of
Yunnan Province has promulgated a series of local laws and governmental decrees
including Regulations for Management of the Tourism Industry of Yunnan Province and
Regulations for Protecting Yunnan's Folk Custom and Traditional Cultures. We have
vigorously developed the nationalities colleges and ethnic minority teachers’ schools so as
to cultivate talents for Yunnan's ethnic minority people. We encourage folk artists to take
students so as to pass on their skills, and urge the ethnic minority young people to stay in
their homelands and inherit their own ethnic cultures. By ensuring the continuation of
ethnic cultures and passing them on to the later generations, we are also protecting the
cultural treasures which not only belong to Yunnan and China, but also to mankind.

To accelerate the pace to bring Yunnan tourism up to international standards and upgrade
the overall quality of Yunnan's tourism industry, and under the vigorous support of the
World Tourism Organization and the State Tourism Administration of China, the People's
Government of Yunnan Province is cooperating with the WTO to draft the Yunnan
Tourism Master Plan 2001 – 2020. The project was started on July 24 of this year, and
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relevant work is progressing smoothly. The Master Plan aims at further fostering the
integration of Yunnan's unique features with international standards. By clarifying the
mutual-compensation relations between culture and tourism, the Master Plan will surely
provide guidance for enhancing competitiveness of Yunnan tourism, and foster a healthy
and sustainable development of Yunnan tourism. Through all these practices, we hope to
make due contributions to the tourism development of both China and the world.

The Dai ethnic people are beating their elephant feet drums, and the Yi ethnic people are
plucking their giant three-stringed guitars. The 42 million honest and warm-hearted
Yunnan people are extending to you their cordial invitation. Yunnan is opening its arms to
you, and is awaiting for greater help from you.

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PROMOTION OF TRADITIONAL CULTURES
FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN EAST NEW BRITAIN
PROVINCE, PAPUA NEW GUINEA (PNG)18

1. Introduction
From the outset, I would like to convey our most sincere appreciation to the World
Tourism Organisation (WTO) for the Invitation to this conference and also the Invitation
from the Government of the Royal Kingdom of Cambodia through H.E, the Minister of
Tourism, Hon. Veng Sereyvuth. It is a great privileged to be attending this International
Conference on Cultural Tourism with world experts and learned audience in the field of
hospitality and tourism. I also bring to you all warm greetings and best wishes from the
government and the people of East New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea (PNG).

For my presentation, I will be showing a new video tape on tourism in Rabaul and East
New Britain Province called “Experience Rabaul and East New Britain” which takes 23
minutes.

During my presentation, I will also display copies of a new tourist magazine on tourism in
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Rabaul and East New Britain called “Adventures in Paradise: Rabaul and East New
Tuesday, January 12, 2010 1:50:12 AM

Britain” which I have written with inputs from David Loh.

East New Britain is one of the nineteen (19) provinces and it is an integral part of the
fourth Region which make up Papua New Guinea (PNG). It is also the biggest of the five
(5) islands provinces which make up the New Guinea Islands Region. It is a tropical island
paradise which has great tourism potential and actual attractions which offer diverse and
unique tourism products that will cater for varied needs of different tourists. These include
the following:

- beautiful, natural tropical scenery with ever green vegetation and swaying palm trees,
- nice sandy beaches for picnics,
- clean and warm blue water full of different colorful fish, corals of different sizes and
World War II relics for scuba diving,
- six volcanoes that surround and fence in the most beautiful and deepest Rabaul
Simpson Harbour and the Town of Rabaul which provide excellent location and
facilities for cruise ships.

In 1996, the East New Britain Provincial Government gave top priority to promotion of
tourism development in the province. This has resulted in the formulation of a Five Year
Corporate Tourism Development Plan, 1999 –2003 which I wrote and which the Provincial
Government approved in early 1999. The Five Year Tourism Development Plan contains
Tourism Policies, Development Strategies and Tourism Programs and Projects for the next
five years aimed at achieving the following goals and objectives of the Provincial
Government:
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Mr. Nelson Eddie Paulias, Tourism Executive Officer, East New Britain Tourist Bureau

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- Diversification of the provincial economy which is agriculturally based that consists of
mainly cocoa and copra.
- Creation of additional job opportunities for the increasing youth population.
- Generation of incomes in meeting basic human needs.
- Direct and indirect taxes as revenue for the government and the private sector.
- Foreign exchange earnings needed to beef up the foreign reserves and for purchase of
imports.
- Promotion of traditional cultures for benefits of future local generations as well as for
both local people and tourists as form of attractions and entertainment.
- Conservation of the natural and man-made environment for future generations and for
visitors to see and enjoy.

2. Tourism Cultural Policies


International tourists who come from more developed industrialised countries which have
developed over many hundreds of years have lost much of their cultures. Today’s
international tourists who are better educated, more curious and adventurous are interested in
learning about the cultures of other people. Cultural Policies which are contained in the Five
Year Corporate Tourism Development Plan include the following:
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(a) To support conservation of important cultural heritage such as songs, dances,


traditional arts and crafts of the people of East New Britain Province.

(b) To promote in the province revitalisation of local cultural identity and pride as
well as cross cultural exchange between visitors and the local people, thus
resulting in greater understanding and respect or at least tolerance of different
cultural values, traditions and expectations.

(c) To promote development of traditional inland village provided with modern


facilities and services to improve standard of life surrounded by tropical
vegetation and subsistence gardens where tourists can stay with local people
and be entertained with traditional cultural songs and dances as well as local
cuisines.

(d) To promote development of traditional coastal village provided with modern


facilities and services, with swaying tropical evergreen trees and coconut
palms on sandy beaches where tourists can stay with local people and be
entertained with traditional cultural songs and dances.

(e) To ensure that adverse socio-economic effects on traditional local cultures are
reduced and that cultures are enhanced.

(f) To promote development of provincial theatres that will enhance local


cultures and entertain both tourists and local people.

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(g) To encourage development of films on traditional cultures for education of
people about the importance of cultures and for entertainment of tourists and
local people alike.

(h) To document traditional music, stories, legends and instruments aimed at


keeping local cultures alive for the benefits of current and future local
generations and tourists’ entertainment.

(i) To establish a number of entertainment centres in selected areas of the


province that will provide venues and modern facilities and services which
will enable groups to perform traditional dances, musical concerts and
cultural festivals from the province, the New Guinea Islands Region and
Papua New Guinea as well as from overseas.

3. Tourism Cultural Development Strategies


The East New Britain Provincial Government through the East New Britain Tourist Bureau
will encourage local people to entertain international tourists with performance of local
cultural songs and dances as well as plays and drama which are rich and unique to the
province. Tourists will be delighted to watch and enjoy traditional local songs and dances
which will be performed during their seasons proper in order to maintain their genuineness.
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Tourists will no doubt appreciate and respect uniqueness of local songs and dances which are
of great attractions. Cultural performances will certainly promote more social interactions
between tourists and the local people. The strategy is to use more cultural entertainment to
promote learning and exchange of ideas and experiences between tourists and local people,
thus broadening more understanding and tolerance for each other’s cultural differences.

The East New Britain Provincial Government through the East New Britain Tourist Bureau
will encourage establishment of provincial theatres which will perform plays based on local
legends that will tell stories of local cultural myths, beliefs and practices which are unique to
the province. Such plays and drama will not only entertain tourists and local people alike, but
will also broaden tourists’ understanding and respect for local people’s cultures and enable
local people to earn extra money.

In East New Britain Province, the East New Britain Tourist Bureau through its cultural
extension work program under the Tourism Product Development Section, has established a
provincial theatre group called the “East New Britain Provincial Theatre Group”. This group
has performed widely in the province during major official gatherings. It has also performed
in May this year in a number of national locations which include the capital city of Port
Moresby and at Tabubil where PNG’s biggest copper mine is located.

Currently, the East New Britain Provincial Theatre Group through the East New Britain
Tourist Bureau is grooming the members of this group to participate in any international
theatre gatherings, still maintaining the aim and spirit of upholding the cultural uniqueness
and identity of our people.

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The East New Britain Tourist Bureau will encourage local people to carve handicrafts like
canoes and spears, weave baskets and string bags to sell to international tourists as souvenirs
when they visit Rabaul and East New Britain. Arts and crafts which are symbols of local
cultures will also educate tourists more about local cultures. At the same time, local people
will be able to earn extra incomes from the sales of their arts and crafts.

Culture is one of the most important tourism products that tourists are interested in seeing and
enjoying in a holiday destination because they are rich and unique. The cultures of the people
of the East New Britain Province are rich, diverse and unique which will fascinate and attract
an increasing number of tourists to the province to see and enjoy. The Tolai people of the
Gazelle Peninsula have many different of songs and dances which include the famous Tolai
Whip Dance, the secret male Tumbuan and Dukduk Society and the Tambaran Dance while
the Bainings have the famous Baining Fire Dance which also attracts a lot of attention,
curiosity and excitement. The people from Pomio District also have their dukduk type of
dance which is also unique to their district.

Culture is a very important tourism product because it can be easily identified, developed,
improved and packaged for marketing and promotion in selected short and long haul
tourism markets overseas in order to attract more tourists to East New Britain Province and
Papua New Guinea. Tourists who visit East New Britain Province will be interested in
meeting the local people, seeing their ways of life, their customs, arts and crafts.

Tourists will spend money on local cultural entertainment such as songs and dances and
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purchase locally made handicrafts as souvenirs.

Tourists are lured by many attractions. According to a survey carried out by the then
Tourism Council of the South Pacific (TCSP) in 1991, now know as the South Pacific
Tourism Organisation (SPTO), more than one-third of international tourists who visited
Papua New Guinea in 1991 were attracted by six major tourism products that included the
following:

Friendly People - 61%


Natural Scenery - 59%
Traditional Villages - 45%
Folklore/Culture - 39%
Climate - 37%
Handicrafts - 34%

In a similar visitor survey carried out in Papua New Guinea by the Tourism Promotion
Authority (TPA) in 1996, it revealed that more than 50% of the respondents favoured
“Friendly People” as the most liked attraction in the country. The other attractions
favoured by the respondents included the following:

Friendly People - 50%


Natural aspects - 24%
Cultural aspects - 15
Diving & tour aspects - 9%
Climate aspects - 2%

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In the 1999 Visitor Survey Report by the Tourism Promotion Authority, the large majority of
tourists liked most of the following attractions:

Beautiful Unspoilt Nature - 46%


Big Tourism Potential - 25%
Great Adventure Destination - 20%
Friendly local people - 8%
Diverse Unique Culture - 8%
Good Diving - 8%
Good Fishing - 3%
Good Climate - 2%

4. Museum
A museum has been established at Ralum near where Queen Emma had a large palace. The
museum houses World War II relics which were used during World War II in Rabaul and
East New Britain as well as historical and cultural artifacts.

In the middle of this year, the ENB Tourist Bureau recruited a volunteer from Australia to
establish a botanical garden near the Museum. Due to lack of enough space, the volunteer
has suggested that instead of a botanical garden, an amphitheatre will be established. This
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amphitheatre will encourage performance of traditional music and songs, plays and drama
for entertainment of tourists and local people alike.

5. Cultural Centers
According to the East New Britain Five Year Corporate Tourism Development Plan, four
cultural centers will be established in the four districts of the province.

The cultural centers will have multi-purposes and will provide venues for maintenance and
preservation of traditional artifacts, ie, arts and crafts, World War II relics and open space
for performance of plays and dramas to entertain both local people and tourist alike.

6. Cultural Festivals
The East New Britain Provincial Government through the East New Britain Tourist Bureau
will ensure that Cultural Tourism Policies and Programs contained in the ENB Provincial
Five Year Corporate Tourism Development Plan will be implemented to achieve Policy
Objectives of the Government. The ENB Provincial Government through the
Administration will co-host a National Mask Festival in Rabaul for the first time ever in
August 2001. Traditional mask dances will be chosen from throughout the country,
particularly from the Momase and the New Guinea Islands Regions and to a certain extent
from the Highlands Region.

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The principal objectives of such festivals include the following:

- To promote development and maintenance of rare mask dances from dying out.
- To educate young Papua New Guineans about the importance of these secret and
sacred traditional mask dances which include the most powerful secret male institution
of the Tolai people called Tubuan and Dukduk from the Gazelle Peninsula of East
New Britain.
- To maintain traditional dances which are unique for the benefit of future local
generations and for the entertainment of tourists who visit Rabaul, Gazelle Peninsula
and East New Britain Province in the future.

Participation in Festival of Arts Overseas

The East New Britain Provincial Administration through the East New Britain Tourist
Bureau is encouraging local groups to form and register their cultural groups with the
National Cultural Commission (NCC) which co-ordinates and promotes national cultural
festivals in Papua New Guinea. The NCC also co-ordinates participation by Papua New
Guinea cultural groups in regional and international festivals overseas.

In November 2000, three cultural groups, individual artists and painters from PNG
participated in the 8th Festival of Pacific Arts held in Noumea, New Caledonia where
twenty-five (25) Pacific countries and territories put on their traditional cultural music and
dances and displayed their rich and diverse arts and crafts which were colorful and unique.
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In 2002, the Melanesian Festival of Arts will be held in Vanuatu where Melanesian cultural
groups from Fiji, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu will
participate. There will be two cultural groups from Rabaul, East New Britain Province that
will participate in the Melanesian Festival of Arts.

In 2004, the 9th Festival of Pacific Arts will be held in Palau where 27 Pacific countries and
territories will participate to promote their rich, diverse and unique cultures. A number of
cultural groups from Rabaul, East New Britain Province will be among cultural groups
from PNG which will participate in the Festival.

Tolai Warwagira

The Tolai Warwagira which had started 20 years ago will be resurrected to encourage and
promote traditional dances and music of the Tolai people of the Gazelle Peninsula of East
New Britain Province. The principal objectives of the re-establishment of the Tolai
Warwagira include the following:

- To promote development and maintenance of the Tolai traditional dances and music
which are the basis of the people’s identity and survival as Tolais in a fast developing
changing society.

- To teach and train young Tolai people of their rich traditional, diverse and unique
cultural practices that promote identity and unity.

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- To promote traditional dances and music for entertainment of tourists who visit Rabaul,
the Gazelle Peninsula and East New Britain Province.

7. Conclusion
It is the beautiful natural scenery, friendliness and hospitality of local people and their rich,
diverse and unique local cultures apart from bush trekking, diving and fishing that are
adventurous which will be biggest attractions to East New Britain Province in future.

Natural and physical attractions alone are not enough to make tourism sustainable in future.
It is the friendliness and hospitality of the local people that will make the big difference. It
is personal social interaction, communication and human contacts between local hosts and
tourists that will create more understanding and respect in the long run.

Such human interactions and understanding that are embedded in the local cultures which
will make tourists return in future to Rabaul and East New Britain, thus making tourism in
Rabaul and East New Britain more sustainable in the future.

8. References
1. Visitor Survey Report – 1991 by Tourism Council of the South Pacific
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(TCSP), Suva, Fiji, 1991.

2. Visitor Survey Report – 1996 by Tourism Promotion Authority (TPA), Port


Moresby, Papua New Guinea (PNG).

3. Visitors Survey Report - 1999 by Tourism Promotion Authority (TPA), Port


Moresby, PNG, 1999.

4. East New Britain Provincial Five Year Corporate Tourism Development Plan,
1999– 2003, Rabaul, East New Britain, Papua New Guinea, 1999.

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HIGHLIGHTS OF SHANDONG – CONFUCIUS’ NATIVE TOWN
A CULTURAL TOURIST DESTINATIONIN CHINA
IN THE 21ST CENTURY19

Ladies and Gentlemen,

First of all I would like to thank the Conference Committee for giving me an opportunity to
talk about cultural tourism in the Shandong Province of China. Shandong is one of the
oldest birthplaces of Chinese culture and tourism to the Province is based on culture. I will
give my speech in the following details.

1. The Cultural Charms of Shandong Are Attracting Increasing Visitors


from Home And Abroad
Shandong Province is situated along the east coast of China, on the lower reaches of the
Yellow River and between Beijing and Shanghai. Shandong has a population of 89 million
and a total land area of 156,000 square km with a coastline of more than 3,000 km. The
economy has been developing rapidly and the GDP has ranked third in China for many
years. With a long history, a flourishing culture, a magnificent landscape and numbers of
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outstanding historical celebrities, Shandong is very rich in tourism resources. The earliest
Chinese written language and the earliest cities in China have been found in Shandong
Province. Shandong has the earliest great wall in China - the Qi Great Wall. In addition,
Shandong is also one of the birthplaces of China’s pottery, porcelain and silk. Shandong
has also been the home of a large number of historical figures, whose important influences
are still evident even in contemporary China. Confucianism, created by Confucius, a great
thinker and educator in China, is the pillar of traditional Chinese culture and has exerted
great influences in the world. Sun Tsu Art of War, written by Sun Wu, one of the most
famous military strategists in ancient China, is still regarded as a classical work held in
esteem in military and business circles both at home and abroad. Other famous persons
include the science sage Mo Tsu, the calligraphy sage Wang Xizhi, the inventor Lu Ban,
the highly skilled doctor Bian Que, the famous military strategist Zhuge Liang, the writers
Li Qingzhao, Xin Qiji and Pu Songling.

Shandong’s tourism resources are of high quality and great variety and are widely
distributed. Shandong has more than 600 tourist sites (including 2 world heritage sites, 6
national historical and cultural cities and 3 national tourist sites), among which over 500
sites are distinctly characterized. For example, Qufu, a famous historical and cultural city,
was the native town of Confucius and the birthplace of Confucianism. The grand
Confucius Temple, Confucius Mansion and Confucius Forest, abundant in cultural relics
and historical sites, has been listed as “World Cultural Heritage” by UNESCO (show
slides). With a magnificent landscape and profound culture, Mt. Tai, first of the Five
Sacred Mountains in China, is a symbol of Chinese spirit, listed as “World Natural and
Cultural Heritage” by UNESCO (show slides). The attractive coastal cities such as

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Mr. Yu Fenggui, Deputy Director, Shandong Provincial Tourism Administration, China

128
Qingdao, Yantai, Weihai and Rizhao are located in Shandong Peninsula. Qingdao, “a
Bright Pearl by the Huanghai Sea”, is unique in its beach sights. Mt. Laoshan, one of the
sacred places of China’s Taoism, is rich in historical sites (show slides). With rich
historical sites, beautiful scenes and pleasant climate, Penglai Pavilion-“Fairyland in the
World” and Liugong Island-“a Garden on the Sea” are ideal tourist attractions and holiday
resorts (show slides). With more than 100 springs, Jinan, the capital of Shandong Province,
is well known to the world for its reputable “Spring City”. Both the Lingyan Temple, an
old Buddhist temple, and the Four-gate Pagoda have a long history and high cultural value.
In addition, there are various local conditions and folk customs in the central part of
Shandong Province, such as the kite of Weifang - the World Capital City of Kites, the
Woodcut New Year Picture of Yangjiabu, Folklore of Shijiazhuang. Famous for its ancient
culture, Ancient Capital of the Qi State- Zibo is provided with numerous cultural relics and
historical sites, such as the Ruins of the Ancient Great Wall of the Qi State, the Ruins of
the Ancient Capital of the Qi State, Sacrificial Horse Graves of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty,
Museum of the Qi History and the Former Residence of Pu Songling, “one of the fathers of
novels in the world”. The Yellow River, “the Cradle of the Chinese Nation”, runs 570 km
through Shandong Province and then enters into the Bohai Sea. The scenery at the mouth
of the Yellow River is unique and magnificent. Furthermore, the landscape and folklore
around Yimeng mountains, the ruins of marsh around Liangshan Mountain, Heze peony,
Zaozhuang Pomegranate Orchard, Weishan Lake Lotuses and the ancient Grand Canal are
all distinctly characterize. Shandong has grown to be a coastal province combined with
ancient culture and modern flavor, full of vigor and development potentials.
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2. Deep Development and Focused Promotion of Cultural Tourist Sites


In order to fully show the world the charms of Shandong’s profound culture, centered on
the development of cultural tourist sites, enhancement of marketing and improvement of
service quality, we have made great efforts and achieved satisfactory results. In 1999,
Shandong Province received 64 million domestic visitor arrivals and 562,000 international
overnight visitor arrivals with a domestic tourism income of RMB 28.5 billion and an
international receipt of US$265 million respectively. The total tourism income came to
RMB 30.7 billion, contributing 4.01% of the provincial GDP. On the basis of a continuing
increase of last year, from January to October, 2000, Shandong Province received 586,500
international visitor arrivals, up 12% compared to the same period in l999, with an
international receipt of US$244 million, up 7.5% compared to the same period in 1999.
Domestic tourism is growing swiftly and holiday tourism’s results are surprising. During
the May Day holiday and the National Day holiday, Shandong Province received 11million
visitor arrivals with a tourism income of RMB 5 billion. The total tourism income of the
year 2000 is expected to amount to RMB 40 billion.

2.1 Shandong Provincial Government Has Earnestly Enhanced Leadership of


Tourism Work

Shandong Provincial Government attaches great importance and gives full support to
tourism. In recent years, a “decision to accelerate tourism development” has been made to
develop tourism as the pillar industry of the provincial national economy. Preferential
policies have also been made to support tourism development and high level provincial
government meetings have been held to arrange the tourism development work. Early in

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2000, for the first time, the Provincial People’s Congress and the Provincial Consultative
Conference presented tourism as an important issue to the representatives for discussion. In
May the Secretary of Shandong Provincial Party Committee suggested that tourism
development should be strengthened and Shandong Provincial Party Committee defined
tourism as a new leading industry. Last year, Shandong Province allocated RMB 50
million for the development of large tourism projects. This year, RMB 105 million were
allocated to support the development of large tourism projects, marketing and promotion.

2.2 Enhancement of Tourism Resource and Project Developments

Tourism in the Province is depending upon the cultural resources and a number of cultural
sites which had been “dead” for many years have been revived and others have been
enhanced in order to support the tourism development. Tourism has become the main
economic provider and source to conserve, preserve, continue and develop culture. We
have made efforts in the following: focus on the key culture of Shandong Province,
centered on two major routes - “Springs of Jinan, Mt. Tai and Sages” and “Golden
Coastline”; developments involving six sites - Jinan, Taian, Jining, Qingdao, Yantai and
Weihai. Therefore, the overall development of the provincial tourism resources is
promoted.

Mt. Tai

In order to fully tap the latent power of this “Treasure of Oriental History and Culture”,
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numbers of tourist attractions on Mt. Tai have been upgraded or restored over many years.
In 2000, Taian City invested RMB 250 million in the overall development and packaging
of Mt. Tai. Ten tourist attractions have been upgraded. Waste drainage facilities have been
installed and all the pipes have been laid underground. Thirteen sessions of the
International Mt. Tai Climbing Festival have been held year after year. Special interest
tours have been presented, such as “Performances of The Sacrificial Ceremony”, “Tour of
Mt. Tai Culture” and “Tour of Mt. Tai Folklore”. Mt. Tai is rated as “a Demonstration
Tourist Site in China”. In 1999, Mt. Tai received 1.75 million domestic and foreign visitor
arrivals with a total income of RMB 96 million. During May Day holiday and National
Day holiday this year, Mt. Tai received 350,000 visitor arrivals in total.

Qufu

Twenty years ago, the Confucius Complex (Confucius Temple, Confucius Mansion and
Confucius Forest) only received an income of tens of thousand RMB. In order to take full
advantage of “Confucius” to build “an Oriental Holy City”, many developments have
taken place on the basis of preserving cultural and historical heritage. Over many years,
more than RMB 100 million have been invested in the restoration of the surrounding
cultural relics and historical sites in order to resume the original historical relics and nearly
RMB 300 million have been invested in the in-depth development of the Confucius
Complex. Since 1990, some new attractions have been developed, such as the Six Arts
City, the Garden of Confucius’ Analect Inscriptions, Confucius Institute, the Garden of
Confucius Highlights and the China Culture City. At present, the Confucius Culture Square
is being developed. RMB 3 billion have been invested in the development of numbers of
tourist facilities and in upgrading the environment and strengthening the functions of the
city. In order to improve the tourism resources at Qufu, the Qufu Confucius Tourism

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Operator Group has cooperated with Shenzhen Oversea Chinese City to jointly establish
the “Qufu Confucius International Tourism Company LMT”, which will be a listed
company in the name of “Confucius Tourism”. Special interest tourist products have been
developed and presented, such as the Classical Marriage Tour and Pilgrimage Tour. The
Qufu International Confucius Culture Festival has been listed as one of the ten major
festivals by the China National Tourism Administration, which attracts almost 10,000
foreign visitors each year. In 1999, Qufu received a total of 2,600,000 visitor arrivals with
an income of RMB 210 million. During May Day holiday and The National Day holiday in
2000, Confucius Complex received a record of 300,000 visitor arrivals.

Liugong Island

Usually called “Fairyland on the Sea” and “Never-Sinking Warship”, Liugong Island was
the birthplace of the first navy in modern China-“the North Sea Navy”. The main
attractions on the Island include the Memorial of the Sino-Japanese Sea War and the
Museum of Sino-Japanese Sea War. The Island takes the lead in China in the preservation,
utilization and development of scenic spots. In 1999, Liugong Island received 1,650,000
visitor arrivals with an income of RMB 28 million. During May Day holiday and National
Day holiday in 2000, the Island received 196,000 visitor arrivals with an income of RMB
close to 9 million

Penglai
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Penglai is a well-known historical and cultural city, within which there are three Grade 1
cultural relics under State protection. It was once the starting point of the maritime silk
road in ancient China and has long been called “ Fairyland in the World”. Penglai has three
categories of culture: the fairy culture originating from legend, the port culture opening to
the outside world and the martial arts culture represented by Qi Jiguang. In recent years,
tourism development has been dependent on its profound cultural resources and the brand
nadme of Penglai Pavilion. Over RMB 200 million have been successively invested in
developing tourist attractions from 3 attractions in early 1990s to the present 20+
attractions. As a result, the area of the sites has expanded from 0.8 square km to 5.8 square
km. Centered on “Penglai Pavilion, Penglai Water Fortress and Qi Jiguang”, the historical
sites have been restored. New attractions have been developed with the help of historical
materials and owing to their geographical superiority. Modern scientific and technological
means have been applied to develop participation and entertainment-oriented projects. The
latent power of traditional folklore has been tapped to resume some folk tours, such as the
Fair at Penglai Pavilion and the Fishing Light Festival. At present, centered on Penglai
Pavilion, a new tourism pattern has been formed combining cultural spots and natural spots
which include mountains, sea, city and Pavilion. In 1999, Penglai City received almost 2
million visitor arrivals with a total income of about RMB 600 million (of which the income
from Penglai Pavilion was RMB 54,060,00). During May Day holiday and National Day
holiday this year, Penglai Pavilion received 217,000 visitor arrivals with an income of
RMB119 million.

Mt. Laoshan

Located on the eastern outskirts of Qingdao, well-known for being the “First of the
Famous Mountains on the Sea”, Mt. Laoshan is one of the sacred places of China’s

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Taoism. Magnificent mountains and sea, mysterious Taoism culture and wonderful natural
landscapes are rich attractions for you to enjoy. Over many years, more than RMB 2
billion have been invested in deeply tapping the cultural connotation of Mt. Laoshan and
developing fist product. Environmental benefit, social benefit and economic benefit have
been well combined. Resource preservation coordinates with tourism development. In
1999, Mt. Laoshan received 2,200,000 visitor arrivals with an income of RMB 53 million.
During May Day holiday and National Day holiday, Mt. Laoshan received 350,000 visitor
arrivals with an income of RMB 12 million.

Joint development of cultural resources and natural resources enriches Shandong’s tourist
products and meets the market demand. Focus has been made on the famous mountains,
the famous waters, the famous persons, famous literary works, famous cities and famous
culture. In order to develop the Qi Culture and the “Ancient Capital of the Qi State”,
experts from Beijing and Shenzhen were invited to prepare a planning approach. In order
to represent the charming scene of the ancient Grand Canal, Liaocheng Grand Canal has
been developed. Focusing on garden landscaping, the Dongchang Lake in Liaocheng city
creates an environment of “enjoying willows in mist and green water while seeing the
shadow of light and hearing the sound of oar”. Yanggu County will build a Film and TV
City of Outlaws of Marsh and Three Women and A Man simultaneously with the
development of the Tiger Hill and Lion Pavilion. Huimin County will develop a project of
Sun Tsu’s hometown. High scientific and technological means will be applied to represent
Sun Tsu’s Art of War. Dependent on its rich folk resources, Anqiu city has developed the
Qingyunshan Folklore Park consisting of a mountains-waters-gardens zone, a zone of local
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conditions and folk customs of nationalities, a wildlife zone and Qilu Folklore Village.

Various economic sectors are encouraged to develop tourism. Last October, Shandong
Provincial Government held a meeting to spread the tourism development experience
provided by Zibo, Tianheng Island, Penglai and Nanshan. After that, a high tide of
developing tourism by various social sectors in the Province. According to statistics, a
record of RMB 2 billion have been invested in the development of more than 20 key
tourism projects since last year. Most of these projects are tourism developments centered
on culture. A paper issued by the Provincial Planning Department declared that tourism is
becoming a new investment generator which speeds up the development of Shandong’s
national economy.

Large-scale and all-round publication and multi-level promotion activities have been
launched for marketing and presenting the cultural charms of the province. In the last two
years, the Province has organized more than 140 teams (over 700 staff involved) to go to
more than 20 countries and areas for marketing activities. Highlights of Shandong have
been presented as key tourist circuits, such as “Springs in Jinan, Mt. Tai and Sages”. Last
year, some provincial leaders led a team to go abroad for publicity and promotion activities,
visiting WTO and major travel agents. All these activities have extended the business.

Tourism publicity has been increased. Shandong Tourism News Association has been set
up. News and media are organized to release series of stereoscopic reports about publicity
and promotion on a grand scale. CCTV and local TV stations are invited to Shandong for
the development of special films which have been on broadcast. Articles written for the
purpose of publicity have been published by news media. An advertisement film of
Shandong’ Tourism Image was produced and broadcast on the international channel of

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CCTV, the successful. Shandong Tourism Information Website, established in 1998, is the
largest governmental tourism information website in China with political, business and
foreign language functions. Almost 1000 persons visit the Website daily. The address of
Shandong Tourism Website is: www. sdta.gov.cn

Trade management has been strengthened to provide the tourists with high-quality and
high -standard service. First, a number of decisions have been taken, such as the listing of
“Best Star-rating Hotels”, “Best Travel Services” and “Ten Top Guides”, which have
improved the quality of service in real terms. Secondly, the travel services are encouraged
to develop rapidly in a healthy way. Private-owned domestic travel services and Sino-
foreign joint-venture travel services are encouraged to develop. The travel services are
encouraged to operate in a network-oriented way and they are supported and controlled in
a dynamic way. Thirdly, the standard of tourist hotel star-rating is rigorously enforced to
standardize the quality of service. The star-rating hotels are checked annually in order to
see whether they comply with the star rating Fourthly, the. Management of tourism
industry has gradually developed in the direction of legalization and standardization.

The overall quality of the tourism manpower has been upgraded through various channels.
First, tourism education has been enhanced. Seven colleges or universities in Shandong
Province have established tourism departments or offered tourism courses. 75 tourism
trade schools or professional schools have also been set up. An education system
consisting of trade school, two-year course, four-year course and postgraduate course is
gradually perfected. At present, 13,800 enrolments major in tourism courses of different
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levels in the Province. Secondly, various on-the-job training activities have been launched.
Shandong Province Tourism Administration and Shandong University jointly conduct a
teach-oneself course of Tourism Management (including Hotel Management). Various
kinds of training courses and workshops are held annually to train management staff in
hotels, travel services and scenic spots and guides. Thirdly, civic development has been
enhanced. The staff are educated to love our motherland, the city and the tourism trade and
have sound professional morality. Fine environment and order and quality service are
offered to satisfy the tourists.

However, Shandong Province is located in a temperate zone with four distinct seasons. In
addition, the “Golden Tourism Week” (referring to May Day, National Day and Spring
Festival holidays) is taking place. Therefore, almost all the tourist attractions are seasonal
with peak season and off season. Under the active guidance and effective coordination by
governments at different levels, especially by the market regulation and public guidance,
the negative effects caused by tourism have been minimized.

3. Plan of Shandong Future Tourism Development


In order to encourage the tourism industry to develop rapidly in a healthy way, Shandong
Province has committed WTO to invite foreign experts to formulate a Shandong Tourism
Development Master Plan, which will be finalized soon. The Plan focuses not only on the
development of natural resources, but also on the development of cultural tourist products,
the management of cultural sites and the representation of cultural heritage. We have
realized that Shandong Province must improve the quality of the products and strengthen
the preservation of cultural sites in order to attract more foreign tourists and increase the

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income. This way, tourism development and cultural heritage preservation will help and
complement each other.

In the next 5 years, the overall targets set for Shandong tourism development are the
following: great efforts will be made to expand the increasing market; centered on the
reasonable development of natural spots, the cultural spots will be preserved, utilized and
planned in a scientific way; the concept of general development of tourism will be
strengthened; major breakthrough will be made in respect of resource development,
supporting facilities and marketing. In respect of the layout of tourism resources, “six
zones and two routes” (Spring-Mt. Tai-Sage Zone, Coast Tourism Zone, Qi Culture
Tourism Zone, Folklore Tourism Zone, Yellow River Mouth Tourism Zone and Mt.
Mengshan Tourism Zone; Marsh tourist route and ancient Canal route) will be upgraded,
enriched and perfected. The range of Mt. Tai tour will be enlarged and a loop route around
Mt. Tai will be developed. The natural landscape of Mt. Mengshan will be developed into
a national forestry park like a “natural oxygen bar”. Dependent on the Historic Museum
and Sacrificial Horse Grave, the Qi Culture Tourism Zone will be planned and expanded.
At Penglai Pavilion, the ancient architectures will be maintained, the mountains will be
upgraded and the mole of the Water Fortress will be consolidated. In Taian and Qingdao,
two large unique theme parks will be developed. Special sightseeing tourism products will
be developed, such as ecological tour, cultural tour, adventure tour, coast tour, spa resorts,
village tour, agriculture tour and industry tour. In addition, various special interest tours
will also be developed such as business tour, MICE tour, shopping tour, keep-fit tour and
study tour. These products will enrich the connotation of tour and meet the people’s
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demand in the 21st century. A provincial tour network will be formed in combining
Tuesday, January 12, 2010 1:50:12 AM

sightseeing and holiday, nature and culture, land and sea. Marketing and promotion will be
strengthened to develop multi-level markets. The tourist products will be well packaged
and publicized. Highlights of the tourist attractions will be arranged as circuits. The
tourism manpower will be upgraded in order to improve the quality of service and to create
a favorable environment for tourists. In 2005, Shandong Province is planned to receive 1
million foreign visitor arrivals and 100 million domestic visitor arrivals with a total income
of RMB 72 billion.

The 21st century is a century of economy based on knowledge. As science and technology
change with each passing day, people increasingly feel that culture and knowledge are of
great importance for human existence and of unique attractiveness. Nobel Prize winners
declared in Paris in 1998 that “ If human beings want to survive in the 21st century, we
have to seek the 2,500 year old wisdom of Confucius. As the holy birthplace of Confucius-
the cultural giant in the world, and also called “the Native Town of Confucius and
Mencius” and “the State of Ceremonies”, Shandong is increasingly demonstrating its
attractive charms of traditional culture and modern civilization. I would like to end my
speech with Confucius’ word: “Isn’t it a great pleasure to have friends coming from afar?”
We will stand in the east of China and on the land of Shandong to warmly welcome friends
from everywhere to visit Shandong in order to share our cultural heritage! Confucius and
Shandong welcome you!

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135
THIRD TECHNICAL SESSION

THE SILK ROAD AND CULTURAL TOURISM


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THE SILK ROAD AND CULTURAL TOURISM20

Distinguished delegates,
Ladies and gentlemen,

It is a pleasure to be here today, and to be given the honor of presenting a summary of


Japan’s studies on the Silk Road at the International Conference on Cultural Tourism).

Our study, called the “Research Project for the Promotion of Tourism Exchange with
Developing Countries and Areas along the Silk Road,” began in 1995. The project was
initiated by APTEC (Asia-Pacific Tourism Exchange Center), following the adoption of
the Samarkand Declaration on Silk Road Tourism in 1994. To implement the study,
APTEC set up the Silk Road Tourism Promotion Committee chaired by Dr. Takayasu
Higuchi, a distinguished authority on Silk-Roadology. The committee gathered persons
from a wide range of fields; scholars with a great knowledge of the Silk Road, personnel
from airline companies, travel agents handling Silk Road tourism, the Japanese Ministry of
Transport, which is the central agency for tourism in Japan, and local governments in
Japan which have strong links with the Silk Road. I am also a member of the committee.

The field surveys are commissioned to my organization, ITDIJ (International Tourism


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Development Institute of Japan). As such, I have accompanied Dr. Higuchi almost every
year on field surveys of China, Turkey, Syria and Iran.

It would have been appropriate if Dr. Higuchi could have been here with us to speak to you.
And I am sure he would have been more than pleased to come. Unfortunately, Dr. Higuchi
could not make it today. And so he gave out special instructions for me to attend on his
behalf, and present the summary of our surveys and findings. I am not sure how accurately
I can explain the objective of the Research Project as perceived by Dr. Higuchi. But I will
do my best, bearing in mind his concept and ideals.

In our study of the Silk Road, we conducted a field survey of China, starting from the
eastern end of the Silk Road, Xi ’ an, traveling through Lanzhou and Dunhuang, then
following the Southern Route of the Tian Shan Route via Turpan, Kuqa and Kashgar, and
finally reaching the Pamirs. Apart from this survey, other surveys are underway of
countries in the western portion of the Silk Road, that is Turkey, Syria and Iran.
Unfortunately, we have not yet surveyed the Central Asian countries such as Uzbekistan.
However, the Japanese government has commissioned ITDIJ to conduct a separate survey
of the tourism sector of this region. Thus we have acquired basic information on the
tourism sector of the countries in Central Asia, excluding Tajikistan.

As part of the research study, we have held seminars in the countries of our surveys such as
China and Iran aimed to deepen the understanding of the significance of the Great Silk
Road and Silk Road tourism by personnel in the tourism and travel industries of the
respective countries. In addition, at the end of each segment of our field surveys and

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Mr. Koichi Arai, Director General, International Tourism Development Institute of Japan

137
studies, we give presentations for the general public in Japan sponsored by APTEC. The
purpose is to convey the tourism attractiveness of the countries along the Silk Road. Only
last month, we have held a presentation on Iran in Osaka.

Now, I would like to present the basic concept underlying the “Research Project for the
Promotion of Tourism Exchange with Developing Countries and Areas along the Silk
Road,” initiated by Japan in 1995.

I will cite an excerpt of Dr. Higuchi’s lecture, which he presented to Chinese personnel in
Dunhuang, as it best describes the purpose of our surveys. Well, let me introduce what he
said:

“I am an archaeologist, and since my first visit in 1957, I have come nearly ten times to
Dunhuang. The reason why I came to Dunhuang this time is not to conduct research, but to
promote tourism. At first, you may think that archaeology and tourism do not “ mix. ”
Archaeology is an inconspicuous profession, whereas the tourism business seems to be the
contrary. As you may know, the Japanese people use “kanji,” or Chinese characters, in our
daily lives. The Japanese word for tourism in “kanji” is “Kankou.” “Kankou” means, “going
to look at extraordinary sights and spectacular objects.” For years, I have conducted my
research studies as an archaeologist by looking at the remarkable Buddhist ruins in
Dunhuang. I came to realize that what I had been doing up till then was exactly the
meaning of the word “Kankou.” I would like the peoples of not only China and Japan, but
also the world over to marvel at the amazing sights of Dunhuang. As the purpose of the
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research project is to realize this, it was a pleasure for me to take part in this endeavor.

Needless to say, cultural properties should be preserved with care. Some people may say
that the best way to do this is to close them up or bury them underground, and not open
them to the public. However, if we were to cover up such valuable objects with a lid or
bury them underground, and not to permit people to look at them, we would shut out “
Kankou,” which means “to go to look at extraordinary sights and spectacular objects.” The
question is how we can harmonize the need to preserve these valuable tourism resources
and opening to them to the public.

The cultural properties of the world are objects left by mankind, especially men of ancient
times. By looking at the cultural properties, we can understand man’s outlook on life and
the world, and their views on good and evil, and religion. International friendship, which
has become a major theme worldwide, can be promoted by reading books or guidebooks of
a country. But probably the best way to understand a country or her people is to go there
and actually see the objects, which man has created. Moreover, I have great faith that our
lives will be richer through tourism, by traveling to various countries, and seeing and
studying their spectacular sights.

In conclusion, I believe that we should carry out activities with the aim to observe how the
tourism resources of the main countries along the Silk Road are being developed, examine
possibilities for promoting them, and in effect, play a part in promoting international
exchange.”

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Dr. Higuchi’s concept, which I have just cited, explains the basis of Japan’s studies on
tourism exchange. And so, I accompanied Dr. Higuchi, visiting the main countries along
the Silk Road.

The Silk Road is recognized as one of the most popular travel products for international
travelers in China. And so the focus is on the tourism resources of the Silk Road, mainly
the Buddhist ruins. However, on visiting Turkey, Syria and Iran, one finds a wealth of
diversified historical and cultural resources influenced by the Greco-Roman, Byzantine,
Christian and Islamic eras. As a result, the concept of highlighting the Silk Road as a
tourism resource is hidden and not as prominent as in China. Every time I came across this
situation during the surveys, I wondered how Silk Road tourism could be put under one
attractive concept; one which encompassed the entire Silk Road, spanning across China,
Central Asia and Iran, and extending to Turkey and Syria. I then recalled one of Dr.
Higuchi’s writings, in which he unfolded the story of the heavenly maidens.

The heavenly maidens in the West, mainly Greece, refer to the nikes, cupids and eros,
which had wings to fly. As they traveled east along the Silk Road, they transformed
themselves into beautiful maidens, wearing a robe of feathers instead of wings. Finally,
they found their way to Horyuji in Nara, Japan. In fact, I saw many forms of heavenly
maidens in various regions of China, Syria and Turkey. From this observation, I came up
with an idea for the concept of Silk Road tourism as a whole, that is “Silk Road Travel
where the Heavenly Maidens Fly.”
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I consulted Dr. Higuchi and asked what he thought of this concept. He agreed to my
proposal, but suggested in addition, “The Road where Alexander the Great and Chen Xian-
Zhuang Meet.” This concept has not been officially decided upon yet, and we will have to
discuss this in depth with persons concerned. But I wanted to take this opportunity to
introduce it to you for promoting the Silk Road and Silk Road tourism

Through my association with Dr. Higuchi for the past six years, accompanying him on
field surveys and meeting him at committee meetings and lectures, I have learned much
about his experiences and acquired valuable knowledge of the Silk Road. As I deepen my
knowledge of the Silk Road, I shall travel with a deeper appreciation of the Great Silk
Road. What impressed me most of his teachings is the story about an epitaph written in
Greek titled “The Life of a Wise Man.” It was uncovered in a mausoleum in Kianeas,
excavated from the Ai Khanoum ruins in Afghanistan. This Ai Khanoum is known as
“maiden town” in general.

The epitaph reads as follows:

“Learn moderation in childhood


Learn to control one’s emotions in youth
Learn justice when you reach middle age
Learn to give good advice when you grow old
And finally one can greet death without regret”

Dr. Higuchi is over 80 years of age, but in his eyes, I am still a young man. As the
engraving on the epitaph reads, I hope to continue my visits to the various regions along
the Silk Road and learn about their unusual and amazing sights. Incidentally, this fine

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epitaph was excavated in Afghanistan, which has been the scene of much fighting and civil
strife. Let us pray that peace will return swiftly to this land, and the day will come when
we may visit and see for ourselves the extraordinary and spectacular ruins where this
epitaph was discovered.
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140
AN INTRODUCTION
TO THE WTO SILK ROAD PROJECT21

As you all are aware, for centuries, the Silk Road was travelled by conquerors, traders,
missionaries, geographers and, more recently, by tourists. It served as a fundamental link
between the East and the West, exchanging cultures, crafts, ideas, technologies, beliefs and
peoples. Since 1991, coinciding with the independence of the five central Asian republics,
there has been a revival of the Silk Road interests – for cultural exchange, trade and
tourism.

Encouraged by this development, WTO decided, at its General Assembly in Indonesia in


1993, to create a long-term tourism project that would promote a special Silk Road tourism
concept. Hence, the Samarkand Declaration on Silk Road Tourism was adopted in 1994
by 19 participating countries.

Since then, there have been several major initiatives that have marked the promotion and
development of the Silk Road project. To begin with, it was vital to differentiate the
participating countries according to their different degrees of commitment. Hence, three
concentric circles were identified: the first circle consisted of the Turkestan countries
which had just started opening up their borders for tourism. WTO’s main efforts in this
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circle were, and still are, to prepare the countries, via action plans, training facilities,
formulation of legislation, frontier formalities and statistics, for the projected growth in
tourism. The second circle comprised countries that had already opened up their sites of
the Silk Road and gained certain experiences with this tourism product. These countries
included China, Pakistan, Islamic Republic of Iran and Turkey. WTO’s effort in this circle
is to strengthen their ongoing activities of development and promotion of tourism. The
third circle covered the terminals of the Road on both ends such as Japan, the Korean
peninsula, the ASEAN countries, the Arab countries and Europe. WTO’s aim is to create
Silk Road awareness in these areas as they are the main generating markets for Silk Road
tourism.

Once this geographical demarcation was done, the subsequent logical step was to
formulate a comprehensive and cohesive marketing strategy for Silk Road countries. A
special logo of the WTO Silk Road Tourism Project was adopted to unite all countries,
organizations and the private sector under a common visual banner. As the Silk Road is a
trans-continental concept which required cooperation and collaboration beyond individual
country borders as well as active participation from all sectors of the tourism industry
(hoteliers, travel agencies and tour operators as well as national authorities), WTO
proposed, in June 1996, a marketing plan which was unanimously endorsed by
participating countries at a forum held in Xi’an, China in June 1996. Subsequent meetings
such as second Silk Road Travel Forum in the historical city of Nara, Japan in January
1997 formed the basis for WTO to compile an exhaustive inventory of all tourism
resources along the Silk Road, including attractions, facilities, accommodations, transport
and information centres. A major output of the Nara Forum was the publication of a

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Dr. Harsh Varma, WTO Regional Representative for Asia and the Pacific

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coloured brochure on the Silk Road’s tourism product, which was generously funded by
the Government of Japan. The brochure is being used by the Silk Road countries as an
effective marketing tool.

Other Silk Road meetings include the Second International Meeting on the Silk Road held
in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran in May 1997, and the WTO General Assembly session
held in Istanbul, Turkey from 17-24 October 1997, which resulted in two new initiatives:
first, development of an action plan to link the Silk Road handicrafts centres drawing the
experience of a UNDP project in Uzbekistan; and, second, to support a proposal by a New
Zealand media group to prepare a 26-part television travel series on the Silk Road
attractions. Furthermore, in 1998, WTO organized a Silk Road Tour Operators Workshop
in Almaty, Kazakstan in September-October to bring together buyers and sellers to carry
out a critical appraisal of the Silk Road tourism product. WTO also organized the Third
International Meeting on the Silk Road was held in Tbilisi from 02-05 November 1998
which analysed the activities carried out within the Silk Road project since its launching in
1994 as countries reviewed their achievements in the development of their Silk Road
tourism product.

With specific regard to the marketing and promotion of the Silk Road as a tourist
destination, WTO has created an exclusive Silk Road stand in all major international travel
fairs such as ITB Berlin, WTM London and FITUR Madrid. These trade fairs provide a
unique opportunity to the buyers and sellers to meet, exchange information and strike
business deals. This experiment has been quite successful and WTO aims to participate in
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more trade fairs with a view to providing a wider exposure to the Silk Road.

One of the major handicaps that WTO has discovered in the development of Silk Road
tourism, particularly as a trans-continental product, is visa facilitation. As a result, WTO
has recently completed a draft study on Visa Facilitation along the Silk Road which
includes a country-wise analysis of the visa requirements for each Silk Road country as
well as proposals on how to set up cooperation between countries to facilitate multiple
entry visas, transit visas, and, ultimately, the establishment of a Silk Road visa.

WTO has also prepared a series analysing the major Silk Road tourism source markets,
WTO has already produced a report on the Japanese outbound market and is about to
publish a study on the North American Outbound Market for the Silk Road countries.
Other markets that we would like to study in the near future include Germany,
Netherlands, United Kingdom and the Russian Federation.

WTO is currently endorsing and offering assistance in the production of a new travellers’
guide book on the Silk Road – a work commissioned by the international company
Trailblazer Publications to write an original work entitled “The Silk Route” which will be
an in-depth guide book on travel and tourism along the Silk Road. This publication would
greatly assist in the marketing and promotion of tourism along the Silk Road.

I would also like to inform you that WTO has been receiving support in the development
and promotion of the Silk Road through other international organizations such as
UNESCO and the World Bank.

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Now that I have given you a brief overview of WTO’s Silk Road project, let us now focus
our attention towards cultural tourism and the Silk Road. Cultural tourism and the Silk
Road are synonyms – culture forms the mainstay of the Silk Road tourism product. From
China to Italy, through Central Asia and the Near East, the Silk Road abounds in cultural
tourism attractions such as the Great Wall and the Terra-cotta soldiers of China through to
Persopilis in the Islamic Republic of Iran. It has been through the revival of interest in the
Silk Road that countries have discovered the importance of tourism and this new
awakening is leading countries to make exhaustive efforts to preserve and conserve their
cultural heritage.

As the Secretary-General mentioned in his speech at the opening ceremony, the future of
the tourism industry, particularly in Asia, is extremely promising. The tourism industries
of the Silk Road countries, in general, are at a nascent or developing state. They are
consciously attempting to develop their tourism industries to make full use of the potential
numbers of tourists expected to travel to Asia. Furthermore, they are also aware of the
emerging trend of tourists seeking new quality destinations. Whereas a cultural tourism
industry can be an excellent means for economic benefits, there are numerous examples
worldwide where planning and development with short-term profits in mind have led to
cultural disasters. Therefore, the Silk Road countries are still in time to develop their
cultural tourism product on the basis of sustainability.

Many Silk Road countries, especially the Central Asia Republics, face an additional crisis
threatening the continuity and future of this cultural heritage as well as the livelihoods of
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many thousands of people. These countries are confronting the sudden withdrawal of state
assistance and the organizational infrastructure that supported much of their cultural and
artistic efforts. The market opportunities, particularly those related to the tourism sector,
are fast disappearing and, former organizational systems that helped maintain the cultural
traditions of these countries have broken down.

Recently, however, there are increasing signs that governments are beginning to realize
that further losses in crafts and cultural life will weaken the general socio-economic fabric
of their countries. A major effort by local and international communities is required to
revitalize crafts and traditional activities indispensable for the development of cultural
tourism, ensuring employment, long term stability and sustainability and, the preservation
of national heritage.

WTO has taken the promotion and preservation of the cultural identity of the Silk Road
under serious consideration and one of the projects that we have in mind is the setting up
of cultural and handicraft centres along the Silk Road. For those of you who have been
closely following WTO’s Silk Road ideas, you would realise that this idea is not new –
indeed, it was first presented during the session of the WTO General Assembly in Istanbul
in 1997. However, due to lack of funds, we have not yet been able to implement it. WTO
is of the opinion that these cultural and handicraft centres will provide a common bond
between the Silk Road countries when setting up the parameters for cultural tourism and
developing their cross-border itineraries. Also, lack of craft production activity leads to
deterioration in employment levels resulting in economic loss for the local communities.
The establishment of cultural and handicraft centres will also go a long way in job creation
in local communities and can provide employment to socially disadvantaged groups such
as women, youth and ethnic minorities. Needless to say that a successful cultural and

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handicraft centre will also increase tourist spending and would contribute towards the
exports of the Silk Road countries. So whereas to date we have not been able to secure
funds for this project, I am pleased to inform you that WTO has established contact with
the senior representatives of the UNDP Inter-Regional Silk Road project and we are
currently exploring sources of funding for this cultural project and others of similar nature.

WTO also plans to organize more seminars and workshops with a view to ensuring the
sustainable development of their tourism industries and to provide guidelines and examples
of best practice in the preservation and conservation of all Silk Road cultural heritage
monuments for the benefit of the local communities, the international tourists, and, above
all, the future generations. One of our next main events would be the setting up of a Silk
Road Pavilion during the forthcoming International Tourism Asia (ITA) to be held in Hong
Kong in September 2001. WTO, being the organizer of this of this Pavilion, encourages all
Silk Road countries to actively participate in this event in order to further showcase the
tourism products of the Silk Road countries, this time to the East Asia generating markets.

Conclusion

The Silk Road is a project designed for the countries involved and it is the participating
countries which stand to benefit from its outputs and activities. The active participation and
close collaboration and cooperation witnessed between the countries themselves on one
hand, and the countries and WTO on the other, has assisted the Secretariat in taking a
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number of tangible actions in the last few years or so to establish the Silk Road as a viable
tourism product and in creating awareness of the Silk Road in the primary source markets.
The countries, on their part, have moved forward with the development of infrastructure
and superstructure. All in all, a lot of ground has been covered since the project got off the
ground in 1994 but, like the Great Silk Road itself, there is still a long way to go. And, the
WTO intends to continue its journey on the road to further progress and development with
the active assistance and cooperation of all the participating countries.

144
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145
OF CULTURAL TOURISM
FOURTH TECHNICAL SESSION

TOUR OPERATING PERSPECTIVES


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VIEWPOINTS ON CULTURAL TOURISM22

Having paid me the honour to address my speech to you, you do, of course, expect some
specific ideas in return. Since I represent an internationally active leisure group based in
Hannover, you expect me to give a talk from the German and the Central European point
of view. These expectation could be useful, may even be necessary. Ultimately, we have to
start out from the assumption that cultural tourism, in particular, cannot too readily afford
to abandon the European holidaymaker.

I would therefore like to concentrate on a few comments on the situation and on the
developments and trends in cultural tourism in Germany, and I believe that the possible
effects on destinations around the world will become sufficiently clear.

Let's start by attempting a definition. Cultural tourism is a nice, handy, all-embracing


expression which, in Germany in the past, has unfortunately been used almost exclusively
in scientific discussion. It has only been used more frequently in recent years, to be precise
since 1992 when the European Tourism Institute in Trier arranged a symposium on the
subject, entitled Cultural Tourism in Europe, with the significant subtitle Growth without
Limit? This was a conference that very carefully highlighted all the varieties and special
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features of this branch of tourism.

However, outside the universities - in the tourism industry, in the media and among the
general public - the expression had not yet become established and a confusion of tongues
still prevails here. In the past, holidaymakers rarely spoke of taking a cultural holiday;
rather, they spoke of study trips or holidays, of sightseeing trips, educational trips or
simply of tours. Tour operators employ separate advertising for cultural holidays and
"tours with a difference", cultural world tours, educational holidays or art holidays.

Such a welter of terminology must drive market researchers to despair. Just as


unproductive are the statistics we have at our disposal. The Study Group for Tourism
calculated in 1991 that the share in the main holiday trips was 17.5 %. At the time, this
meant 5.8 million in the old German states. Not recorded were the second and third
holidays as well as short trips which, as we all know, contain a particularly high proportion
of culture.

For the 1997/98 holiday year, the latest statistics available record the not inconsiderable
quantity of 1.2 million study trips and 3.2 million tours, albeit limited to the travel agent
market. Such incomplete information is not, of course, very meaningful. There are only
two figures that are comparable: in comparison with the previous year there was a drop of
20 per cent. This could, however, point to a trend that should be taken seriously.

How then do study trips, cultural world tours, art holidays and cultural experience holidays
differ? Largely through the creativity of the advertising departments concerned. Basically,

22
Ms. Barbara Peisert, Product Manager, Southeast Asia, TUI Group

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there is one thing in common that stands out with all of these holidays: the visiting of
places of interest, undertaken in a group and under the leadership of a tour guide. When we
talk of places of interest, we all agree this means churches and mosques, castles and
palaces, temples and museums, artistic and historical monuments, i.e. objects of the past.

Of course, you will also find material divergences between different brochures. There are
better and worse routes, more fleeting and more thorough programmes, more gifted and
less capable tour guides. These differences exist between the operators, however, and are
the result of competition and the product of corporate policy. They are not detectable from
the packaging and labelling.

The expression study trip is the most comprehensible of all. It promises a higher quality to
the holidaymaker keen on education: more information, a greater number of sightseeing
trips, more scientific lectures, tour guides on a higher intellectual level. However, the
expression rarely evokes associations with your schooldays, a memory that not everyone
connects with happy feelings.

The many nice new titles now largely replace the traditional term of the educational
holiday. This term had a major advantage: it was unambiguous. Namely, education in the
past was as a matter of course conventional classical education.

Nowadays, we do not have such a clear idea of what education means to us. But we do
know, at any rate, that it has a great deal more and far more varied content, content that we
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find in different places - in Mexico, perhaps, or Thailand, Dublin, Los Angeles or in the
Ruhrgebiet. Cultural tourism has become more widespread and complex.

What is even more important, perhaps, is that cultural tourism has become mass tourism.
With all the problems associated with the organisation of constantly growing floods of
holidaymakers.

Let's take a look at the main problem - the build-up of more and more travel groups at the
traditional places of interest. At the focuses of tourism, in Angkor Wat, in the Louvre or on
the Akropolis, in the Egyptian temples or in the national museums of Athens and
Heraklion, as a result of the crush it's increasingly difficult to actually see any of the
exhibits. A close study of art, most days of the year at least, has long since become
impossible.

Measures to control the floods of visitors are long overdue. Here and there, consideration
has been given to radical solutions - to closing off the Venice Lagoon or the old district of
Florence, for example, and regulating access by means of daily quotas.

So far, there has been little action, however; on the contrary, the density of visitor flow has
continuously increased in many places. In some cases because the number of places of
interest has not only remained constant but has even diminished, while tourist numbers
increase in leaps and bounds.

In the case of Egypt, for example, the places of interest sought out more or less uniformly
for decades by all holiday groups can easily be listed on a single page. These are precisely
14 monuments, of which 7 are in the area of Cairo and 7 between Luxor and Abu Simbel.

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Other places of interest are only sporadically offered by one or another speciality tour
operator; in the course of time, they have been removed from most brochures.

With the stretch of the Nile between Cairo and Luxor closed off to cruise ships following
several terrorists attacks, and charter flights being diverted directly to Luxor, the pyramids,
mosques and the Egyptian Museum have been dropped from most holidays. For the mass
of visitors, the list of sights to visit has been cut by half. And the gigantic fleet of Nile
ships now crowds at the quays of Luxor and Aswan, at the temples of Karnak, Edfu and
Kom Ombo.

Let's stay a little longer in the Eastern Mediterranean and recall a press announcement of
last December. The city of Bethlehem was reported to be expecting a happy revival in the
economy in conjunction with the Christian Holy Year 2000. With the financial support of
the World Bank and other sponsors, the city prepared its infrastructure for a major tourist
event. Up to 5 million devout or simply curious tourists were expected at the birthplace of
Christ. The air of anticipation was dampened when pensive European tourism experts
worked out that such an event would have to end in chaos. Even if only 20 per cent of the
expected visitors came, one million that is, a maximum of two minutes of silent prayer at
the church of birth would be allotted to each pilgrim.

Please don't misunderstand me: the people of Palestine are quite justified in trying to make
use of the opportunities that arise through the Holy Year. Of course, it would be
inexcusable if they didn't make an effort to benefit from the mobility triggered by this
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major event. I relate this story because it is characteristic of a type of tourist planning that
as far as possible takes account of all the economic, political and structural factors and
exhausts all resources, but completely forgets and overlooks one factor - the customer.

What we unfortunately still all too frequently lack in this young industry is customer-
oriented thinking. That is, the readiness not to take as model for all our actions our own
ideas, maximum profit, the optimal technology and our own interests, but to consistently
place the wishes and needs of the tourist at the centre of attention. That is to say, the
customer will only be prepared to take his well-earned money into the travel agent in the
long run if he believes he will get enjoyment, an experience and pleasure in return.

Pleasure, however, rarely comes into the question where the traditional study trip is
concerned. Instead, you find a lot of effort and stress, a lot of obligation and discomfort, a
lot of crush, a lot of archaeology and instruction. The result of such experiences is that
some now speak disrespectfully of tourism in ruins.

In the ministries and administrative departments, the problem of overcrowding is gradually


and patchily and still all too hesitantly being recognised. The extending of the opening
hours into the evening of museums in Italy was a long overdue sensation. Unfortunately,
too few have so far followed this good example.

There are already plenty of measures for controlling visitors. In France, for example,
particularly in the Paris region, it is now a rule that tour groups have to register several
months in advance, particularly for prominent museums. When there are special
exhibitions in Brussels or London, for example, that attract a lot of interest, tickets even for
individual visitors are left in the advance booking office and only for a specified date. The

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number of tickets issued per day – or even per hour – is thus closely linked to capacity and
is strictly limited. This does admittedly reduce income, but at the same time it ensures that
the visitor is able to view the exhibits. It is to be hoped and expected that this method
becomes the accepted thing. And neither is this expectation unfair - ultimately, when you
pay for an admission ticket, you expect to find a seat in the theatre.

That the problem will become worse is almost certain. The appetite for culture is
unquenchable and growing. In 1998 – the latest information available – there were 95
million visitors to museums in Germany, a country with 80 million inhabitants. That's just
3 % more than the previous year. In Berlin's museums alone, which are still getting by with
temporary measures and have far too little space, 7.7 million visitors and an increase of
700,000 were recorded.

Or take a look at France: when the Pompidou Centre with its museum of modern art were
built in Paris, 5,000 visitors per day were optimistically expected and the rooms were
dimensioned accordingly. In reality, each day saw the arrival of 25,000 people. After two
decades, this now world-famous architectural work of art has had to be completely
renovated and extended; the day it reopened after two years of building work, 40,000
people were waiting at the door.

The figures not only demonstrate the market value of art. They are also the basis for a
segment of tourism which is neutrally described as city tourism, but which essentially
represents a modern and fashionable form of cultural tourism. And consequently – and we
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should not overlook this – is a rival to the traditional educational holiday. This segment of
tourism is based, on the one hand, on the theatre, especially musical theatre, concerts and
festival productions, and, on the other, by the museums and particularly those spectacular
exhibitions that become media events. The millennium exhibition in Berlin with the theme
Hundred Years of Painting in Germany attracted 300,000 people in four months. One can
only speculate on how many visitors will have seen the great retrospectives of the century
in New York by the time they finish.

The strength of attraction of the art galleries in major cities such as Berlin, Paris and New
York is sufficiently well known. But small museums in Germany, such as Tübingen and
Hildesheim, have also shown how it is possible to turn a city into a place of pilgrimage for
art lovers through excellent series of exhibitions, and thus induce lively, healthy and
sustained tourism.

We have occupied ourselves with defensive measures, with ways of imposing quotas in
order to save ourselves from overcrowding at the all too famous sights. We know,
however, that defence is an emergency measure. When demand exceeds supply on the
market, we can of course restrict demand; it would be better however to increase the wares
available for supply.

This would not be difficult for most museums. Since, for space reasons, they can only
display a small proportion of their possessions with most hidden in the strong-room, it
would be quite simple for them to extend the range of items on show. With its persistent
search for annexes, the Guggenheim Foundation shows how to do it and what can be
achieved with it. A look at Bilbao demonstrates the point.

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What possibilities modern technology has to offer is impressively demonstrated by last
year's European city of culture, Weimar. With intelligent foresight in respect of visitor
numbers and interests, a duplicate of Goethe's Gartenhaus was created and capacity thus
doubled, or waiting time halved - whichever way you look at it.

That it is technically possible to build perfect replicas which the viewer is unable to
differentiate from the original is nothing new. In Hildesheim, for example, you can wonder
at stone-age cave paintings in the authentic atmosphere of a stone-age cave - that is
actually located in the Pyrenees.

I do not have to explain in detail what consequences will follow from this. I only need to
point out the growth of the leisure park with thematic orientation.

We're not just thinking here of Disneyland, but of scientifically sound establishments such
as the Archaeological Park in Xanten with its careful reconstruction of classical buildings
that convey an impressive, vivid and easily understood picture of a Roman city. Or just
consider the plan to build a complete, accurate-in-every-detail, virtual Rome in California.
It's certainly not utopian, but we can be sure that it will be an attraction.

If you trace the lines of development of cultural tourism over the past two decades, then it's
fairly apparent where this is taking us:

Trend I: Countless new museums are being built, in some cases isolated, in others in
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conjunction with leisure parks, sometimes in major cities, but frequently in the country.
This rearrangement of space makes room for the rising visitor numbers.

There is also a diversification of content taking place. The themes covered are expanding
constantly; they are more and more frequently aimed at natural science and technology and
are sometimes very specialised. Although art maintains an elevated position, it's hegemony
has long since been broken.

Here are a few randomly selected examples:

- An ambitious extension is the lavish pyramid in the courtyard of the Louvre.


Not only were there new departments accommodated in an underground area, but
also an imposing service area with Metro station, shops, galleries and restaurants.
These were accompanied by video facilities, a library and work rooms. The Cour
Napoleon and the Cour du Carousel were intended to act as places of
communication.

- A project that was built in parallel and ultimately became even more lavish,
larger and more expensive was Paris' Cité des Science et de l` Industrie, which
offers extensive information on the human environment, nature and technology on
an area of 400,000 sq m.

- A dockyard region of Liverpool was converted into the Transworld Festival


Gardens. This presents visitors with 24 different gardens, including Chinese,
Japanese, Indian and Turkish examples.

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- The Noorder Tierpark in the Netherlands got itself a museum covering the
history of life on earth on the occasion of its 50th birthday.

- In 1986, the port of Rotterdam acquired a substantial maritime museum with


countless historical ships.

- In the Aeolus wind park in Friesland's Sexbierum, you can learn everything
worth knowing about wind power. The park is linked to the first wind centre in the
Netherlands, which has 18 turbines for generating electricity. In Lower Saxony's
Gifhorn, you can acquaint yourself with windmills of all kinds and from all parts of
Europe.

- Industrial memorials are fast becoming sought-after places of interest.


Closed steelworks and gasometers have mutated to become museums; the
Ruhrgebiet is transforming its grubby image and becoming a much in demand
tourist region. Former unprofitable mines – in the Bavarian Forest, in Salzburg or
Kärnten, for example – have become profit-making tourist operations with a
particular attraction for family visitors.

- Taking another look across the Atlantic, the hosts of visitors to NASA's
space station in Cape Canaveral have already become an essential source of
income.
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Trend II: The demands on the design and layout of museums, of historical and
archaeological parks and exhibitions are increasing. It has become essential for museums
to have an educational concept.

This means that it is no longer sufficient simply to distribute the exhibits more or less
decoratively around the rooms; their content has to be connected, they have to be grouped
under specific themes and placed in a well thought-out setting, i.e. optimally, clearly and
comprehensibly presented.

At the same time, the use of modern technology has become the rule. The audio guide with
headphones, with the help of which the visitor can arrange his tour as he wishes and call up
information as required - i.e. whenever, wherever, and as often as he wants - is now
regarded as a basic facility. It is causing a silent revolution: with its help, the guided tour
under the external control of the tour guide has been given way to a self-determined
method for enjoying the exhibition just as you wish.

Large illustrated charts are of course just as much part of the basic equipment of the major
exhibitions as the accompanying video films and, in most cases, the impressive
introductory multimedia shows, professionally produced and with arresting images.

In addition, the interactive museum is increasingly becoming established. Here, the visitor
is not only able to view the exhibits but also feel them, ask them questions, set them in
motion, experiment with them.

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We find examples of this in natural science/technological museums, such as in Munich,
Berlin and almost everywhere in the USA.

Special, professional educational support is also offered with increasing frequency for
specific target groups, especially for children.

If, from this overview, we are to draw a moral for our industry, then there is one thing we
must regretfully accept: the traditional places of interest are no longer in vogue.

The scenes of the traditional educational holiday – or study trip or whatever you wish to
call it – above all confirm a conservative policy:

- So far, there has been no rearrangement of visitor space or times in order to


improve the situation for the masses. No plans have yet been made for drastic
reforms. You get the impression that no-one believes there is a serious problem
with the present situation.

- Neither do you notice any thematic diversification taking place. There is no


attempt to break away from the monopoly position of art history and archaeology.
The world of educational tourism still consists of columns, cupolas and capitals.

- Sightseeing is undertaken as ever in the antiquated form of the group tour, it


consists merely of a non-specific communication of information by the tour guide.
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Something that has proven particularly disastrous in this connection in many


countries is the practising of protectionist policies which create a monopoly for the
local tour guides and deny the employees of foreign tour operators any possibility
of work. This policy is intended to protect the domestic labour market, but of
course has the opposite effect. All in all, it has ensured irreparable damage to the
educational trip organisers and to this segment of the industry. But what is worse is
that it ignores the basic economic recognition that healthy quality tourism can only
grow and flourish in a liberal, global economic system.

We shouldn't forget to point out that all those participating in this conservative policy have
achieved considerable and sustained success. We have also known for a long time,
however, that with such a policy we only reach a genial, but also problematic target group:
the generation of people who are now of pensionable age. This target group is large but it
is at the same time inevitable that it will inexorably diminish.

Observant German educational holiday companies have realised this for the past decade or
more. They have responded with new products: with educational hiking trips, for example,
or cycling holidays, city breaks, festival trips or gourmet holidays. They have modified
their brochures and their advertising and encouraged a new, active clientele: Experience a
holiday with a difference! Or even: Enjoy your leisure time – experience culture! Or even
more plainly: Shared experience unites. Meet new people, exchange ideas!

A couple of quotations show that the advertisers at least had the right idea. The
futurologists too: "In future, people will queue outside concert box offices, museums and
art exhibitions in the same way as the post-war generation did outside grocery shops",
forecast Horst Opaschowski, head of Germany's leisure research institute, BAT,

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completely correctly in 1990. The American John Naisbitt simultaneously wrote in his
Megatrends 2000: "During the nineties, culture will gradually replace sport as the most
important leisure activity of the people." No-one should say he was surprised by this
development.

In the new millennium, too, cultural tourism will continue to thrive and flourish. But this is
a new kind of culture – and a new kind of tourism.

In the USA, where "edutainment" has been a tradition for many years, John Graff, one of
the leading leisure managers, said: "I believe that, in future, (leisure) parks that combine
the thirst for knowledge and the strong demand for fun will become more and more
successful."

This applies not only to leisure parks. The educational holiday of the future, we can
assume, will be an entertaining, stimulating and inspiring pleasure trip. Those who wish to
continue a successful involvement in cultural tourism will have to adjust to this.
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CULTURAL TOURISM IN THE JAPAN MARKET:
PRESENT AND FUTURE23

Ladies and gentlemen,

I am most pleased to have this chance to tell you about cultural tourism in the Japan market
as our country’s largest tour operator. First of all, as a premise for our cultural tourism, I
will update Japan’s overseas travel market, which has seen dramatic changes in recent
years. Then I will refer to our cultural tourism that has a long tradition in Japanese society
and that we believe will have further potential in the future, and of course what should be
done to increase Japanese cultural tourism.

Before moving to the main topics, I will say a few words about our company to give you a
rough idea of how we’ve helped build Japan’s tour and travel trade. As introduced, I am
from JTB. While JTB stands for Japan Travel Bureau, we are fully in the private sector. As
you may gather from the word “bureau,” we began as a governmental office to welcome
foreign visitors under the name Japan Tourist Bureau. That was way back in 1912. Later,
we developed domestic tourism for our people as our railway network expanded
nationwide. Time passed, and in 1963, the year before Japan’s liberalization of overseas
travel for our citizens, we formed anew as the Japan Travel Bureau, Inc., a commercial
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enterprise, with our original organization becoming the Japan Travel Bureau Foundation,
now a research institute active in various tourism surveys and studies. With the expansion
of Japan’s overseas travel market, JTB has become fairly well known to the inbound
market at major tourist destinations. The latest is that we’ve decided to change our name,
Japan Travel Bureau, Inc. to JTB Corporation, effective this January 1. JTB, as an entire
group, sends approximately three million Japanese travelers overseas each year, though
most of our business still comes from domestic travel. Incidentally, our inbound business
occupies less than a mere one percent of our total sales volume of 1.5 trillion yen, or 14
billion US dollars.

That aside, I will update our overseas travel market. As you know, Japan’s travel industry
suffered during the past couple of years, reflecting our shaky economic environment. But
an analysis of the monthly transition of total Japanese departures clearly shows that our
overseas travel market bottomed out in the summer of 1998 and has been on a recovery
track ever since. The number of our overseas travelers for 1999 reached 16.36 million, for
a 3.5% increase over the previous year. And the first nine months of this year produced a
remarkable growth of 8.1%, though still a tentative figure, thus promising us an annual
total of well over 17 million of our people going abroad in 2000. With a gradual, steady
growth estimated for our GDP this year and beyond, backed by a strong desire of our
people to visit other parts of the world, we can expect continued future growth, with 20
million travelers per annum foreseen within the next two or three years.

Apart from the volume aspect, I’d like to describe the drastic structural change in our travel
market which became conspicuous in the course of its recovery. An analysis of our 1999

23
Mr. Yoshio Koteda, General Manager, International Relations, Japan Travel Bureau

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data in ten-year age segments shows the biggest increases to be among men and women
over fifty, followed by women in their thirties. While men in their thirties, women in their
forties, and boys and girls under nineteen also registered a small upswing, men and women
in their twenties and men in their forties recorded a decline, indicating a dramatic shift of
the driving force behind our market.

Young working women in their twenties, who for years had led the way in Japan’s
overseas travel, have shown a downward trend since the peak of 1996. Men in their
twenties also follow the same pattern. Although Japan’s population in this age bracket has
also declined, the drop in overseas travel percentages exceeds the population decrease,
posing the serious problem of a smaller departure ratio, which is unique to travelers in their
twenties.

Conversely, the middle-aged and elderly are assuming major roles in the market. The
generation of baby boomers after World War II has been attracting a great deal of attention
in Japan’s tourist industry. Demographically, the population of persons over fifty now
stands at about 48 million, or nearly 40% of our total population. Baby boomers will be the
next segment to reach their fifties, which will boost this figure at the rate of two million a
year. As Japan is aging so rapidly, predictions have it that by 2015 one in four will be over
65. This generation has far younger tendencies than their predecessors, and they are
expected to take the lead among our consumers. Thus an increase of overseas travel among
our middle-aged and elderly is all but guaranteed. I’ll refer to this again later, but this age
bracket shows the greatest interest in historic and cultural attractions, making them the
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number one target for cultural tourism.

Speaking of cultural tourism, Japan has a long history of this traditional form of travel. In
medieval Japan from the 14th to 16th century making a pilgrimage to the holy site called
Kumano was so popular that a travel assistance system was developed, one featuring
everything from a tour guide to accommodations at temples and shrines, to offer pilgrims a
chance to appreciate not only the scenery but the many cultural objects or rare things along
the way. In the following Edo Period, from 1603 to 1867, similar pilgrimages to the Ise
Jingu Shrine, which houses Japan’s most sacred Goddess of the Sun, or the legendary
ancestor of our Emperor, became so popular among common people that many group tours
to Ise were organized on a community basis. During the same period when the shogunate
regime broke off all foreign relations except for China and Holland for well over two
hundred years, the unique administrative system called “Sankin-Kotai” forced the 270
feudal lords we had then to travel to Edo, the old name for Tokyo, every other year to show
their loyalty to the shogun by an alternate-year residence in the city, almost as if hostages.
Even the head of the Dutch trading house, the only Western representative allowed to stay
in Japan, was obliged to make a courtesy trek to Edo whenever a Dutch ship entered
Nagasaki Port. Ironically, this harsh system for feudal lords, each with a huge retinue, and
Dutch merchants led to an even more complete travel system along Japan’s major arteries,
none of which at the time were paved. A thorough account of those arduous journeys from
a European’s point of view was published by the German Doctor Philipp von Siebold, the
book describing many things of interest in cultural tourism---places to see, artistic objects
like images of Buddha, festivals, the lives of local people, flora and fauna, folk art, you
name it. Of course many Japanese lords left detailed journals of their travel, too, which
probably contributed to today’s popularity of travel journalism in Japan and to culture
tours in general.

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With this historic background, cultural tourism is broadly regarded as a mainstay purpose
of travel in Japan, and overseas package tours have long been organized to offer travelers
all the chances possible to see and experience cultural and historical attractions. Recently,
of course, influenced by Western-style holidays, new types of resort vacationing are
offered, specially for the young and families. But for the middle-aged and elderly,
sightseeing tours of natural scenery or historic and cultural attractions are highly popular.
This is quite in contrast to their Occidental counterparts who tend to focus on leisurely
holidays at resorts.

Let’s take a look at the main characteristics of our middle-aged and senior travelers, our
main target for cultural tourism.

As I mentioned earlier, this segment is sure to grow and will form a core travel group in
the coming century. They also form an age group that seems less affected by economic
trends than their juniors, since people in their fifties and older pay for travel from their
savings or personal assets, not from their monthly wage. Still, as one might guess, this age
group is sensitive to economic forecasts and fluctuations in stock prices.

Without referring to our overseas travel survey, this age segment tends to prefer scenic
attractions or those of historical or cultural significance. They want to visit museums, art
galleries, even ancient ruins in remote areas. But, rest, relaxation and gourmet sampling
holds little appeal for this age group compared with their juniors, in particular young
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women. It’s also noteworthy that, while young women give top priority to shopping,
mature women seem to have little interest in this, though not so indifferent to it as their
male counterparts.

Then too, a high percentage of middle-aged and senior travelers buy prearranged package
tours. One of the main characteristics in Japan today is that those over fifty, eminently
women, prefer all-inclusive package tours with good sightseeing programs rather than free-
plan package tours. They dislike tours that keep them on the run, but at the same time they
are not keen on having a lot of free time with nothing to do.

Pricewise, there are two basic schools of thought: groups that do not mind paying so long
as the tour contents are good, and groups that prefer to go abroad more often by being
frugal about pricing.

I’ve given you four traits of middle-aged and senior citizen travel market. I’ll give you one
more: There are few restrictions on departure dates. They don’t care much about the date
but prefer travel offering the most reasonable conditions and prices. In this respect, they
are ideal for us tour operators in that to a certain extent we can level the demand difference
between peak and off periods or dates.

Let’s now turn to our requests for organizing cultural tours overseas, specially in
developing countries and areas, from the standpoint of Japanese tour operators.

Basically there are four factors: (1) access to the site, (2) security, (3) facilities, and (4)
guide services.

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Aside from established international tourist areas or routes, access to even the world’s
famous monument such as Angkor Wat here in Cambodia is often too poor in terms of
road conditions, flight connections or air fares. For example, to visit Angkor Wat, we have
convenient air routes to Bangkok from major cities and from there the well-paved highway
to the border of Thailand, but once in Cambodia the road leading to Siem Reap does not
satisfy international standards and is poorly maintained. This leads us to avoid land
transportation. If we use air service as an alternative, we must face the problem of securing
seats on a convenient connecting flight, and sometimes paying comparatively high fares
for the sector. In this context, we strongly urge the authorities to give top priority to
constructing a well-paved road to the cultural site from gateway cities, even by utilizing
international aid funds.

Security is most important for travelers and tour operators alike. As our survey reveals,
security concerns form the biggest factor hindering overseas travel next to the language
barrier, particularly so for senior travelers. Social stability is a basic necessity for tourism.
Security for tourists is always needed at any tourist destination, but in remote and isolated
places special measures against possible attacks by bandits or terrorists must be taken.
Here, we should bear in mind that a rough road can be the scene of an unlucky assault for
robbery or the taking of hostages.

Regarding facilities, it is not so essential to have luxury hotels because sophisticated


travelers usually can understand the local situation and tolerate even basic amenities and
food. But toilet facilities are a must for Japanese tourists, since we Japanese seem to use
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more than Occidentals, probably because of our physical composition. We need quite a
few rest stops at regular intervals en route on bus tours and at sightseeing spots.

Also essential is competent and informative guide service. In cultural tourism, participants
want to know about the history and associated legends or cultural evaluation of the things
and works of art they observe. So, for Japanese tourists, Japanese-speaking guides who can
explain things in their own language to satisfy their curiosity are required. In reality, we
often get incompetent guides who can speak only very basic language by pointing at this or
that and voicing proper nouns. Without effective orientation or descriptions, cultural
tourism cannot materialize as it should.

Lastly, I will refer to the promotion of cultural tourism. In Japan, any cultural theme can
attract plenty of attention. For instance, recent exhibitions of the world’s four great
civilizations in Japan drew millions of spectators. UNESCO’s World Heritage has aroused
so much interest in cultural themes that many TV shows, video cassettes, books and
cultural courses appeared, and all sell well or are heavily attended. So it’s quite appropriate
for cultural destinations and tour operators to engage in joint promotion with the publishers,
broadcasting companies or culture center organizers. Theme route promotion will always
be effective as shown in the past: Romantische Strasse in Germany, the Silk Road in China
and Central Asian region, the Winery Passage in France---there are many. As for the Silk
Road, there’s a good example among JTB’s LOOK package tours. Our “55-day Bus Tour
through the Eurasian Continent along the Ancient Silk Road from Xian in China to
Istanbul in Turkey,” which started in 1996, still operates on a regular basis. More than two
hundred passengers in fifteen tours have joined it to date. This clearly shows the great
interest Japanese have in culture, both ours and the many other forms around the world.

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In conclusion, I’d like to state again my belief that cultural tourism has a promising future
in Japan considering our people’s ever-mounting interest in cultural themes and a growing
number of culture-oriented senior travelers. We need coordinated promotional activities to
more closely cater to our culture tour enthusiasts.
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INDIA – UNTAPPED POTENTIAL24

Your Excellency,

I think you said that tourism is not only an industry of today, but it is also an industry of
tomorrow. In India, we call it the “sunrise industry”, and I think that applies to all of us
sitting here. President Clinton, who is still in business, said in his last visit that “past is
history”: you cannot change the past, but the future is in our hands. We can mould the
future to the best of our ability and that is what we should be looking at today and forever
for tourism.

Going on to the first two slides, we can say that tourism fosters better understanding
between people. It is also a known unifying force nationally and internationally. The world
ratio of domestic to international tourists is 10 domestic to 1 international; when it comes
to India, it suddenly jumps up to 75 to 1 and therefore we need to protect culture from the
75 times more domestic tourists that go on pilgrimage, etc. Tourism creates a better
understanding of the geographical and cultural diversity. India is a land of diversity. It is a
huge place: going from Bombay to Delhi is like going from London to Rome. It is unity
amongst diversity and we have 250 languages (I am not including the game of cricket in it
– cricket itself is a language, so it is possibly 251 languages!).
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Regarding the part tourism plays, I will emphasize on the word “preserve” and I will come
to that in the course of my talk. Tourism does preserve the natural resources, the ecological
heritage, although today we are talking more about “destroying” it. Tourism destroys but
also preserves. I will come back later on why it preserves. Tourism also enhances
employment and income generation opportunities, including foreign exchange earnings,
which are very important, particularly to the developing countries of the world.

In India, we have had as Tourism Minister a charming young lady just 32 years old, who
had a vision of her own. She used three words in hindi, soochna, suvidha and suraksha,
which mean communication, convenience and comfort. She said that we must
communicate properly, because any visitors coming to India are mainly for culture; we
must provide convenience, and that means toilets (even Indians need toilets and we do not
have them, but we have good shrubs!); and we must ensure comfort. But what she forgot is
the culture, and the Indian word for culture is sanskar. I suspect this is as important or
more than the other three concepts. As Dr. Varma also said, for 60% of the people who
travel, the travel is related to exploration of culture.

Let me now go to ecological sustainability. Overusage of any place, mass tourism and the
negative impact of charters, the destruction of the monuments, we must all make sure that
this does not happen. Regarding social sustainability, yesterday we talked about the change
in the peoples dress habits – the naked people immediately put on clothes so they look
more like the people on the other side. That is one thing that on the local side damages the
local culture. On the economic side, it is the unnatural and uneven demand resulting in the
escalation of prices of commodities: when tourists come and buy, the prices go up. All

24
Mr. Pradip Madhavji, Chairman, Thomas Cook (India) Ltd.

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these impacts happen right from the time when you enter a place. It reminds me of a survey
which was carried out three weeks ago by the Daily Telegraph in England, with 20,000
respondents, regarding good and bad hotels, airports, etc. We knew that we would figure
on the wrong side, and we did – so I was not surprised. But where I was surprised was that
the worst airport branded by these 20,000 respondents was Goa. I cannot believe it, but it
doesn’t make any sense whether I believe it or not. It is their perception, not mine. And
why Goa? Possibly because of the charters. The weight is so heavy, so many people come
in a short time that they spoil it.

Let me come to the Taj, the most famous monument. There is temptation to make quick
money, but what happens is that in the name of security we have stopped the viewing of
the Taj at night. However, the Taj is most beautiful during the full moon (under moonlight).
Maybe we felt that people destroy the monument only during moonlight and today you
cannot see the Taj after sunset. Regarding pollution, within a one-mile radius, you can only
enter with battery-operated vehicles. For the sake of maintenance, the Taj is closed on
Monday. You see people wanting to see the Taj on Mondays and then realizing that they
cannot see it. I fail to understand why we should do that but this is a question I do not have
an answer for.

Another question I also do not have an answer for is something that has happened in the
name of preserving the monument, or, as I mentioned it before, out of temptation to make
quick money. It is an increase of entrance fees which was very abrupt and immediate.
Without any consultation, the Minister of Culture pressed a button and off went the figure
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of entrance from only 5 roupies for Indians to 5 dollars for foreigners. Is it or is it not good?
We are rationing the visitors, but this could lead to the starving of the local community.
What I am saying is that the local culture might be getting extinguished, I do not know.
That is the question I am asking you, rather than you asking me. Maybe 5 roupies is
ridiculously low right now, and I agree that this fee should be reviewed because if you
want to go to any of the museums in Europe you do pay more. But an increase to 5 dollars
is so high and abrupt. Just imagine if a person decides not to go to the Taj and prefers to
wait outside. I know it is ridiculous, you cannot expect anybody to come all the way to
India and all the way to Agra and then not go to the Taj, but should he do it, it will have
many ripple effects: he will not take pictures, therefore jobs will be affected in the
photographic industry; he does not want a guide, so the guide gets out of job. Should we
then be taking steps to rationalize the number of visitors or should we not? At the same
time, we need to take into account the elastic limits, the carrying capacity needs to be
measured. We need to know how many people can reasonably be permitted to see the Taj.
We cannot restrict that but we must rationalize it in different ways (maybe increasing the
fees, closing it on Monday, etc.). However, if you pull it too much, it is like an elastic: it
will break.

Let’s go on to the overusage of monuments and the preservation of the local culture.
Overusage of monuments can lead to their ruin. Also we may protect monuments and
ensure their survival but create an extinction of the local community. We need to protect
not only the monuments, but also the local community as they are the stakeholders. The
local community are key people and we need to protect their interests. Other stakeholders
on the supply side are the tourism service suppliers; the government in its role of a service
provider; the technology, infrastructure and investment institutions; the physical habitats.
On the demand side, the stakeholders are the visitors (domestic and foreign); the overseas

161
tour operators; the government in its role of providing the regulatory framework; the media;
the corporate sector; the NGOs.

Let me turn the whole thing slightly upside down. What I am aiming at is the other side of
cultural tourism: the lack of traffic. We are talking all the time about exodus, more and
more people going. Can you imagine a situation where there is no traffic at all? The unused
segments could die a natural death. This could be true for example in the case of the sand
dunes that we have in India, in the Rajasthan desert. Or the ski resorts in the mountains.
Maybe if there is no demand at all we will be destroying the culture, we will be destroying
the opportunities. I think there should be some sort of balance between the two - the well
known and the undiscovered – to maintain the local environment and encouraging the local
people to do it.

I will run very quickly over the next slides. They have to do with how important the
tourism industry is to my country. I would say that 95% of the people who come to India
are doing it for culture. I am not talking about the travel and tourism industry, I am talking
about the travel and tourism economy. This slide shows that foreign direct investment in
my country from tourism alone in the last ten years was 14.2 billion US dollars. I am sure
that the Ministry and the government will realise that tourism is a powerful weapon. The
tourism product now account for just 5.2% of the GDP. This figure is interesting if I
compare it to Maldives. I believe that in Maldives 99% of the economy is based on tourism,
and there tourism accounts for 84% of the GDP. Compared to the 5.2% in India, it is very
high. If you compare with Switzerland, I believe it is approximately 7.2% of the GDP,
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because they have other products like chocolates, watches, etc. For those who depend only
on tourism, why should this figure not increase?

Nearing the end, let me now talk about bridging of the gap and the targets and
achievements. We need adequate infrastructure (i.e. toilets – nobody seems to be giving
attention to this subject, maybe we need some sponsors for toilets!). We need a rationalised
taxation. The word taxation is hated by most of us, but when it comes to these 20 dollars or
5 dollars, the moment you call it taxes it goes back to the central government. If instead of
taxes we say levies, then it is ploughed back to ensure that the tourism product (airport,
monument, etc.) is properly maintained. If they are levies, we do not mind: you levy
something but plough it back to ensure that the place is protected, kept clean, etc. We need
trained human resources also. Now this is something true only for 1 Indian against 75. By
and large, if Indians see a piece of paper they will just crumble it and through it, or a Coca-
Cola can is just thrown. We need local inhabitants are also to be involved in ensuring that
this does not happen.

The following chart is just a comparison with some neighbouring countries regarding what
India gets and what India spends (promotion budget).

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National Promotional Budgets: A Glance
9th five year plan report (’95)
Countries Arrivals Promotional Budget Factor vis-à-vis
USD Mn India
Malaysia 7.9 mn 25.5 1.66
Singapore 6.4 mn 44.7 2.90
Thailand 6.9 mn 42.9 2.79
Republic of Korea 3.8 mn 30.5 1.98
Australia 3.8 mn 75.8 4.92
India 2.1 mn 15.4 -

This following slide does not have a title and I am now coming very close to the end of my
talk. These are the two faces of India: we have the bullock cart, which we want to preserve,
but we also have Mercedes and you would be surprised when you come to my city of
Bombay to see that the Mercedes and the bullock cart might both be standing at the same
place near the traffic signals. One of them has no breaks or steering wheel, , but it moves,
and so does the other one, obviously. Similarly here, on the right hand side you can see the
stock exchange where the Indians make money, but we also need the huts. The last slide
shows two faces. On one side, a modern Indian girl: I am very proud to say that India has
produced three successive Miss Universe, we do have lovely faces. On the other side a
traditional village girl: she is very kind, hospitable, we need her, as we need the other one.
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India is an ancient land with a modern face.

One country – one thousand worlds: that’s what India is. It is a country full of culture, and
we invite you to come. As I said earlier, I do not have an answer for the question which I
asked you earlier. Should we be rationing tourism or should we not be rationing it? I
suppose the answer varies from place to place.

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PRACTICAL OPERATION OF CULTURAL TOURISM25

Ladies and Gentlemen,

An old Chinese saying goes, “To learn things, one must have read more than ten thousand
books and traveled over ten thousand li” (1 li=0.5 kilometer, - tr.), and this shows the close
correlation between culture and tourism. With continuous expansion of tourist volume,
increase of tourism-related knowledge and enhancement of people’s discernment, more
and more tourists are demanding that tourism activities be linked up with cultural
attractions, and that they could enrich their minds through experiences of the folk customs
and substances of the exotic lands, so that they could fulfil their pursuit of different
cultures or cultural recognition. To meet these requirements, tourism developers and tour
operators must be fully aware of the tourism culture, regard tourism as an economic
undertaking with strong cultural characteristics, and do their utmost to promote in-depth
and extensive integration of tourism with culture. Only in this way could the tourism
industry have sustainable development.

Yesterday, Mr. Shao Qiwei, Vice Governor of Yunnan Province who is in charge of the
tourism industry had given an overview of Yunnan's key policies and measures for
developing cultural tourism. Today, I will introduce to you the practical operation of
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Yunnan's cultural tourism.

1. Drafting Scientific Plans for Developing New Scenic Sites and Products with
Dissimilar Characteristics

Diversified ethnic cultures located in different localities are the advantages and unique
features of ethnic culture resources in different areas of Yunnan. When planning the
regional layout of ethnic culture tourism, we made it very clear and in principle that
Yunnan will not focus on man-made scenes or theme parks. Instead, talents must be rallied
to develop the picturesque natural scenery and colorful humanistic scenes of the ethnic
minorities. Based on the specialized features, and before starting large-scale construction
of the tourism industry, we have accomplished drafting master plans for tourism
development at 3 different levels respectively for the province’s tourist sites, 16
prefectures/municipalities and 60 counties. The master plan has highlighted the ethnic
cultural features and advantages of different areas such as architecture, ethnic songs and
dances, people’s simple lifestyle and unique folk customs. In this way, we have drafted
development plans for tourism development in Yunnan's 6 major tourism zones with
dissimilar characteristics and make them mutually complementary. For examples, Lijiang’s
entry in the World Cultural Heritage, the renowned historic and cultural cities of Dali and
Weishan and their ethnic culture museums and minority villages are based upon the
development of the northwest Yunnan tourism zone of highland ethnic minority culture
and folklore, which include the Nanzhao Culture in Dali, folk customs of the Mosuo
people by the Lugu Lake, Kangba culture in Diqing, and ethnic folk customs in the Grand
Nujiang Canyon. Based on the renowned historic and cultural city of Jinghong in

25
Mr. Zhang Likun, Deputy Director-General, Yunnan Provincial Tourism Bureau

164
Xishuangbanna, we developed the southwest tourism zone that focuses on folk customs of
the Dai and Jinuo ethnic minorities and the Hinayana Buddhism, and link them up with
scenery of the tropical rainforests.

2. Integrating Natural Scenes with Folk Customs, and Making Them Support One
Another

Only when supported and integrated with the ethnic cultures could the magnificent and
beautiful natural scenes better show their charm and elegance. Among Yunnan's many
tourism resources, ethnic cultures are the richest ones in terms of value for development,
attraction and perspectives for sustainable development. It has become an internationally
acknowledged cultural standard that things with the strongest national features would at
the same time show the greatest international values. Therefore, Yunnan has always been
attaching great importance to integrating natural scenes with folk customs when
developing its tourism industry, and to matching relevant tourism resources. The
magnificent and picturesque landscape is always matched with mysterious and beautiful
legendary tales of the locality. Plans were adopted to rationally develop and protect
villages for folk custom tourism, so as to enhance the tourists’ experience of the lifestyle
of the ethnic minority people; Unique ethnic cultures of some areas as well as outstanding
tourist programs such as songs, dances, ethnic traditions and sports that are related with
local folk customs are introduced into well-known natural scenic sites to enable tourist
participation through which visitors would better enjoy and enrich their experiences. By
taking those measures, we aim at fully showcasing Yunnan's tourism image featuring
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abundance, mystery and beauty.

3. Carefully Arranging Tour Routes to Adapt to the Needs of Contemporary


Tourism

Tour routes are not only the ultimate form with which tourism products are presented, but
also the key commodity to be sold at the tourism source markets. Many of Yunnan's scenic
sites and ethnic tourism resources are scattered all over the Province. By carefully
designing the tourism routes, we combine many isolated tourist sites with other major
tourism products to meet the varied needs of the tourists. Focusing on Yunnan's ethnic
culture and the plans for regional tourism deployment, Yunnan has prepared over 30 key or
specialized ethnic culture tour routes, the major ones among which include the tour route
of ancient Yunnan culture in central Yunnan; the Shangri-la ethnic culture tour route in
northwest Yunnan and the ethnic folk custom tour route of the Dai ethnic minority in
southwest Yunnan. Taking any one of those tour routes, the tourists would not only see the
beautiful natural scenery and mysterious humanistic scenes of the area, but also traditional
ethnic culture, local architecture, costume, food and folk customs. When taking their happy
tours, tourists are influenced by the rich ethnic cultures that also give them enlightenment.

4. Stepping Up Tourism Publicity and Promotion to Make Yunnan Better Known to


the World, and Speeding up Yunnan’s March Toward the International
Communities

The thousands of volumes of ancient books written in the Dongba pictographs are not only
gems of the Naxi ethnic culture, but also the last works of its kind in the world’s history of
culture. The lifestyle of the primitive matriarchal society of the Mosuo people by the Lugu

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Lake has offered lively materials for studying the social and civilization evolutions of the
human society. Shangri-la is the “Heaven of Peace and Happiness”, which people have
been cherishing and searching for in the last 50-plus years. I do not have time to list all the
treasures of the brilliant Yunnan culture, which are conserved in Yunnan but belong to
mankind.

For the last decade, Yunnan has been yearly stepping up its tourism publicity and
promotion work. First, we actively participated in tourism fairs and took tourism
promotion tours both in and outside China. We held all kinds of conferences attended by
representatives of travel agencies and news reporters, at which we introduced our tourism
products. Second, we invited and hosted visits of many domestic and overseas news
reporters and tour operators, who made news interviews, took observation tours or held
business consultations in Yunnan. We invited domestic and overseas news agencies to
produce, based on their own experiences, theme documentaries which introduce Yunnan to
the whole world. Third, we produced lantern slides, CDROMs and other kinds of materials
about Yunnan tourism for promotion purposes. Fourth, we established the Yunnan
Tourism website for tourism publicity and promotion on the Internet. Through all those
publicity and promotion work, the refined ethnic culture of Yunnan Province has gained
popularity both within and outside China.

5. Continuously Sponsoring Large Events to Promote Tourism Development

Starting from the early 1990s, Yunnan has successively hosted or executed a number of
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large events including the Ethnic Minority Costume and Adornments Exhibition of
Yunnan Province, the Ethnic Tourism Fair of 9 Chinese Southern Provinces and Regions,
the Ethnic Minority Folk Customs Show Parade of Chinese Southwestern Provinces and
Regions, Celebrations of the World Tourism Day 1995 on the China Site, and the ’94 and
‘95 Domestic Tourism Fair of China. We actively participated in organizing and inviting
tourists respectively for the Third China Art Festival, Yunnan Art Festival, China Kunming
Export Commodities Fair and the 1999 Kunming International Horticultural Exposition.
From 2000 onwards, we are to host each year the China Kunming International Tourism
Festival. Starting from 2001, we will host the China International Tourism Mart every
other year. Guidance has been given to respective Yunnan prefectures to hold at fixed
dates each year their ethnic traditional festivals, the major ones among which include the
Water-splashing Festival of the Dai people, the Third Month Fair of the Bai people, the
Torch Festival of the Yi people and the Munao Zongge Festival of the Jingpo people.
Those colorful and time-varied festival events have attracted numerous domestic and
overseas tourists, who were soaked in jubilant festivity the moment they set their feet on
Yunnan. All those have contributed to enhance the popularity of Yunnan tourism, and have
promoted the development of Yunnan’s tourism industry.

6. Vigorously Promoting Tourism Education in Yunnan Province and Invigorating


Yunnan's Ethnic Cultures

People’s cultural qualifications provide the most important basis with which they
understand, accept and publicize things. Starting from the early 1990s, Yunnan began to
develop its education and training systems to cultivate tourism personnel. To date, senior-
intermediate- and junior-level continuing education and on-job training systems have been
established, the major carriers of which include the Tourism School of Yunnan University,

166
tourism departments/specialties of other 8 universities or colleges, Yunnan Tourism
School, tourism vocational schools in the key tourism host communities and the tourism
training centers of respective prefectures/municipalities. Each year, graduates from those
education and training institutions include 1,500 tourism professionals and 8,000 service
people, while over 300,000 personnel get on-job training and over 3000 tour guides trained
respectively in the English, Japanese, French and Thai languages. Those measures have
ensured provision of personnel for propagating and invigorating Yunnan's elite ethnic
cultures to maintain sustainable tourism development in Yunnan Province.

Along with the economic development and advancement of the times, cultural tourism
would be favored by more and more tourists. We will earnestly learn from the successful
experiences and practices presented at this conference and further strengthen ties with the
tourism circles of all countries for exchanges and cooperation. By making full use of
Yunnan's valuable cultural tourism products, and adapting ourselves to the needs of the era
of new economy, we will upgrade Yunnan tourism to a new level and higher standards,
and make due contributions to the tourism industry of the world.
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168
FIFTH TECHNICAL SESSION

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT IN THE CULTURAL


TOURISM SCENARIO
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169
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170
STATEMENT OF THE UNITED NATIONS ECONOMIC AND
SOCIAL COMMISSION FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC (ESCAP)26

Distinguished participants, Ladies and Gentlemen,

At the outset and on behalf of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the
pacific (ESCAP), I would like to express my Organization's sincere thanks to the World
Tourism Organization and to the Royal Government of Cambodia for inviting us to
participate in this International Conference on Cultural Tourism being held in the historical
city of Siem Reap, home of the famous and majestic temples of Angkor. We indeed
appreciate this opportunity of being here as a continuation to our fruitful cooperation with
both WTO and the Government of Cambodia in developing further the tourism industry in
the Asia-Pacific region.

ESCAP is one, and the largest, of the five regional commissions of the United Nations. It
currently comprises 52 members and 9 associate members representing 58 per cent of the
global population. The primary function of ESCAP is to promote economic and social
development through regional and subregional cooperation.

Tourism can be an effective tool for sustainable development, contributing to poverty


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alleviation and the conservation of the natural and cultural environment. Recognizing the
important role of tourism in the socio-economic development of the developing Asian and
Pacific countries, ESCAP has undertaken a number of activities in this field. The overall
objective of these activities is to help governments maximize the socio-economic benefits
from sustainable development of tourism while minimizing its adverse impact, through
strengthening of national capabilities in comprehensive and properly planned tourism
development and promotion of regional and subregional cooperation. Studies, workshops,
seminars and technical advisory missions constitute the basic methods of assistance.

In April 1999, ESCAP launched the Plan of Action for Sustainable Tourism Development
in the Asian and Pacific Region (PASTA).

The Plan of Action provides members and associate members of ESCAP with a structured
framework for the implementation of regional and national actions in the field of tourism
development. It sets proposals for action in the following six theme areas:

1. Human resources development in the tourism sector;


2. Economic impact of tourism;
3. Environment management of tourism;
4. Infrastructure development and investment for the tourism sector;
5. Facilitation of travel;
6. Regional and subregional cooperation in tourism development.

26
Mr. Jean-Louis Vignuda, Tourism Unit, Transport, Communications, Tourism and Infrastructure
Development Division, ESCAP

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Promotion of sustainable tourism development, including environmental and cultural
management of destination sites has become a priority area in the work programme of
ESCAP in the field of tourism development. Over the last two years, ESCAP has organized
several national workshops and seminars in selected countries of the region. Actually, in
December 1999, a National Seminar on Sustainable Tourism Development was organized
in Phnom Penh. We also have organized similar events in China, Myanmar and Viet Nam.
Promotion of cultural tourism and heritage site management are very much parts of the
agenda being discussed at these meetings.

Indeed, the Asian and Pacific region possesses a rich diversity of cultural heritage. The
region is also the birthplace of the world's major religions. The interchange of cultures over
the years has contributed to the emergence of historical monuments, which combine
together culture and religion. Against this background, ESCAP is contemplating the
implementation in 2001 of a programme aimed at promoting Buddhist circuit tourism in
selected Asian countries. The programme will culminate in the organization of a Seminar
on Promotion of Buddhist Tourism Circuits, scheduled to be held in Kisarazu, Japan, in
September 2001. The participants invited will be government tourism officials from the
concerned Asian countries possessing considerable potential to develop Buddhism tourism,
such as Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka,
Thailand and Viet Nam. Representatives of the tourism industry and international
organizations, like WTO and UNESCO, will also be invited.

Before concluding, I would like to take this opportunity to assure the Conference on
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ESCAP commitment toward sustainable tourism development and regional and


subregional cooperation as a modality to achieve this aim. In this context, I wish to
reiterate the fruitful cooperation that ESCAP and WTO have established over the years.
Together, we have been able to work in many areas for developing tourism in the region
and we do look forward to maintain and strengthen such a mutually beneficial partnership.

We wish the Conference every success in its deliberation.

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HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT FOR
CULTURAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT27

Introduction
Tourism is big business and will get even bigger as time goes by. The business of tourism
is getting more and more diversified. The changes in demographic, social, and cultural
characteristics of the tourism market have led to an increasing number of new niche
markets (World Bank, 2000). And among the various new niches, cultural tourism has
been identified as one of the top potential segments for the future (World Tourism
Organization, 1999). According to World Bank’s prediction (2000), cultural tourism is
expected to grow in an annual rate between 10 to 15 percent. It is, however, according to
Stebbins (1996), an area without a theoretical home.

There are many definitions for cultural tourism and I selected two for this particular
presentation. Ontario Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Recreation defines cultural tourism
as “visits by persons from outside the host community motivated wholly or in part by
interest in the historical, artistic, scientific or lifestyle/heritage offerings of a community,
region, group or institution” (Silberberg 1995). This definition clearly illustrated that
cultural tourism is composed of human related activities and these activities are somewhat
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alien to the visitors. Stebbins (1996) defines cultural tourism as “a liberal arts hobby within
the framework of serious leisure theory.” This definition implied that cultural tourists have
the need and desire to excel in the subject area of human culture. They demand information,
professional assistance and knowledge. This, in turn, suggested that the satisfaction of
cultural tourist relies very much on the quality of experience rather than the mere exposure
to the heritages, custom and lifestyle. Cultural tourism, therefore, is a service industry and
a people industry that requires high level of human resource input and high quality output
to make it a success.

In the last few decades, a lot has been published on how to develop tourism in a sustainable
way. Not much has been conducted in the study of how to development human resources,
which is a critical input to the tourist product, in a sustainable way.

Objectives
The main objectives of this presentation, therefore, are, first, to identify the roles and
importance of human resources in the development of cultural tourism. And second, to
identify the roles and importance of human resources in the delivery of satisfaction to those
cultural tourists.

There are at least three main reasons why human resources are critical to the development
of cultural tourism and the satisfaction level of the cultural tourist. First, as mentioned

27
Mr. Paul Leung, Department of Hotel and Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University,
Hong Kong SAR

173
earlier on, cultural tourism is a new kid in town and gaining much of the noises. It is
becoming more important but owing to the newness of the segment, we are still not quite
sure what exactly these customers needed.

Second, these travelers are perceived as serious hobbyists. Their needs and wants,
therefore, would be harder to satisfy. Unlike those mass tourists who visit a heritage or
monument merely for the benefit of once being there, they need more sophisticated
services.

Third, the development and retaining of human capital in the tourism arena is difficult.

Cultural Tourist
Cultural tourists, who are they and what do they want? According to Stebbins (1996),
cultural tourists can be sub-categorized into cultural dabblers, general cultural tourist, and
specialized cultural tourist. Cultural dabblers are casual leisure participants. They do not
have specific needs for cultural experience. They, however, have the possibility to switch
to the status of hobbyist. The latter two categories are more serious hobbyists. They are
more committed to this hobby and develop along the lines of accumulated knowledge and
experience.

This presentation is based on a recent study concerning the factors affecting travelers’ level
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of satisfaction. The content will be divided into three major areas: the factors affecting
cultural tourists’ satisfaction, the skill level of tourism jobs, and the barriers and challenges
of human resource development and management.

Tourism is offering a total experience to tourist. Many factors and the combined effect of
these factors, therefore, affect the satisfaction of the tourists. In order to provide a better
understanding about the construction of the cultural tourists’ satisfaction, a focus group
discussion was conducted in Hong Kong on November 19. The focus group consisted of
eight frequent travelers. All the participants were selected on the criteria that they had to be
cultural hobbyist. Results revealed that factors that affect their level of satisfaction of a
particular trip included their expectation, ethnical uniqueness, presentation, the travelers’
basic knowledge, their own level of interest in the subject culture, and most importantly,
the related staff quality.

Human Capital
As mentioned earlier on, tourism satisfaction is based on the total experience of the trip,
which required a high level of human inputs. Tourism practitioner, therefore, is a critical
position to share the total experience and affect seriously tourists’ satisfaction. The
definition of cultural tourism practitioner included tour guide, tour operator and planner,
holiday consultant, marketer, site/event management, and tourism management authority.

Development and retaining of human capital in the tourism sector, however, is perceived
as problematic and challenging. In this section, the author will study the labour market of

174
tourism by reviewing the designated skills for cultural tourism jobs and elaborating the
challenges the industry have to face.

Skills for Cultural Workers


Tourism jobs require a wide array of skills. Cultural tourism requires even more. The skills
needed for a cultural tourism practitioner included, at least, technical skills, human skills,
conceptual skills, mentality, pride, loyalty, affiliation, and cultural empathy.

Technical skill is the specific knowledge for a selected experience and/or event. Owing to
the fact that most of the tourists do not have extensive knowledge about a particular
attraction, it is the job of the cultural tourism practitioners to illustrate, explain and vision
the details of the experience and to project reasonable expectations for the tourists.

The practitioner should also be equipped with good presentation techniques and visioning
ability. He or she should be able to present the materials and knowledge in such a way that
it is interesting and comprehensible.

The practitioner also requires marketing and risk management skills and mentality in order
to make sure the tour group’s needs are well understood and taken care of. They need good
human skills to deal with different people and their different needs. They need a good
conceptual skill to understand the total experience of the tourists and the position of
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particular cultural attractions. They also need proper mentality, pride, loyalty and
affiliation to their cultural assets. Last but not least, the cultural empathy to withstand the
possible cultural shock they will have to face as part of their daily routine.

The purpose of talking about all these different skills is merely to demonstrate that cultural
tourism jobs require high level of skills. And that the traditional perception that tourism
jobs are of low skill level are simply incorrect. It also illustrates the importance and
difficulties of Human resources management in the arena of cultural tourism.

Owing to the time constraint, we will not be able to discuss in detail about the human
resources management process. I, therefore, would focus the discussion on the barriers and
challenges one has to face in the development of human capital for the development of
cultural tourism.

Major problems and constraints facing human resources development in the tourism
sector:

1. Shortage of qualified manpower, particularly at the managerial level, which poses a


major obstacle in the overall development of the tourism sector;

2. Shortage of qualified and experienced teaching staff;

3. Shortage of training materials and facilities;

4. Lack of strategies and policies for human resources development in the tourism
sector;

175
5. Difficulty in keeping pace with rapidly changing technological innovation and
dynamic changes in global marketplace;

6. Complexity of multi-disciplinary nature of tourism studies;

7. Gap between training/educational institutes’ training capacity and industry’s actual


needs;

8. Shortage of higher level programmes for management development;

9. Shortage of training courses for certain subsector’s occupation and for


entrepreneurship.
(Source: Yamakawa 2000)

Ryuji Yamakawa (2000) in his keynote speech to the APTA 2000 conference revealed a
list of major problems and constraints facing human resources development in the tourism
sector. And his work served as a very good and important stepping stone to the
understanding of the situation. Yamakawa’s work focuses mainly on the training problem.
And this paper aimed to supplement his work by discussing other factors and barriers in
human resources development.
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As he mentioned in his speech, tourism is a labour-intensive industry. It requires abundant


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supply of capable and well-qualified human resources for cultural tourism to render the
desired experience to the tourist. Training and development, therefore, is very critical for
the business to develop. One of the major problems, however, is that the industry is
growing in such a rapid phase that the development of human resources can hardly match
up with the demand. Other problems, such as the lack of competent trainer and well-
structured program, also seriously affected the development of human resources.

Although many administrators have the intention to develop cultural tourism, training and
development did receive much attention. People simply believe that as long as there are
physical heritages and cultural performance, cultural tourism business will start to roll.

According to Choy (1995), there are commonly held beliefs about tourism jobs. They
included: 1) tourism generates low-skilled jobs; 2) tourism creates low-pay jobs; 3) tourism
jobs are of low satisfaction level; and 4) tourism jobs offer limited opportunities for
advancement. Therefore, tourism jobs are not those “preferred” jobs. This situation is more
severe developed regions than their developing counterparts. Thus, retaining and
motivating staff in the tourism industry is a challenge. Szivas and Riley (1999) stated in
their research that tourism is only a “refuge sector” of employment. That means, workers
will go into the tourism industry as temporary arrangement and will move on to other
sectors once new opportunities are available. They argued the reason for the perception is
owing to the facts that tourism is a fast growing sector that requires a high proportion of
unskilled labor, seasonal and of high mobility.

In the process of developing human capital, resources are the critical input. Please bear
with me that resources here referred not only to those finances invested into human capital

176
development. It also extended to include training programs, teachers, education system,
opportunity cost, and many more to make it works. In developing countries, especially,
these resources can be hurdles that can hardly be crossed.

What makes it even more difficult for the development of human capital is that the skill
portfolio included some of the skills that cannot be trained simply by classroom lecture
giving. The development programs, therefore, have to include various forms of training
such as on campus classroom lectures, on the job training, mentoring, a designed resources
kit and/or code of practices, and participation observation. All these methodologies and
tactics have to be well-planned and well-coordinated in order to make the system work.
Therefore, as a conclusion, human capital is critical for cultural tourism development and it
is simply incorrect to assume that tourism jobs are of low level of skills and every one can
assume the responsibilities and become a cultural tourism practitioner.

Recommendations
Yamakawa (2000) suggested that action should be taken at national level with supporting
at the regional level. Incorporating Yamakawa’s suggestions, cited below is a list of
recommendation for destinations to consider.

First of all, the planning mechanism of the destination should assess the short term and
long term needs of human capital. Based on this demand, the authority can then work out
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the precise training requirements, which include the selection and acquisition of both
hardware and software. Second, the government should formulate long-term training
strategies and action plans. Third, the government should formalize the human resources
development process, logistics and mechanism. Forth, the government should also
establish internal and external networking, strategic alliances and solicit assistant from
international training institutes, such as HK Polytechnic University and NGOs, such as
APETIT. Last but not least, tourism workers should be well treated, that means, they
should receive a comparable remuneration, proper motivation plus a positive image for the
concerned workers, and opportunities for advancement. Unless they can see and wish to
develop a career in tourism, training will end up in vain.

References
Bachleitner, R.and Zins, A. H. (1999) Cultural Tourism in Rural Communities The
Residents' Perspective, Journal of Business Research, 44(3), pp 199-209

Choy, D. J. L. (1995) The quality of tourism employment, Tourism Management, 16(2),


pp129-137

Duncan and Daniela. (1999) Romanian tourism in the post-communist period, Annals of
Tourism Research, 26(4), pp 898-927

McIntosh, A. J. and Prentice, R. C. (1999) Affirming authenticity Consuming cultural


heritage, Annals of Tourism Research, 26(3) , pp589-612

177
McHone, W. W. and Rungeling, B. (1999) Special cultural events: do they attract leisure
tourists?, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 18(2), pp 215-219

Prentice, R. and Andersen, V.. (2000) Evoking Ireland Modeling tourism propensity,
Annals of Tourism Research, 27(2), pp 490-516

Silberberg, T. (1995) Cultural tourism and business opportunities for museums and
heritage sites, Tourism Management, 16(5), pp 361-365

Simons, M. S. (2000) Aboriginal heritage art and moral rights, Annals of Tourism
Research, 27(2), pp 412-431

Szivas, E. and Riley, M. (1999) Tourism employment during economic transition, Annual
of Tourism Research, 26(4), pp747-771

Timothy, D.J. (1997) Tourism and the personal heritage experience, Annual of Tourism
Research, 24(3), pp751-754
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178
THE AUSTRIAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM AND CULTURAL
TOURISM: HOW TO MAKE YOUNG PEOPLE FIT
FOR THE JOB IN CULTURAL TOURISM28

The following text shows the importance of cultural tourism for the Austrian tourism
industry. The Austrian tourist information offers many programmes with cultural contents.
Therefore it was necessary to develop an educational system for the tourism industry
which is connected to cultural tourism. There must be an interlink between the aims and
contents of schools and colleges and the cultural tourism industry.

1. Cultural Tourism and the Austrian Tourism Industry


Austria is a popular holiday destination in Europe. The visitors come to enjoy the beautiful
countryside, nature, culture and tradition. When we have a look at the Austrian tourism
industry we can see that most of the offers include cultural programmes. All regions in
Austria advertise with their culture and tradition.

The Austrian monarchy, the history and legends of the former ruling dynasty, the
Habsburgs, are the main topics of the Austrian tourism marketing. Five national parks have
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been founded. Many offers for visitors include the culture in the national parks.
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Schönbrunn (Vienna), Hallstatt (Salzkammergut) ,City of Salzburg, City of Graz and the
railway across the Semmering are the UNESCO cultural heritages in Austria. Vienna is the
town of music. The New Year‘s concert of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra is broadcast
by TV around the world.

Culture is the backbone of the Austrian tourism industry. The demand for culture is
independent of the seasons and very important for the business and the financial year of the
tourist enterprises.

The marketing is provided by the Austrian Tourist Information. On the homepage


www.austria-tourism.at culture is one of the main topics.

28
Mr. Christian Matzka, Director, Austrian School for Tourism, Federal Department of Education

179
Some Examples from the Homepage of the Austrian Tourist Information:

· Monasteries & Abbeys in Austria


· A short extract of Austria's history
· Art Nouveau in Austria
· Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra
· Vienna Boys‘ Choir
· Vienna State Opera
· The Vienna Opera Ball
· Spanish Riding School of Vienna
· Vienna Giant Ferris Wheel
· Music theaters & concert halls

One of the most important parts of cultural tourism is the organization of Events. The
tourists are very interested in concerts, opera, theatre and open air events. Events are
organized for the special cultural tourist and are also used as marketing attractions. This
kind of marketing is called event marketing. Therefore it is very important to train the
students in event marketing and organization.

Persons who are known all over the world are the VIPs of Austrian tourism. Many famous
Austrians are chosen to be representatives of the Austrian tourism industry. The marketing
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specialists of the Austrian tourist information hope that these famous persons are well
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known as Austrians and will be identified with Austrian culture. For example:

· Johann Strauss - Anniversary 1999


· "Sissi"- Empress of Austria -Anniversary 1998
· Sigmund Freud: Sigmund Freud - the Father of Psychoanalysis

2. Austrian Imperial Cities


One of the main topics of the marketing in the USA or in the Far East is the programme
Austrian imperial cities. In the past the capitals of the Austrian federal states were the
residences of the Habsburgs or the Prince Archbishop of Salzburg. Innsbruck, Salzburg,
Linz, Klagenfurt, Graz and Vienna are the Austrian Imperial Cities. The marketing strategy
is based on the history and the legends of the Austrian monarchy which ended in 1918. The
crown of the German kings which is kept in the Imperial Treasury Chamber is the
significant sign of this marketing programme.

Data and facts:

Austria's tourism and leisure industry plays a vital role in theAustrian economy. In 1999,
the total foreign currency earnings from tourism amounted to approximately 164.5 billion
shillings (+5.2 % compared with 1998). Thus, tourism accounts for 20.3 % of Austria's
total export earnings, for some 20.6 % of the GNP (Gross National Product) and employs
some 500,000 people. In terms of the per capita income in foreign currency from tourism,
Austria is at the reign with annually approximately 20,000,- ATS.

180
The number of beds and the number of overnight stays are the most important statistical
indicators to measure the performance of tourism. The Austrian registration system ensures
accurate statistical data. In 1999, approximately 1.17 million guest beds were registered.

In the same year, the number of overnight stays amounted to 112.7 million. Visitors from
abroad accounted for about 82.4 million and domestic guests for about 30.3 million
(comparison to1998: +1.4 % in total). Thus, foreign visitors represented 73.1 % of the total
overnight stays in 1999. Austria is again among the top tourist destinations.

Another important statistical indicator is the number of arrivals:


In 1999 they amounted to 25.45 million (resulting in a plus of 2 % compared to 1998 or
approximately 500,000 more than the previous year). The guests stayed an average period
of 4.43 days, which resulted in a 25.2 % occupancy rate of guest beds.
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Cultural Tourism:

In the summer season most of the guests come to Austria to visit the festivals.
Many of them travel around the country individually. They discover the countryside or the
famous cities like Vienna and Salzburg.

In order to develop cultural tourism in all parts of Austria it is necessary to prepare the
regions to be found by the tourists. Everybody has to identify themselves with tourism. The
original tradition and the crafts have to be shown to the tourists.

181
On the one hand we have the international cultural tourism which is provided by the big
tour operators. On the other hand it is important to develop your own individual tourism.
This is the condition to be independent from the travel agencies and tour operators.

Visitors 1998

Schönbrunn Castle 1.553.249


Giant Ferris Wheel 725.000
Treasury Chamber 395 034
Road across the Großglockner 913.200
Hohensalzburg Fortress 850.300
Swarovski World of Crystals 617.165

In summer there is no tourism in Austria without culture.

3. The Austrian Educational System


Austria's educational system is made up of the following areas:

Pre-school education, school-based education (general as well as vocational),


apprenticeship training, courses at Fachhochschule (. non-university institutions in third
level education), university study, and adult education.
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Tourism education starts at the secondary level from the age of 15.

Colleges and higher vocational schools include colleges for tourism, hotel and catering
and colleges for the occupations in the service industries management. They serve to
impart a higher general and vocational education and make it possible for their graduates to
enter working life directly. Graduates may study at university, registering for the same or a
related branch in which they specialized at school-level; or enrol at Fachhochschule study
courses. These colleges are attended after the eighth year of compulsory schooling,
comprise studies lasting five years, and are completed with a final exam like the A-levels.

Apprenticeship training is a company-based vocational education. This training is based


on the principle of the dual system. It combines educational and employment systems and
is called "dual" because vocational training is carried out on two parallel levels - by the
employer and at vocational school. In-company on-the-job training and theoretical school-
based instruction at vocational compulsory school complement each other. Apprentices
receive their practical training mainly at work, while being taught the theoretical aspects of
their occupation as well as general-interest subjects at vocational school.

The Austrian tourism industry offers training in the following professions: cook, hotel and
restaurant, trade commercial assistant, waiter/waitress, travel agency assistant, quick
service restaurant assistant, fitness consultant. The apprenticeship takes three years´
training, the double apprenticeship cook/waiter takes four years.

In 1999 the Austrian Tourism Industry employed 13.515 apprentices. The Tourism Sector
accounts for over 10 % of the total number of apprentices.

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The Tourism School System

College for Tourism

The five-year training at the College for tourism is intended to provide students with the
theoretical and practical knowledge and skills necessary for starting practical professional
life.

The Secondary College for tourism provides higher training focusing on qualifications for
occupations in the tourism and leisure industries. The curriculum includes two foreign
languages, general, vocational (cooking and catering), touristic and economic subjects as
well as compulsory work placement as preparation for access to careers.

The compulsory subjects for the education in cultural tourism are History, Touristic
Geography, Tourism Management, Urban Tourism and Event Management, and Cultural
Animation.

One Example: the subject of Urban Tourism and Event Management:

Educational and teaching objectives:

The teaching should ensure that the students


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- Realise that an experience-oriented approach to making the cultural potential


accessible is a future-oriented strategy of Austrian tourism policy on all levels,
- Are familiar with the cultural traditions and the holiday behaviour of guests from
various countries of origin and are able to react accordingly,
- Are able to orient themselves in the various arts (fine and performing arts, music,
literature, painting, architecture) and to develop their own points of view as far as the
manifold expressions of cultural life are concerned,
- See the importance of attitudes (politeness, self-confidence and sensitivity) when
dealing with guests as essential components of the culture of tourism.

Course content:

Urban tourism, Tourism in Austrian cities, Austrian guests, Customer-oriented behaviour,


Cultural tourism, Tourism in European cities, European guests, Organisation of events,
Business tourism, Tourism in cities outside Europe, Guests from Asia and America,
Marketing of cities

College for Occupations in the Service Industries Management:

The Secondary College for occupations in the service industries sector provides a
comprehensive general education entitling students to take up studies at a university,
Hochschule or Akademie and provide/train knowledge and skills in preparation for
management level careers in the fields of economy, administration, tourism and nutrition.

The curriculum of the College for occupations in the service industries management
includes two foreign languages, general, economic, vocational (cooking and catering)

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subjects and an educational emphasis called „Cultural Tourism“. Compulsory work
placement prepares the students for the job.

Cultural Tourism is a modern subject and provides the students with the knowledge of the
basics of Austrian culture, Event Management, tourism product development, tourism
marketing and tourism politics. After school attendance the students are able to work in the
tourism industry. It is necessary to study the history, geography, arts, music or literature to
be able to develop products or packages. The students should learn on independent project
work. Experience methods should be used by the teachers.

The compulsory subject Cultural Tourism:

Educational and teaching objectives:

The teaching should ensure that the students:


- Understand the psychological, sociological and cultural-historical background as
well as the economic importance of cultural experiences gained in leisure time, adopting
the point of view of the supplier and of the client and considering in particular human
and ecological aspects,
- Are able to orient themselves in the various arts (fine arts, performing arts, music,
literature, multimedia),
- Are familiar with cultural events and activities offered as well as with businesses and
organisations of the tourism and leisure industries on a local, regional and national level,
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and know about their international connections,


- Become conscious of the culture of tourism (politeness, sensitivity, self-confidence)
when dealing with guests,
- Discover that essential opportunities of establishing a tourism policy which is based
on a clear profile and an awareness of market niches are opened up through an
experience-oriented approach to making the cultural potential accessible on a company,
local and regional level,
- Are able to solve problems arising from professional operations in the tourism and
leisure industries,

Course content:

Tasks, structure and methods of cultural tourism, Project development, Austria’s cultural
offer, Cultural management, Touristic presentation of regions, Touristic marketing for
important sectors, New trends in leisure time, Tourism policy, Applied touristic marketing

Didactic Principles:

The educational and teaching objectives being practically oriented, experience-oriented


teaching methods suggest themselves, in particular independent project work on case
studies based on problems of current interest, applying current software. The students’
creativity, spontaneity and ability to improvise shall thus be stimulated.

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Teachers Training:

The teachers training is organized by the federal ministry of education. There exists a
curriculum for the teachers training which has been developed during the last years. The
teachers training programme is an adult educational programme for teachers. The seminars
include experience learning in the tourism regions and are practically oriented. The
teachers study new teaching methods like project development, learning on group work
role plays or discussion techniques. The programmes are completed with an exam which
enables the teachers to teach the subject cultural tourism.

Schoolbook for Cultural Tourism

In September 2000 the new schoolbook for cultural tourism was published:

Matzka Christian u.a.: Kultur-Tourismus 1, Linz 2000.


Matzka Christian u.a.: Kultur- Tourismus 2, Linz 2000.
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This book is based on the curriculum for the compulsory subject Cultural Tourism and is
licensed for the schools and colleges for tourism and occupations in the service industries
management.

Examples of Teaching Cultural Tourism:

This subject starts at the beginning of the third year of the college for occupations in the
service industries management.

In the first year the students should learn the basics of culture and tradition of Austria. This
is important because culture is the main topic of the Austrian tourism marketing. In the
second year the students learn cultural management including event management, event
organisation and event marketing. Project management and presentation of cultural regions
are the other important contents of this school year. The third and last year of the subject
cultural tourism comprises tourism marketing and applied tourism marketing, tourism
policy and new trends in the tourism und leisure industry.

The students go to libraries, to tourism companies or to institutions of the administration


and tourism organisations. This is important for learning to find information about the
main topics of the tourism and leisure organisations.

The next step is to make a presentation about the discovered data and facts to learn
rethorics, presentation, chairing and discussion techniques. Therefore it is necessary to

185
invite the friends, parents, other teachers, students and members of tourism institutions and
enterprises and members of the educational administration to train these qualifications in
front of a big audience.

To be able to organize such a big event the cooperation with the teachers of food and
beverage must be ensured. The combination of culture, tourism and food and beverage is
the secret of success in cultural tourism projects. Another important part is to make study
trips to the tourism regions, institutions and cultural heritages. The students organize and
plan these trips and have to prepare themselves like tour guides. They have to give
information to the other students and guests on site. This is very important for the training
as tour guides, for the job as tour operator or for the jobs in travel agencies.

To learn event management and event marketing it is important to organize events at


school. The contents of the lessons must be translated into action. Therefore it was
necessary to create the autonomous compulsory subject „Training firm“. The task of this
subject is to train organisation and work like in reality. Training firm and cultural tourism
complement one another. The teachers have to communicate and cooperate. It is very
important to form teams of teachers from various subjects. This is necessary to ensure that
the wide field of skills and knowledge can be taught.

After the fourth year of college the students have to take the exam in food and beverage
which enables them to apply for jobs in the catering trade and hotel business.
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At the final exam after the fifth year of college the students have to take German,
Accounting, two foreign languages (English, French, Italian or Spanish), one compulsory
subject which must be chosen and Cultural Tourism. In Cultural Tourism the students have
to make a presentation about the project which they prepared on their own. After the
presentation there is a dialogue between the examiners and the candidate about the
contents of the presentation. The candidates have to defend their opinions and their work.

Study Courses at Fachhochschule (Non-University Institutions in Higher Education)

Since the academic year 1994/95, Austria has had a new educational path: study courses at
Fachhochschule ( non-university institutions in higher education). Because of the short
duration of studies and their job-oriented learning content they represent both a supplement
and an alternative to studies at university. Apart from the Federal Government the regional
provinces, communities, lobbies and private persons are also providers of the
Fachhochschulen

In the sector of tourism and the leisure industry, two Fachhochschulen - Krems, Vienna -
exist in Austria at present. The duration of the study is 7 and 8 semesters respectively.

Fachhochschule for Tourism Management and Leisure Time Economics

This course of study emphasizes interdisciplinary education and focuses on tourism related
subjects, advanced language proficiency and profound management knowledge combining
theoretical and practice-oriented work. Each student is obliged to take two foreign
languages in addition to English (the language of instruction in the first 5 semesters):
French, German, Italian or Spanish. The first three semesters are dedicated to management

186
skills, the following semesters concentrate on specialising and further consolidating the
subjects and interdisciplinary abilities. In the 6th semester the student selects three out of
five special subject areas: sports tourism, culture tourism, business tourism, health tourism,
nature protection and development planning. The 4th and 7th semesters focus on practice-
oriented education and project work.

University Study Programme for Tourism

At the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration there exist study
programmes for tourism. These programmes are offered at the Institute of tourism and
leisure economics.

In principal, connections to tourism can be found in (nearly) all branches of the studies
Social Science and Economics – or students can establish links. The reason for this is that
university education does not primarily aim at providing job-oriented knowledge but rather
at conveying know-how on content needed in a number of occupations.

In the second half of their studies, students have in most cases the chance - if they find an
appropriate department and/or interested professors - to qualify themselves in the field of
tourism.

More Information:
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Austrian Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture


Minoritenplatz 5, A-1010 Wien
http://www.bmbwk.gv.at

Austrian Federal Economic Chamber


Wiedner Hauptstrasse, A-1040 Wien
http://www.wk.or.at

Austrian tourist information


Margarethenstrasse 1, A-1050 Wien
http://www.austria-tourism.at

College for Tourism and Occopations


in the service industries management
Bergheidengasse 5-19, A-1130 Wien
http://www.hltw13.at

Tourist information, guide and direct booking


http://www.tiscover.com

Tourismusmanagement und Freizeitwirtschaft


Fachhochschul courses
IMC - International Management Center GmbH
Piaristengasse 1, A-3500 Krems,
http://www.imc-krems.ac.at/

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University of Vienna
Dr. Karl Lueger Ring, A-1010 Wien
http://www.univie.ac.at

Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration


Augasse 2-6, A-1090 Wien
http://www.wu-wien.ac.at

Vienna tourist information


Obere Augartenstrasse 40, A-1020 Wien
http://info.wien.at

Vienna board for education


Dr. Karl Renner-Ring, A-1010 Wien
http://www.magwien.gv.at/ssr
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189
OF CULTURAL TOURISM
SIXTH TECHNICAL SESSION

MARKETING AND PROMOTION


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STRATEGIC MARKETING CAMPAIGN:
AMAZING THAILAND AND GMS CULTURAL TOURISM29

Distinguished guests,
Ladies and gentlemen,

It is a great honour and a pleasure to be here today. Thank you for giving the opportunity
to the Tourism Authority of Thailand to address you on the strategic marketing campaign
of "Amazing Thailand" and the regional destination marketing of the GMS (Greater
Mekong Subregion) cultural tourism.

Before I tell you about the regional destination marketing of cultural tourism in the GMS,
let me begin with some general background of the impact of the Asian economic crisis on
the Thai tourism industry, Amazing Thailand 1998-1999 and the present Amazing
Thailand 2000 marketing campaigns.

Impacts of the Asian Economic Crisis on the Thai Tourism Industry

The 1997-1999 Asian economic crisis affected all Asian countries including Thailand to
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varying extents. One of the main impacts of the crisis has been the decrease in overall
Tuesday, January 12, 2010 1:50:12 AM

volume of demand, especially from the important intra-regional markets. NTO's have
undergone a review and restructure of their operations in response to leaner budgets. For
Thailand, our marketing budgets were affected as a result of which we had to lower our
advertising budgets and close two overseas offices. We also reduced the number of our
overseas staff.

An Overview of the Amazing Thailand Campaign 1998-1999

The Amazing Thailand 1998-1999 campaign was launched amidst the economic crisis in
Thailand itself and in the Asian region, though we clearly had no idea that the crisis was
going to occur at the time when we began planning the campaign. The campaign was
primarily focused on the auspicious occasion of His Majesty the King's 6th cycle birthday
anniversary on December 5,1999. Along with that, Thailand played host to the 13th Asian
Games in December 1998, the last great sporting event of the 20th century. The main
theme of "Amazing Thailand 1999" centered on the River of Kings which included the
Royal Barge Procession and festivals all over the country.

The campaign was designed to steer Thailand away from the promotion of mass market
tourism into niche-markets and focus on the country's tremendous travel and tourism
variety, especially its food, shopping attractions, health and culture. This is very much in
line with global travel trends as travellers become more sophisticated and repeat travel by
individuals and small groups of families and friends replaces mass market tourism.

29
Ms. Wailalak Noypayak, Assisant Director, Research and Statistics Division, Tourism Authority of
Thailand

191
Plenty of amazing activities were organised nation-wide along the lines of nine major
niche-market tourism concepts. These include shopping, food, eco-tourism, adventure
travel and health, MICE facilities, culture, Indochina and Mekong tourism developments.

Culture is an integral part of our tourism products as shown in 4 of our 9 Amazing


products, namely, "Amazing Cultural Heritage", "Amazing World Heritage", "Amazing
Arts and Lifestyle" and "Amazing Taste of Thailand".

"Amazing Thailand 1998-1999" Marketing Strategies

The Tourism Authority of Thailand used the marketing strategies of "Amazing Thailand
1998-1999" to offset the Asian financial crisis as follows:

1. Greater emphasis on long-haul markets from Europe and North America which were
not affected by the economic crisis. More budgets were allocated to European and
American markets.

2. Strengthening our marketing presence in the Japanese market which still had had high
purchasing power for short and medium haul travel destinations. Our three offices in
Japan were more aggressive in advertising and attracting new target groups such as
long stay and senior citizens.

3. Developing new products designed to meet new market requirements especially from
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Asian markets like shorter stay and cheaper tour prices.

4. Working with the private sector in informal partnerships. We also began putting more
emphasis on joint marketing and matching funds with tourism-related private
companies and Thai Airways International, our national carrier. We integrated all the
stakeholders from transportation and commerce top health and retail shopping into
promotional campaigns for the mutual benefit of all.

5. Encouraging the private sector for pricing in Thai currency instead of US dollars in
order to give more value for money for the tourists.

6. Working closely with the public sector concerned. As a result, Thailand pursued an
'Open Skies' policy for aviation to increase and facilitate incoming flights. Thailand
also relaxed immigration regulations for tourists from China, Taiwan and Malaysia as
well as senior tourists aged 55 years or older.

7. Building awareness among Thai people to be a good host to welcome tourists. TAT
also developed a domestic Amazing Thailand campaign called, 'Thais Tour Thailand'
to persuade Thai people to travel in Thailand all year round particularly in the low
season.

Factors Contributing to the Success of Amazing Thailand 1998-1999

TAT was successful in promoting the Amazing Thailand Years 1998-1999. Activities and
promotions held throughout both years were warmly welcomed by both foreign tourists
and Thais.

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This resulted in total foreign exchange earnings from tourism of about 242 billion baht in
1998 and 253 billion baht in 1999, up 4.4% over the previous year. About 70% of this
expenditure benefited hospitality and tourism-related businesses outside Bangkok, thus
meeting one of our major goals, which is to create jobs and distribute income to the
provincial areas of Thailand. In addition, the statistics for 1998 and 1999 showed that
foreign visitors travelling to Thailand during the Amazing Thailand Years totalled 16.34
million.

There were 5 factors contributing to the success of the Amazing Thailand as


follows:

1. The Amazing Thailand slogan was short, concise and easy to remember. It thus
attracted the attention of the people.

2. Every individual and every office in Thailand could use the slogan for free and it led
to be an effective promotion tool.

3. The development of tourism products for the Amazing Thailand campaign was an
integral part of the success. The development included well-maintained tourism
products and quality services, facilitation and relaxation of immigration procedures for
some tourist groups, security and tourism manpower development
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4. TAT adjusted its marketing strategies to suit the changing situation especially in Asia.

5. TAT received excellent support from public and private offices throughout Thailand in
promoting the Amazing Thailand campaign.

Amazing Thailand 2000 Campaign

While the Amazing Thailand 1998-1999 campaign was based predominantly on the Royal
Celebrations of His Majesty the King's auspicious sixth-cycle birthday, the new Amazing
Thailand 2000 campaign has sought to build upon this by highlighting the country's
cultural heritage, culinary delights, shopping and recreational facilities. It maintains the
Amazing Thailand marketing theme line but supports it with a slogan: Enchantment for the
Next Thousand Years.

This campaign is designed to position Thailand as a place of "escape from a stressful, fast-
moving world" where visitors can "replenish life and recharge their batteries." It capitalises
on a trend in which most of the holiday-makers of the future will be among the ranks of
stressed-out city dwellers looking to get away from their hectic lives.

We have maintained our long-standing focus on ensuring an equitable distribution of


income nation-wide and on promoting niche-market tourism products. Hundreds of
festivals have been organised at the provincial level, with appropriate budgetary support
from TAT, to highlight local culture, heritage, tradition and lifestyles.

Cultural tourism also gets a boost. Thailand's historical and archaeological sites such as
Phimai and Phnom Rung Khmer Stone Sanctuaries, Sukhothai and Ayutthaya have been

193
included in this programme. Several light and sound presentations and festivals have been
held to commemorate special occasions. In addition, other provinces have specially
enlarged their annual festivals to celebrate the new millennium. To name only a few, the
Bun Bangfai Festival (rocket festival) was held in Yasothon, Wax Castle Procession in
Ubon Ratchathani and the Songkran Festival (Thai New Year)
throughout the country.

We are very satisfied with the outcome of the Amazing Thailand 2000 campaign.
According to our latest statistics, international visitor arrivals to Thailand totalled
6,256,528 during January-August 2000, a significant increase of 10.30% over the same
period of 1999.

Development of Bangkok as the "City of Culture"

Early in 2000, the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) and TAT joined hands to
promote cultural tourism in the Thai capital. Under the slogan "Bangkok: the City of
Culture", various development projects were undertaken to promote the city's cultural
heritage. This follows the December 1999 opening of the Bangkok Mass Transit System or
Skytrain inside Bangkok which has made it possible for visitors to reach many cultural
landmarks. One of the most important developments has been the launch of the Bangkok
Sightseeing Bus linking major historical and cultural attractions such as the Temple of the
Emerald Buddha and the Grand Palace, National Museum, and many others.
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Regional Destination Marketing of Cultural Tourism in the GMS

Thailand has worked closely with its neighbouring countries in the Greater Mekong
Subregion, the Greater Wonders of Suwannaphumi and ASEAN to boost visitor flows to
and within the region. The GMS members of Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand,
Vietnam and the Chinese province of Yunnan are known as the Last Frontier of Global
Tourism because of their unique and distinctive tourism attractions. They hold great
promise for the future since they are home to some of the world's must-see icons. Most of
these are UNESCO-designated World Heritage Sites, including Angkor Wat in Cambodia,
Luang Prabang in Laos, Pagan and Mandalay in Myanmar, Sukhothai and Ayutthaya in
Thailand and Hué in Vietnam.

At present, the Agency for Coordinating Mekong Tourism Activities (AMTA), based in
the office of the Tourism Authority of Thailand, is the Regional Marketing Agency to act
as an initiator and an organizer of the Mekong tourism campaign.

The regional destination marketing of the GMS intends to promote the whole region as a
tourist destination. A joint sub-regional approach to destination marketing will be
considerably more effective than if countries work individually. It can raise the profile of
the GMS in the eyes of the world's tourism industry. Strict adherence to this regional
destination marketing eliminates competitiveness between countries about joint marketing
activities.

From a SWOT analysis, it shows that the strength of the GMS is the great variety of
cultural products, especially World Heritage Sites. The international organizations play an
important role in strengthening the marketing capacity of the six countries. However, the

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GMS needs to develop its infrastructure such as roads, accommodation and airports to
facilitate overland, air travel and visa procedures. Cultural tourism is a new tourism
product with a higher than the world average growth rate. It gives a good opportunity for
the GMS to combine their efforts to promote cultural tourism. But the major threat at
present is the economic slowdown in Asia.

Joint tourism marketing strategies in the GMS encompass four major strategies as follows:

1. Joint tourism product strategy in the GMS emphasizes the specialized/unique product
characteristics, providing the value added and much more customer satisfaction.

2. Joint tourism pricing strategy: Price is one of the most important and visible elements
of the marketing strategy. Pricing can be divided into 2 levels: Premium Pricing for
target segments with high income and/or requiring special services,
Standard/Economy Pricing for target segments with middle income and/or requiring
standard services.

3. Joint tourism distribution strategy should aim at the low cost of tourism product
distribution consistent with tourist demands. The emphasis will be placed on the
wholesale tour operators for 80% - 90% of the total distribution activities and retail
tour operators for 10% - 20%.

4. Joint tourism promotion strategy provides target markets with accurate and timely
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information to help them decide whether to visit the GMS. Since most tourists are
unaware of the GMS as tourist destination, the promotion strategy focuses on creating
a good image of the GMS as the most attractive regional destination in terms of
service quality, safety, friendliness and unique culture. Moreover, the `Jewels of the
Mekong' is the promotional concept to simply identify each country as a 'jewel'.

Latest Development to Support GMS Tourism

1. Quadrilateral Tourism Co-operation Agreement

In October 2000, the tourism ministers of Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Thailand,
signed the quadrilateral tourism co-operation agreement under which the four countries
will work closely together in the fields of transportation and telecommunication linkages,
travel facilitation, tourism development planning, tourism investment, human resources
development, joint promotion and marketing, public and private participation and multi-
lateral co-operation.

The four national tourism organisations will also work with the relevant authorities of their
respective countries to consider the opening of more border checkpoints, authorising visas
on arrival and other facilities for tourists and improving the convenience of travelling by
overland routes.

2. “Two Kingdoms One Destination” Campaign

As part of the quadrilateral agreement, at the World Travel Market in London in November
2000, TAT and the Tourism Ministry of Cambodia launched their first co-operative

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marketing campaign, "Two Kingdoms One Destination", aimed at boosting tourism flows
to and between the two countries.

Based on this agreement, Thai and Cambodian tour operators, airlines and public and
private tourism-related organisations will produce marketing collaterals and brochures,
host trade shows and workshops plus organise familiarisation trips for travel agents and
travel writers to the two Kingdoms.

Conclusion

I hope that my presentation which is based on Thailand's experience will give you some
ideas on how to plan marketing strategies of cultural tourism for a country or a region.
There are many factors contributing to the success of the 'Amazing Thailand' Campaign.
But the most important factor is the co-operation between the public and private sectors,
especially the participation of the Thai people all over the country. Similarly, the success
of cultural tourism in the GMS countries depends on the co-operation among country
members. We still need strong support from international organizations to strengthen our
position in the world tourism market.

On behalf of the Tourism Authority of Thailand, I would like to express my sincere thanks
to the Ministry of Tourism in Cambodia and the Cambodian government for its hospitality
and the World Tourism Organisation for the initiative in organising this conference and for
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allowing me to address you today. Most of all, I would like to thank all of you here for
your time and patience.

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VISITOR MANAGEMENT AND E-COMMERCE
AT HISTORIC SITES30

Every year around 1.5 m people visit Schönbrunn Palace. In order to cope with an influx of
up to 10,000 visitors a day in the often rather confined spaces of the palace, it was
necessary to establish visitor management strategies that would take account of the historic
fabric of the building yet also accommodate the needs of visiting tourists. In collaboration
with a software developer we designed a tailor-made system for the palace which covers
the following important criteria:

Flexible Tour Planning


· Different tours
· Different customers/different priorities
· Capacity restrictions/exact time management
Staff Capacity Planning
· Year/month capacity planning
· Distribution of daily work
· Guided tour plan
· Accounting of working hours or absences
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Booking
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· Authorized tour organizers


o by phone, fax, Internet
· Individuals
o only by Internet
Sales
· Quick “one button” sale
· Automatic proposal of appropriate tour
· Management of payments: foreign currencies, vouchers, credit cards or
cheques
Accounting
· Voucher system for tour organizers
· Automatic generation of detailed monthly invoice
· Interface to bookkeeping system
Access control
· Electronically controlled turnstiles
· Ticket scanner and display
· Actual throughput 20 people per minute
Shop
· Combined ticket and souvenir sales
· Multiple warehouse stock management with ordering functions
· Inventory function
· statistics

30
Dr. Alexander Keil, Schönbrunn Kultur & Betreibs Ges.m.b.H., Austria

197
Security
· Internal security
· External security
· System security

Interfaces

In addition the visitor management system is linked to a management information system


as well as a visitor information system.

Management Information System (MIS)

The Management Information System provides convenient mechanisms for analysis and
evaluation of data. The following areas are covered:

· Visitor data: e.g.: comparative figures for previous periods and budgets, guided tours,
staff comparisons, comparison of visitor numbers with general tourist data for Vienna,
etc.

· Customer data: travel agent/tour operator sales with ranking (ABC analysis), figures
for no-shows, tour preferences, etc.

· Shop data: comparative figures for previous periods and budgets, ABC analysis of
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products, staff/sales ratio, etc.

· Administration: till monitoring, credit card transfers, etc.

· Via interfaces with the financial accounting system and personnel accounting system
additional external data are entered into the MIS and gives an instant picture of
significant indicative figures for the company in compressed form: short-term
statement of returns, budget deviation, personal data in the human resources field,
progress in restoration and maintenance projects, etc.

Visitor Information System

Monitors have been installed which carry information about the various types and prices of
tours offered. A kind of "scenario" has been developed where by means of a series of
monitor screens from the entrance to the ticket offices, visitors gradually receive all the
information they need in order to make a decision about which ticket to purchase. Visitors
are also kept permanently informed about the availability of free time-slots and waiting
times.

Further developments

The following improvements to the system are currently being developed:

· Vendor-less sales ("ticket-vending box")


· Interface with in-house technology

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199
OPEN FORUM

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS


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200
December 11, 2000
15:00 - 15:15

Moderator: Dr. Nasrollah Mostofi, Vice-Deputy Minister for Research and Training
Affairs, Islamic Republic of Iran

Q from the delegate from Papua New Guinea: How do you decide which villages are
ready to receive tourists: Are you not supposed to spread the benefits of tourism to as
many villages as possible?

A from Narzalina Lim: Villages which have the infrastructure such as roads and facilities
such as guest houses, are deemed ready to receive tourists. Those villages with strong
local leadership and active community participation are likely candidates. Those villages
which have shown success can train the other villages and prepare them to receive tourists.

A from Eugenio Yunis: There is not one solution or answer to the question. The ultimate
objective is to spread the benefits of tourism to as many villages as possible. Too much
concentration in a few villages is not advisable. However, there is such a thing as cultural
consent. There must be strong leadership and participation by the villagers in the decision-
making process. This is another criterion for deciding whether tourists come to a village or
not. This is a sustainable development principle. You cannot impose tourism on a town or
village. There must be agreement on the part of the villagers.
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A from Mr. P.P. Hettiarachchi: The destination should develop lesser known cultural
and archeological sites to disperse the tourists to other parts of the country.

Q from the Vice-Rector of Cambodia University: Please identify the key players who
should be consulted in developing and managing the cultural impacts of tourism.

A from Eugenio Yunis: The local community; the local government; non-government
organizations (NGOs); women’s committees; national or regional government; tourism
private sector. Technical backstopping is fundamental. The academic and consulting
community is important in terms of capacity building of the local community.

A from Mr. Hettiarachchi: The community leaders and NGO leaders.

A from Ms. Laila Bassiouny: The local community; the Ministry of Tourism and the
Antiquities Department working together as a team.

Q from Indonesian Ambassador: How far should you involve the local community?
These are poor people who have no education nor experience in running their own
businesses. What is the limit?

A from Narzalina Lim: Local communities should be given technical assistance in


running micro enterprises. They should be provided seed capital on a soft loan basis. They
should be organized and make more money than just staying in the informal sector. It
means commitment on the part of the local and central governments to ensure that local
communities have a say. You have to get them involved. If they are left out, they will feel
alienated.

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A from Eugenio Yunis: Participation of local communities in tourism planning is an
important principle in developing countries, not in Paris or New York. The people have to
be involved in policy-making; in the planning process; in the implementation of the
development plan; in the ownership and operation of tourism businesses. They have to
have employment, directly or indirectly. The local community is important in the
monitoring process because the social impacts are felt by them. We cannot leave the
evaluation and monitoring of impacts and flow of tourists just to the local authorities.

December 11, 2000


17:15 – 17:30

Moderator: Ms. Narzalina Lim, WTO Consultant


Translator for Speakers from China: Mr. Xu Jing, WTO Official

Q from Delegate from PNG: The question was addressed to the speakers from China.
You mentioned that in your province you had 36 million tourists plus 11 million in 1999.
Is China able to cope with the carrying capacity? Are there enough products to cater to
different tourists?

A from Vice-Governor Shao: We had 36million domestic tourists and 1.4 million
overseas tourists in1999. We have a big province with a variety of attractions. We have
very good infrastructure and transportation networks. We have diversified our tourism
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products.

A from Mr. Zhu Mao-min: We can cope with our current carrying capacity. In fact we
still need demand, which is not enough. We have different products which cater to the
different tastes of tourists.

Q from Delegate from Sri Lanka: What actions have you taken to protect your ethnic
customs and folklore?

A from Vice-Governor Shao: The Central government has passed legislation to protect
ethnic cultures and the environment. On the local level, we have taken certain initiatives
such as appropriating funds for the protection of culture. We protect first and then develop.

Q from Delegate representing World Vision: The number of tourists from China to
Cambodia increased 48% last year (1999). Is there extra-territorial legislation to protect
children in countries where tourists may be involved in criminal activity such as
prostitution?

A from Vice-Governor Shao: China and Cambodia have enjoyed a collaborative


relationship. China also enjoys cooperative and good relationships with people who have
visited us.

Note: At this point, Mr. Yunis asked to be recognized so he could elaborate further on the
concept of carrying capacity. He stated that carrying capacity has several angles. First is
the physical carrying capacity which involves the natural environment and the built
environment. The second is the social carrying capacity. The environment may be big

202
enough to hold a large number of people but the society is not in a position to receive a
large number of tourists. Social carrying capacity should be taken in parallel to physical
carrying capacity.

Ultimately, the satisfaction of the visitor should be a prime consideration. The visitor or
tourist has the right to a satisfactory and meaningful visit. If the destination or attraction is
too crowded, the visitor becomes dissatisfied.

December 12, 2000


10:00 – 10:15

Moderator: Dr. H. Varma, WTO Regional Representative for Asia and the Pacific

Q from the Delegate from Saudi Arabia: There are two kinds of silk roads. What the
speakers in the previous session described is the Northern Silk Road only. There is a
Southern Silk Road – a Maritime Silk Road – which links Japan, Korea, Indonesia,
Malaysia and the Indian ports arriving in Arabia, through the Arabian Gulf through Iraq,
through Yemen to Egypt. This should also be developed and the WTO can take the
initiative.

A from Dr. Varma: The point is well taken. We do intend to revive the Southern Silk
Road – the maritime route, the spice route, with the involvement of countries such as
Indonesia and Malaysia. For WTO to initiate this, there should be an expression of interest
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from a member state. Unfortunately, Saudi Arabia is not a member state of the WTO.

11:30 - 12:00

Moderator: Ms. Narzalina Lim, WTO Consultant

Q from Delegate from Thailand: How many Japanese tourists did you carry on the 55-
day tour on the Silk Road?

A from Mr. Yoshio Koteda: 200 persons.

Comment from Delegate from Thailand: That’s very expensive. 1.3 million yen for a
55-day tour on the Silk Road

Q from the Delegate from Australia: How can we increase the supply of cultural tourism
destinations and products without impacting on the environment?

A from Ms.Barbara Peisert: In Thailand, we started with round trips and beach holidays
to Pattaya. Every year, new destinations are added. Now we link Thailand with Angkor
Wat and the countryside of Cambodia.

A from Mr. P.P. Hettiarachchi: In Sri Lanka, we use small buses and take small groups
to different places. There are also different departure dates. Since we have diversified our
tourism products, one tour group can go to one place and another group can visit another.

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A from Mr. Xu Jing: From the government perspective, to minimize the impact of
tourism on the environment, an Environmental Impact Analysis (EIA) should be conducted
for the destination. This will give you an idea of the optimal carrying capacity of that
destination.

Comment from the Delegate from the Tourism Authority of Thailand : On the
promotion of the Greater Mekong Sub-Region, overland travel is possible from Thailand to
Siem Reap, Cambodia. We are working on improving the 160 km. road access. In fact,
there have been caravans using four-wheel vehicles which have been using this route since
last year.

Q from the Delegate from APSARA Tours: This question is addressed to Ms. Lim. You
said that local people should be involved in tourism to reduce vandalism and theft in
heritage sites. In Angkor Wat there is a plan to introduce battery operated cars. This will
take jobs away from the locals who earn from tourism by operating motor bikes around the
temple complex. Can you please comment on this.

A from Ms. Narzalina Lim: We should weigh the costs vs. the benefits of certain
decisions. If the plan to introduce battery-operated cars is meant to reduce pollution and to
protect the temples in the long term, then it may be a wise move. The people who will be
displaced can be organized to do something else. They can be retrained for other skills. In
the end, it’s all about balancing the costs and benefit and finding a solution that is
sustainable in the long term.
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204
LIST OF PARTICIPANTS

1. AUSTRIA
Mr. Abdul Latif Aspar
Dr. Alexander Keil Tourism Officer, Brunei Tourism
Schönbrunn Kultur & Betriebs Ges. m.b.H. Ministry of Industry and Primary
Vienna Resources
Tel: (43-1) 81113253 Jalan Menteri Besar
Fax: (43-1) 8121106 Bandar Seri Begawan
Email: keil@schoenbrunn.at Tel: (673-2) 382 822
Fax: (673-2) 382 824
Mr. Christian Matzka Email: bruneitourism@brunet.bn
Director, School of Tourism
Federal Department of Education 4. CAMBODIA
Bergheidengasse 5-19
A-1130 Vienna H.E. Mr. Veng Sereyvuth
Tel: (43-1) 81113253 Minister of Tourism
Fax: (43-1) 8121106 Ministry of Tourism
Email: christian.matzka@univie.ac.at 3 Preah Monivong Boulevard
Phnom Penh
2. BHUTAN Tel: (855-23) 427 130
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Fax: (855-23) 426 107/364


Mr.Tshering Yonten Email: veng@camnet.com.kh
Director, Department of Tourism
P. O. Box 126 H.E. Mr. Thong Khon
Thimphu Secretary of State
Tel: (975-2) 325 225 Ministry of Tourism
Fax: (975-2) 323 695
Email: tab@druknet.net.bt H.E. Mr. Nuth Nin Doeurn
Secretary of State
3. BRUNEI DARUSSALAM Ministry of Tourism

Mr. Sheikh Jamaluddin Mohamed Prince Sisowath Chivannariddh


Director General, Brunei Tourism Under Secretary of State
Ministry of Industry and Primary Ministry of Tourism
Resources
Jalan Menteri Besar H.E. Mr. Chap Nhan Livuth
BB 3910 Governor, Siem Reap Provine
Tel: (673-2) 382 822, Ext. 2431
Fax: (673-2) 382 824 Mr. Pich Keo
Deputy Director Gerneral
H.E. Mr. Pengiran Haji Yunus Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts
Ambassador of Brunei Darussalam in
Cambodia Mr. Chao Sunkeryu
237 Pasteur Street, 51 Director, Angkor Cultural Development
Khan Chamkar Mon Department
Phnom Penh APSARA Authority
Tel: (23) 211 457
Fax: (23) 211 456
Email: Brunei @bigpond.com.kh
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Mr. In Thoeun Mr. Shi Minghui
Deputy Director in Charge Director of Protocol Division
International Cooperation & ASEAN People’s Government of Yunnan Province
Planning Development Department # 230 Daguan Rd.