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Phạm Thị Ánh Dương - 1517150033 - K54 - KDOE307.

Chapter 2: Differences in politics and legal systems - bonus-point anwers

Question 1: Main differences between political system in capitalism and that in socialism:


Meaning Capitalism refers to the economic The economic structure in which

system prevalent in the country, the government has ownership and
where there is private or corporate control over the economic activities
ownership on the trade and of the country is known as
industry. Socialism.

Versions  Communists believed that

socialism could be achieved only
through violent revolution and
totalitarian dictatorship (e.g:
Soviet Union, North Korea)
 Social democrats committed
themselves to achieving socialism
by democratic means, turning their
backs on violent revolution and

Basis Principle of Individual Rights Principle of Equality

Advocates Innovation and individual goals Equality and fairness in society

Means of Production Privately owned Socially owned

Prices Determined by the market forces Determined by the Government

Competition Very High No competition exists between


Degree of distinction High Low

in the class of people
Phạm Thị Ánh Dương - 1517150033 - K54 - KDOE307.1


Wealth Each individual works for the Equally shared by all the people of
creation of his own wealth the country

Religion Freedom to follow any religion Freedom to follow any religion but
it encourages secularism

Efficiency Much Less

Government No or marginal Government decides everything


Question 2: Vietnam is a socialist country under the leadership of the Vietnam Communist
Party. In many respects, the governments of Vietnam are communist in name only since those
nations now adhere to market-based economic reforms. They remain, however, totalitarian states
that deny many basic civil liberties to their populations.

Question 3: Distinguish 4 major forms of totalitarianism exist in the world today.

 Communist totalitarianism centers on a communist party. E.g: China, Viet Nam, Lao,
Cuba, Venezuela (Hugo Chavez)
 Tribal totalitarianism refers to the monopolization of political power in the hands of
one religious party or group.E.g: African countries such as Zimbabwe, Tanzania,
Uganda, and Kenya.
 Theoratic totalitarianism refers to one tribe or ethnic group (which may or may not be
the majority of the population) monopolizing political power and oppressing other tribes
or ethnic groups. E.g: Iran and Saudi Arabia.
 Right-wing totalitarianism is characterized by its intense hatred of communism.

 For more information. The history of “left wing” and “right wing”:
In brief, left means liberal and right mean conservative. The political affiliation of these two
common words originated during the French Revolution. In the 1790s, King Louis XVI was
fighting with the Legislative Assembly. Like our modern-day House of Representatives,
seating in the French Legislative Assembly was arranged based on political affiliation. The
King sat in front of the assembly. To his right sat the conservative Feuillants who backed the
Phạm Thị Ánh Dương - 1517150033 - K54 - KDOE307.1

king and believed in a constitutional monarchy. To his left sat the liberal Girondists and
radical Jacobins who wanted to install a completely democratic government.

Question 4: Distinguish communist and socialist

Communist means connected with communism afn socialist means connected with socialism,
therefore, we will distinguish communism and socialism to make it clearer.



Meaning Social organization system, that Theory of social organization

focuses on communal where there is public or
ownership and eliminating class cooperative ownership of the
distinction. means of production.

Ideology Political and economic Economic

Proposed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels Robert Owen

Main idea To achieve equality among To achieve equality and

members of society and fairness among the society
promoting classless society. members.

Basis of wealth According to the needs. According to the efforts or

distribution contribution.

Means of Equally owned by the members Owned by the citizens.

production of the state.

Management of Lies on few people belonging Done by the people

resources to a particular authoritarian

Ownership of No Yes
personal property

Capitalism It removes capitalism. Can exist in socialism.

Question 5: Name some nations applying theoretic law along with other laws as well:
Phạm Thị Ánh Dương - 1517150033 - K54 - KDOE307.1

Country Description

Afghanistan Islamic law & American/British law after invasion

Islamic law is ensured in Article 2 of the Egyptian

Egypt constitution.

The Gambia English common law, Islamic law and customary law