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Basics of RF planning and RF Planning

using Atoll

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Topics Covered

Part A: Basics of RF Planning


➢ Necessity of RF Planning
➢ Overall flow of the RF Planning in general
➢ Different Stages of RF Planning

Part B: RF Planning workflow in ATOLL


➢ ATOLL- Getting Started
 Geo Explorer Setting
 Parameter Explorer Setting
 Network Explorer Setting

➢ Example: Vellore City RF Planning through ATOLL


 Defining Morphologies
 Defining Propagation Models
 RSRP Coverage Prediction across Vellore City
 Downlink Throughput Prediction across Vellore City

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Part A:
Basics of RF Planning

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Why RF Planning is Required (1/2) ?

➢ To provide RF Coverage in a designated area, RF Planning is required

➢ Let us take an example of making an Furniture in home. Before we proceed for order
for the fabrication/purchase of the items required, what are we doing?

 Finalization of location for the TV cabinet, Chairs, Sofa-Set etc in the drawing room
 Selection of TV cabinet, Dining table, Sofa-set, Chairs
 Above all location and selection are inter-related.
❖ Suppose if we select the location and later size of the cabinet is more, again
need to change the location and planning will get change
❖ This planning can not be a single design only. It may have multiple options
❖ Now a days, Architectures are called for special planning for the home
furniture

➢ Similar concept is here in RF Planning. Same Analogy…


➢ Planning stage - “Multiple Options”

➢ Finalization of the locations for BTS/BS/eNodeB & selection of the eNodeB and its
peripheral devices like RF Antenna, RF Cable is a part of RF Planning

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Why RF Planning is Required (2/2) ?

• Similar to the case of an “Furniture Example”, here location and selection of eNodeB is
very much interdependent

• If we select the Macro eNodeB , which is transmitting more power – It will provide more
coverage; Hence site location will be far away (Intersite distance would be more)

• If we select the small cell, the site locations would be close to each other

• Therefore configuration of eNodeB, Configuration of Antenna will play important role


in deciding the location of eNodeB – Hence RF Planning

• As in the case of “Furniture example” multiple options are always there ; We select our
choice based on the looks/Appearance -- KPI (Key Performance Index/measure)

• Multiple options will have always trade-off between cost Vs looks/Appearance

• RF Planning: Multiple options will have trade-off between cost Vs Performance

• Selection of eNodeB and their parameters, Selection of Antenna, Identifying the


locations of eNodeB --- RF Planning
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Significance of RF Planning

➢ RF Planning is the process of “assigning frequencies, transmitter locations and parameters of


a wireless communications system to provide sufficient coverage and capacity for the
services required”.
➢ The RF plan of a cellular communication system has two objectives:
 Coverage
 Capacity

➢ Coverage relates to the geographical footprint within the system that has sufficient RF signal
strength to provide for a call/data session.
➢ Capacity relates to the capability of the system to sustain a given number of subscribers
➢ Capacity and coverage are interrelated. To improve coverage, capacity has to be sacrificed,
while to improve capacity, coverage will have to be sacrificed for a same configuration of
eNodeB and corresponding network
➢ Capacity and Coverage will have always a trade-off in cellular network. We will understand this
in details subsequently.

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Different Steps of RF Planning (1/3):
➢ Step 1: Initial Radio Link Budget
➢ Step 2: Selection of Propagation Model and CW testing for fine tuning the Propagation
model
➢ Step 3: Selection of eNodeB and configuration of Important parameters
➢ Step 4: Finalization of eNodeB Locations (Lat/Long), Azimuth of Antenna, Mechanical Tilt
of Antenna etc
➢ Step 5: Predictions using RF Planning tool for a designated area
➢ Step 6: Verifications of KPI (Key Performance Index) using prediction tools
➢ Step 7: If meeting the KPI in step 6, Proceed for the implementation, If not go back to
step 2 and do the fine tuning again. It may have multiple iterations
➢ Step 8: Drive test after deployment of the network (all eNodeB are activated in a given
area)
➢ Step 9: Post processing of Log files collected during “Drive test” and “Post Processing”
➢ Step 10: Continuous audit on periodic basis to validate the RF coverage of a network

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Different Steps of RF Planning (2/3):

Standard
Model Tuning
Propagation RSRP Threshold
using CW test
Model

Input:
Requirement
of RF Maximum Radius
Coverage Link Budget Allowable Path Calculation using Site Placement in
Prediction Results
form Analysis Loss Propagation Atoll
(MAPL in dB) Model
Buisness/
commercial
team

Multiple iteration Approximate calculation


of Number of eNodeB/
till optimal Sites requirement for a
solution achieve given area

1. Selection of eNodeB
2. Selection of Antenna RF Tool
3. No of sectors
4. Transmit Power and
eNodeB and Antenna Gain
Excel
Sheet

Process

Steps mentioned are considering up to RF Prediction (RF Planning)

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Different Steps of RF Planning (3/3):

Desired Network
KPI (Cluster wise)

Prediction Deployment of
Post processing of
Drive test Log
This part will be
Drive Test
results actual sites files & Finding out
the KPI explained in the
second session
Multiple iteration
till Desired KPI
NO

RF Optimization: Meeting the desired


Modification in the design KPI requirements ?

Process/
YES Decision
Box

RF Planning Done
successfully & Analysis
Periodic
optimization can
be done

Physical
work

Steps mentioned from RF Planning to Meeting KPI in Field

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Initial Link Budget for the RF Network

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Why Link Budget is required ??

• Link budget is required to find the overall cell radius for a given configuration of eNodeB

• Inputs required for the Link Budget are depicted in the below picture

Inputs:
1. Area where coverage is required
(Morphologies Dense Urban/
Urban etc)
2. Frequency band & Channel BW
3. Technology (GSM/CDMA/LTE)
4. Duplexing Technology (FDD/
TDD) Outputs:
5. Services (QoS) requirements Link Budget Maximum Allowable Path Loss (MAPL)
6. Type of eNodeB (Macro/Micro/
Pico)
7. Transmit Power
8. Number of sectors
9. Antenna Gain
10. MS/UE Parameters (NF, SINR,
RX sensitivity etc)

• This analysis require to be done multiple time in the beginning with different
configurations to arrive on the final configuration of eNodeB

• Once the final configuration achieved, Cell radius will be achieved by using the Maximum
Allowable Path Loss (MAPL) and specific propagation path loss model
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Fundamentals of Power Transmission over the Air
Antenna

LTE RRH

Coverage Footprint

MS

Free Space
Path
Loss (FSL)

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Antenna Fundamentals
-Important Parameters of Antenna
Important parameter of Antenna:

• Directivity
• Gain
• Efficiency
• Half Power Beam-width (Azimuth)
• Half Power Beam-width (elevation)
• Front to Back Ratio (FBR)
• Return Loss (VSWR)
• Side Lobe
• Isolation between two ports if it is 2 X 2 MIMO/4 X 4 MIMO

Two types of Antenna used for the telecom network:

1) Omni-Directional Antenna: Generally used in Rural Area where capacity is not a main
concern
2) Directional Antenna (Sectored Antenna): Sectored Antenna are used for most of the
application

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Antenna Fundamentals
-Radiation Pattern of Directional Antenna

Gain = efficiency * Directivity

Efficiency ( Ecd) = Ec (Conduction efficiency) * Ed (Dielectric Efficiency)

Gain = K/ Θ1 * Θ2 (HPBW * VPBW)

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Omni-Directional Antenna

• Omni Directional Antenna will have a 360 Degree


Beamwidth (Ideally) in horizontal plane

• Vertical Beamwidth will vary depending on the application

• Omni-Antenna typically used with eNodeB:

S No Gain VBW HBW Frequency


(dBi) (deg) (MHz)
1 9 11° Omni 2300-2400

2 11 7° Omni 2500-2700

3 11 8° Omni 2400-2500

• Typical application of Omni-Directional antenna is for the


rural area where single eNodeB can be connected with
single Omni-directional antenna – It can be used where
capacity is not a prime concern

• Gain increases as VBW get decreases

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Specifications for the Omni-Directional Antenna
- As an Example

S No Antenna Parameter Specifications Omni - Directional Antenna Radiation Patterns:


HBW - 360°, VBW – 7°
1 Frequency Range 2300-2400 MHz

2 Gain (in dBi) 11 ± 0.5 10


0

30 330
3 Vertical Beamwidth 7° 0

4 Number of Ports 2 Nos -10


60 300
5 Polarization Dual Linear 45° -20

No RET or electrical tilt but -30


6 Electrical Tilt option for Fixed electrical
tilt* 90 -40 270

Elevation Sidelobes (1st


7 < -15 dB
Upper)
8 Isolation > 25 dB
120 240
Cross polarization
9
Discrimination (XPD)
> 20 dB
10 VSWR < 1.5:1 150 210

11 Maximum Input Power 200 Watts CW 180

12 Input Impedance 50 Ohms

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Specifications for the Sectored Antenna used for RJIL Network
S No Antenna Parameter Specifications

1 Frequency Range 2300-2400 MHz Directional Antenna Radiation Patterns: HBW


- 65°, VBW – 7°
2 Gain (in dBi) 17.5 ± 0.5
0
10
3 Vertical Beamwidth 7° 30 330

0
4 Horizontal Beamwidth 65°
-10
60 300
5 Polarization Dual Linear 45°
-20

6 Electrical Tilt RET -30

Elevation Sidelobes (1st 90 -40 270


7 < -15 dB
Upper)
8 Isolation > 25 dB
Cross polarization
9
Discrimination (XPD)
> 18 dB 120 240

Front to Load Ratio


10 > 25 dB
(FBR)
150 210
11 VSWR < 1.5:1 180

12 Maximum Input Power 250 Watts CW

12 Input Impedance 50 Ohms

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Comparison of Three sectored Antenna Vs Omni Antenna

DIRECTIONAL vs. OMNI-DIRECTIONAL ANTENNA RADIATION PATTERNS


• Three sectored antenna will do not
have uniform coverage like Omni-
0
10 directional antenna.
30 330

0
• However three sectored antenna are
60
-10
300
a good choice for RF planning as it
-20 will provide coverage very close to
hexagonal shape.
-30

90 -40 270 • Area left by the three sectored


antenna will be covered by other
eNodeB/BTS


120 240
Three sectored Antenna will provide
better SINR as it will add
interference from only the
150 210

180
directional area and not from Omni

Three sector Antenna is a very good choice for cellular network

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Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP)

• EIRP = Pt * Gt

• Where Pt: Transmit Power


• Gt: Antenna Gain

• For RJIL Network:

• Transmit power per chain = 40 dBm


• 4 Ports of Antenna
• Pt: Total power = 40 dBm + 10*log10 (4) = 46 dBm
• Gt: Antenna Gain = 17 dBi
• EIRP: 63 dBm

• Difference between EIRP and ERP

• EIRP: Antenna gain w.r.t Isotropic Antenna


• ERP: Antenna gain w.r.t Dipole

• EIRP = ERP + 2.15 dB ( Dipole gain = 1.64, 10*log10(1.64) = 2.15 dB)

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Maximum Allowable Path Loss (MAPL) -1/2
-Output of the Link Budget

Pr, dB = Minimum received power which can be detected by eNodeB /BTS

= Receiver Sensitivity

MAPL = EIRP + Gr (Receive Antenna Gain) - (RX sensitivity)


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Maximum Allowable Path Loss (MAPL) -2/2
-Output of the Link Budget

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Receiver Sensitivity

• The minimum input signal power at receiver which can be decoded by the
eNodeB with required Bit Error Rate (BER)/Packet Error rate (PER)

• BER has direct relations with SNR

• SNR depends on
- Received signal power

- Background thermal noise at antenna (Na)

- Noise added by the receiver (Nr)

• Receiver Sensitivity calculation of eNodeB:


• Pr(Min) = No (KT) + Signal Bandwidth (B) + Min req (SNR) + NF of a RX
= -174 dBm + 10*log10(5 MHz) + 0 dB + 3

= -174 + 67 +0 + 3 = -104 dBm


This is one example
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Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR)
• What is SNR ??
SNR = Signal Power/ Noise Power

• Certain BER/PER (for e.g. 1 e-06) is required at the Physical layer of Receiver

• BER has always relationship will SNR

• This value would be different for different modulation schemes of QPSK, 16 QAM and 64 QAM

• Therefore SNR requirement for different modulated signal would be different. For an example, -1
dB SNR required for decoding QPSK signal while 8 dB SNR required for 16 QAM and 18 dB required
for 64 QAM

• Causes of degradation in SNR:


• The transmitter is far away.
• The signal passes through rain or fog and the frequency is high.
• The signal must pass through an object.
• The signal reflects of an object, but not all of the energy is reflected.
• The signal interferes with itself – multi-path fading
• An object not directly in the way impairs the transmission.
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Noise and Noise Figure (NF)

• What is Noise ??

• Any unwanted signal which disturb the desired signal in communication channel is known as
“Noise”

• Thermal noise
 Due to thermal agitation of electrons. Present in all electronics and transmission media.
 Thermal noise power density is given by kT(W/hz)
 k Boltzmann’s constant = 1.3810-23
 T – temperture in Kelvin (C+273)
Which will give -174dBm /Hz at 0 °K (which is the lowest thermal noise floor)
 Thermal noise across the bandwidth is given by : kTB(W)
Where B =bandwidth

• Noise Figure (NF):

 NF = (SNR)input / SNR (output)


 This is very important parameter of RX chain as it will determine the RX sensitivity of eNodeB

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Example of Link Budget (1/2)

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Example of Link Budget (2/2)

Fading Margin will be explained later

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Important Parameters of Link Budget

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LTE Related Important parameters

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LTE Basics
- Definiotion of RB and RE

1 RB = 12
(Subcarriers) * 7
(OFDMA Symbols)
= 84 RE

1 RB = 180 KHz
1 RE = 15 KHz

20 MHz Channel:

1200 Subcarriers
1200 * 15
= 18 MHz Occ. BW

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LTE Specific Parameters for Link Budget:
- RSRP Vs RSSI
RSSI: Received Signal Strength Indicator

• RSSI is the more traditional metric that has long been used to display signal strength for
GSM, CDMA1X, etc
• It integrates all of the RF power within the channel pass-band.
• For LTE, RSSI measurement bandwidth is all active subcarriers which includes the
desired signal power, Noise level, Interference from other BS in all subcarriers

RSRP: Reference Signal received Power

• It is the average power of Resource


elements (RE) that carry cell specific
Reference Signal (RS) over the entire
Bandwidth, so RSRP is only measured in the
symbols carrying RS

RSSI = RSRP + 10*log10(1200)= RSRP + 30.9 dBm


RE

As per the 3GPPP specs, MS can decode the signal up to -124 dBm RSRP signal
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MAPL calculation for RJIL LTE Network (1/2)

Downlink Uplink
Dense Assumption Dense urban Urban Suburban Rural
Assumption Urban Suburban Rural
urban
Channel Model Ped Ped Ped Ped Channel Model Ped Ped Ped Ped
Desired cell edge PHY data PHY data rate @ edge kbps 256 256 256 256
kbps 2048 2048 2048 2048
rate
Used resource blocks value 94 94 94 94 Used resource blocks value 24 24 24 24
MCS 3 3 3 3 MCS 4 4 4 4
TB size bits 5544 5544 5544 5544 TB size bits 1736 1736 1736 1736
BS - Tx Parameters UE - Tx Parameters
BS output power dBm 46.0 46.0 46.0 46.0 UE output power dBm 23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0
Power per resource block dBm 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.0 Power per resource block dBm 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2
BS feeder + jumper losses dB 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 UE antenna gain dBi 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Tx antenna gain dBi 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 EIRP per resource block dBm 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2
EIRP per resource block dBm 42.5 42.5 42.5 42.5 BS - Rx Parameters
UE - Rx Parameters Thermal noise density dBm/Hz -174.0 -174.0 -174.0 -174.0
Thermal noise density dBm/Hz -174.0 -174.0 -174.0 -174.0 Noise bandwidth dB-Hz 52.6 52.6 52.6 52.6
Noise bandwidth dB-Hz 52.6 52.6 52.6 52.6 Thermal noise power dBm -121.4 -121.4 -121.4 -121.4
Thermal noise power dBm -121.4 -121.4 -121.4 -121.4 BS noise factor dB 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5
UE noise factor dB 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 Rx noise floor dBm -117.9 -117.9 -117.9 -117.9
Rx noise floor dBm -114.4 -114.4 -114.4 -114.4 Required SNR dB -6.3 -6.3 -6.3 -6.3
Required SNR dB -2.0 -2.0 -2.0 -2.0 Rx sensitivity dBm -124.2 -124.2 -124.2 -124.2
Rx sensitivity dBm -116.4 -116.4 -116.4 -116.4 BS antenna gain dBi 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0
UE antenna gain dBi 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 BS feeder + jumper losses dB 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Max pathloss unloaded dB 158.9 158.9 158.9 158.9 Max pathloss unloaded dB 149.9 149.9 149.9 149.9
Interference margin dB 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 Interference margin dB 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4
Fading margin dB 10.2 8.7 8.0 7.3 Fading margin dB 10.2 8.7 8.0 7.3
Handover gain dB 4.3 3.8 3.5 3.3 Handover gain dB 4.3 3.8 3.5 3.3
Penetration loss dB 20.0 18.0 15.0 12.0 Penetration loss dB 20.0 18.0 15.0 12.0
MAPL - outdoor dB 149.2 150.2 150.6 151.1 MAPL - outdoor dB 141.6 142.6 143.0 143.5
MAPL - indoor dB 129.2 132.2 135.6 139.1 MAPL - indoor dB 121.6 124.6 128.0 131.5

MAPL - outdoor dB 141.6 142.6 143.0 143.5 Cell Radius m 335 435 725 1980
MAPL - indoor dB 121.6 124.6 128.0 131.5

RSRP Threshold dBm -112.9 -113.9 -114.3 -114.8


Final MAPL = Min (D/L MAPL, U/L MAPL)
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MAPL calculation for RJIL LTE Network (2/2)

RSRP Threshold = Min Received Power or RX Sensitivity for a given scenario

Pr (Min /RSRP Based) = X (dBm) + 10*log(12)

• 12 is considered as link budget in the previous slide is done


considering the RB power

• 1 RB will have 12 subcarriers

• RSRP is always measured on the subcarrier (Per RE)

• RSRP Threshold is very important parameters for the RF predictions using Atoll tool
which will be discussed in the second part

• Cell Radius would be calculated from the MAPL using the Standard Propagation Model
(SPM)

• SPM will be made specific for the deployment scenario – Different for different
morphologies & Clutter and different city wise as well

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Defining Propagation Model (1/2)

SPM is based on the following formula:

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Defining Propagation Model (2/2)

The following tuned models are available for use in as part of the LTE design process.

• Dense Urban
• Dense Urban (Vegetation or High Rise)
• Dense Urban (Vegetation and High Rise) • These models are defined for the
• Medium Urban cities which are outside the top 10
• Medium Urban (Vegetation or High Rise)
cities
• Medium Urban (Vegetation and High Rise)
• Sub Urban
• Sub Urban (Vegetation) • Different Models are used for top
• Sub Urban (High Rise) 10 Metro cities
• Rural
• Rural (Vegetation)

DU High DU High MU High MU High


Co- SU SU Rural
DU vegetation Or vegetation MU vegetation vegetation SU Rural
efficients (vegetation) (High Rise) (Vegetation)
High rise & High Rise Or High rise & High Rise
K1 10.31 10.31 10.31 10.31 10.31 10.31 10.31 10.31 10.31 10.31 10.31
K2 48.4 49 49.4 48 48.7 49.2 46.2 47.1 48.5 42.26 43.7
K3 5.83 5.83 5.83 5.83 5.83 5.83 5.83 5.83 5.83 5.83 5.83
K4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
K5 ‐6.55 ‐6.55 ‐6.55 ‐6.55 ‐6.55 ‐6.55 ‐6.55 ‐6.55 ‐6.55 ‐6.55 ‐6.55
K6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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Significance of Fading Margin & Interference
Margin in Link Budget

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Types of Wireless Communication Channel

There are mainly two types of Wireless Communication Channel

➢ Noise Limited Wireless Channel

 Wireless Local loop (WLL) is an example of Noise Limited Channel


 Channel where interference is minimal and main losses are governed by the
Noise of the RX and FSL

➢ Interference Limited Wireless Channel


 Cellular system is an example of Interference Limited wireless channel
 Interference will come from the neighboring BS which predominates and Noise
mayn’t be a bottleneck for this kind of channel

➢ Multipath will be common for both types of channel. Therefore Fading Margin is
required for both channel

➢ Interference Margin is only required for second type of channel where interference
is playing key role. It is not required for Noise limited wireless channel

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Fading due to Multipath

Multipath propagation due


to:

• Reflection

• Refraction

• Detraction

• Scattering

• Mobility of either
transmitter or receiver or
surrounding objects

Multipath will create constructive


and destructive interference

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Important Mechanism in Radio Wave Propagation
- Reflection (1/2)
 Radio waves may be reflected from
various substances or objects they
meet during travel between the
transmitting and receiving units
 The amount of reflection depends on
the reflecting material.
 Smooth metal surfaces of good
electrical conductivity and size having
more than one wavelength (1λ) are
efficient reflectors of radio waves

 The surface of the Earth itself is a fairly good reflector.


 It will create the phase shift in reflected wave --create constructive or destructive interference at
receiver end
 Reflections will create multiple paths – Cause of Small Scale Multipath Fading
(will discuss later about Fading)

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Important Mechanism in Radio Wave Propagation
- Reflection (2/2)

• Example of the reflection


• Ground reflection will change 180 Degree phase shift and attenuate the signal

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Important Mechanism in Radio Wave Propagation
- Refraction

➢ Refraction is the change in direction of a wave due to a change in its transmission


Medium
➢ Propagation wave impinges on an object which is large as compared to wavelength
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Important Mechanism in Radio Wave Propagation
- Defraction
➢ Radio path between transmitter and receiver obstructed by surface with sharp
irregular edges (small wavelength)
➢ Waves bend around the obstacle, even when LOS (line of sight) does not exist

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Important Mechanism in Radio Wave Propagation
- Scattering

Rough surface will scattered more power and hence add more attenuation of energy

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Two Ray Propagation Model (1/2)

Above figure shows a fixed tower (e.g. in a cellular system) at a height hb, and a client device at a distance d0, and at a height hm (usually lower)
The figure shows a direct ray and an indirect ray bouncing off the ground, assumed to be a perfect plane.

It is easy to see from this figure that the two path lengths are:

The received signal at a distance d is therefore:


0

where λ = c∕f is the wavelength, τ is the time difference between the two paths, and Γ is the ground reflection
coefficient
Two Ray Propagation Model (2/2)

Above figure shows Simple propagation models:


(a) free-space one-slope direct line of sight,
(b) Two-ray with direct ray and ground reflected ray. In some places signal add constructively, in others
phase differences cause deep fades
Long Term Fading and Short Term fading

Long term
fading

Short term
fading

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Part B:
RF Planning Process to prediction Results in
Atoll

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ATOLL – Basic Work Flow

ATOLL is automatic RF planning tool which Atoll is used for wireless network design for various communication technologies like
GSM/GPRS, CDMA, UMTS, LTE, Wi-Fi etc and supports wireless operators throughout the network lifecycle, from initial design to
densification and optimization.

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ATOLL – Getting Started

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ATOLL- Geo Explorer Setting

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ATOLL – Geo explorer Setting

• User can import the geographical data in this section

• DTM(Digital Terrain Model) shows the terrain height data

• Various clutter type and their respective indoor losses are


defined under Clutter Class

• Three zones are defined as per planning


1. Filtering Zone: define boundaries for required sites

2. Computation zone: define areas for coverage calculation

3. Focus Zone: define boundaries for extracting statistical report

(Figures shows example of Vellore City)

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ATOLL- Parameter Explorer Setting

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ATOLL – Parameter explorer Setting

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ATOLL- Network Explorer Setting

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ATOLL – Network explorer Setting (1/2)

Site Table

Transmitter Table

Cell Table

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Transmitter Table

Below parameters are required to add in this table:


1. Site ID
2. Transmitter ID (Alpha,Beta, Gamma)
3. Antenna Height Intra-Network: With this setting, a transmitter is treated
4. Mechanical and Electrical Tilt both as a server and an interferer
5. Antenna Azimuth Inter-Network : With this setting, a transmitter is treated as
6. Antenna Type an interferer only (e.g. Femto HeNB, cross border
7. Propagation Model coordination,…)
8. Transmitter Type Recommended Setting : Intra-Network
9. No of transmitter and receiver ports
10. Transmission and receptionr loss
11. Noise Figure
12. Main calculation radius (default-5000m)

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Cell Table

Below parameters are required to add in this table:


1. Band These fields define the difference in energy of
2. Physical Cell ID allocation a resource element belonging to SS / PBCH /
3. Power Level (RS EPRE, SS EPRE, PBCH EPRE, PDCCH EPRE, PDSCH EPRE) PDSCH / PDCCH with respect to energy of a RS
resource element. This will directly impact on
4. TDD Subframe configuration ( for RJIL network:config-2 DSUDD) RSRP prediction.
5. Transmit and receive diversity
6. Traffic Load (DL and UL) Traffic load percentage will significantly impact the load
7. Reception equipment dependent metrics like RSRQ, PDSCH SINR, PUSCH SINR etc
8. Maximum no of users (Recommended -75% for DL and 50% for UL)

defines the maximum number of simultaneously connected


users supported by the cell. Recommended to set 600 so
that scheduler will not be saturated and reject further users.

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Prediction Setting

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Example: Vellore City RF Planning through ATOLL

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LTE eNodeB Specifications and RF Planning

Target City Area to be covered : 55.65(Sq.KM)


Total no. of sites (Planned): 64
Band: 2300-2400MHz
Bandwidth: LTE-20MHz (TDD)
Antenna Type: 17dBi Gain, 65° HBW, 7° VBW
Antenna Height: 25m (typical)
Mechanical Tilt: 0° - 4 °
Azimuth: 0-360° (Typically Alpha- 0°, Beta-120°, Gamma-240°)
Transmit power/port: 43dBm
Transmit Port: 2
Receive Port: 2
Propagation Model: 9-cities DU for Dense Urban Morphologies
9-cities MU for Medium Urban Morphologies
9-cities SU for Suburban Morphologies
9-cities RU for Rural Morphologies
RSRP Threshold: -112.9dBm for Dense Urban areas
-113.9dBm for Medium Urban areas
-114.3dBm for Suburban areas
-114.8dBm for Rural areas

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Defining Morphologies
Below plots shows how morphologies help to define actual environment which is required
to assign the respective propagation model to each site/transmitter

Actual Environment

Clutter Classification

Morphologies defined
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RSRP Coverage Prediction across Vellore City

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RSRP Threshold calculation through Link Budget

Downlink Uplink
Dense Assumption Dense urban Urban Suburban Rural
Assumption Urban Suburban Rural
urban
Channel Model Ped Ped Ped Ped Channel Model Ped Ped Ped Ped
Desired cell edge PHY data PHY data rate @ edge kbps 256 256 256 256
kbps 2048 2048 2048 2048
rate
Used resource blocks value 94 94 94 94 Used resource blocks value 24 24 24 24
MCS 3 3 3 3 MCS 4 4 4 4
TB size bits 5544 5544 5544 5544 TB size bits 1736 1736 1736 1736
BS - Tx Parameters UE - Tx Parameters
BS output power dBm 46.0 46.0 46.0 46.0 UE output power dBm 23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0
Power per resource block dBm 26.0 26.0 26.0 26.0 Power per resource block dBm 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2
BS feeder + jumper losses dB 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 UE antenna gain dBi 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Tx antenna gain dBi 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 EIRP per resource block dBm 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2
EIRP per resource block dBm 42.5 42.5 42.5 42.5 BS - Rx Parameters
UE - Rx Parameters Thermal noise density dBm/Hz -174.0 -174.0 -174.0 -174.0
Thermal noise density dBm/Hz -174.0 -174.0 -174.0 -174.0 Noise bandwidth dB-Hz 52.6 52.6 52.6 52.6
Noise bandwidth dB-Hz 52.6 52.6 52.6 52.6 Thermal noise power dBm -121.4 -121.4 -121.4 -121.4
Thermal noise power dBm -121.4 -121.4 -121.4 -121.4 BS noise factor dB 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5
UE noise factor dB 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 Rx noise floor dBm -117.9 -117.9 -117.9 -117.9
Rx noise floor dBm -114.4 -114.4 -114.4 -114.4 Required SNR dB -6.3 -6.3 -6.3 -6.3
Required SNR dB -2.0 -2.0 -2.0 -2.0 Rx sensitivity dBm -124.2 -124.2 -124.2 -124.2
Rx sensitivity dBm -116.4 -116.4 -116.4 -116.4 BS antenna gain dBi 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0
UE antenna gain dBi 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 BS feeder + jumper losses dB 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
Max pathloss unloaded dB 158.9 158.9 158.9 158.9 Max pathloss unloaded dB 149.9 149.9 149.9 149.9
Interference margin dB 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 Interference margin dB 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4
Fading margin dB 10.2 8.7 8.0 7.3 Fading margin dB 10.2 8.7 8.0 7.3
Handover gain dB 4.3 3.8 3.5 3.3 Handover gain dB 4.3 3.8 3.5 3.3
Penetration loss dB 20.0 18.0 15.0 12.0 Penetration loss dB 20.0 18.0 15.0 12.0
MAPL - outdoor dB 149.2 150.2 150.6 151.1 MAPL - outdoor dB 141.6 142.6 143.0 143.5
MAPL - indoor dB 129.2 132.2 135.6 139.1 MAPL - indoor dB 121.6 124.6 128.0 131.5

MAPL - outdoor dB 141.6 142.6 143.0 143.5 Cell Radius m 335 435 725 1980
MAPL - indoor dB 121.6 124.6 128.0 131.5

RSRP Threshold dBm -112.9 -113.9 -114.3 -114.8

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Dense Urban – RSRP Prediction response

70
62.7
60

RF Coverage (% of Focus Zone)


50
eNodeB site
40

30

19.1
20

10 6.2 7
3.6
0.6 0.8
0

Signal Strength
Coverage Hole

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Medium Urban – RSRP Prediction response

45 42.6

40

35

RF Coverage (% of Focus Zone)


30
24.1
25

20
eNodeB site 15
14.8

10 8.5
5.6
5 3.6
0.7
0

Signal Strength

Coverage Hole

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Suburban – RSRP Prediction response

35
31.5
30 28.2

RF Coverage (% of Focus Zone)


25

20 18.7

15

eNodeB site 8.9


10
7.4
4.5
5
0.9
0

Coverage Hole
Signal Strength

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Rural – RSRP Prediction response

45
39.9
40

eNodeB site 35

RF Coverage (% of Focus Zone)


30

25 22
21.5
20

15

10
6.4 6.1
5 3.6
0.6
0
Coverage Hole

Signal Strength

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Downlink Throughput Prediction across the Vellore City

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Downlink Throughput Calculation (1/4)

Three performance curves are setup in Atoll, separately


for the Uplink and the Downlink:
• Bearer Selection-select best bearer
• Quality graph – used to calculate effective throughput
• MIMO gain – represents MIMO gain

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Downlink Throughput Calculation (2/4)

LTE Bearer (Combination of modulation and coding scheme)Table –


which defines bearer index and bearer efficiency (bits per symbol X coding rate)

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Downlink Throughput Calculation (3/4)

Quality Graph

MIMO Gain Graph


Bearer Selection
A bearer is selected for data transfer at a given pixel if the received carrier to interference and noise ratio is higher than
its selection threshold.
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Downlink Throughput Calculation (4/4)

Scheduler Types –
1. Proportional Fair (Recommended) - distributes
resources among users fairly in such a way that, on the
average, each gets the highest possible throughput
2.Proportional Demand - distributes the channel
throughput among users proportionally to the demands
and allocates resources proportional to the demands
3. Round Robin - resources allocated to each user are
either the resources it requires to achieve its maximum • Above graph shows that despite similar PDSCH SINR,
throughput demand or the total amount of resources scheduler algorithms have resulted in significant
divided by the total number of users in the cell, which difference in end user throughput perception
ever is smaller.
• As expected, Max. C/I demonstrated highest
4. Max C/I -tries to achieve maximum aggregate cell throughput with proportional fair being closest
throughput.

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Example – Vellore City LTE eNodeB Planning

Overall Downlink Throughput Prediction response

25.0
22.5
Coverage Hole 20.2 20.2 20.5
20.0

RF Coverage (% of Focus Zone)


15.0
13.1

10.0

5.0
2.2
1.3

0.0

eNodeB site
Downlink Throughput

Non-active site

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Appendix

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LTE Basics
- Cell Search

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LTE Basics
- Cell Search

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UE Measurements (1/4)
- Cell Search

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UE Measurements (2/4)
- Cell Search

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Thank You

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