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Aakash

STUDY PACKAGE – 01

For – JEE / NEET

Laws of Motion

AIEEE Syllabus

Force and Inertia, Newton’s First Law of motion; Momentum, Newton’s

Second Law of motion; Impulse; Newton’s Third Law of motion. Law of

4

CHAPTER

conservation of linear momentum and its applications, Equilibrium of

concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction.

Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force and its applications.

Force is the action of one body upon another. COVERS :

It is a vector quantity with units newton (N). Force

Types of Forces Momentum

Weight : Weight of a body is the force with which earth attracts it. It is also

defined as force of gravity or the gravitational force. Newton’s laws of

Motion

Contact forces : Whenever two bodies come in contact they exert forces on

each other, that are called contact forces. Frame of Reference

(a) Normal reaction (N or R) : It is the component of contact force normal to

Conservation of

the surface. It measures how strongly the surfaces in contact are pressed

together. linear momentum

(b) Frictional force (f ) : It is the component of contact force parallel to the Rocket propulsion

surface. It opposes the relative motion (or attempted motion) of the two

surfaces in contact. Applications of

Newton’s laws of

(c) Tension : The force exerted by the end of a taut string, rope or chain is

Motion

called the tension. The direction of tension is always pulling in nature.

(d) Spring force : Every spring resists any attempt to change its length, the Friction

more you change its length the harder it resists. The force exerted by a

Motion in a

spring is given by F = –kx, where x is the change in length and k is spring

constant or stiffness constant (units N/m). horizontal circle

MOMENTUM

Momentum of a body is defined to be the product of its mass m and velocity v .

It is a vector quantity and is represented by P ,

P mv

It states that a body continues to be in its state of rest or of uniform

motion until and unless it is acted upon by some external force

If F = 0, v = Constant, a=0

i.e. The body opposes any change in its state of rest or of uniform

motion, it is also known as the law of inertia.

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IIT - JEE/NEET Laws of Motion

If three forces P , Q and R action on an object such that forces are concurrent and object is in

equilibrium then

P

Q

R

P Q R

sin sin sin

It states that the net force acting on a particle or a system of particles is directly proportional to the rate

of change of its linear momentum.

dp

Mathematically F

dt

k dp

F where k 1

dt

d

F ( mv )

dt

If the mass of the system is constant, then

dv

F m

dt

F ma

Finst mainst

Fav maav

v f v i

m

t

To every action there is equal and opposite reaction

Mathematically F 12 F 21

Here F12 is force acting on body 1 due to 2 and F21 is force acting on body 2 due to 1.

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Laws of Motion IIT - JEE/NEET

IMPULSE

Impulse of a force is defined as the change of linear momentum imparted to the body

J P2 P1 m(v 2 v1 )

If the body is acted upon by a variable force as shown in figure, then

Impulse acting on the body in the interval t1 to t2

t2

F

J P2 P1 F dt

t1

t

FRAME OF REFERENCE

It is a set of co-ordinate axes with respect to which the position, velocity and acceleration of a particle or a

system of particles can be measured.

There are two types of reference frames:

(a) Inertial frames of reference

If two frames of reference are either at rest or moving with uniform relative velocity, then they are said to

be inertial frames of reference.

All Newton's laws are valid in inertial frames of reference.

(b) Non-inertial frames of reference

Accelerated frames are known as non-inertial frames of reference.

Newton's laws are not valid in non-inertial frames.

Pseudo forces (fictitious forces): It is a slight adjustment which enables us to apply Newton's laws in Non-

inertial frames of reference.

If an observer is into a linearly accelerating non-inertial frame, then in order to use Newton's laws of motion

to explain the behaviour of a particle or a system of particles, a pseudo force is applied opposite to the

acceleration of the observer.

Mathematically, Fpseudo ma

m = mass of the particle

a = acceleration of the observer

General expression for force :

As p mv

d dm md v

F ( mv ) v

dt dt dt

Case - I :

dm

When mass = constant, 0

dt

dv

F m ma

dt

Case - II :

In variable mass system like Rocket propulsion, firing of bullets etc.

Relative speed is constant in these cases

dm

F v

dt

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IIT - JEE/NEET Laws of Motion

According to Newton's third law

dp

fext

dt

If net external force acting on the particle or system of particles is zero then the total momentum of the

particle or system of particles remain conserved.

dp

0 or p constant

dt

1. A block of mass m is at rest in a gravity free space suddenly explodes into two parts in the ratio 1 : 3, if

lighter particle has a speed of 9 m/s just after explosion, then the speed of heavier particle can be

calculated as shown.

p initial 0

p final m 9iˆ 3m v

4 4

p initial p final

m ˆ 3m

0 9i v

4 4

v 3iˆ m/s

2. A man of mass M standing on a frictionless floor, throws a ball of mass m with a speed u as shown in

figure. The velocity of man, after he throws the ball is v

u

p initial 0 M

v m

p final mu iˆ M v

As p initial p final

miˆ

v

M

3. A ball of mass m moving with constant speed of u m/s is caught by man of mass M standing on a

frictionless floor. The velocity acquired by the man is v

u

p initial muiˆ m M

p final ( m M ) v

p initial p final

muiˆ

v

(m M )

4. If a gun of mass M fires a bullet of mass m with speed v, then recoil speed of the gun is given by

V = mv/M.

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Laws of Motion IIT - JEE/NEET

ROCKET PROPULSION

It is an example of variable mass-system.

In a rocket, combustion chamber carries fuel and oxidising agent. When the fuel burns, a hot jet of gases

emerges out forcefully from the small hole in the tail of the rocket.

Let u be the velocity of emerging gases relative to the rocket and (M/t) be the rate of fuel consumption,

then the upthrust on the rocket is F = u (M/t).

Let M0 be the initial mass (rocket + fuel), M and v be the mass and velocity of the rocket at any instant t,

M

then u loge 0

M

1. A machine gun fires n bullet per second with speed u and mass of each bullet is m.

The Force required to keep the gun stationary is

m,u

F nmv

M

2. Bullets moving with a speed v hit a wall

(i) When the bullets come to rest in wall

m

v

Force on wall Fwall = nmv

(ii) When the bullets rebound elastically

Fwall = 2nmv

3. Liquid jet of area A moving with speed v hits a wall

A v

(i) Force required be a pump to move the liquid with this speed is

dm

F v = v × Av = Av2

dt

(ii) As jet hits a vertical wall and does not rebound, the force exerted by it on the wall is, Fwall = Av2

(iii) When water rebounds elastically, Fwall = 2Av2

(iv) For oblique impact as shown, Fwall = 2Av2 cos

Liquid jet

v v

wall

4. The blocks shown are being pushed by a force F. F1, F2 are contact forces between M1 & M2 and M2 &

M3 respectively

a

F M1 M2 M3

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IIT - JEE/NEET Laws of Motion

a

F2

F M3

a FBD of M3 F2 = M3a

M1 M 2 M 3

a

M2

M3 M2 M3

or F2 F , F1 F

M1 M 2 M 3 M1 M 2 M 3

5. The strings are massless. Let T1 and T2 be the tensions in the two strings and ‘a’ be the acceleration.

F M 2 M3 M3 F F T1 T2

a , T1 , T2 M1 M2 M3

M1 M 2 M 3 M1 M 2 M 3 M1 M 2 M 3

L

M F

(a) Mx F Fx

Tx

L M L

x

L

F (L x ) F M

(b) Tx

L

x

L

F1x F2 (L x ) F2 M F1

(c) Tx

L L

x

ceiling T

T

massless

7. M FBD of M w.r.t. ground

T string

M

Mg

T – Mg = 0

(b) System moves up with acceleration ‘a’

T = M(g + a)

(c) System moves down with acceleration a

T = M(g – a)

8. Uniform rope of mass Ms. FBD of lower portion

Tx

x

L

x Ms gx

L

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Laws of Motion IIT - JEE/NEET

M s gx

Tx

L

Ms x

(b) If the rope is accelerating upwards, then T x ( g a)

L

Ms x

(c) If the rope is accelerating downwards, then T x (g a )

L

IMPORTANT PROBLEMS

Pulley mass systems

(i) Stationary pulley massless

M 2 M1 T

a g T

M 2 M1

a M1 a

M1M 2

T 2 g M1 g M2

M1 M 2

M2 g

(ii) Pulley is moving upward with acceleration a0

a0

M1M 2

T 2 (g a0 )

M1 M 2

M M1 ar T

ar 2 (g a0 )

T ar

M 2 M1

a1 M1

a1 = – (a0 + ar)

M1 g M2 a2

a2 = ar – a0

M1 a0

ar = relative acceleration of M1 and M2 w.r.t. pulley M2 g

M2 a0 (pseudo)

a1, a2 are accelerations of M1 and M2 w.r.t. ground.

a a

M1M 2 T T

(iii) T (sin sin )

M1 M 2

M1 M2

M sin M1 sin smooth

a 2 g

M 2 M1

aB

T

(iv)

B

T

T

2T

A aA

MAg

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IIT - JEE/NEET Laws of Motion

2aA = aB …(i)

MAg – 2T = MAaA …(ii)

T = MBaB …(iii)

Two block system :

Case - I :

Let ‘m’ does not slide down relative to wedge ‘M’

The force required is given by a

m F

F = (M + m)g tan

M

a = g tan (in horizontal direction w.r.t. ground)

Wedge

Contact force R between m and M is

smooth

Mg

R

cos

Case - II :

Minimum value of F so that ‘m’ falls freely is given by m F

F = Mgcot

M

Wedge M moves with acceleration = gcot

Wedge

Contact force between M and m is zero. smooth

FRICTION

Friction force is of two types

1. Static frictions ‘fs’

2. Kinetic friction ‘fk’

Static Friction

The static friction between two contact surfaces is given by fs < s N, where N is the normal force between

the contact surfaces and s is a constant which depends on the nature of the surfaces and is called

‘coefficient of limiting friction’.

Static friction acts on stationary objects. Its values satisfy the condition

fs < s N

s – Co-efficient of limiting friction

Static friction takes its peak value (fs(max) = sN) when one surface is ‘about to slide’ on the other. Static friction

in this case is called limiting friction.

It acts on the two contact surfaces only when there is relative slipiry or relative motion between two contact

surfaces.

fk = kN

The relative motion of a contact surface with respect to each other is opposed by a force given by

fk = k N, where N is the normal force between the contact surfaces and k is a constant called ‘coefficient

of kinetic friction’, which depends, largely, on the nature of the contact surfaces.

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Laws of Motion IIT - JEE/NEET

kN v

mg

Static Kinetic

friction friction

Friction

force

45º

fs (max) Applied

force

Graphical representation of variation of friction force

with the force applied on a body

Angle of Repose

Consider a situation in which a block is placed on an inclined plane with co-efficient of friction '' then the

maximum value of angle of inclined plane for which the block can remain at rest is defined as angle of repose.

sN = s mg cos

mg sin mg cos

mg

Case - I :

(a) F (M1 + M2)g ' ' M2

F M1 F

Both blocks move together with same acceleration a

M1 M 2

amax = g Smooth

(b) F > (M1 + M2)g

M2 moves with constant acceleration a2 = g

F M 2 g

M1 moves with acceleration a1

M1

Case - II :

(M1 M 2 )M 2 F M 2

(a) F g , both blocks move together with acceleration a with amax g.

M1 M1 M 2 M1

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IIT - JEE/NEET Laws of Motion

(b) F (M1 M 2 )M 2 g ,

M1 M2 F

M 2 M1

M1 moves with constant acceleration a1 g

M1

Smooth

F M 2 g

M2 moves with acceleration a2

M2

M2 slips forward on M1.

F cos > R R F sin

F

mg

F

cos sin

M F cos

R

mg

Fmin at = tan–1()

2

1

1. If µ tan , the block will remain stationary on the inclined plane; and the frictional force acting on the

block will be equal to mg sin and static in nature

f = mg sin

f

µ

g sin

m

2. If a block slides down an inclined plane with constant velocity, the frictional force acting on the block is

kinetic in nature and is equal to mg sin

f = mg sin

f

v

3. If µ < tan , the block will slide down the plane with acceleration a equal to

a = g sin – µ g cos

Frictional force is kinetic in nature and is given by f = N = mg cos (less than mg sin )

a

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Laws of Motion IIT - JEE/NEET

v

a µ

5. If mg sin exceeds frictional force, the block tends to slide down. The minimum force required to prevent

sliding is Fmin = mg sin – µ mg cos

f

F

sin

mg

6. If you try to push a block up the plane, frictional force and mg sin both opposes the upward motion of

the block, hence, the minimum force required to move up is given by

Fmin = mg sin + µ mg cos

F

sin

f

mg

Note : In case 5-6, if F lies between mg sin = mg cos and mg sin + mg cos , the block

remains stationary on the inclined plane.

Neglecting Gravity

axis

mv 2

O r T = Centripetal force = m2 r

T v r

m

O

Considering gravity (Conical pendulum)

T cos

Tsin = m2r …(1) l

T

Tcos = mg

T sin

mg r C

T …(2)

cos

(a) For to be 90º (i.e., string to be horizontal) mg

T=

It is not possible.

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IIT - JEE/NEET Laws of Motion

T m2 l

l cos

(c) Time period = 2

g

Vehicle negotiating a curve on a banked road

The maximum velocity with which a vehicle can safely negotiate a curve of radius r on a rough inclined road

is

rg ( tan )

v

1 tan

N N cos

N N cos

2

= v /R N cos

f sin

f mg

f sin f sin

f

mg

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