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S
Session
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Lesson Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to:
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• Discuss:
– Realms and realm bridging
– Oracle Communications SBC architecture
– Peering (trunking) and Access deployment best current
practices
– Services: signaling, media, routing, and translation
a b le
r
– Session agents and header manipulation sfe n
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– Global SIP parameters and Media Manager s a
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– Realms, SIP interfaces, and steering
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– Routing policies, header manipulation
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Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 - 2

Lesson Topics

• Topic 1: Realms and Realm Bridging
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• Topic 2: SIP Interfaces
• Topic 3: SBC Media Services
• Topic 4: Routing and Translation
• Topic 5: Session Agents
• Topic 6: Header Manipulation Rules e
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Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 - 3

t r an non – Access-Backbone a ) has ideฺ ฺ c om t Gu l o gic uden v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. z ire ense m lic to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates.Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014.4 . All rights reserved. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ Topic 1: Realms and Realm Bridging • Realms Definition • Realm Bridging Definition e r a bl • Deployment Models: s fe – Peering (SIP trunking) .

and policies that apply to the signaling and media going through them. you configure realms (plus their associated configuration objects) to identify the interfaces. and so on that are defined by an IP address prefix. that contains many parameters that applyhto ) i d eฺ • Is considered as a “Layer 5” definition ฺ c omandt aG“container” u of i c n resources log de v oip is Stu n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. or end-user an population environment. H. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. security parameters. SIP proxies. max sessions and bandwidth. access rules. access rules. enterprise . What Is a Realm? “Ingress Realm” Routing/Interworking “Egress Realm” Decisions Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . number translation. and more… A realm: a b le • Is a collection of VoIP entities residing in one or more networks s f er • Typically maps to a service provider provider. and so on that are statically defined by IP addresses. Signaling and media interfaces. These network devices might be call agents. bandwidth. On the SBC. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ Re-originated Request Request Proxy Signaling and media interfaces. These network devices might also be IP endpoints: SIP phones. max sessions and security parameters. z ire ense a m lic A realm Ris a logical definition of a network or a group of networks made up in part by devices t o nprovide real-time communication sessions composed of signaling messages and Vie that potentially media flows. IADs. and more… number translation. MAs.323 gatekeepers. IP PBXs. It is defined by a configurationn on element a sthea environment. softswitches.5 . All rights reserved. media gateways.t r enterprise. resources.

ent idynamically.” ) a h ideฺ Example: AC. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ Decisions Proxy Realm C Realm B Proxy Realm D Realm bridging is the routing of a signaling message coming from a given a b le ingress realm to a “next hop” in an egress realm.323 stack association. phone number.r an “Local-Policy” or “SIP-NAT” configuration elements. domain. or l local l policy.CA ฺ c om t G u Dynamic bridging: Egress realm can be g i cany. z vi © t2014. VKnowing that and consulting routing policies (or other routing elements). n on s Static bridging: Ingress and egress realms are unconditionally a “paired. and so on) are provided byteither . li Dynamic realm bridging is a one-to-many association accomplished by either dynamic local policy (resolution to the next signaling hop can be based on time-of-day. Realm bridging may be static or dynamic.6 . Realm Bridging Realm A Routing Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. relative cost. depending e n on time-of-day. iplo tud vo his S @ to se t e n uOracle and/or its affiliates. It is very important to remember that the SBC bridging decisions are based solely on information found in the signaling messages—never Layer 3 information. and so on. s f er The routing rules (routes. H. day-of-week. a decision is made as to what will be the egress realm and the next hop in it. Layer 3 is always assumed available and transparent. (Copyright o m ire ense The goalR a licCommunications SBC is to bridge realms either statically or of the Oracle o When a SIP message is received. All rights reserved. the SBC determines what realm it came from. called number. Static realm bridging is a one-to-one association accomplished by using SIP-NAT bridge (legacy configuration). Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . and so on) or third-party routing/redirect. URI.

high cost of ownership ) • TDM channels are very expensive compared ฺ c om tot G u LAN/WAN-equivalent bandwidth. lic (run by PSTN carriers) have provided the connectivity needed so a TDM networks e that to end users in isolated environments can communicate and service providers can nVoIP V i extend their reach to VoIP enterprises and offer services such as IVR. l o gic uden Security and SLA is addressed obyip the PSTNSt service provider. and IM. Before Session Border Controllers A PSTN TDM Switch Service Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. All rights reserved. Using PSTN services and their related issues often made this connectivity expensive and sometimes infeasible. voicemail. @ v his n t o e t e vi © t2014.t r • VoIP-PSTN gateways and the likely need to transcodentwiceo a • has ideฺ Limited number of channels. z (Copyright o m ire ense R Traditionally. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ SIP TDM Channels Provider PBX & PSTN GW Enterprise IP Services Provider or Enterprise TDM Channels B PSTN H.323 Service PBX Provider TDM Switch & PSTN GW ble fer a an s Issues in using g PSTN services to connect VoIP “islands”: n . s uOracle and/or its affiliates. Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 .7 .

o i plo Stu @ v his n t o e t e vi © t2014. SLA.8 . Eliminating PSTN Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. denso on.323 PBX le Using IP networking provides: f erab • Simpler and very flexible deployment a n s n -t r • Lower cost and less dependency n o a s applications • Better usage of bandwidth and a wealth of ) hanewi d eฺ ฺ c om tsessions Using an SBC will add the necessary security. All rights reserved. G u and gic and resources control. QoS monitoring. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ SIP PBX Enterprise or IP SD Services Provider Enterprise IP Network H. s uOracle and/or its affiliates. z (Copyright o m ire ense Ra lic nto Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 .

Peering Model Enterprise End users are locally Service Provider Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014.9 . no EP registrations requests e r a bl s fe . Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ registered here. SIP Servers Registrar g Internal Calls Trunked calls. All rights reserved. s uOracle and/or its affiliates. z (Copyright o m ire ense R The Peering a model islicgenerally characterized (and there are some exceptions) by the fact that noe to nREGISTER requests traverse the SBC.t r an SIP SIPn no Servers Servers a ) has ideฺ ฺ c om t G u Service Provider g i c e n Service Provider o i plo Stud @ v his n t o e t e vi © t2014. V i This model is commonly configured in an SBC that resides between realms: Service provider  Service provider Service provider  Its point-of-presence Service provider  Served enterprise Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 .

Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ Realm A: End Users Realm C: Service Provider Register SIP Server Realm B: End Users Registrar ble fer a an s n . z ire ense m amodel islicgenerally characterized by the fact that endpoints send REGISTER R The Access e nto to a registrar that resides in a different realm.t r Calls End users are registered a no registrar. All rights reserved.10 . requests i V This model is normally configured in an SBC that resides between realms: Service provider  Served end-user population Enterprise  Remote worker population Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. Access-Backbone Model Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. ) has ideฺ at the service provider’s ฺ c om t Gu l o gic uden v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014.

• Flexibility: How resilient the configuration is. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. By eliminating the use of SIP-NAT. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ Peering/Trunking Access/Remote Worker Header Policy-Based Single SIP-NAT Manipulation Rules Realm Bridging Homed in Access Realm Bridging (PBRB) Network (SSNHAN) (HMRRB) ble fer a an s Open-Access Open Access H n Homed. The following aspects. Realm Bridging Models for SIP SIP Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. most versatile.11 . no longer in common use OAI: Suitable for some service providers with geographically distributed points of presence (beyond of the scope of this course) Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . and how adaptable the configuration is when turning up new connected networks (for example) • Scalability: Minimizing redundant configuration objects and setting a template-based foundation to allow overlay configuration with minimal disruption • Compatibility: Working with other popular devices in carriers’ VoIP networks PBRB: Simplest. are abest-practice R Models are e nto when selecting a model: considered i V • e o a ce Minimizing Performance: g tthe e use o of heavier ea e coconfiguration gu at o objects. the SBC reclaims some processing power. in order of priority. to streamline the message flow through the SBC and reduce CPU usage. suc such as S SIP-NAT. All rights reserved.. r Single SIP-NAT t d iin T Trusted t d Internet (OAI) SIP-NAT Bridge Network (SSNHTN) a no (SNB) ) has ideฺ ฺ c om t Gu l o gic uden v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. but not always capable of addressing all issues HMRRB: Most commonly used in peering deployments SNNHTN: Used in many access deployments if HMRs do not work optimally SSNHAN and SNB: Archaic. z ire ense m lic configurations.

there are two recommended models: registration caching and registration proxy. z ire ense m lictwo architectures for H. athere are R As with SIP. Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . Realm Bridging Models for H. The range of dynamic ports for H. Local policy will be used to Vbridge both realms. For the Access architecture.323: Peering and Access. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ Peering/Trunking Access/Remote Worker B2BGK B2BGW ble fer a ans Registration-Caching g g t r Registration-Proxy g n . the SBC will aggregate terminal aliases under a single registration request (RRQ) towards the core gatekeeper (GK). This model allows for 1-to-1 or many-to-1 access/core configurations. y a no ) has ideฺ ฺ c om t Gu l o gic uden v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates.323 H. In this mode. In this mode. and a different callSignallingAddress port is dynamically allocated for each registering endpoint. resembling the Policy-Based Policy Based Realm Bridging SIP configuration.12 . to enrecommended iThe peering configuration is the GW/GW model. Registrations are routed to the core according to the associated stack field of the access h323-stack.245 connections is also defined. Registration caching is the most straightforward configuration and is the preferred mode when handling registrations from IP private branch exchanges (IP PBX). the SBC passes most of the parameters in the RRQ transparently from access to core. When you configure the registration proxy feature by setting the q931 and dynamic ports in the core h323-stack. a unique RRQ is sent to the core GK per endpoint in the access network.323 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. All rights reserved.

168.0/24 a no has ideฺ network-interfaces M00:0 .0. Creating a Realm Configuration Element Unique name Network interface Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates.0. requests coming ฺ c om t Gu from other subnets will l o gic uden be rejected. v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014.0.13 . ) If used. What must be specified are a unique identifier and the nwork V i network-interface that the realm will use. which by default is 0. More than one prefix can be defined (not shown in the slide). Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ that will serve this ACLI Path: media-manager > realm-config realm training(configure)# g( g )# media-manager g training(media-manager)# realm-config training(realm-config)# identifier peer training(realm-config)# network-interfaces M00:0 training(realm-config)# addr-prefix 192.0.168.0 (and which does not filter out any traffic).0/24 bl e training(realm-config)# done fer a realm-config an s identifier peer n ...t r addr-prefix 192. All rights reserved. z ire ense a m lic because (at least initially) the default values of most parameters CreatingR a realm is simple e will to for many configurations. If we want to reject traffic that comes from sources that have specific IP addresses (or IP address range) we can modify the address prefix.

z ire ense a m lic to R Vien Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . net.14 . int. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ Realm_a Realm_b Realm_c Realm_d Realms net.-int. All rights reserved.-int. M00:0 net. net. net.-int. int. l o gic uden v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. int. M00:100 net.t r a no The SBC configuration is very flexible: A) realm has idcan eฺ use a dedicated network-interface or share ฺ c oamnetwork t G u interface with other realms.-int. int. M10:0 Network Interfaces M00:0 M00:100 M10:0 ble Physical Interfaces M00 M10 fer a an s n . M00:0 net. Configuration Elements View Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. net. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates.

Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ VoIP networks. .t • True___ False ___ n on a ) h ideinฺ the other In the peering model. All rights reserved. Quiz A realm is a set of resources and definitions applied to a collection of Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. (Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. ble • True___ False ___ fer a an s p realms can be directly Multiple y bound to a single g p physical y r interface. ฺ c om t Gu o g ic den • True___ False ___ ip l tu @ vo his S e n to se t vi © t2014. a SIP device must be registered as realm. • True___ False ___ Different IP subnets can be within the same realm. z ire ense m lic to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . realm • True___ False ___ Realm bridging is based on Layer 3 (IP) decisions.15 .

. ble • True___ False ___  sfer a p realms can be directly Multiple y bound to a single g p physical y r an interface.16 . (Copyright o m ire ense Ra lic nto Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 .t on • True___ False ___  a n as ) h ideinฺ the other In the peering model. Quiz A realm is a set of resources and definitions applied to a collection of Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. a SIP device must be registered realm. realm •  True___ False ___ Realm bridging is based on Layer 3 (IP) decisions. All rights reserved. z vi © t2014. ฺ c om t Gu o g ic den • True___ False ___ ip l vo tu i s S @ to se t h e n uOracle and/or its affiliates. •  True___ False ___ Different IP subnets can be within the same realm. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ VoIP networks.

Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ ble fer a ans n .17 . z ire ense m lic to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . All rights reserved.t r a no ) has ideฺ ฺ c om t Gu l o gic uden v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. Practice Practice 1: Configuring Peer and Core Realms Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014.

Topic Summary • Realms are: Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. z ire ense m lic to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . ) h a ฺ ide om t Gu ฺ c l o gic uden v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014.t r an n on • A realm is bound to a network-interface. sThat a network- interface may serve more realms. p enterprise)) – Isolated from each other • “Realm bridging” requires deciding what the egress realm and the next-hop in it will be. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ – Networks subject to a predefined set of rules and limitations – Environments that mapped to business entities (SP.18 . All rights reserved. b le f er a • The main deployment categories are Peering and Access. Backbone . s Backbone.

Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014.19 .t r a no ) has ideฺ ฺ c om t Gu l o gic uden v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. z ire ense m lic to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . All rights reserved. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ Topic 2: SIP Interfaces • Virtual Signaling Interfaces ble fer a ans n . Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates.

The sip-config Configuration Element The sip-config element: Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014.20 . z vi © t2014. single-instance. f er state enabled . All rights reserved. nat-mode o i d pl Stu o v his t o @ e t e n s uOracle and/or its affiliates. RTC element Default value ACLI Path: session-router > sip-config Default value: training# show running sip-config The SBC acts ab le sip-config s as a B2BUA. (Copyright o m ire ense Ra lic nto Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 .t r an operation-mode dialog n onDefault value: dialog-transparency enableds a The SBC will home-realm-id ) a backbone ฺ h ide NOT change egress-realm-id ฺ c om t Gu the call-id g i c Publice n header field. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ • Must be created in order for the SBC to handle SIP • Is a global.

z (Copyright o m ire ense R a lic to Vien Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . All rights reserved. a n ) h as eฺ The SIPD is the B2BUA application responsible c o m Guidfor most of the SBC’s signaling behavioral features. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ Edge SIPD Edge Proxy Process Proxy Function (B2BUA) Function Media Media NAT/Relay NAT/Relay Function Function bl e fer a a n s The Edge Proxy Function is the SIP protocol stackoand n r -t makes the SBC look like a SIP proxy. s uOracle and/or its affiliates. g i cฺ ent o i plo Stud @ v his n t o e t e vi © t2014.21 . SIP Edge Proxy Function and B2BUA Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014.

SIP Interface Realm Realm Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. ports. and various SIP processing G u l o gic uden A realm can only have one sip-interface. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. d eฺ ฺ c om t policies protocols. p t oi is S v n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ SIP Signaling SIP Signaling Messages Messages The sip-interface: • Is the SBC’s Edge Proxy Function a b le s f er • Receives and transmits SIP signaling massages ran o n -t • Provides a service pipe to the SIP daemon (sipd)n a ) has itransport • Defines SIP signaling IP addresses.22 . z ire ense m lic to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 .

168.. sip-port address 192.. ble sip-port fer a address 192.0. ) always m Manyuother parameters that nat-traversal 30 cฺc o fine t Gtune the sip-interface nat-interval i g ude behavior. TLS transport-protocol UDP tls-profile Multiple sip-port subelements can allow-anonymous all be defined in one sip-interface. z ire ense m lic to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 .11 Default value: UDP port 5060 Other values: TCP.23 . sip-interface Key Parameters ACLI Path: session-router > sip-interface Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. n registration-caching p loenabled .11 an s port t transport-protocol t t l 5061 TLS n . All rights reserved..0. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ sip-interface state Default value enabled Uniquely identifies the realm-id access1 sip-interface by referring description to the realm it serves.t r tls-profile prof1 a no has ideฺ allow-anonymous all . Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates.. v o is St i n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014.168.

Configuration Elements View SIP Interfaces realm-id Realm_a realm-id Realm_b Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014.24 . M10:0 Network Interfaces M00:0 M10:0 ble Physical Interfaces M00 M10 fer a ans n . All rights reserved.-int.uOracle s and/or its affiliates. M00:0 net. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ Realm_a Realm_b Realms net. ( v i e Copyright o ez nse t i r R am lice i e nto V Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 .t r n o A sip-interface can be assigned to only one realm! s a ) ha ideฺ ฺ c om t Gu To see a summary of all existing l o gicsip-interfaces d e n type: oshow S tu ip virtual-interfaces v @ e thi s t o n © 2014.-int.

Signaling Packets Path Admin creates sip-interface and SIP message is parsed. 5 Manager* 8 Packet is sent down to NP. X86 Host activates configuration. 3 A “key” is built from Transcoding bl e source address and DSPs fer a port. (Copyright o m ire ense Ra lic nto Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 .t r Processor 4 Table* Network a Processor no ) h as eฺ m Guid Key is looked up. All rights reserved. andd L5 protocol. Module sent to Traffic Manager. 1 7 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. destination Lookup an s address and port. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ Host Section Media Section Packet sent to host through a queue. A lookup processed. o i v his t o @ e t e n s uOracle and/or its affiliates. received. z vi © t2014. plo Stud packet sent to NP. t l Network n . If no entry is 2 9 A L2 frame is c o found or source not permitted. rewritten and table entry is created. PHY Packet sent out. 6 Packet is forwarded Traffic to Traffic Manager.25 . IP PHY then packet g is i cฺ ent discarded.

When dialog-transparency is set to disabled.26 . Providing policies for SIP processing _____ . om How are a specific realm and a sip-interface ubound together? ฺc nt G c _______________________________________________ i i p log tude @ vo his S e n to se t vi © t2014. Providing a service pipe to the SIP daemon _____ r a bl s fe d. Re-originating SIP messages _____ e c. Which of the following are SIP Interface functions? a.t r an 5. no signaling How can a specific sip-interface be made to support n a has ideฺ over TCP and UDP at the same time? _____________________ ) 6. All rights reserved. How does the sip-interface p handle media p packets? ________ 4. Which global element must exist so that the SBC can handle Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ SIP? _________________________ 2. (Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. z ire ense m lic to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . Sending and receiving SIP signaling _____ b. Quiz 1. Call-IDs will ____ 3.

How does the sip-interface sip interface handle media packets? It________doesn doesn’t! t! 4. Which global element must exist so that the SBC can handle sip-config SIP? _________________________ Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. Sending and receiving SIP signaling Y _____ b. How can a specific sip-interface be made to support n on signaling over TCP and UDP at the sameha sa ฺ time? _____________________ By creating two sip-ports o m ) u ide How are a specific realm and i a c ฺc nt G bound together? sip-interface 6. Providing policies for SIP processing Y _____ . Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ 2.27 . i p log tude _______________________________________________ o sS By the realm-id in thevsip-interface @ e thi t o n © 2014. All rights reserved. Which of the following are SIP Interface functions? a.t r an 5. When dialog-transparency is set to disabled. ( v i e Copyright o ez nse t i r m lice to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 .uOracle s and/or its affiliates. Re-originating SIP messages N _____ a b le c. Quiz 1. Providing a service pipe to the SIP daemon _____ Y s f er d d. Call-IDs will ________ change 3 3.

All rights reserved. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ • Configuring a SIP Interface and a SIP Port for the Peer Realm • Configuring a SIP Interface and a SIP Port for the Core Realm Tip: Once a sip-interface exists the SBC is potentially able to receive SIP requests. Practice Practice 2: Configuring SIP Interfaces Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. The general command is fer a n s show sipd <method>. In order to verify that an INVITE request has been a b le received. type: show sipd invite. t r - n on s a ) a h ideฺ ฺ c om t Gu l o gic uden v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014.28 . Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. z ire ense m lic to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 .

. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ – Receives and transmits SIP signaling massages – Provides a service pipe to the SIP daemon (sipd) – Defines SIP signaling IP addresses. Topic Summary • The sip-interface is the SBC’s Edge Proxy Function and it: Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014.29 . transport protocols. ports. and various SIP processing policies • A realm can only have one sip-interface. All rights reserved. • Incoming IP packets containing SIP messages will be a b le discarded unless a sip-interface with a matching IP sfe r address and port exists exists. z ire ense m lic to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 .t r an n no a ) has ideฺ ฺ c om t Gu l o gic uden v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014.

Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates.Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. r an n no a ) has ideฺ ฺ c om t Gu l o gic uden v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. z ire ense m lic to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 .30 . All rights reserved. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ Topic 3: SBC Media Services • Media Proxy Function • Media Manager and Its Configuration le a b • Steering Pool and Its Configuration s f er • RTP Session Session-Based t Based Call Admission Control .

Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ Edge Edge SIPD Proxy Proxy Application Function Function Media Media NAT/Relay NAT/Relay Function Function bl e fer a a n s Provides network address and port translation (NAPT) n r -t of media o n going out to (RTP) packets coming from the ingress realm aand the egress realm.31 . All rights reserved. Media Proxy Function Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. z ire ense a m lic to R Vien Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . ) has ideฺ ฺ c om t Gu l o gic uden v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014.

othe t Gu Packet received.32 . All rights reserved. NP. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. the packet is m ) i d 6 A L2 frame is ฺ c discarded. destination Lookup a n s address and port. Module 1 Host Section Media Section Packet NATed and 5 Traffic forwarded to other network processor. v oip is Stu n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. z ire ense m lic to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . and L5 protocol Network Table** n -t r (expected to be Processor 4 o Network n RTP). SDP Offer and SDP Answer. Otherwise. IP packet sent to PHY NAPT. s a Processor Key is looked up.lo g ic data dforen entry will supply PHY sent out. Media Packets Path Using information in the steering-pool X86 Host configuration. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. If no entry isha eฺ 2 found. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ lookup table entries are created. Manager* 3 A “key” is built from Transcoding ble source address and DSPs fer a port.

Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. HNT RTCP determines whether support of RTCP in the SBC is enabled when it performs hosted NAT traversal. ACLI Path: media-manager > media-manager-config training(media-manager-config)#show media-manager Default value state enabled ble latching enabled fer a flow-time-limit 86400 n s Default value. latching. timers. z ire ense a m liisc where media-related characteristics. RTC element • Defines media handling state. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ • Is a global. R The media-manager to shaping behaviors are configured.33 . e and i ntraffic V Media latching determines how the SBC reacts to dynamic media flows. HNT. timers. Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . traffic shaping and so on shaping. The media-manager-config Element The media-manager element: • Must be created in order for the SBC to handle media Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. RTP source initial-guard-timer subsq-guard-timer subsq guard timer 300 300 f from the fi nt - th first trapacket IP address will be taken … … rather n o from SDP k t than RTP hnt-rtcp disabled s a body. When enabled. algd-log-level mbcd-log-level NOTICE NOTICE ) a h ideฺ om t Gu … … media-policing ic ฺ c enabled n max-untrusted-signaling og 100 de max-signaling-bandwidth 10000000 l … … v oip is Stu n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. single-instance. such as media latching. All rights reserved. the SBC will “lock down” a flow upon receipt of the first RTP packet at an allocated media port.

The steering-pools Configuration Element Realm Realm Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014.34 . (Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. will indicate to the device to send media there. i V defined by a steering pool. @ vo his S e n to se t vi © t2014. through the SDP body. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ SIP signaling Messages SIP signaling Messages RTP Traffic RTP Traffic The steering-pool: • Is the SBC’s media interface (for a given realm) • Receives and transmits RTP packets a b le s f er • Defines a media IP address and a pool (range) of ports from . Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . When the SBC is communicating with a device in a specific realm another.t r an which hi h port(s) t( ) are dynamically d i ll allocated ll t d for otnbli h d f every established n session s a • Provides call admission control (CAC) by ) a hsetting ea ฺlimit of i d sessions going into and out of acrealm ฺ c om t Gu o g i d e n A realm can have more than one l tu ip steering-pool. All rights reserved. z ire ense a m licsets of ports that are used for steering media flows from one realm to SteeringRpools define e nto through the SBC. it will use the steering pool’s IP address and a port number (from the pool of ports) and.

0.168. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ Ports 30000.11 172. In some cases.t r m=audio 6540 RTP/AVP 0 101 a no ) h as eฺ In the rewritten SDP body. Media is said to be “released” by the SBC.11 m=audio 20008 RTP/AVP 0 101 SDP Answer in 200 OK ble Rewritten SDP Answer fer a c=IN IP4 192.0.uOracle s and/or its affiliates.100 an s m=audio m audio 30002 RTP/AVP 0 101 n . where we do not wish to control V the media.11 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. How Is Media Steered to the SBC? Steering Pool: Steering Pool: 192. All rights reserved.35 . Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 .0. Ports 20000- 30999 20999 Realm A Realm B SDP Offer in INVITE Rewritten SDP Offer c=IN IP4 192.16. ( v i e Copyright o ez nse t i r Media isR am ice “steered” tol flow through the SBC rather than directly between the media endpoints.0.16.101 m=audio 5062 RTP/AVP 0 101 c=IN IP4 172.11 c=IN IP4 172.0. the SBC will not rewrite the SDP body and media will flow directly between the media endpoints.16.168. e This i ntisothe way the SBC will control media. the SBC replaces: c o m Guid • The original IP address with the i ฺ csteering n t pool’s IP address l o g d e • The original port with a o ip allocated port S tu from the pool v @ e thi s t o n © 2014.0.168.

Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. above a second steering pool can be created where the realm-id is nsteering V i also peer1.168. the IP address might be the same but the port range will be different (and non-overlapping). In the second steering pool.36 .168. Steering Pool Configuration A steering-pool must be assigned to every realm in which media is handled by the SBC (most common case). of-course. Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . 2009-11-04 m the G ouses 18:24:41 i u network-interface training(steering-pool)# exit pool ฺ c c byethen realm. conform to that network-interface subnet. For example. Another possibility is that in the second steering-pool a different network-interface will be specified. network-interface The network-interface used by the last-modified-by admin@console ) h d e ฺ the steering- last-modified-date steering-pool. s uOracle and/or its affiliates. in addition to configure more e the to pool shown.0.t r realm-id peer1 a no aIf sleft blank. The ip-address should.11 192 168 0 11 training(steering-pool)# start-port 20000 training(steering-pool)# end-port 20999 Media IP address training(steering-pool)# realm-id peer training(steering-pool)# done Range of UDP ports bl e steering-pool ip-address 192. z (Copyright o m ire ense One canR a lic than one steering pool for a given realm.11 fer a start-port 20000 an s The realm served by this end-port end port 20999 steering-pool steering pool n . t same giused o i p l o S tud @ v his n t o e t e vi © t2014.0. All rights reserved. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ ACLI Path: media-manager > steering-pool training(media-manager)# steering-pool training(steering pool)# training(steering-pool)# ip-address ip address 192.

Configuration Elements View

SIP Interfaces realm-id Realm_a realm-id Realm_b
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

Steering Pools realm-id Realm_a realm-id Realm_b

Realm a
Realm_a Realm b
Realm_b
Realms
net.-int. M00:0 net.-int. M10:0

Network Interfaces M00:0 M10:0
ble
fer a
ans
Physical Interfaces M00 M10
n - t r
a no
) has ideฺ
A steering pool can only be assigned
ฺ c om to one
t G u
realm.
A realm can have more than lone o gicsteering d e n pool.
v oip is Stu
n t o@ se th
( v ie © t2014,
Copyright
o uOracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
z
ire ense
m lic layered configuration diagram includes the elements shown for each
a the basic,
R
At this point,
o
ent Note that the sip-interface and the steering-pool are pictured at the same “level”
irealm.
Vbecause both are directly bound to a specific realm.

Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 - 37

Steering Pool–Based Call Admission Control

The steering pool size limits the maximum number of concurrent calls
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ

(incoming + outgoing) in a realm.
A call can “consume” two or four UDP ports.
• Port allocation:
– One for two voice RTP streams
– One for two voice RTCP streams
– One for two video RTP streams
bl e
– One for two video RTCP streams
fer a
• Example: At a given moment, in a specific realm, the active
a n scalls
t r
are: on- n
– 300 voice calls 600 ports allocateds a
– 500 voice/video calls
a
h ideฺ
2000 ports )allocated
– The realm’s steering pool shouldฺ c omat tleast
have G u
2600 ports!
ic n
i p log tude
@ vo his S
e n to se t
vi © t2014,
(Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
z
ire ense
m lic pools can provide call admission control based on the number of
a of steering
R
Proper planning
e nto calls. For an environment that mainly supports voice (not video), it can be
concurrent
i
V assumed that each established call will take two ports (one for RTP and one for RTCP) out of
the realm’s steering pool, plus two more from the other realm’s steering pool. Thus, the
steering pool can determine the maximum number of concurrent calls going into or out of a
realm.

Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 - 38

Example: Steering Pools and Sessions
Access1
11.120.0.11

RTP
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Backbone
RTCP …
172.16.0.11
1000 UDP ports RTP
Steering Pools
SBC Soft-
Switch
11.160.0.11 … RTCP
RTP
5000 UDP ports

RTCP
… ble
fer a
Access2 2000 UDP ports
ans
Assuming all calls are voice and RTCP is used:
n - t r
• Access1 is limited to 500 calls, and Access2 is limited to 1000 calls.
a no

has ideฺ
Calls between Access1 and Access2 (assuming they are routed through the soft-switch) will
)
only require 1000 ports in the Backbone steering pool. Each such call consumes TWO
sessions out of the licensed number of sessions.
ฺ c om t Gu
• gic uden
Calls between Access1 or Access2 and the “rest of the world” will require 3000 ports in the
l o
oip is St
Backbone steering pool. Each such call consumes ONE session out of the licensed number
of sessions. v
n t o@ se th
( v ie © t2014,
Copyright
o uOracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
z
ire ense
m lic
to Ra
n
Vie

Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 - 39

True c o G g i cฺ ent b. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ configuration elements: a.t r an n The total number of ports in all the SBC’s steering pools oisn related to a the maximum number of licensed sessions. z ire ense m lic to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . you must create the following Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. the SBC will: a.40 . _______________________________________ Steering pool size should be the same in all realms. True s f er b. All rights reserved. ___________ b. ___________ In order to force the media through the SBC. False lo oip is Stud v n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. False . has eฺ m ) uid a. Quiz For the SBC to control media. le a b a.

t r an n The total number of ports in all the SBC’s steering pools oisn related to a the maximum number of licensed sessions. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ configuration elements: media-manager a. Quiz For the SBC to control media. has eฺ m ) uid a. you must create the following Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. True s f er b. False . the SBC will: a. ___________ steering-pools gp In order to force the media through the SBC. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. False lo oip is Stud v n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. le a b a. All rights reserved. z ire ense m lic to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 .41 . ___________ b. True c o G g i cฺ ent b. Modify IP addresses and ports in the SDP body _______________________________________ Steering pool size should be the same in all realms.

Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. n on a ) has ideฺ ฺ c om t Gu l o gic uden v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014.t r an allocated ports. b le f er a • Media is steered (forced) through the SBC by rewriting sthe SDP body using steering pools’ pools IP addresses and . Topic Summary • The SBC media proxy function is responsible for NATing Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. z ire ense m lic to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . All rights reserved. • Steering pools are considered media resources by which the number of concurrent calls in/out of a realm can be limited (CAC).42 . • The media-manager configuration element defines media- related characteristics. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ media between bridged realms.

t r a no ) has ideฺ ฺ c om t Gu l o gic uden v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. Practice Practice 3: Configuring Media Services Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. z ire ense m lic to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 .43 . All rights reserved. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ • Configuring the Media Manager • Configuring a Steering Pool for the Peer Realm • Configuring C fi i a St Steering i P Pooll ffor th the C Core R Realm l ble fer a ans n .

t r an non a ) has ideฺ ฺ c om t Gu l o gic uden v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014.44 . z ire ense m lic to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Translation • Mechanisms Involved e r a bl • Local Policies s fe . Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ Topic 4: Routing and Translation • Essential Terms: Routing.Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014.

b. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ a. Terminology Routing is: Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. All rights reserved.r an message header fields—also called “Topology n noHiding” s a ) a h ideฺ ฺ c om t Gu *Also called “next hop” l o gic uden v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. where the re-originated SIP request will be sent • Based on information in the SIP message.45 . Identifying a SIP request’s ingress realm. z ire ense a m lic R nto Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . and c Determining the egress realm and the destination* in it c. Applying relevant rules. not Layer 3 info! Translation is: a b le s f er • Changing explicit IP addresses that appear in the tSIP .

B. z ire ense a m lic to R Vien Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. IP:Port) will be replaced by C (translated ฺ c omdst. ans – B iin R Request-URI t URI will ill b be replaced l dbby D D. ble Signaling example: INVITE message fer a – A in Via: and Contact: will be replaced by C. IP:Port).t r – Performed by the B2BUA (sipd) a no Media example: RTP packet embedded in UDP/IP ) has ideฺ – A (src. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ or Media or Media Device Device Media Media Packet Packet Translation means: AB becomes CD in the outgoing message/packet. C. oip is Stu – Performed by the SBC’s media section v n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. l o gichardware – B (dst. n . and D are IP addresses. IP:Port) will be replaced by D (translated d e n IP:Port). t G u src. Translation “For Dummies” Signaling Signaling Signaling A Message B C Message D Signaling Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. A.46 . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. s f er which is older and restrictive. While the SIP-NAT can be still used for routing. Contact. Who Does What? SIPD SIP-NAT* Local-Policy Basic B2BUA Functionality Configuration Element Configuration Element Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014.t r an n n oin Translation required for headers other than those shown a the table s ha (discussed can be achieved using header manipulation rules ) i d eฺ later). it is Vie used recommended to only use it (where necessary) for its translation capabilities. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ Routing No Yes Yes – Static and limited – Very flexible Translation Yes Yes No For Request-URI. For any header Call-ID. . Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates.47 . Via. Route and Record-route only a b le The local policy should be preferred over the SIP-NAT mechanism. Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . z ire ense a m lic There are t o R two key configuration elements that provide routing rules: The most commonly n Local Policy and the older SIP-NAT. ฺ c om t Gu l o gic uden * Explained in a later lesson v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014.

it is of utmost importance to identify the ingress realm for each received request. All rights reserved. Iff that IP address is known as a session- agent.t r an • Matching criteria n on s a a h ideฺeach of • Zero or more “policy-attributes” subelements. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ signaling routing based on: • Ingress realm • Calling and/or called number pattern • Route priority (cost and availability time) • More a b le Multiple local policies can be (and typically are) created. Or… • Looking at the request’s source IP address. ) which defines a “route” ฺ c om t Gu c gi uden l o v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014.48 . that session-agent belongs to the ingress realm looked for. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates.0. If there is only one realm using that network-interface. A local policy created for a specific ingress realm will be looked at whenever a request comes from a device in that realm. If that doesn’t work then… • Looking at the request’s destination IP address.0. In other words. then this is the ingress realm. Each R Several policy-attributes e nto defines a “route” in terms of the next-hop address in a specific egress realm. z ire ense a m lic elements can be configured in one local-policy element. er s f The Local Policyy configuration g element contains: . This IP address is the sip-interface that serves the ingress realm.0 it the route is used to discard messages coming from blacklisted numbers. Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 .323 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. Local Policy The Local Policy mechanism provides SIP and H. The SBC is always able to determine the ingress realm by: • Looking through which network-interface the request arrived. A effectively i V next-hop address can be set to 0.

142 m) h will i d eฺ taken.0. All rights reserved.22. The Local Policy Configuration Element ACLI Path: session-router > local-policy local-policy Matched against number in the From: Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014... The matching The localRpolicy consists e ntoinclude: criteria i V • Ca g add Calling address/number/domain/domain ess/ u be /do a /do a names a es • Called address/number/domain/domain name • Source realm From and To addresses formats can be • SIP From Address (From). v oip is Stu n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014.49 .. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ from-address * to-address 212 617 Matched against number in the Rq-URI source-realm access1 activate-time N/A This local policy will be looked at when deactivate-time N/A a request comes from this realm.. Route start-time 0000 n is available s f tra end-time 2400 days of week days-of-week M-F M F n - cost 0 a nohave different If all routes app-protocol SIP a sbe that costs. with the lowest policy-attribute 10.3.22. SIP Request URI (To) • Domain names • IP Addresses Add • H323 CallingPartyAddress (From) H323 CalledPartyAddress (To) • * (wild card) Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . state enabled policy-priority none policy-attribute Possible destinations for next-hop 122. Route next-hop ฺ c o t Gu realm nonegi alpha-tel c e n action l o d . z ire ense a m lic of matching criteria and zero or more policy attributes.22 the re-originated request realm backbone a b le Times this routeer .

323<->SIP or SIP<->H. fully qualified domain name. When the SBC receives an ingress signaling message and uses local policy to determine the message’s destination. The value is H323 or SIP. Policy attributes specify next-hop selection criteria and characteristics. n t o@ se th ( v ie to u i r ez nse m lice to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . such as: • start-time: The time of day the policy attributes are considered for preference determination • end-time: The time of day the policy attributes cease to be considered for preference Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014.323) if the signaling type does not match the value configured ) ฺ c om t Gu in the app-protocol field. ble or ENUM:<ENUM server> fer a ans • app-protocol: pp p The signaling g gpprotocol used when sending g messages n t r g to the configured . The v default value is 0 0. LRT:<local routing table name>. SAG:<session agent group name>. then this realm field value will take precedence over SIP-NAT. • next-hop: The next signaling host IP address. session- agent’s host name. is egress realm) realm). If traffic is routed using the local policy. it will interwork the signaling between protocols has ideฺ (H. This field represents oip is St the cost of a route relative to other routes reaching the same destination address. g a no next-hop. and the selected route entry identifies an egress realm. policy-attributes Configuration Zero or more policy attributes may be configured as subelements of the local-policy element.50 . l o gic uden • cost: The cost configured for local policy to rank policy attributes. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ determination • days-of-week: The combination of days of the week plus holidays that policy attributes can be considered for preference determination • realm: The realm of the next hop (that is.

With the narrowest time of the day range g i cฺ ent 7.51 . Looks at all routes available at this time. b Looks oo s a at a all LPs s configured co gu ed foro thee ingress g ess realm ea c. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ several local policies are configured. In the LP with the most specific From address match a 5. s uOracle and/or its affiliates. in all remaining LPs e. the SBC: a. All rights reserved. Then selects the route (using this precedence): e 1. Matching media codec . Determines the ingress realm (always possible!) b. z (Copyright o m ire ense Ra lic nto Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . Ignores LPs that have no match to "From" and "To" d. First configured in the LP thatlo o i p has From/To S tud set to * @ v his n t o e t e vi © t2014. With the narrowest day in the week range ) h as eฺ c o m Guid 6. Routing Decision Assuming that an INVITE is received from an ingress realm for which Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014.t r an 3 In 3. With the lowest cost r a bl s fe 2. I the h LP with i h most specific ifi To T address dd match h non 4.

1.2.6.3.2.4.4.6 end-time 2400 c o realm rrr6 days-of-week U-S g i cฺ ent start-time 0000 6 plo Stud cost 3 end-time 2400 o i v his days-of-week M-F cost 5 t o @ e t e n s uOracle and/or its affiliates.5.1 end-time 2400 4 realm rrr1 days-of-week U-S start-time 0000 cost 3 1 end-time 2400 policy-attribute days-of-week M-F next-hop 5.52 . (Copyright o m ire ense Ra lic nto Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . All rights reserved. z vi © t2014.3 source-realm happy_com realm rrr3 ) h policy-attribute 3 m Guid start-time 0000 next-hop 6.6.t r no cost 3 from-address * policy-attribute to-address a * as eฺ next-hop 3.3.4 source-realm happy_com realm rrr4 start-time 0000 policy-attribute next-hop p 1. Quiz: Which route will be selected? Time: Sunday 17:50 a: 2123756814 calls 6175271934 local-policy from-address * b: 2123756814 calls 9783456000 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ to-address 61752 local-policy source-realm happy_com from-address * policy-attribute to-address 212 617 next-hop 4.5 cost 1 realm rrr5 start-time 1600 5 e bl policy-attribute end-time 1800 next-hop realm 2.2 rrr2 days-of-week U-S fer a start-time 0000 2 cost 3 ans end-time days-of-week y 2400 U-S local-policy n .1.5.

3 source-realm happy_com realm rrr3 ) h policy-attribute 3 m Guid start-time 0000 next-hop 6.4 source-realm happy_com realm rrr4 start-time 0000 policy-attribute next-hop p 1.2.1.5. All rights reserved.4.1 end-time 2400 4 realm rrr1 days-of-week U-S start-time 0000 cost 3 1 end-time 2400 policy-attribute days-of-week M-F next-hop 5.1.4.t r no cost 3 from-address * policy-attribute to-address a * as eฺ next-hop 3.5.6.2. Quiz: Which route will be selected? Time: Sunday 17:50 a: 2123756814 calls 6175271934 local-policy from-address * b: 2123756814 calls 9783456000 Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014.3. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ to-address 61752 local-policy source-realm happy_com from-address * policy-attribute to-address 212 617 next-hop 4.2 rrr2 days-of-week U-S fer a start-time 0000 2 cost 3 ans end-time days-of-week y 2400 U-S local-policy n . z vi © t2014.6 end-time 2400 c o realm rrr6 days-of-week U-S g i cฺ ent start-time 0000 6 plo Stud cost 3 end-time 2400 o i v his days-of-week M-F cost 5 t o @ e t e n s uOracle and/or its affiliates.5 cost 1 realm rrr5 start-time 1600 5 e bl policy-attribute end-time 1800 next-hop realm 2.53 . (Copyright o m ire ense Ra lic nto Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 .6.3.

Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ Topic 5: Session Agents • Definition • Benefits e r a bl • Configuration s fe .54 .t r an non a ) has ideฺ ฺ c om t Gu l o gic uden v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. All rights reserved. z ire ense m lic to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 .Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates.

55 . Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. Session-agents are very often used in local-policies as next-hops. ble fer a ans n .g. Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . switch ฺ c om session-agent e. When such a device. All rights reserved. known enthe iand Vas a session-agent. z ire ense m asignalinglicdevice. and softswitches are typical devices that are configured into the SBC as session agents. switch t G u session-agent l o gic uden v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014.t r a no SIP Server SIP Server ) has ideฺ e. typically customer’s equipment. is configured into the SBC. gateways. They will be equally likely to be sources of signaling traffic (“previous hops”). Session Agent: General A session agent (SA): Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014.g. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ • Is an external signaling entity that the SBC interacts with • Is known by the SBC through a corresponding configuration element • Is viewed by the SBC as a more “privileged” device Customer’s proxies. can be made known to the SBC R An external to SBC will view it as more “privileged” than other devices. it is then possible to associate to it several things such as signaling traffic rate limits and constraints and HMRs.

56 . Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ • The SBC can apply constraints on signaling traffic to/from that device • The SBC can apply various translations and header manipulations to signaling messages to/from that device • The SBC can reject incoming signaling messages from other (non-SA) devices (think about security) a b le • It can be used as a next-hop in local policies s f er . All rights reserved. s uOracle and/or its affiliates.t r an • It can be b grouped d with ith other th session i agents n d tto t iinoorder n s a form a single logical entity (think about aredundancy and h ฺ load-balancing) o m ) u ide • More i c ฺc nt G g e o i plo Stud @ v his n t o e t e vi © t2014. z (Copyright o m ire ense Ra lic nto Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . Benefits of a Session Agent Once an external device is configured as a session agent: Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014.

The port parameter represents the UDP/TCP port that the session agent is listening for signaling. The realm-id field signals which realm the session agent belongs to. max-burst-rate 100 ) max-sustain-rate 50 ฺ c om t Gu … l o gic uden v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates.0. The Session Agent Configuration Element ACLI Path: session-router > session-agent Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. which is a SIP or H.57 .t r max-inbound-sessions 0 When constraints are enabled a limits can be applied to these no has ideฺ max-outbound-sessions 200 parameters. This may be set to *.323 signaling element. The transport-method field identifies what OSI Layer 4 transport protocol is going to be used in communicating with the session agent. The app-protocol parameter specifies the signaling application protocol for the session agent.101 port 5060 state enabled app-protocol SIP A session agent is app-type normally associated with transport-method UDP a realm (not mandatory). All rights reserved. i V of a valid next hop. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ session-agent Uniquely identifies this hostname AlphaSwitch1 session agent ip-address 192. z ire ense m lic acts as the unique identifier for the session agent and must be a parameter R The hostname e nto This parameter can also have a value that is the domain name or the IP address configured. The ip-address parameter is the IP address for the session agent if it is identified by a domain name. realm-id peer1 ble … fer a constraints enabled ans max-sessions 500 n .169. to indicate that the session agent may participate in all realms. Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . Session agents may be taken in and out of service by toggling the state field between enabled and disabled.

s f er . • Individual constraints might differ for session agents in the g p group. All rights reserved. i This allows for creation of constructs like hunt groups for application servers V or gateways. Commonly used for load balancing.58 . Session Agent Groups A session agent group (SAG) is a single logical element that Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. Session agent groups are defined and allocation strategies are selected to achieve the desired load balancing. (Copyright o m ire ense a ic A SAG isRa group oflsession agents. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ refers to a group of functionally equivalent session agents. a b le balanced and never sent to a group member that is down. a session agent group can function as a (single logical) next-hop. z vi © t2014. Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . SAG members are logically equivalent and can be used e nto interchangeably. traffic sent to this next hop can be load. You use the session-group element to construct a session agent group. • That way.t r an • The load-balancing load balancing scheme can be set to: on – a Hunt (first SA listed in the group that is responsive) n a s h ideฺ – Round-robin ) ฺ c om t Gu – Least-loaded l o gic uden – More oip v his St t o @ e t e n s uOracle and/or its affiliates.

The session-group Configuration Element Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. if the first agent is offline or if it exceeds any defined constraint. if the first agent is online. The LowSusRate strategy routes traffic to the session agent with the lowest sustained rate of session initiations/invitations. lowsusrate dest bl e AlphaSwitch1 fer a AlphaSwitch2 Session group members an s AlphaSwitch3 n . z ire ense m lic the session agent allocation options for the session-group a field identifies R The strategy e nto Strategies are used to select the session agents that will be made available by this element. For example. the strategy field value is set to Hunt.59 . and LowSusRate. the lowest percent busy) of the session-agent element.407 ) ฺ c om t Gu l o gic uden v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. The Hunt strategy selects session agents in the order in which they are listed. propdist. working. then all traffic is sent to the first agent. the second agent is selected and so on. Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . RoundRobin. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. PropDist. and has not exceeded any of the defined constraints. All rights reserved. By default. The strategy options include Hunt. i V session-group element. leastbusy. The Round Robin strategy makes the SBC send traffic to Sas using round-robin algorithm.t r trunk-group a no has ideฺ sag-recursion disabled stop-sag-recurse 401. The PropDist (Proportional Distribution) strategy proportionally distributes the traffic among all of the available session-agent elements according to their relative performance. LeastBusy. The Least Busy strategy selects the session agent that has the fewest number of sessions relative to the max-outbound-sessions constraint or the max-sessions constraint (that is. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ ACLI Path: session-router > session-group Uniquely identifies this session-group session agent group group-name AlphaSwitches p description Redundant Hunt Load balancing scheme Load-balancing state enabled app-protocol SIP Values are: strategy hunt hunt. roundrobin.

Once configured. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ privileged. header manipulation p rule-sets. z ire ense m lic to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . and traffic rate constraints.60 . sfe n n . Session agents can be grouped into one logical entity. This is the basis for redundancy and load-balancing. Topic Summary Session agents are devices treated by the SBC as more Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. All rights reserved. such as access rules. several mechanisms can be associated with them. which the SBC b le r a can apply for traffic that goes to that group....tra on a ) has ideฺ ฺ c om t Gu l o gic uden v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates.

All rights reserved.61 .Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ Topic 6: Header Manipulation Rules (HMRs) • The sip-manipulation Element in General • Header rules le a b • Element Rules s f er • Examples . Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates.t r an n no a ) has ideฺ ฺ c om t Gu l o gic uden v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. z ire ense m lic to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 .

z ire ense a m lic R nto Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 .” • A rule set contains “header rules”. in any header*. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ extremely powerful tool by which anything. o ic SDP gand d e n body! l v oip is Stu n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. Header Manipulation Rules: General • The header manipulation rules (HMR) mechanism is an Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. Status-line. a no ) has ideฺ ฺ c om t Gu * Including Request-URI. can be manipulated! • HMRs are based on the “sip-manipulation” p p configuration g element.” ble – A header rule “works” on an entire header. fer a a n s – An element rule “works” works on items within a specific t r n-header header. All rights reserved. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. a header rule may contain “element rules.62 . also referred to as a “rule set.

no parameter-name type uri-user a has ideฺ … header-rule ) name my_to_2 ฺ c om t Gu gic uden header-name To action manipulate l o oip is St … v n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. z ire ense a m licconfiguration element is the object also known as an “HMR” or a “rule R The sip-manipulation e ntItocan contain one or more (or many) uniquely named header-rules. The sip-manipulation Configuration Element ACLI Path: session-router > sip-manipulation sip-manipulation Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. which are set.16. Each rule contains an action that can be taken unconditionally or conditionally.100) or name er_2 n . 172. Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ name my-IP-nat Must be unique in the SBC description NATing the To header header-rule name my_to_1 Must be unique within the header-name To sip-manipulation element action manipulate msg-type request new-value element-rule Must be unique within the name er_1 parameter-name header rule type uri-host ble match-val-type new-value ip $REMOTE_IP The new-value can be either a fixed fer a element-rule an s value (for example. All rights reserved.t r a value provided by the SBC through a system variable (very powerful!) powerful!). Each header rule can have none or more (or many) uniquely named element- rules. An element-rule is a subelement in a header-rule.” i V subelements.0.63 . Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. The rules are processed in a one-pass sequence.

the SBC will select the rule-set using the precedence: session-agent. z ire ense m ahas beenlicwritten (and hopefully tested and verified). All rights reserved. realm. the rule can e can i nbe V be applied to traffic that goes to (or comes from) a session agent. If there is more than one rule-set possible (for example. or both. A SIP message can come from a session agent in a given realm through the realm’s SIP interface. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates.64 . or to traffic that goes to (or comes from) a sip-interface that serves a whole group of nested realms. Where Are HMRs Performed? When properly applied. one rule-set is applied to the session agent and another rule-set is applied to the realm). sip-interface. Either way. ble fer a SIP MSG. H/W & S/W SIP Message ans Checks Processing g n . Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . a rule-set acts on SIP messages that Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. or • A realm realm.t r & Rewriting a no HMR ) has ideฺ HMR c o m Gu in-manipulation ic ฺ n t out-manipulation Caution: Likelyl o g to affect d e oip is Stu routingvdecisions!!! n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. it has to be applied. to traffic that goes to (or comes from) a specific realm. or • A sip-interface A rule-set can be applied so it affects either inbound or outbound traffic. A rule R Once a rule toapplied to traffic as it enters the SBC or just before it exits it. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ go through: • A session agent.

• msg-type: Specifies the message type that the header rule applies to. none? fer s comparison-type .t r an msg type msg-type Iff used. In addition to To. match-value ) ha ideฺ new-value Used toฺreplace c om tthe G uheader value upon a match l o gic orudtoedefine n the header value v oipwhenisaSnew t header is added n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. d the h action n n o willll only l methods be taken upon s a a match. delete. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ • Deleting an existing header. • match-value: Indicates the exact value to be matched. The action that you specify is only taken if the header value matches. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. In the case of manipulate. • methods: Specifies which specific methods the header rule applies to (for example. Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . Leaving this field blank indicates all methods. pattern-rule. p . The options are case-sensitive. and boolean. • comparison-type: Specifies the comparison type that the match-value uses. R • header-name: i e ntoContact. All rights reserved. The value any indicates both request and response messages. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. ACK. Header Rule Parameters and Logic A header rule functions on the entire header: • Creating a new header. V • action: As shown. The match value can contain a regular expression when the comparison-type is set to pattern-rule. • Changing the value of a header header-rule name What do we want to do with this header-name header? Add. you can use request-uri and @status-line. z ire ense a m licSpecifies the header to which this rule applies. CANCEL). the real action is defined in a nested element rule. INVITE. store. le a b action manipulate.65 . case-insensitive. and so on. From.

Header Rule Examples sip-manipulation name Remove-header-ex Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. All rights reserved. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ description header-rule name remove_route Removing a header header-name Route action delete msg-type request new-value ble sip-manipulation fer a name Adding-headers-ex ans d description i ti n .66 . z ire ense m lic to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 .t r header-rule a no Adding a header name ) has ideฺ add_subject om t Gu header-name Subject ฺ c action add l o gic uden msg-type request v oip is St new-value “some text” n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014.

tag=b5gcc7edf Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. Element Rule Logic An element rule functions on a specific item that can be: • A parameter Example: . • action: Specifies the action to be applied to the element • comparison-type: Specifies the type of comparison to be used • val type: Specifies the type of value to be matched (IP address) match-val-type: match • match-value: Specifies the value to be matched • new-value: The new value if the action calls for changing the value of the element in question. (Copyright o m ire ense R a of the The parameters licsubelement are: e to •n name: Uniquely identifies this element-rule V i • parameter-name: Specifies the element (that has the structure of a parameter) to which the rule applies • type: Specifies the element (not of a parameter structure) to which the rule applies.t r an type n o n action s a match-val-type What do we ) a ฺ with this hwantidtoedo comparison-type element? ฺ c om Add. All rights reserved.67 . Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ • A non-parameter item Example: +6175279876 header-rule … action manipulate … element-rule a b le name s f er parameter-name . Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . store? new-value iplo tud vo his S @ to se t e n uOracle and/or its affiliates. Most types are defined in the next slide. delete- match-value i c n gelement. z vi © t2014. The new value can be any fixed value or a value determined by the SBC via the use of a system variable. t G u replace.edelete-header.

t r a no h a s header-param ฺ ) i d e header-value ฺ c om t Gu l o gic uden uri-header v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. Referencing Elements in a Header Parameters in a header have the form .<name>=<value>. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ • Referenced by name Other items have various forms. So if you want to act upon the value (g5bcc76). • Easily referenced by predefined “types” types ble fer a uri- header- uri- display uri-user uri-host uri- port header- param-name ans name n . Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. z ire ense m lic uri-user). your element rule will use: parameter-name tag New-value h6bcc88 If you want to act upon the name itself (tag). you can point precisely to the element that your element a (for example. R Using a type to act on. your element rule will use: Type header-param-name header param name New-value Tag3 Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 .” . and conforms to <name>=<value>. because it is preceded by a “. All rights reserved. tag=g5bcc76 tag g5bcc76 is a parameter. e rule i nwill V In the slide’s slide s example. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014.68 .

0. • The item to be changed is referenced by the “uri-host” type.101 192.t r HMR SIP Device a no has ideฺ sip-interface sip-interface 192. you need a general HMR with element rules that will Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014.0.0. Note the IP addresses at the bottom and how they relate to those in the INVITEs.0. v oip is Stusystem variable.16.11 To: 6175279876@172. • The SBC holds the relevant replacement values in specific system t variables. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014.0. (C) shows what we want our HMR to do.11 172.100 ble From: “John”<6174120571@192. Example: The Need for an Element Rule • If the “To:” and/or the “From:” headers contain an explicit IP address. z ire ense m a is for alicHMR that is almost always used.101> From: “John”<6174120571@172.168.16.0. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ change it.16. will be replaced by the proper o g i $LOCAL_IPd e n Value is in the l $REMOTE_IP value.16.168. Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . which we want to change. system variable. i bl A B INVITE INVITE … … To: 6175279876@192.0. if it is in the form C cฺcValue is int the (next hop) of an IP address.168. without changing anything else. R This example to i e (A) nshows an incoming INVITE where the From: and the To: headers have explicit IP V addresses.69 .11> fer a … … an s n .0.100 Manipulate the "To" and "From" headers in all om Gu requests such that the uri-host. (B) shows the desired result.168.11 ) 172.

t r no header-name From action manipulate msg-type request a has ideฺ new-value ) element-rule om t Gu name From1 parameter-name ฺ c gic uden type uri-host action replace match-val-type ip l o oip is St new-value $LOCAL_IP v n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ • Built into the SBC code. Example: The Solution • Addresses the “To:” and “From:” headers topology-hiding issues Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates.70 . The HMR Rshown is written o easily see how the values in the HMR correspond to what we wanted to achieve. if it is in the form of an IP address. e You i ntcan V Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . e parameter-name type action uri-host replace r a bl match-val-type ip s fe an new-value $REMOTE_IP header-rule name my_From n . will be element-rule name To1 replaced by the proper value. All rights reserved. only needs to be applied sip-manipulation name NAT_IP “Manipulate the “To” header in all description header-rule name h d header-name my_To T To requests such that … action manipulate msg-type request new-value …the uri-host. z ire ense a m lic to exactly fulfill our example requirements.

Besides realms. it must be “applied” to: Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. Example: Applying a rule-set to e the peer1 realm r a bl realm-config s fe an identifier peer1 description n . rather it is being used to alter SIP header elements in order to hide topology.0 M00:0 no A rule-set to manipulate SIP traffic a has ideฺ incoming from this realm … ) omA rule-set in-manipulationid c G uto manipulate SIP traffic out-manipulationid NAT_IP ฺ t … l o gic udeoutgoing n to this realm p oi is S t v n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. and then in SIP interface configuration. it applies it. Generally. SIP manipulations may be applied incoming (before realm bridging has V occurred) or outgoing (after realm bridging has occurred). Applying Rule Sets For an existing rule-set to function. If the SBC finds the rule set. you may affect the way SIP messages are translated and routed. Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ – A session-agent and/or Highest precedence – A realm and/or – A sip-interface Doing so also determines whether the rule-set will act upon incoming or outgoing SIP traffic. All rights reserved.0. it looks for the rule sets in the realm configuration.71 . if not. the manipulation is done after realm bridging has occurred. When you apply SIP manipulation rule sets to the outgoing traffic in a realm. z ire ense m ic is applied to the realm in the out-manipulationid parameter of the a rule lset R The configured e nto realm-config i element. When you apply SIP manipulation rule sets to the incoming traffic in a realm. Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 .t r addr-prefix network-interfaces 0.0. like in the example on the slide. Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. this means that the manipulation is not going to affect next hop decisions. the HMR can also be applied to SIP interfaces or session agents. The SBC first looks for the HMR in the session agent configuration.

The action will be ____________ n on d. you should use a ______________ rule. All rights reserved. but not its name. you must type “exit” Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. z ire ense m lic to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 .” When changing the whole value of a header. Quiz After changing a parameter in an element-rule.t r an c. Configure an __________ rule . If you want to set the caller’s name to “Alpha-Tel” on all calls going out of the SBC. Work on the _________ header a b le s f er b. you should: a. (Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. The type we will use to point to the item will s be a_________ h a ฺ o m ) u ide i c ฺc nt G i p log tude @ vo his S e n to se t vi © t2014.72 . Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ _____ times before typing “save config.

Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ _____ 5 times before typing “save config. z ire ense m lic to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . Quiz After changing a parameter in an element-rule. you should: From: a. you must type “exit” Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014.” When changing the whole value of a header. All rights reserved. The action will be ____________ n on s a_________ d. you should use a ______________ header rule. If you want to set the caller’s name to “Alpha-Tel” on all calls going out of the SBC. (Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. The type we will use to point to the item willabe Uri-display ฺ m ) h uide i c ฺco nt G i p log tude @ vo his S e n to se t vi © t2014. Configure an __________ rule .t r an replace c. Work on the _________ header a b le s f er element b. but not its name.73 .

Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. any header and any element in a header can be added. • Actions can be unconditional or taken on conditions that can be very simple to very complex. or removed. s f er n tra n - a no ) has ideฺ ฺ c om t Gu l o gic uden v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014. p . Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ feature for interoperability. • Rule sets can be tested by SBC commands before being able applied. • With HMR. replaced.74 . z ire ense m lic to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . Topic Summary • The header manipulation rules (HMR) mechanism is a key Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014.. All rights reserved.

Copyright o uOracle and/or its affiliates. Lesson Summary We have defined and discussed the following major concepts: Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014. z ire ense m lic to Ra n Vie Oracle SBC Configuration and Administration 7 . All rights reserved.75 . Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ • Realms and realm bridging • Deployment models • Signaling Si li iinterfaces t f • Media interfaces and call admission control • Translation (topology hiding) and routing by local policies le a b • Session agents s f er n • Header manipulation rules -tra on a n a h ideฺs ) ฺ c om t Gu l o gic uden v oip is St n t o@ se th ( v ie © t2014.

Oracle and/or its affiliatesฺ Vie n toRa i r ( v m lice n t ez nse ie to u v l o@ se th o ฺ oip is St c ) gic uden om t Gu a has ideฺ n no .Unauthorized reproduction or distribution prohibitedฺ Copyright© 2014.t r an s fer a bl e .