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Journal of Documentation

A COMPARISON OF THE INFORMATION SEEKING PATTERNS OF RESEARCHERS IN THE
PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
DAVID ELLIS, DEBORAH COX, KATHERINE HALL,
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DAVID ELLIS, DEBORAH COX, KATHERINE HALL, (1993) "A COMPARISON OF THE
INFORMATION SEEKING PATTERNS OF RESEARCHERS IN THE PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL
SCIENCES", Journal of Documentation, Vol. 49 Issue: 4, pp.356-369, https://doi.org/10.1108/eb026919
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samples. Sheffield SI 4DP The information seeking patterns of a group of research physicists and research chemists were analysed and the key features of those patterns identified. The aim was to use a similar methodology to that employed in a previous study of the information seeking activities of a group of social scientists and to effect a comparison between the information seeking patterns of the scientists and the social scientists. DEBORAH COX and KATHERINE HALL Department of Information Studies University of Sheffield. Each study stands in Journal of Documentation. pp. no. The results were then compared with the findings of the previous study of the social scientists to try and identify similarities and differences between the two groups. the extent to which developments in electronic communication have had any impact on the information or com- munication patterns of the scientists and social scientists is considered. The methodology adopted for the interviews and analysis was qualitative and based on the grounded theory approach. there has been far less in the way of comparison of the information seeking activities of these two groups and only a small number of studies have addressed this issue [2-6-. 356-369 356 . A COMPARISON OF THE INFORMATION SEEKING PATTERNS OF RESEARCHERS IN THE PHYSICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES DAVID ELLIS. objectives and methods that genuine comparison of the results is virtually impossible. Part of the reason for the paucity of comparative studies of the two groups may be that the various studies of information seeking behaviour differ so widely in aims. vol. 211 Portobello. the extent of usage of a source and the research stage at which a strategy may be employed were identified. a large number of studies have been carried out on various aspects of the information seeking behaviour of scientists and this literature has been extensively reviewed. Finally. Nonetheless. However. There is also a considerable literature on the information seeking behaviour of social scientists which also has been comprehensively reviewed. 4. fundamental differences in information seeking behaviour could not be determined. December 1993. INTRODUCTION THE STUDY OF THE INFORMATION SEEKING BEHAVIOUR of scientists can be dated back to the late 1940s [1-. scales and definitions used by the studies. Regent Court. methodologies. Certain minor variations concerned with awareness levels of facilities. As Skelton noted: The literature of science user studies is composed of a large body of data that cannot be correlated. The Downloaded by Rennes School of Business At 12:46 22 May 2018 (PT) information seeking patterns were derived from interviews with physicists at Manchester University and chemists at the University of Sheffield. Since that time. due to differing objectives. 49.

More useful would be detailed case studies of information use in specific organisations or specific professions. The analysis of the results of the interviews employed the constant comparative method of analysis outlined by Glaser and Strauss [9]. by employing the grounded theory approach [9] in the study of the information seeking activities of the two groups. On a small scale it was hoped to demonstrate that it is possible to apply a method of investigation in user studies which can be employed to obtain Downloaded by Rennes School of Business At 12:46 22 May 2018 (PT) comparable results across a range of different subject groups and which does connect with a well established approach to theoretical model building in the social sciences. and secondly. many of the studies display a rather shallow conceptualisation as Mole [7] commented in his review of Slater's [8] study of the information needs of social scientists: [The study] lacks any explicit theoretical framework which might guide the research or enable one to interpret the findings in a meaningful fashion. The interviews adopted the interview guide approach [15] employing an interview guide based on that used by Ellis. December 1993 INFORMATION SEEKING isolation. p. Further smaller samples drew upon physicists in the low temperature group and the nuclear physics group.with the exception of the last one interviewed who was a theoretician in astronomy. 139]. All of the researchers were experimentalists . The inclusion of a theoretician was considered relevant to ensure that a possible difference between experimentalist and theoretician was not completely excluded. especially if it showed awareness not only of social science methods (including textual analysis) but of social science theories [7. this consideration only emerged as the project progressed and it was not possible in the time frame of the project to explore this more fully. The interviews themselves lasted forty-five minutes to an hour. Firstly. Furthermore. The objective was to derive behavioural models of the information seeking patterns of academic physicists [10] and academic chemists [11] employing a method similar to that used by Ellis [12-14] in deriving a behavioural model of the information seeking patterns of academic social scientists. this was done by studying the information seeking patterns of scientists employing the same approach and methodology as that used in an investigation of the information seeking patterns of social scientists. p. with no obvious links that enable it to be compared with other studies [6. Initial contact was made with the laser group at Manchester University and respondents were drawn from the subject area of atomic. molecular and polymer physics which incorporated the majority of the sample. 40]. The main aim of the research described here was to attempt to rectify these defects. The sample of physicists was drawn from the Manchester University and University of Manchester Institute for Science and Technology (UMIST) Physics Departments. Information on the information seeking activities of the scientists was collected by means of personal interviews with eighteen physicists and fourteen chemists. 357 .

as the principal focus of this Downloaded by Rennes School of Business At 12:46 22 May 2018 (PT) project was the information seeking behaviour of the physicists. 358 . Maintaining awareness explores the activity of keeping up-to-date in the researcher's own area and in the field as a whole. six post-doctoral researchers. while all eight of the other physicists had over four years' research experience. The sample of academic chemists was selected from the Department of Chemistry at the University of Sheffield. Five chemists declined to be interviewed.it later transpired that he had retired. This large group allowed for the comparison of emergent data from the members of other groups within the field. maintaining awareness. four on the grounds of pressure of work and one on the grounds of his semi-retired status. and one third year. In terms of teaching experience three of the sample were lecturers and seven were postgraduate teachers. These subsumed concepts were treated as sub-patterns of the core categories. inorganic. physical and theoretical chemistry (Appendix 2). and the head of the laser group. Source prioritisation refers to the physicists' views of the importance of the various sources available. However. selected from the Departmental staff list were contacted and invited to take part in the study. five second year. The sample was made up of ten full-time PhD research students . chasing. The small size of the sample means that it is not possible to make meaningful comparisons between the information seeking behaviour in the various branches of chemistry. Of the twenty chemists contacted fourteen interviews were arranged. Finally. Chasing covers the activities engaged in when following up citation links between material and identifies the criteria of selection employed for both backward and forward chasing. The candidates were selected from the four branches of chemistry represented at Sheffield: organic. JOURNAL O F DOCUMENTATION vol. locating encompasses the activities engaged in when actually finding the information. The sampling aimed to ensure variation in substantive topic within the field (Appendix 1) and to include researchers with different levels of experience. Other concepts which were identified in the initial analysis were absorbed into the core categories as the analysis proceeded. with one subject having twenty five years' experience in research. In terms of research experience just over half of the sample were full-time PhD research students. In all five core categories were derived to explain the information gathering activities of the physicists: initial familiarisation. source prioritisation. Initial familiarisation encompasses activities undertaken in the earliest stages of the information seeking process.four first year. and locating. 4 The first group to be interviewed were all members of the atomic. An initial group of twenty non- professorial academic chemists. the in- formation diffusing activity was not included in the emergent core categories. the different natures of the different branches of chemistry represented at Sheffield helped to overcome the risk of a pattern of behaviour being omitted.one part-time PhD research student. However. The interviews covered both the information gathering and information diffusion activities of the researchers. 49. It proved impossible to contact one chemist . no. molecular and polymer physics group.

the first six categories. ending: activities characteristic of information seeking at the end of a topic or project. the models do not attempt to define the interactions and interrelationships between the categories or the order in which they are carried out. differentiating: using differences between sources as filters on the nature and quality of the material examined. mon- itoring. which are also found in Ellis's model. although it is possible to describe relationships between the features at a general level. Downloaded by Rennes School of Business At 12:46 22 May 2018 (PT) monitoring: maintaining awareness of developments in a field through the monitoring of particular sources. chaining: following chains of citations or other forms of referential connection between material. during the preparation of papers for publication. can be defined using the following definitions: starting: activities characteristic of the initial search for information. while the nomenclature used for the categories in the study of the chemists was standardised with that of the study of the social scientists to facilitate the easier comparison of the two models. browsing. ending. the models of the information seeking patterns of the physicists and the chemists can be used to describe any individual pattern of information seeking behaviour. browsing: semi-directed searching in an area of potential interest. The categories verifying and ending are novel and can be defined as: verifying: activities associated with checking the accuracy of information. CHEMISTS AND SOCIAL SCIENTISTS The model of the information seeking patterns of the physicists employed categories which differed in terminology from those of the original study of the social scientists. differentiating. Therefore. extracting: systematically working through a particular source to locate material of interest. the exact relationship of the features of the models depends upon the circumstances associated with the information seeking behaviour of a particular individual at a particular time. The nature of the relationship between the features of the models can only be described in relation to specific information seeking patterns. extracting. COMPARISON OF THE INFORMATION SEEKING PATTERNS OF THE PHYSICISTS. December 1993 INFORMATION SEEKING Eight categories seemed sufficient to describe the information seeking activities of the chemists: starting. In the comparison of the information seeking patterns of the physicists. However. Since the nomenclature and definition of the categories were standardised with those of Ellis. As with Ellis's model of the information seeking patterns of the social scientists. for example. chemists and social scientists 359 . verifying. chaining.

Starting The core category of initial familiarisation. Backward chaining. with the physicists as with the social scientists. as the terms employed in the models may differ while the underlying pattern of activities is the same. 49. in the main. the chemists seemed. All of the physicists interviewed had employed personal contact as a starting point for approaching a new topic. The physicists. displayed a basic similarity with Ellis's category of starting. Although there seemed to be variations between the physicists and the social scientists in terms of the level of awareness of computer based information services and opinion of the utility of the output. JOURNAL O F DOCUMENTATION vol. for the most part initial familiarisation or starting behaviour was similar for the two groups. no. similar and. reviews or review type material. to make more use of secondary services when starting than the social scientists.were identical to those used by the social scientists. and secondary services . Chaining The second generic characteristic identified by Ellis as a key feature of the information seeking patterns of the social scientists was that of chaining - following citation connections between material. were often already aware of key references or key people in a new area and their natural tendency was to begin with material with which they were already familiar. on the whole. in consequence. However. a direct close comparison between the two can be made. Ellis described starting as encompassing activities characteristic of the initial search for information. and the use of formal literature searching tools appeared to be higher amongst the physicists.which were derived. while the same resources were used. This activity was also recognised as a feature of the information seeking activities of the physicists and was given a similar label . All the physicists interviewed stated that they followed up 360 .chasing. The study of the physicists employed the category initial familiarisation to refer to the starting points adopted when the researcher begins seeking information for a new or unfamiliar project. therefore. and while both groups seemed to rely equally heavily on starter references. This represents a form of validity check on the empirical soundness of the models. from the study of the physicists. reviews and informal contact when starting. The definitions of Downloaded by Rennes School of Business At 12:46 22 May 2018 (PT) these two categories are. In a similar way. 4 outlined here it is intended to employ the terms for the categories used in the study of the chemists . the resources used by academic chemists for starting - starter references. informal contacts. Several of the physicists who were in the process of PhD research mentioned that they had been provided with their initial references by their supervisors and explicit reference to the provision of starter references was made as part of the role of supervision.and to cross reference the activities described to the categories employed in the study of the physicists. like the social scientists. from the study of the social scientists . was identified as the principal means employed to chase references.

forward chaining was less widely used and understood. Evidence that browsing. This type of browsing was mainly engaged in by the physicists in the initial familiarisation stage. The methods described by the chemists are similar to those mentioned by Ellis for the social scientists. The two main approaches for this mentioned by the chemists were browsing 361 . Browsing Browsing. and use of Science Citation Index was mentioned by half of the physicists. This also contrasts with the chemists. most had employed the technique of forward chaining. In the initial familiarisation process several of the physicists stated that they would start looking for information on a new topic by doing a literature search. As with the social scientists browsing was also used for current awareness.but you know roughly where and you just go and have a look'. that is. five made regular use of it. but of the physicists who were aware of the existence of citation indexes. in abstracts. and only two never used it. As with the social scientists. The aim of the literature search would be to obtain abstracts and to browse those abstracts in the hope of finding relevant papers which could then be used as a basis for chasing references. In contrast. in the sense of semi-directed or semi-structured searching in an area of potential interest. Various methods of browsing were used by the chemists. although those that did use it did not do so on a regular basis.that does break down . The physicists also used backward chaining as part of the maintaining awareness activity. but browsing was not confined solely to this stage. and the book and poster displays at conferences. and the browsing of computer abstracts was mentioned by several of the researchers. similarly for browsing the chemists relied on the related material being grouped together: as one of the chemists remarked: 'You know roughly where the subject areas are through classification . to forward chain. These included browsing in journals or Current Contents. all of whom were familiar with the existence of the Science Citation Index. Some remarked that it was Downloaded by Rennes School of Business At 12:46 22 May 2018 (PT) particularly useful in that it allowed the search to proceed in the opposite direction to Chemical Abstracts. understood in the same sense. The main difference between the physicists and the social scientists was the higher level of awareness amongst the physicists of the existence of the Science Citation Index. half used it occasionally. Most of the social scientists were unaware of the existence of citation indexes. only a minority of the physicists did not know what a citation index was. compared to that of the social scientists of the Social Science Citation Index. was an activity which most of the social scientists had engaged in at some time. along the shelves in the library or in bookshops. December 1993 INFORMATION SEEKING references cited in material consulted. was an activity of the physicists can be drawn from several of the core categories. Ellis noted that for browsing to be effective some limits have to be placed on the area to be searched and related material should be grouped together. Browsing to maintain awareness was also mentioned in a description of scanning journals as a preferred method of keeping up-to-date and one of the physicists mentioned having an ongoing update from a computer search which he then browsed.

there is an unwritten pecking order of journals. Downloaded by Rennes School of Business At 12:46 22 May 2018 (PT) The physicists. A comparison between the activities of the physicists and the social scientists in this respect can be drawn from the category of source prioritisation. Core journals represent for the physicists. with some mentioning the degree of stringency of refereeing of a journal as being an important factor in whether they would follow up material in that journal. and the quality. Monitoring Ellis defined monitoring as the activity of maintaining awareness of developments in an area through regularly following particular sources. level or type of treatment. 362 . this did not appear to be a major feature of their information gathering activities. Several of the physicists clearly identified their section of a particular journal set. been derived from the maintaining awareness category as the definitions are considered to be similar. therefore. a means of identifying relevant material. in chemistry. with some journals being perceived as of a higher quality than others. differentiated between sources on the basis of their substantive topic. as for the social scientists. All the chemists were able to name the journals which were of particular importance in their fields. quality. level and type of source was appropriate to both groups. level and type of source. no. Similarly.the substantive topic of study. the perspective or approach adopted. which was concerned with the factors influencing the choice of source selected by the physicists. Comparative material for the physicists has. as in social science. JOURNAL OF DOCUMENTATION vol. and language. an additional measure of credibility involved respondent confidence in the author. Ellis found that the criteria used by the social scientists for the selection of their core journals centred around three main factors . author. On the basis of this comparison between the activities of the physicists and the social scientists it seemed that the concept of differentiating between sources to filter material on the basis of quality. The credibility of quality of published material was judged in part by the journal source. Some pointed out that the list of relevant journals was not static but changed with factors such as time and editorial policy. 49. Several mentioned that they followed the work of particular authors and one used his opinion of the quality of an author quite aggressively to filter material. 4 Current Contents and browsing in bookshops to see what was new. although many of the chemists used browsing. Several chemists used the perceived quality of the source to differentiate material. The criteria used by the chemists for differentiating were: the topic of the material. However. Differentiating Ellisd e f i n e ddifferentiating as an activity which uses differences between sources as a filter on the nature and quality of the material examined. like the social scientists. especially in the way of textbooks. and they clearly identified those sources which focussed particularly on their own subject and those which regularly carried material on a topic of interest.

and printout from online searches. However. However. although. which featured amongst the social scientists' responses. newspapers and television . This comparison. As was the case with the social scientists. The physicists. others used it only occasionally. December 1993 INFORMATION SEEKING There were some differences in the principal sources used for monitoring though both groups used personal contact and journals as important sources. Two had never used it. social scientist used monographs and journals equally. newspapers and publishers' catalogues. were usually aware of the core sources and monitored a small number carefully . while some of the social scientists made some use of the quality press to alert them to information. as a whole. some indicating that their use of it was reduced because it was only available on another site. a difference does emerge in relation to the monitoring of published material in that the chemists mainly monitored journals while. but for monitoring developments in the field. and television as a source of information.journals. books. were not evident in those of the physicists. they also had a more general interest in keeping up with developments in chemistry and science as a whole. The physicists preferred to employ conferences. most of the chemists mentioned only minor use of the quality press. In relation to monitoring. Another difference was that. For both groups informal contacts were identified as an important source for keeping up to date. Current Contents. as with the social scientists. use of Current Contents was not found to be a regular part of the monitoring activities of most of the chemists. like the social scientists. These findings agree well with previous work by Skelton [6] who found that while scientists tended to rely on journals. taken as a whole.in the case of the physicists these were mainly journals. One chemist made use of the Bi-weekly List of Papers on Radiation Chemistry and Photochemistry produced by the University of Notre Dame rather than 363 . therefore. particularly The Independent. Standard texts and introductory textbooks were employed by a majority of the physicists in the initial familiarisation process. the social scientists monitored journals and books approximately equally. magazines and computer search updates. Current Contents provides an alternative to scanning the journals them- selves and might be expected to be particularly useful for journals not available locally. revealed some differences between the social scientists and the physicists in the principal sources used to keep up to date but not in the overall nature and form of the activity. were considered too out of date. abstracts. Books Downloaded by Rennes School of Business At 12:46 22 May 2018 (PT) which were mentioned for maintaining awareness by the social scientists did not feature in the physicists' responses. and that for only general information on chemistry and science as a whole. the chemists were principally interested in keeping up to date in their own topics and fields.similar sources to those monitored by the social scientists. the physicists made no mention of the use of books for maintaining awareness. Similarly. The chemists monitored various published sources . books. Unlike the social scientists. only a minority of the physicists had a wide ranging approach and monitored a large number of sources. conference proceedings.

Errors in numerical data were the most commonly cited . Extracting as a focussed behaviour of going through a particular source and selectively identifying material from that source only really Downloaded by Rennes School of Business At 12:46 22 May 2018 (PT) occurred at the initial familiarisation stage. or. Extracting Evidence for the activity of extracting amongst the physicists interviewed was minimal. no. Large scale retrospective searching did not seem to be a characteristic of the information seeking activities of the physicists except for the retrospective searching at the initial familiarisation stage. The major use seemed to be for writing review articles. however. occurring in their information. abstracts or bibliographies and computer databases. Extracting was not found to be a particularly significant activity for the chemists. None of the chemists used Chemical Abstracts for monitoring. most of the chemists indicated that they were aware of the possibility of errors. collections of indexes. Several chemists indicated that they found it difficult to maintain regular monitoring of journals but that writing review articles forced them to go through the literature bringing themselves up to date. This involved working through a variety of sources to identify material in those sources. For one chemist extracting to write an annual review had almost completely replaced monitoring. JOURNAL OF DOCUMENTATION vol. 4 Current Contents or other secondary services. The sources used by the chemists for extracting were principally journals and abstracts. In contrast. Verifying Verifying is a category of behaviour which was not identified as a discrete category in Ellis's study. particularly typographical errors. possibly. as once the physicist is familiar with the work retrospective searching is an activity which rarely occurs. 49. The circumstances under which it might were falling behind in the monitoring of a chosen journal. series of monographs. for example in citations. These included working through sets ofjournals. New Scientist and Nature. for gaining a broader information or knowledge base than is necessary for the task or project in hand. as with the social scientists and physicists it was mentioned as a means of updating if monitoring had lapsed.where it was perceived as being valuable was for monitoring journals to which the library had cancelled subscriptions. The concept of the physicist searching an archive for new material once immersed in a project did not really arise. Although similar activities were mentioned by some social scientists it was a very minor part of those activities and would have been subsumed under chaining. In addition to monitoring journals relevant to their topics many chemists mentioned reading general journals for general scientific information. nuclear 364 . Journals mentioned as suitable for this included Chemistry in Britain. Another secondary source used occasionally in this role by one chemist was Dissertation Abstracts. There were mixed opinions on the usefulness of Current Contents .although other errors. some did make use of the Chemical Abstracts Selects relevant to their area in this role. However.

However. One of these two indicated that he would go to the literature as necessary during the lifetime of the project. did not return to the literature until the completion of the work. In both these cases information gathering at the start of the project was minimal. one chemist did a spot check on everything. Although the extent of usage of a source and the stage at which a particular characteristic may be employed may differ. The main difference between the models of the information seeking patterns of the chemists and the social scientists is the existence of two extra categories of behaviour . Some social scientists did report similar activities but these were treated as a sub-aspect of chaining. in that respect. in particular. Two chemists indicated that they performed major literature searching at the end of a project.particularly in relation to starting. verifying was used regularly by a majority of the chemists interviewed. Most of the chemists did their major information gathering at the start of or during the lifetime of a project. although some social scientists did report similar activities which were subsumed under the categories of starting and chaining. the 365 . Several indicated that they either did not check their information or only checked obvious errors. and. the other. Overall. however. however. although they both used monitoring during the lifetime of the project. in textbooks or reviews. another did a spot check on new textbooks. Of the two. Ending Another activity which was not identified as a discrete category in Ellis's study was that of ending. December 1993 INFORMATION SEEKING magnetic resonance (NMR) assignments and equations were also mentioned. Some attempted to verify all their information. while one stressed verifying in- formation from sources he perceived to be unreliable. As only two of the chemists made significant use of ending this can be seen as a rather minor category.verifying and ending . for example. The groups undertake similar activities and the sources employed are also similar. that of starting. the characteristics of the information seeking patterns of the physicists and the social scientists are fundamentally the same. if possible. and in the case of the social scientists similar activities were subsumed under other categories. CONCLUSION The comparison of the information seeking patterns of the physicists and the social scientists shows no overriding differences between the two groups. although again similar activities were mentioned by some social scientists . Both were aware of dangers with this type of approach in finding material at the end which would have led them to modify the work they had carried out or in finding that the work had already been undertaken. several mentioned returning to the literature at the writing Downloaded by Rennes School of Business At 12:46 22 May 2018 (PT) up stage when they needed to discuss their work in the light of other published work. as well as checking obvious errors and material from sources he regarded as unreliable. seems to indicate a generic difference.which were not identified as discrete categories for the social scientists.

and the perceptions of the different values of books. in the 366 . at least in the UK. Downloaded by Rennes School of Business At 12:46 22 May 2018 (PT) The comments on the value of secondary services such as abstracts and indexes are almost so. both in terms of the information seeking activities reported and and the researchers' perceptions of those activities. The studies reveal a remarkable degree of homogeneity between the information seeking patterns of the physicists. no. the impact on the scientific communication of academic research. this has usually only constituted a small part of their information seeking activities. the employment of electronic communication as a complement to or substitute for the traditional forms is. The explanation for this is connected to the professional norms of academic publication by which the refereeing process is employed to legitimate contributions to knowledge [26-27]. [2-4] and Skelton [6] that there are not major differences in the information seeking activities of social scientists and scientists although there are differences of emphasis. although here a noticeable difference in the perception of the value of secondary services by the scientists compared to the social scientists does become apparent . as far as can be discerned. if rather more loosely. There does appear to be increasing interest in the USA in electronic communication of research results in the form of electronic conferences [22- 25] and journals but it seems unlikely that this form of communication will displace traditional conference and journal publication . The comments on personal contacts. This is strongly the case for academic journals and operates in a similar fashion. It is interesting to note that neither are there major differences in the perceptions of those activities between the three groups. 49. has remained negligible.particularly in relation to sources such as Chemical Abstracts. journals and conferences are virtually interchangeable between the physicists. the chemists and the social scientists. chemists and the social scientists. chaining. JOURNAL OF DOCUMENTATION vol. in particular those of Richardson [18] and Van Halm [19]) and despite the technical feasibility of this form of communication as demonstrated in projects such as BLEND [20] and Quartet [21]. virtually non-existent. reviews. While some researchers have employed electronic means of identifying references. In relation to the communication of research. It is also interesting to note the relatively minor impact which developments in information technology have had on the information seeking and communication activities of the three groups. The findings confirm the broad conclusions of previous studies by Garvey et al. 4 differences between the information seeking activities of the chemists and social scientists seemed more a difference of emphasis than of a fundamental difference in behaviour. This confirms the observation of Meadows and Buckle [16] that although the potential for electronic communication of research in the form of electronic conferences and journals has been widely discussed (see for example papers in Feeny and Merry [17]. differentiating and monitoring sources.partly because of the role of conferences in creating and maintaining personal contact but also because of the lack of formal recognition of electronic media as representing legitimate outlets for publication.at least in the near future .

New Horizons in Adult Education. In this respect it will be interesting to see whether the appearance of peer reviewed electronic journals such as EJoumal. catalytic antibodies 367 . Postmodern Culture. catalysis. non-linear optics Investigation of structure. Electronic Journal of Communication. chemistry of macrocyclic ligands and metal complexes Organometallic chemistry. particularly carbine complexes Biological organic chemistry. modelling biologically active sites using small molecules. especially metal containing liquid crystals. chirality. December 1993 INFORMATION SEEKING selection of papers for conferences. distortions in high symmetry systems and peroscites Organometallic chemistry. using nuclear magnetic resonance X-ray diffraction determination of crystal structures. especially oxide systems. nucleic acids. or Psycoloquy [28] will do anything to alter the dominance of the traditional forms of scientific publication and communication or whether these sources will simply be marginalised and be perceived as representing lower division outlets for minor league research. Journal of the International Academy of Hospitality Research.variable winds around Wolf Ray stars APPENDIX 2 Research interests of chemists Liquid crystals. new materials and their applications Bio-inorganic chemistry. drug development. especially the dynamic mechanisms of inorganic and organometallic compounds. APPENDIX 1 Research interests of physicists Laser gyroscopes Ring lasers Fibre lasers Downloaded by Rennes School of Business At 12:46 22 May 2018 (PT) All aspects of laser physics Experimental research in laser physics Molecular physics Non-linear optics Medical lasers Liquid crystal displays Liquid crystals Medical application of lasers Nuclear physics Patterns in helium 3 Convection in liquid helium and mixtures at cryogenic temperatures Low temperature physics Low temperature helium Charge transfer processes in clouds leading to thunder-storm electrification Theoretical astronomy . enzymes.

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