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CIVIL-MILITARY RELATION IN INDONESIA

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Republic of Indonesia was announced in 1945 is a nation in Southeast Asia

and Oceania. Indonesia is the world’s fourth most mainstream nation since it has

33 regions with 263,323,000 million people. Papua New Guinea, Malaysia and East

Timor shares nation borders. Indonesia is a republic with elected legislature and

president framework where Jakarta a capital city. 1The leader of Indonesia is the

president of state, represent as commander of the Indonesia Armed Forces and the

chief of domestic governance, foreign and policy making. Today, President Joko

Widodo is a leader of Indonesia since 2014. He has shown himself to be more

pragmatic than idealistic in his approach to the armed forces and willing to work

with either according to his own political needs. While they compete for political

influence by the military and the police are nothing new in Indonesia, it may have

significant for the development of democracy in the country.

Civil-military relations play significant part in the historical background of

countries of around the world. It is because civil authorities can use the military to

keep up the political intrigue and the military can make a positive circumstance to

accomplish its own advantage. Besides, vote based system in republic of Indonesia

is developing quickly while getting into the transformation period, where the

freedom of discourse isn't any more extended the issue to be addressed and in this

1
Soehaimi, A., E.K. Kertapati, Surono, Supartoyo, and J.H. Setiawan. 2005. Gempa Bumi dan Tsunami NAD-SUMUT 26 Desember 2004.

Paper presented in the GeoSeminar, 14 January, Pusat Penelitian and Pengembangan Geologi, Bandung.

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manner the general public is given the freedom to choose their political choice at

general decision. The reorganization of the Indonesian National Army and Armed

Forces of the Republic of Indonesia privately called TNI or ABRI is critical for the

progress inside the political life. This renewal of the Indonesian armed force needs

its troopers to be proficient in completing their obligations that is the armed force

should upgrade its involvement in keeping up resistance and not for interface in

governmental issues.

Based on Janowitz expressed the five types of common military relations is

known with authoritarian-individual administration, authoritarian-mass half,

democratic competitive and semi-focused, common military coalition and military

type of government. This clarified majority rule focused and semi-aggressive

framework can put regular citizen matchless quality over the military wherever the

non-military personnel specialist can decide strategy and in this manner the military

can execute it. Subsequently, this discussion will clarify about the historical

background of civil-military relations in Indonesia, the military and regular citizen

parts in the nationhood building process, the administration arrangement and

advancement programs that lift up for ideas of Civil-Military Cooperation's (CIMIC)

and relate with Tsunami in Jakarta on 2004.

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1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF COUNTRY CIVIL MILITARY RELATIONS

In Civil-Military Relations in Indonesia, there are six things related with the

communications between the President of Indonesia and his military. As indicated

by Colonel Rukman Ahmad, (2012) expressed that initially, the rebellion of General

Sudirman as the Indonesia Armed Forces Commander to take after the President's

choice to surrender to the Dutch in Yogyakarta when the Indonesia Capital was

assaulted on 19 December 1948. However General Sudirman took after his instinct

that chose to manage a guerilla war. Additionally, with President Sukarno to build

up an ideology system that included three segments like patriotism, religious

gathering, and also socialism. It is called as NASAKOM (the combination of initial

words of Nasional, Agama, Komunis). In this circumstance, the military did not

backing the president.

Next, throughout Soeharto's New Order the military was a huge part in help

of the legislature. This is a result of Soeharto civil experts forced a principle of Dwi-

Fungsi ABRI (double capacity of Indonesian Armed Forces as protection constrain

and political power) in 1982 as a legitimate side of military contribution in

governmental issues. Third, the New Order in Sekolah Staff dan Komando

Angkatan Darat, Army Staff and Command College (SESKOAD) was planned a

scholastic composition identified with military positions in the majority rule arrange

that is basically opposite to the common experts.

Fourth, on May 21st, 1998 through the change of energy from President

Soeharto to his successor Vice President B.J. Habibie, General Wiranto, Panglima
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ABRI (Panglima AngkatanBersenjata Republik Indonesia, the Indonesian Armed

Forces Commander) had an opportunity to require control of this nation. He

resolved to demonstrate how an expert military acts in a majority rules system by

supporting the new President, as opposed to acting to his greatest advantage.

Next, on 11TH November, 1998 during reconstruction, President

Abdurrahman Wahid chose to realize a remarkable military change program,

including an arrangement to re-structure the military and change expert. 6TH

President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono proceeds with the Indonesian military

change program by putting regular citizen's responsible for the military both in the

approach making procedure and execution amid his association.

MAP 1: MAP OF INDONESIA

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1.2 CIVIL MILITARY RELATIONS IN INDONESIA SECURITY SECTOR

REFORM

The concept civil-military relationship in Indonesia is ‘Dwi-fungsi’ or ‘dual

function’ of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Indonesia (ABRI). The armed

forces are not simply state equipment for national defense and security; they

represent a sociopolitical force that interacts with civil society. The military roles

created in the concept of Dwi-fungsi emerged after independence period, it is

because of both the sociopolitical role assumed by the military and the

crystallization of an ideology supporting such a role. The ABRI’s dual function has

its roots in guided democracy within the New Order regime under President

Soeharto that Dwifungsi as a doctrine has been given its constitutional and legal

basis. The 1965 abortive communist coup attempt was a turning point for ABRI’s

dual role, not only because it was an epoch-making event that served as the great

divide in the recent history of Indonesia between the Old and New Orders, but also

because it initiated a deepening of the entrenchment of ABRI’s role as a

sociopolitical force in the community.

The result of this double capacity, the Indonesian military controlled

fluctuated social, political and economy parts of the nation with prejudicial practices

and that they were moreover utilized as an instrument of energy by President

Soeharto that came about inside the disintegrating open sensitivity toward the

military. This observes neglect to demonstrate the unprofessionalism of military in

Indonesia and demonstrated that the unbalance the regular citizen and military

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relationship was New Order period. The military contribution in the political life and

as the instrument used to keep up the administration the norm drove the legislature

political authorization to the general public.

After the fall of Soeharto, the TNI keeps on being a major political power,

however a program of change is set up with the expressed goal to see the military

pull back from the political procedure. Inside the armed force structures, there has

likewise been some acknowledgment of a continuous withdrawal from the political

circle, "in an obvious reaction to the developing tide of open discontent towards

their quality in legislative issues." The TNI tried to define a trade part for itself that

may meet the requests for changes without fundamentally bargaining center

interests. In 1999 the Indonesia Armed Forces was revealed the record as

conceding their part in Suharto's authoritarian government. This report was go

along with a critical change program indicated to as the 'New Paradigm' connected

by General Wiranto. This change program has detachment of the police from the

military, the disassociation of the military from the Golkan Suhartist political

gathering, and furthermore the necessity of officers to resign from benefit before big

business regular citizen professions.

The lawful changes recognized post 1998 have pointed on fortify on-screen

characters and organizations that have duty regarding the gathering activity of

law. The Ministry of Justice has embraced measures to advertise great

administration through the correction of enactment, arrangements to advance the

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matchless quality of the law, and ventures to enhance the reach of open

authorities.

Numerous spectators have remarked on the moderate procedure of

popularity based change in Indonesian governmental issues. The critical

advance has been made, and changes in most all zones of the security segment

are in have been set up. Certainly the TNI has advanced from their 'double

capacities'. Presidents Habibie and Wahid reliably attempted to bring the TNI

under non-military personnel control, however were incredibly constrained by TNI

pioneers who wished to lead renewal as indicated by their own timetables.

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2.0 THE MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ROLES IN THE NATIONHOOD BUILDING
PROCESS

The Indonesia Armed Forces are engaged with making Indonesia

independent by building the country. This is a result of the reorganization in politic

1998 has prevailing with regards to changing the Indonesia armed force into an

expert military. The legislature and Indonesia armed force were influenced

techniques on its change where isolating of the police to compel from Indonesia

military (TNI) in 1999, canceling military regional capacities, disallowing exchange

fighters and not conceding military authorization to be effectively in socio-politic life

with the exception of they stripped the armed force. This is going on in Indonesia in

light of Indonesia armed force comprehends the significance of popularity based

usage to country building.

Furthermore, the nomination in 2000 of Juwono Sudarsono as the head of

regular citizen Minister for Defense was a give positive effect. Moreover, the

centralization of acquisition of military gear by Department of Defense (DoD) which

the chore used to be done by the Indonesia military moved toward becoming

represents another move. Since 2004, the change procedure has kept on being

perceived by numerous gatherings, for example, the US designation which they

commended the proceeding with change endeavors of the Indonesia military.

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Indonesia's democratization is focused on the organization of fine

administration, including the advancement of the matchless quality of law further as

'fighting debasement, agreement and nepotism.' Therefore, in Indonesia armed

force powers is seemingly the premier current foundation in the public eye with

center both of guard matters and country building2. The execution of its Dual

Function where a double part to safeguard the nation from outer risk from one

viewpoint and a social-political part on the other. The military ended up associated

with non-military all through the 'New Order' period. This improvement has difficult

issue for the polished methodology of the military and non-military personnel to

control over the military. To battling provincial powers, individuals from the military

have assumed noteworthy parts in governmental issues all through the new

request where the military is were delegated to bureau and parliamentary positions

and the others were named as local governors.

The Department of Defense (DoD) is essentially ready to coordinate

convention and technique, long haul arranging and spending issues. In this way,

the part of Department of Defense as the organization that speaks to the popularity

based guideline of non-military personnel administration over the military has not in

any case to be completely refined. The Indonesia military were ruling key positions

at DoD which possibly make casual affecting in Defense approach making however

DoD can't without much of a stretch stay away from the intercession of their

2
.Ball, Nicole, 2004. (Principal Author) The Security Sector Reform Strategy. Thematic Case Study 1 of Evaluation of
the Conflict Prevention Pools. Bradford University, Channel Research Ltd, PARC& Associated Consultants, London.
Retrieved at http://www2.dfid.gov.uk/aboutdfid/performance/files/ev647ssr.pdf.

. Kompas. 2005. Simeulue Ternyata Belum Tersentuh. April, 01. Retrieved from
http://www.kompas.com/kompas-cetak/0504/01/UTAMA/1656882.htm
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formally dressed bosses in the Indonesia military. This isn't to change later on

account of this nation has absence of non-military personnel specialists in

protection fields, particularly in the definition of approach, key arranging and in the

basic leadership.

To keep up the political impact in 'Regional Command' structure all through

the New Order time in 2005 the president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono has

guideline to use the Territorial Command in battling psychological warfare pulled in

dissents from human rights groups. Along these lines, the Indonesia military and

the administration are guaranteed that the regional charge still predictable with

Indonesia's democratization.

The resistance spending plan is amazingly indispensable all through the

reorganization. This is frequently a result of since the beginning of the change

procedure; the financial backing has been a vital issue for the improvement. As

indicated by the discourse of president Megawati in 2002, she express that the

nation absence of assets to keeping up and fortify national solidarity while she

neglected to offer a solid answer for the absence of subsidizing and assets anyway

she urges the state to recognize the Indonesia military for keeping up its reliability

to its change in ensuring sufficient gear, activities and staff welfare.

The common specialists particularly in the Minister of Finance, National

Development Planning Board and the parliament be certain of proceeding with the

Indonesia military dedication amid the change procedure. This mentality is reflected

in the fundamental 'firearms or margarine' as apparent inside the administration’s

response to the safeguard spending proposition in 2007. For instance, the

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legislature has resolved to be apportioned to pay for new ships with proceed with

the Long-Term eventual fate of the naval force in 2005-2024.

In conclusion, as a non-military personnel establishment, the bureau of

defense should correspond the budgetary needs of the military to the Indonesia

parliament. The accomplishment of Indonesia's democratization in country building

is associated with the achievement of the change of its military. The change has

brought positive changes that see the Indonesia military being changed from a

military establishment with political part into a military organization dependable to

the elective president as the delegate of a majority rule society. Thusly, the

common specialists ought to guarantee an all-around prepared and generously

compensated military to maintain the national-working in Indonesia.

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3.0 THE INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI: AN OUTLINE

On 26 December at 0059 GMT (just before 8 am close-by time) a seismic

tremor evaluating 9.0 on the Richter scale happened to 30 km off the west

shoreline of Sumatra, the remarkable western end of the 'Ring of Fire' (a zone of

progressive volcanic launch for the most part including the Pacific Basin that

records for in excess of 80% of the world's greatest shudders. 3 This was the fifth

greatest shake for a century and the greatest after the one transmitted in Prince

William Sound in Alaska in 1964 (9.2 on the Richter scale). It split around 1300

km of the accuse furthest reaches of the Indo-Australian Plate under the south-

eastern Eurasian plate, slipping the past under the last specified and lifting the

seabed by as much as by 5 meters (16 feet). The basic essentialness released

by the discharge was evaluated at 25 Hiroshima bombs.

The wave split up 8 minutes after the burst, sending imperativeness beats

east on the Sumatra drift and west of the immense seas in the Bay of Bengal at a

quicken to 800 km a hour (the speed of a propelled stream plane at full throttle).

The eastward moving wave experienced at first, pulling water a long way from

shores. So the westward, long-expel wave arranged pinnacle first. The height of

the principle tsunami developed as much as 24.4 meters as it moved closer in 28

3
Lay, Thore, Hiro Kanamori and Charles Ammon. 2005. The Great Sumatra-Andaman

Earthquake of 26 December 2004. Science, 308, 1127-1139.

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minutes the shallow waters of the Aceh territory of Sumatra (National

Geographic, 2005). Then the long-expel wave enlarged its roundabout section as

it continued with west, affecting shoreline zones of Thailand, Myanmar, India

(Tamil Nadu, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands), Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Maldives,

Somalia, Kenya and Tanzania (refer to map 2)4.

MAP 2: Indian Ocean Earthquake/Tsunami Disaster Area

4 USGS (United States Geological Survey). 2003. Description: Indonesian Volcanoe

and Volcanics.

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Picture 1 Indonesia Tsunami 2004

a) A Historical Perspective of Natural Disasters in Indonesia

Arranged in the "Ring of Fire", Indonesia has the greatest number of dynamic

volcanoes on the planet. Around 10% of the world's recorded seismic

development had happened to the Indonesian archipelago (Tomascik et al.

1997).6 there are numerous volcanoes in the country, of which around 76% have

been genuinely unique. The prevailing piece of these is arranged in the

roundabout portion of Sumatra, Java and the Lesser Sunda Islands. There have

been around 1,171 recorded volcanic outflows of Indonesia, a record which just

possibly lower than that of Japan (1,274). These two countries commonly speak

to 1/3 of the known emanations on the planet, yet Indonesia has persevered
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through the most astonishing amounts of fatalities, damage to arable land,

mudflows, tsunamis, vaults, and pyroclastic streams. Four fifths of Indonesia's

dated volcanic discharges have occurred in this century (USGS, 2003). Two of

these launches are among the greatest discharge ever on the planet. 5

The frame and climate of the Indonesian archipelago furthermore can

cause different unsafe disastrous occasions, for instance, tornados, drought and

surge. According to records kept up by the WHO Collaborating Center for

Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) at the University Catholique

de Louvain, in the midst of the period from 1907 to 2004, there were about 312

events of lethal calamitous occasion in Indonesia, averaging to around 3

disasters for every year. All around, approximately 976 people kicked the basin

and around 51 thousand people affected per event. The Indonesian Emergency

Relief Coordination Agency (Bakornas PBP) recorded that in the midst of 1997-

2004 there were 796 cases of disastrous occasions (notwithstanding the 26

December catastrophe), overall 99 cases for consistently or more than one

consistently. These events butchered around 37 thousand people, made 460

thousand evacuees, and obliterated 68 thousand houses. The typical (per-event)

death toll of a downpour signified 960, appeared differently in relation to 140

relating to tremors and 37 relating to brutal breezes.

5
Soehaimi, A., E.K. Kertapati, Surono, Supartoyo, and J.H. Setiawan. 2005. Gempa Bumi dan Tsunami NAD-SUMUT
26 Desember 2004. Paper presented in the GeoSeminar, 14 January, Pusat Penelitian and Pengembangan Geologi,
Bandung
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b) The Earthquake and Tsunami : Indonesian’s Nightmare on December 26

The earthquake and tsunami on the 26th of December 2004 is the most

exceedingly dreadful destructive occasion in Indonesian history. A considerable

number individual in Aceh and North Sumatra, and a couple of locale in

Indonesia, could feel the shake caused by the gigantic discharge that occurred at

to 8 am that day. Around 15 minutes afterward, tsunami hit the northern bit of

Aceh, the western part Aceh and North Sumatra and furthermore islands in those

regions, for instance, Nias and Simeulue islands. Waves as high as 10 m high

and a speed of around 800 km for every hour hit the city of Banda Aceh, which is

arranged in the northern bit of Aceh. In a couple of spots, waves went inland

about 7.5 km from the coastline. Waves as high as 12 m hit urban groups of

Meulaboh, Calang and Lamno – urban groups arranged in the western bit of

Aceh – and they submerged domains up to around 10 km from the coastline

(Soehaimi et al. 2005).

By mid-March 2005, the official Tsunami death toll in Indonesia was close

to 167 thousand, with 128 thousand missing (without a doubt dead), and 648

thousand evacuated. That was released by the Department of Social Affairs on

the seventeenth of February 2005, around 920 people were in recuperating

offices, and around 480 thousand people estranged abroad camps (Table 1). In

term of number of people killed and missing, the city of Banda Aceh persevered

through the most; trailed by the districts of Aceh Jaya and Aceh Barat. In term of

level of masses impacted, Aceh Barat locale persevered through the most, took

after 12 by the city of Banda Aceh, Aceh Jaya and Aceh in a particular request.

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Table 1: Number Of Citizens Exaggerated By Tsunami In Aceh Indonesia

Region Population Killed Lost Hospitalized Refugee Affected Affected/Population


people (%)
Aceh Province
01. Kota Banda Aceh 269,091 78,417 64,552 --- 39,509 182,478 67.8
02. Kab. Aceh Besar 306,718 58 43,902 --- 97,947 141,907 46.3
03. Kota Sabang 27,447 18 108 --- 4,403 4,529 16.5
04. Kab. Pidie 517,452 4,646 2,091 --- 64,613 71,350 13.8
05. Kab. Bireun 350,964 1,488 58 187 15,546 17,279 4.9
06. Kab. Aceh Utara 395,800 2,217 233 284 20,082 22,816 5.8
07. Kota Lhokseumawe 156,478 394 11 75 20,084 20,564 13.1
08. Kab. Aceh Timur 253,151 224 --- --- 13,710 13,934 5.5
09. Kota Langsa 141,138 --- --- --- 10,370 10,370 7.3
10. Kab. Aceh Tamiang 238,718 --- --- --- 3,100 3,100 1.3
11. Kab. Aceh Jaya 111,671 19,661 77 --- 40,382 60,120 53.8
12. Kab. Aceh Barat 97,523 11,830 2,911 --- 78,817 93,558 95.9
13. Kab. Nagan Raya 152,748 493 865 --- 14,769 16,127 10.6
14. Kab. Aceh Barat Daya 153,411 835 --- --- 13,964 14,799 9.6
15. Kab. Aceh Selatan 167,052 6 1,086 10 16,188 17,290 10.4
16. Kab. Simeuleu 76,629 22 1 135 18,009 18,167 23.7
17. Kab. Aceh Singkil 174,007 73 4 --- 106 183 0.1
18. Kab. Aceh Tengah 158,641 192 227 229 4,005 4,653 2.9
19. Kab. Aceh Tenggara 168,034 26 --- --- --- 26 ---
20. Kab. Gayo Lues 67,514 27 --- --- --- 27 ---
21. Kab. Bener Meriah 120,000 36 --- --- 1,204 1,240 1.0

Total Aceh 4,104,187 120,663 116,126 920 476,808 714,517 17.4

North Sumatra
Provincec
01 Kab. Nias 422,170 233 24 --- 4,000 4,257 1.0%
02 Kab. Nias Selatan 275,422 1 --- --- n.a. 1 0.0%
03 Kab. Tapanuli Tengah 272,333 1 --- --- n.a. 1 0.0%
04 Kab. Serdang Bedagai 549,091 4 --- 2 n.a. 6 0.0%
05 Kab. Mandailing 369,691 1 --- --- n.a. 1 0.0%
Natal

Total North Sumatra 1,888,707 240 24 2 4,000 4,266 0.2%

In Medan --- --- --- 2,509 18,342 20,851 ---


In Jakarta --- --- --- --- 1,567 1,567 ---
TOTAL 5,992,894 120,903 116,150 3,431 500,717 741,201 12.4%

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In light of field visits and gatherings in Aceh in the midst of and a short time after

the catastrophe, Aspinall finds that youths, ladies and more prepared people spoke to

more than 66% of the tsunami losses, definitely changing the measurement structures

in various towns and urban zones vivaciously hit by the deluge. Not at all like in Sri

Lanka, was the death toll essentially higher than the amount of people hospitalized or

wound up down and out.

An intriguing case noteworthy is the to some degree low death toll in Simeulue

Island, which is organized just around 100 km a long way from the epicenter. Simeulue

Island was to a great degree hit by the tsunami; approximately 5,500 houses were

devastated and numerous people persevered harm. In any case, only seven passings

were recorded (Kompas, 1 April 2005). There are two possible purposes behind the

shockingly low death toll. In any case, the waterfront organic framework, to be particular

the coral reef, sea grass and mangrove forests in the northern bit of the island pacified

the energy of the goliath waves. Second, close-by culture in the island (adat) has a

basic judicious procedure traded from ages to ages for going up against a tsunami. The

procedure is according to the accompanying. When one sees a couple of indications of

an approaching tsunami, someone would rushes to the closest slant shouting 'smong…

.smong… ..smong' (downpour in neighborhood lingo). Other individuals who hear the

notice would hurried to the closest slant while adding to the 'smong… .smong…

..smong' topic. This fundamental methodology wound up being especially practical in

the present wave. Not in any manner like in Simeulue, clear standard lightening

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strategies imbedded in neighborhood culture have never existed or had basically been

neglected by the all-inclusive community in various regions in Aceh and North

Sumatra.6

Confirmation of the essentialness of the shoreline front organic framework in

easing the impact of wave begins from the other affected zones in Indonesia moreover.

For instance, the impact of the deluge was less genuine in zones along the west and

east bank of Aceh, where the ocean side condition remained alive and well. The

mischief was much genuine in shoreline front urban groups, where the waterfront

natural group has been annoyed by hotel, tourism and harming calculating, was

impacted more than various regions (Wetlands International-Indonesia Program 2005).

There are a couple of workplaces in Indonesia that have the proficient to screen

seismic activities and other calamitous occasions in the country, for instance, the

Meteorology and Geophysics Agency (Badan Meteorologi dan Geofisika), Volcano and

Geological Disaster Mitigation Directorate (Direktorat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana

Geologi) at the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, and Center of Geological

Research and Development (Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Geologi). Since the

Flores tsunami in 1992, these associations, with the help of overall foundations, have

been coordinating investigation on wave in Indonesia. Banyuwangi tsunami in 1994 and

Biak wave in 1996 further enabled such research.

6
Wetlands International-Indonesia Programme. 2005. Tsunami of Aceh and North

Sumatra 26 December 2004. Retrieved from http://www.wetlands.or.id/.

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Two or three years back, these associations commonly conveyed a guide

indicating where wave events are bound to happen. This hidden work did not immediate

the headway of a consider and exhaustive tsunami watching structure because of

detachment of financing. In any case, paying little mind to whether such system existed,

it won't not have had an a considerable measure of an impact in the present downpour;

the epicenter of the seismic tremor was too much close Aceh and monstrous

accomplished the land in fifteen minutes (Deutsche Presse-Agentur 4 January 2005).

(c) The Economic Impact

The World Bank, using a standard assessment technique made by the United

Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC 2003),

has evaluated the total damages and hardships caused by the tremor and tsunami was

generally US$ 4.45 billion or ideal around 100 percent of Aceh's GDP in 2003 (Table 6).

Of the total, 60 percent constitutes hurts, while 40 percent constitutes incidents in the

term of pay streams lost to the economy. Around 78 percent of the total damages and

disasters were brought about by the private fragment and the rest by individuals when

all is said in one section (World Bank, 2005). The Institute for Economic and Social

Research (LPEM) at the Faculty of Economics-University of Indonesia surveyed the

total mischief in Aceh at US$ 4.6 billion (LPEM 2005). As demonstrated by LPEM

checks, around 33% of the road framework, schools and mending offices were

destroyed by the wave (see Table 3). According to assesses by the Asian Development

Bank (ADB) the mammoth waves fixed precisely 115,000 houses and genuinely hurt

another 150,000 (ADB 2005).

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Aceh's GDP in 2003 was generally US$ 4.5 billion, around 2.3 percent of total

GDP of the national economy. Oil and gas industry and cultivating were two regions that

charged Aceh's economy, contributing for 43 percent and 32.2 percent of the nearby

GDP, independently. In agribusiness, trained creatures (10 percent) and food crops (10

percent) contribute the most bewildering offer. The oil and gas industry made tracks in

an opposite direction from the downpour basically unharmed. The by and large affected

division is the agribusiness, particularly fishery, both to the extent the amount of

misfortunes and capital pummeled (Soesastro and Ace 2005).

As showed by the World Bank, Aceh's GDP could recoil by 7 percent to 28

percent stood out from the 2004 level LPEM has thought of an imperceptibly cut down

measure of GDP withdrawal, 22.3 percent (LPEM 2005). The deluge annihilation in the

area of North Sumatra was everything viewed as stuffed in the district of Nias, the

poorest locale in the region whose sense of duty regarding the general regional

economy is close to nothing (Table 5).

According to information collected by the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries,

by mid-January about 55 thousand fishermen and aquaculture workers were among the

death (approximately a half of total fishermen in Aceh), while around 14 thousand

fishermen and aquaculture master were at the same time missing. FAO (2005) nitty

gritty that 40 to 60 percent of waterfront aquaculture lakes along the shore of Aceh and

between 36 thousand and 48 thousand of severe water aquaculture lakes (that

generally conveyed shrimp and milkfish) were genuinely hurt.

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It is evaluated that 65-70 percent of the little scale calculating task force and

related mechanical assembly was crushed in Aceh, addressing around 9,500 units, of

which 40 percent kayaks, 25 percent with separable motor, and 35 percent with diesel

inboard motor.

In Aceh around 30 thousand hectares of rice fields, signifying around 10 percent

of the total zone under rice advancement in the region were genuinely impacted. Soil

saltiness issues were the guideline concern. Fortunately, as a result of the wet

conditions in the locale, salt-tainted arable land has been cleaned by precipitation and

water framework. Late examination finished by FAO exhibit that salt spared more than

66% of the affected agricultural land has been sifted through starting at now

empowering planting to proceed with the beginning of the trimming season in April and

May. Just around 9 thousand ha can never again be used for developing (China View

31 March 2005).

According to data for 2000 around 8 percent of Aceh's yield conveyed to various

territories in Indonesia, 26 percent of its yield exchanged abroad, and 66 percent of its

yield was eaten up inside the area. At that point, import from various regions in

Indonesia and import from abroad were only 6 percent and 4 percent, independently, of

the total material information sources required for Aceh's creation regions.

Thusly, the impact of reduction in Aceh's GDP on Indonesia's general monetary

execution is required to be pretty much nothing. The World Bank surveyed that GDP

improvement Indonesia in 2005 would be between 0.1 percent and 0.4 percent cut

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down the pre-wave advancement figure (World Bank 2005). LPEM has thought of a

fairly higher measure of advancement pressure (0. 56 percent) (LPEM 2005).

Before the deluge decimation, the Ministry for the Development of Least

Developed Regions had organized 11 zones in Aceh (around 50 percent of the domain)

as least made districts. Over the span of late years previously the disaster, Aceh had

been experiencing socio-political weakness and money related interference because of

the speeding up of the 29-year-old secessionist defiance of the Free Aceh Movement

(GAM). Around 900 schools had been pounded or hurt and school support had

fundamentally declined.

At that point, prosperity cares had ended up being less open since people were

hesitant to visit prosperity workplaces for security reason (Soesastro and Ace 2005,

World Bank 2005). In 2002, the Indonesian Central Agency of Statistics assumed that

around 30 percent of people in Aceh were living underneath the dejection line. LPEM

expected the level of people in Aceh living under poverty line could addition to around

50 percent after the seismic tremor and deluge (LPEM 2005). Augmentation in

destitution is probably the most honest to goodness money related issue caused by the

seismic tremor and tsunami.

The typical rate of development in Banda Aceh in January 2005 was 7.02

percent, while for the whole country it was only 1.43 percent. The most raised rates of

extension were for taken care of support and sustenance things - 19.26 percent and

11.24 percent, independently (appeared differently in relation to national figures of 0.80

percent and 3.11 percent, independently).


23
House rents are in like manner growing rapidly. In the meantime, January 2005

development in North Sumatra was around 2.82 percent, with support cost extending by

5.84 percent as the greatest variable (CEIC Asia Database, 21 February 2005). There

are reports that expansive nearness of contributors and NGOs is the fundamental

purpose behind these cost increments (specifically increment in lodging rent)7

7
China View. 2005. Tsunami Causes Limited Soil Salinity Problems: FAO. March, 31. Retreived from
http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2005-03/31/content_2767545.htm .

24
Table 2: Indonesia: Estimated Damages and Losses
Total Impact Property
Damage Losses Total Private Public
Social Sectors 1674.9 65.8 1740.7 1440.6 300.1
Housing 1398.3 38.8 1437.1 1408.4 28.7
Education 110.8 17.6 128.4 9 119.4
Health 82.5 9.4 91.9 23.2 68.6
Culture and Religion 83.4 83.4 83.4
Infrastructure 636 240.8 876.8 325.9 550.8
Transport 390.5 145.4 535.9 165.8 370.1
Communications 18.9 2.9 21.8 8.6 13.2
Energy 67.8 0.1 67.9 1.1 66.9
Water and Sanitation 26.6 3.2 29.8 18.3 11.4
Flood control, irrigation and sea
protection works 132.1 89.1 221.2 132.1 89.1
Productive Sectors 351.9 830.2 1182.1 1132 50.1
Agriculture and Livestock 83.9 140.9 224.8 194.7 29.9
Fisheries 101.5 409.4 510.9 508.5 2.5
Enterprises 166.6 280 446.6 428.9 17.7
Cross Sectoral 257.6 394.4 652 562.9 89.1
Environment 154.5 154.5 548.9
Governance and administration 89.1 89.1 89.1
Bank and Finance 14 14 14
Total Impact 2920.4 1531.2 4451.6 3461.4 990.1
Source: World Bank (2005)

Table 3: Indonesia: Estimated Damages as Percentage of Pre-disaster Levels

Items Damages in
Percentage
Road 31.7
School 30.0
Hospital 33.3
Health Centre 24.0
Permanent House 26.9
Non-Permanent House 30.4
Irrigated Paddy Field 24.9
Non-irrigated Paddy Field 32.4
Estate Crop 27.9
Community Forest 28.3
Non-Oil/Gas Industry 27.4
Source: LPEM (2005).

25
Picture 2: Damages Of Property Which Belongs To The Citizens

Picture 3: Dead Bodies Found After the Tsunami

26
4.0 New Paradigm

Visit tragedies, coupled with worldwide activities such as the Hyogo System

for Activity in fiasco chance decrease defined in 2005, compelled the Indonesian

government to imbue a modern worldview into calamity chance administration

approaches. Fundamental directions and budget were put in put to make the BNPB,

which plays a central command part in planning and sending catastrophe reactions.

Since its foundation, the BNPB has produced a number of participation with

nations and worldwide associations such as, among others, the Joined Together States,

Japan, Australia and the Joined Together Countries in building up its capacity and

capability.

The unused courses of action encapsulated in the BNPB, in spite of the fact

that still flawed, appear to be advancing well. Encounters in huge scale and complex

remaking operations have given Indonesia common sense focal points in fiasco

administration domain. In truth, lessons from fiasco reactions in Aceh have been

embraced by ASEAN to reply to the Violent wind Nargis in Myanmar in 2008. The BNPB

has advance amassed a riches of information and encounters amid ensuing calamity

occasions such as the 2009 West Sumatra seismic tremor among others.

In 2011, the UN Secretary-General granted the Indonesian President as to

begin with worldwide winner of fiasco chance decrease, and fair a few months back

James Fleming from the USAID’s Office of US Remote Catastrophe Help certified

Indonesia’s developing centrality as a part show for creating nations in catastrophe

administration.

27
4.1 Impact of CMR idea on Tsunami 2004

Also, to the immediate help it outfitted, the dominating trademark it executed

in planning the rest sports exercises of the unprecedented militaries helped the United

States win the pleasant and comfortable valuation for the influenced nations. In January

2005, the Bush administration vowed $350 million in philanthropic guide, and in might

likewise America.

Congress rose the Tsunami rebuilding and copy Finance to $631 million. The

USA proximity was felt particularly unequivocally in Indonesia a mess liked to the far

reaching units, tallying a flying machine benefit, Washington dispatched, the $four

hundred million granting-helpful asset it gave, and the specific help it enhanced for

repairing a road among Banda Aceh and Meulaboh.

Such help helped improve definitely the members of the claim family a couple

of the United States and Indonesia. America is acutely aware of the vital significance of

Southeast Asia, a region that it has mulled over as "the second one front" inside the

fighting on psychological warfare because of the reality the fear based oppressor

assaults on Nine November, 2001.It connects flawless essentialness to the consistent

quality of Indonesia, the greatest United States in Southeast Asia, that is inside the

system of moving its political contraption from tyranny to popular government and has

the field's fourth-greatest people and the biggest Muslim system.

In any case, with the contention it's far pursuing in Afghanistan and Iraq, the

genius Israeli capacity it goes up against the Palestine bother, and the unilateralist

28
universal relations it's miles seeking after, the United States is respected remarkably

through way of a few people in some of Southeast Asian nations had taken.

The USA no doubt would have liked to improve its individuals from the family

with universal areas with immense Muslim populaces and its photo among them by

methods for halting the human battling because of the tidal wave from comparably

declining direction and request in these countries and getting effectively worried in crisis

help and recreation endeavors. Indonesians who saw on the start hand US troops

seeking after fiasco treatment exercises and learned of value run gave by means of the

utilization of numerous US occupants have allegedly enhanced their conviction

individuals.

Besides, the U.S. branch presented sooner or later of President Yudhoyono's

visit to the USA that it had lifted the restriction on the fare of nonlethal wellbeing articles

and administrations to Indonesia. Following a congressional decision, the prohibition on

the fare of destructive firearms to Ocean Tsunami and worldwide Cooperation.

Indonesia had also been lifted in November 2005. individuals from the family some of

the America and Indonesia, which had stayed cool for the reason that Nineteen

Nineties, have along these lines all began to upgrade extensively.

The US end up being ready to give generous help to the influenced worldwide

places inside the locale thank you in issue to the accessibility of deployable resources,

for example, the Okinawa-based absolutely III MEF, near the influenced area, however

that adjusted into not the best rationale. America powers had just developed up status

for, and delight in, collaborating and organizing with the militaries of various universal
29
places over naval force activities separated from battle (MOOTW) which fuses calamity

comfort through Cobra Gold real recreations and the Multinational arranging

Augmentation team (MPAT) application.

A whole of 33 overall areas, the United countries, worldwide organizations,

and NGOs have taken an interest in it. The MNF expected for MPAT do now not always

work underneath US charge, however the coordination of calamity comfort brandishes

for this situation have progressed toward becoming directed inside a US-drove

structure. America has set up its drive in fashioning participation for the security of the

place.

30
4.2 Steps Taken After Tsunami 2004 Incident In A Form Of CMR Concept.

The upward thrust of Indonesian disaster diplomacy within the Pacific,

however, is perceived through some as a district of Indonesia’s technique to sit back out

very important voices from each CSOs and also the little Island States as well as

Solomon Island. They of late raised their worries concerning human rights abuse in

West island at the thirty second consultation of the comprehensive meeting of the global

organization Human Rights Council in Geneva. Some of the read, consequently, that

Indonesian humanitarian support within the Asia Pacific Indonesia’s bilateral

engagements on catastrophe management are not the foremost effective matters.

That believes as country is likewise taking part in associate degree spirited

position on the Association of Southeast Asian Nations coordinative Centre for

Humanitarian help on catastrophe management (AHA Centre). Indonesia’s close

involvement is getting ready to expand because it takes at the spot of the Association of

Southeast Asian Nations Committee on catastrophe management (ACDM), the

subsidiary frame that oversees the implementation of the Association of Southeast

Asian Nations settlement on catastrophe management and Emergency (AADMER)

beneath the convention of parties (COP), this year. Country could also be well-placed to

become a job model in catastrophe management; however its quality desires to be

bolstered through the advance of its domestic operational mechanisms. In its broad

study at the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for action (2015), Indonesia’s

catastrophe management efforts keep hampered by method of myriad of issues. If is

clogged with political motives instead of natural humanitarian aid.

31
These embrace an absence of write up and coordination amongst authorities’

businesses and establishments; an absence of institutional capability, technical worth

vary, and human sources at neighborhood level; and an absence of network

participation and possession in catastrophe danger reduction programs and choice-

making techniques.

Moreover, Indonesia’s patient with struggle with persistent jungle fires and

trans boundary haze issues may offer upward thrust to queries over the effectiveness of

its catastrophe management practices. Indonesia can be on its thanks to growing the

presence of its civil-army responses to natural disasters at near and international

stages. For this to manifest, know-how, it's miles very important for state to form sure

that it addresses the gaps not solely in its domestic disaster management efforts

however recognize in addition in its commitment to remedy troubles in West island.

32
5.0 Conclusion

The study of civil army members of the family is of fundamental importance to the

sector of political science. It focuses on the position of the militia in society and the

dating among the military and political system. The military holds a completely unique

region inside society as the institution this is charged with the defense of the kingdom;

its miles exceedingly trained within the control of violence. The exclusivity of this role,

gives the army a privileged popularity, one which can but be used to interfere towards a

government. Inside the case of latest democracies, the placement of the military in

society is of the utmost importance.

The army has the potential to generate effective forces of instability internal new

democracies, in particular whilst institutions and techniques of manipulate are in their

infancy. It has been a commonplace topic within the literature on civil army family

members that the high-quality forms of army manipulate has been the subjugation of the

navy to civilian manages.

Furthermore, within the context of many growing countries there can be no

history of this, the navy may have performed a considerable position within the

establishment of the state, in addition to in its social and political existence. Thus, it is

able to prove hard to convey once influential militaries beneath the manager of civilians.

This particular vicinity of focus is applicable to many new democracies, developing

nations and the ones nations with a colonial history, with a history of influential military

forces.

33
6.0 References

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2(1), 211-241.

2. Cohen, E. A. (1997). Civil-military relations. Orbis, 41(2), 177-186.

3. Bilveer, S. (2000). Civil-military relations in democratizing Indonesia: Change

amidst continuity. Armed Forces & Society, 26(4), 607-633.

4. National Geographic. 2005. Geographica Special: Tsunami – Where Next?, April.

5. Lay, Thore, Hiro Kanamori and Charles Ammon. 2005. The Great Sumatra-

Andaman Earthquake of 26 December 2004. Science, 308, 1127-1139.

6. Tomascik, T., A.J. Mah, A. Nontji, and M.K. Moosa. 1997. The Ecology of the

Indonesian Seas: Part One. Singapore: Periplus Editions.

7. USGS (United States Geological Survey). 2003. Description: Indonesian

Volcanoe and Volcanics.

http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Indonesia/description_

indonesia_volcanics.html.

8. Soehaimi, A., E.K. Kertapati, Surono, Supartoyo, and J.H. Setiawan. 2005.

Gempa Bumi dan Tsunami NAD-SUMUT 26 Desember 2004. Paper presented in

the GeoSeminar, 14 January, Pusat Penelitian and Pengembangan Geologi,

Bandung.

9. Colonel Rukman Ahmad. (2012). Civil-Military Relations in Indonesia Towards

Civilian Supremacy: United States Army War College.

10. Djuyandi & Yusa. (2015). The Professionalism of Indonesian National Army in

Civil-Military Relations. A Case Study in General Election 2014

34
11. Henry, Iain, 2005. “Civil-Military Relations in Post-Suharto Indonesia and the

Implications for Democracy Today.” Australian Army Journal, Vol. II, No. 2,

Fall.

12. Ball, Nicole, 2004. (Principal Author) The Security Sector Reform Strategy.

Thematic Case Study 1 of Evaluation of the Conflict Prevention Pools. Bradford

University, Channel Research Ltd, PARC& Associated Consultants, London.

Retrieved at http://www2.dfid.gov.uk/aboutdfid/performance/files/ev647ssr.pdf.

13. Kompas. 2005. Simeulue Ternyata Belum Tersentuh. April, 01. Retrieved from

http://www.kompas.com/kompas-cetak/0504/01/UTAMA/1656882.htm.

14. Wetlands International-Indonesia Programme. 2005. Tsunami of Aceh and North

Sumatra 26 December 2004. Retrieved from http://www.wetlands.or.id/.

15. ADB (Asian Development Bank). 2005). ADB Review, Special Issue: Rebuilding

Lives after the Tsunami, April. ( www.adb.org/review).

16. ADB (Asian development Bank), JBIC (Japan Bank for International Cooperation

and the World Bank .2005. Sri Lanka 2005 Pot-Tsunami Program: Preliminary

Damage and Need Assessment, Colombo: World Bank Office.

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17. China View. 2005. Tsunami Causes Limited Soil Salinity Problems: FAO.
March, 31. Retreived from http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2005-
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18. Deutsche Presse -Agenture. 2005. Governments not Interested in Warning System.
January, 4. Retreived from
http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/edit/archives/2005/01/04/2003217997

19. World Bank. 2005. Indonesia: Preliminary Damage and Loss Assessment: The
December 26, 2004 Natural Disaster. www.Worldbank.org.

20. LPEM (Institute for Economics and Social Research). 2005. Perhitungan

Kebutuhan Dana Pembangunan kembali Aceh. LPEM Internal Report, Jakarta.

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