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MSE 321

MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR
OF MATERIALS
Yahya K. Tür
Things to Know
Office hours: Wednesday 13:00-14:00
Room : MLZ 208,
Phone: 605 2640
Email : yktur@gtu.edu.tr

Sources : A comprehensive list will be given at the end of the lecture

In Turkish: Malzemelerin yapısı ve mekanik davranışları, Kayalı ve


Çimenoğlu, İTÜ Kimya Metalurji Fakültesi

Grading : Midterm (40 %) + Final (60%)


Tentative Midterm Date: November 3, 2017

One A4 sheet hand written notes is permitted in the exams.


Second sheet and photocopied sheets are to be collected.
Mechanical Behaviour of Materials
Objective: Macro and micro mechanical behaviour of materials under the
influence of external forces

Part I Mechanical fundamentals


• Stress and strain relationships of elastic behavior
• Plastic deformation
Part II Metallurgical fundamentals
• Plastic deformation of single crystals
• Dislocation theory
• Strengthening mechanisms
• Fracture and Fatigue
Part III
•Mechanical behavior of ceramics
•Mechanical behavior of polymers.
•Mechanical behavior of composites
Common
• Simple tension: cable
States of Stress
F F
A o = cross sectional
area (when unloaded)
F
s= s s
Ao
Ski lift (photo courtesy
• Torsion (a form of shear): drive shaft P.M. Anderson)

M Fs Ao
Ac
Fs
t =
Ao
M
2R
Note: t = M r/Jo here.
OTHER COMMON STRESS STATES (1)
• Simple compression:

Ao

Canyon Bridge, Los Alamos, NM


(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)

F Note: compressive
Balanced Rock, Arches s= structure member
National Park
(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)
Ao (s < 0 here).
OTHER COMMON STRESS STATES (2)
• Bi-axial tension: • Hydrostatic compression:

Pressurized tank Fish under water (photo courtesy


(photo courtesy P.M. Anderson)
P.M. Anderson) s >0
q

sz > 0 s h< 0
Why failure in materials

• Seven of the Liberty Ships built during


the world war II has broken completely
in two as a result of brittle fractures.
• Over 1000 of approximately 5000
merchant ships built during World War
II had developed cracks of considerable
size by 1946.

Failure of Liberty Ships during services in


World War II.
Why failure in materials
• The bridge building industry did not
pay particular attention to the
possibility of brittle failure until the
failure of Point Pleasant bridge in 1967.
• The bridge collapsed without
warning, costing 46 lives.
Collapse of Point Pleasant suspension
bridge, West Virginia, on December 15, 1967.
Why failure in materials

• The aircraft was used for interisland


transportation for 19 years before failed.
• Failure has been attributed to
multiple-site-damage.

Failed fuselage of the Aloha 737 aircraft in 1988.


Material property assessments
• Hardness :
Micro/Macro hardness tests

• Strength, Ductility (elongation, reduction of area):


Tension tests, Bending tests

• Torsion:
Torsion tests

• Toughness (resistance to failure) :


Impact tests; Fracture toughness tests

• Fatigue:
S-N fatigue tests;Fatigue crack growth tests

• Creep (elevated temperature strength):


Creep tests
Hardness tests
• Hardness is a property which is a measure of a resistance to
permanent or plastic deformation.

• Large hardness means:


--resistance to plastic deformation or cracking in compression.
--better wear properties.

most brasses easy to machine cutting nitrided


plastics Al alloys steels file hard tools steels diamond

increasing hardness
Stress-Strain Testing (Tensile Test)
• Typical tensile
• Typical tensile test
specimen
machine

Adapted from
extensometer specimen Fig. 6.2,
Callister 7e.

gauge
length

Adapted from Fig. 6.3, Callister 7e. (Fig. 6.3 is taken from H.W. Hayden,
W.G. Moffatt, and J. Wulff, The Structure and Properties of Materials, Vol.
III, Mechanical Behavior, p. 2, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1965.)
Yield Strength, sy
• Stress at which noticeable plastic deformation has
occurred.
when ep = 0.002

tensile stress, s
sy = yield strength
sy
Note: for 50 mm sample
e = 0.002 = z/z
 z = 0.1 mm

engineering strain, e
e p = 0.002 Adapted from Fig. 6.10 (a),
Callister 7e.
Tensile Strength,
• Maximum stress on engineering stress-strain curve.
TS
Adapted from Fig. 6.11,
TS Callister 7e.

F = fracture or
sy
ultimate
engineering

strength
stress

Typical response of a metal


Neck – acts
as stress
concentrator
strain
engineering strain
• Metals: occurs when noticeable necking starts.
• Polymers: occurs when polymer backbone chains are
aligned and about to break.
Impact Tets

• Measure toughness of materials


in terms of energy absorption.
• Specimen is impacted by a hammer and the
energy absorbed during fracture is measured
in Joule.
Fracture mechanics
• Resistance of materials to crack
propagation (to failure).
• Crack propagation can be
predicted before failure.
• Material will fail when the
stress intensity factor K
reaches the critical value KC.
Fatigue tests
Material is subjected to a repetitive or
fluctuating stress (cyclic loading) and will fail at
a stress level much lower than that causes
failure in statistic loading.

Parameters:
• Fracture life (fatigue strength)
• Fatigue crack growth resistance
• Paris exponent (m)
• Fatigue threshold (Kth)

Stresses in fatigue loading


To Improve Material Properties
Main references
• Hibbeler, R.C. Mechanics of materials, 2005, SI second edition,
Person Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-186-638-9.
•Callister, W. D. Jr. , Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction,
2007, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. , ISBN-13: 978-0-471-73696-7
• Dieter, G.E., Mechanical metallurgy, 1988, SI metric edition,
McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-100406-8.
•Meyers, M. A. and Chawla, K. K., Mechanical Behavior of Materials,
2009, Cambridge University Press, ISBN-13 978-0-521-86675-0
• Rösler, J. ,· Harders , H., · Baeker M., Mechanical Behaviour of Engineering
Materials 2007, Springer, ISBN 978-3-540-73446-8
•Hertzberg, R. W., Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering
Materials, 1995, Wiley; 4 edition, ISBN-13: 978-0471012146
•Udomphol, T., Mechanical Metallurgy lecture notes,
http://www.sut.ac.th/engineering/Metal/courses/mechmet.html