1. SITE Site Consideration is a very important aspect in a microwave link design. The importance and benefits of installing a microwave link that will connect two sites separated by a distance is one defining factor in selecting sites for microwave communications design. Selection of a site is not an easy task to do. Taking into account also the possible problems that may exist would determine if the construction of a microwave link in a certain area would be feasible or not. For example in some cases, there are some problems that may occur in using an existing building that is selected due to its facility layout and economy. The adequate height of a building in mounting an antenna on its top without the possibility of path blockage by other buildings or future buildings to be constructed is being taken also into consideration. When additional height is required, a separate tower on the building lot or adjacent to it is one solution. In any event, a terminal must be the starting point in site selection Department of Health (DOH) in Tayuman, Sta. Cruz, Manila is the Site A while the Bureau of Food and Drugs in Filinvest, Alabang is the chosen Site B for the purpose of setting a government communication infrastructure electronically linking the two government units.



 Department of Health is located at San Lazaro Compound, Tayuman St. corner Rizal Avenue, Sta. Cruz, Manila. Department of Health Profile The recent change in political leadership provides the Philippines with the chance to revitalize the health care system. This is in line with the administration’s thrust to prioritize delivery of services to the masses and improve the quality of life of all Filipinos, especially the poor. The differences in health status among various groups and regions in the country have widened through the years. These disparities indicate deficient economic and social policies, showing the need to reprioritize interventions to promote equity, fairness and immediate action. Unnecessary and unfair gaps in the health care delivery


system that deprive the poor of access to basic services must be reduced. The system must work efficiently to reach the highest possible health standards that can be shared by all Filipinos, given the limited resources available for health.

Although socioeconomic differences significantly influence health status, the equitable distribution of quality health services is an important measure of fairness in the country. Revitalizing the health care system must be seen within the broader context of several forces affecting the delivery of basic health services in the past two decades. Among these factors are the devolution of health services to local governments, passage of national legislation for universal coverage for health through social insurance, the epidemiologic shift and current double burden of disease brought about by the rise in degenerative diseases and the reemergence of previously controlled infectious diseases, demographic trends pointing to longer life span, greater number of adolescents and youth, rapid urbanization, industrialization, environmental degradation and climate change. Under these realities, the health sector must work to attain a common vision of health for all Filipinos. Its mission is to ensure accessibility and quality of health care to improve the quality of life of all Filipinos, especially the poor.


ABOUT THE SITE LOCATION: MANILA The City of Manila (Filipino: Lungsod ng Maynila), or simply Manila, is the capital of the Philippines and one of the cities that make up Metro Manila. Manila is the center of government in the country and one of the central hubs of a thriving metropolitan area home to over 14 million people. [1] It is located on the shores of Manila Bay just west of the geographical center of Metro Manila, also known as the National Capital Region, which lies on an isthmus between Manila Bay and Laguna de Bay in southern Luzon. The city is one of 17 cities and municipalities which form the metropolitan area. Manila is the second most populous city in the Philippines, with more than 1.6 million inhabitants. Only nearby Quezon City, the country's former capital, is more populous. The metropolitan area is the second most populous in Southeast Asia. Manila lies at the mouth of the Pasig River on the eastern shores of Manila Bay, which is on the western side of Luzon. It lies about 950 kilometers southeast of Hong Kong and 2,400 kilometers northeast of Singapore. The river bisects the city in the middle. Almost the entire city sits on top of centuries of prehistoric alluvial deposits built by the waters of the Pasig River and on some


Manila is bordered by several cities in Metro Manila such as Navotas and Caloocan City to the north. Washington. first recorded as Maynilad. Makati City to the southeast. Quezon City to the northeast. suggesting that it was the capital of Ancient Tondo. used to produce soap for regional trade. Cleveland (the Group Plan). DC (the McMillan Plan). was famed for his plans and designs of Chicago. San Juan and Mandaluyong City to the east. Intramuros is one of the oldest walled cities in the Far East. Burnham." or it has a prefix ma.[2] (The idea that the plant name is actually "nilad" is a myth. San Francisco. on top of previous older towns. which was the same name given for the general region of southwestern Luzon at that time. some semblance of city planning using the architectural designs and master plans by Daniel Burnham was done on the portions of the city south of the Pasig River.land reclaimed from Manila Bay. The official name of the city under its Malay aristocracy was Seludong/Selurung. The layout of the city was haphazardly planned during Spanish Era as a set of communities surrounding the original Spanish Era walled city of Manila. During the American Period.)[3] 23 . a flowering mangrove plant that grew on the marshy shores of the bay.indicating the place where something is prevalent (nila itself is probably from Sanskrit nila 'indigo tree'). it is either from the phrase may nila. the city consisted of a fortified settlement and trading quarter at the bay of the Pasig River. Maynila. called Intramuros. and Pasay City to the south. The name is based on the nila. and Baguio City. Tagalog for "there is nila. the noted American city planner and architect. details of which appear in The Chicago Plan publication of 1909. However. Well into the 13th century. the city became known by the name given to it by its Tagalog inhabitants.

Laguna. Later. It was the second most destroyed city in the world after Warsaw. much of the city was destroyed. Taytay and Taguig. and included the modern territorial subdivisions of Pampanga. the capital site). and all of the towns north and west of them. Poland during World War II. leaving Manila province with a territory roughly equal to the present City of Manila proper (except Intramuros. these subdivisions were themselves made provinces. and the northwestern two-thirds of Rizal province. Geographical History Before and during the Spanish colonization of the Philippines. Cainta. Beginning in 1899. Morong. Batangas. Rizal. including Antipolo. Quezon. The city was also temporarily occupied by Great Britain for two years from 1762-1764 during the seven years war. Masbate and Marinduque. Mindoro. the United States ceded the Philippines from Spain and colonized the whole Philippine archipelago until 1946.The original Manila was inside the fortified walls of Intramuros meaning (within the walls) it was constructed and designed by Spanish Jesuit missionaries to keep from invading Chinese pirates and natives uprising. Manila also became famous during the Manila-Acapulco trade which lasted for three centuries and brought the goods as far as Mexico all the way to South East Asia. Manila became the seat of the colonial government of Spain when it officially controlled the Philippine Islands for over three centuries from 1565 to 1898. in Manila province. Teresa. and the towns 24 . Bulacan. Manila was the provincial capital over a province whose territory at one time covered nearly all of Luzon. During those two years under the British flag the capital was temporarily moved to Pampanga. The boundary of Manila province went from northeast to southwest. and Angono. During World War II. The Metropolitan Manila region was enacted as an independent entity in 1975.

At about the same time. the Manila Province was dissolved by the Philippine Commission. Taytay. four pueblos or towns of Tondo Province were joined with the northeastern towns of Laguna province to form the politico-military "Distrito de los Montes de San Mateo. But the name of the new district proved unwieldy. Morong District. the district was renamed after its capital. Tondo province annexed to this new district the towns of Cainta. A few weeks. 1902 when the suburb of Gagalangin was annexed to the city district of Tondo. in Laguna province. Tanay. On July 30 of the same year. Baras. Since 25 . Cardona. while Laguna contributed the towns of Angono. Pililla and Jalajala. in 1859. These boundaries were slightly revised and redefined on January 29. and the boundaries of each were defined. the city board officially divided the city into 13 political subdivisions named as districts. So. following common practice of the day. the pueblo of Pandacan was annexed as a city district. a civil government was formed. Antipolo and Boso-boso. forming the new Province of Rizal. Binangonan. too long. and the former pueblo of Santa Ana was turned into a city district of Manila. the provincial name was changed from Manila to Tondo Province. when in reality the district capital was in Morong. Tondo Province was renamed Manila Province. and misled many into thinking the town of San Mateo (in Tondo province) was the capital of the San Mateo Mountain District. In about the same period. Morong. On August 15 of the same year. and its pueblos were incorporated with those of the District of Morong." or District of the San Mateo Mountains.south and east of them. by which it was known for most of the Spanish era. a new charter for the City of Manila. defining its boundaries and annexing some of towns of the Province of Rizal to its districts. In about 1853. namely. Early in the province's history. When the Spaniards turned over the Philippines to the hands of the Americans.

4 84.904.1 158.69 27. with the exception of Port Area. density District Binondo Ermita Intramuros Malate Paco Pandacan Port Area Quiapo Sampaloc San Andres San Miguel San Nicolas Santa Ana Santa Cruz Santa Mesa Tondo Barangays 10 13 5 57 43 38 5 16 192 65 12 15 34 82 51 259 (has.6 26 .9 315.01 38.779 98.8 67.2 91.205 5. Tondo is the densest in terms of population. five-star hotels.1 261.455.438.441.28 15. having many bars.7 166.758. have their own churches.) (per km²) 66.015 78.585 16.2 865.26 7.099.115 43.7 259.636.304. The districts of Ermita and Malate are well-known and popular with tourists.0 513.225 62.100 6.380. and several of these districts have achieved recognition in their own right.5 309.69 24.85 26.604 Area Pop. INFO BITS All of the districts.862.703.8 278. and shopping malls while the districts of San Miguel and Pandacan hosts the official residence of the President of the country.138 255. Malacañang Palace DEMOGRAPHY: Population (2007 census) 12. restaurants.11 18.9 163. Intramuros being the old and original enclave of Manila is a historical site.37 17.01 37.132 69.5 168.71 49.866.then the boundaries and city districts of Manila have remained essentially the same.613 116.02 69. The district of Binondo is the city's Chinatown.891.5 169.386.892.91 3.300 76.684 23.134 48.13 72.00 45. the largest in land area and also with the highest poverty level.184 118.58 30.322.42 36.901 630.

Population density With a population of 1. Filinvest Corporate City Alabang. behind even Cebu City.235). SITE B  Bureau of Food and Drugs (BFAD) is located at Civic Drive. and district 5 being the least dense with 19.55 km².[ A million more transients are added during daytime as students and workers come to the city.936 and 64. respectively. Bureau of Food and Drugs Profile 27 . which ranks 80th.550 people/km² in a land area of 1.266. it has the highest population density of any major city in the world with 43.334km².660.714 and a land area of 38.079 people/km² (with district 6 being the most dense with 68. followed by the first two districts (Tondo) with 64. Muntinlupa.[ But when accounting for the entire urban area.710. Metro Manila drops to 85th place with 12.

Regala was appointed FDA Administrator on Dec. After the retirement of the Deputy Administrator. Sanchez was appointed Vice Mr. 1977. 1982 to Feb. Cruz. 1984. Mr. Rita V. the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was created with offices and laboratories constructed in the DOH San Lazaro Compound. 1972.5M. files and balance of appropriations were transferred to the FDA. Ms. 1977 upon the retirement of Ms.To carry out the provisions of R. Ms. Sanchez was designated Acting Administrator of FDA on April 5. By Virtue of R. Conception M. Emilio Espinosa as Deputy Director. 7. The Food and Drug Administration became operational with the appointment of its first FDA Administrator. Mr. Lozonica M. the powers. Catalina C.A. Emilio Espinosa. Fernandez who retired in 1975 with Ms. Mr. Caoile as the next chief of the same. 19. all personnel together with all their equipment. Regala took over as Deputy Administrator on June 1. 3720. Luzonica M. 3720. Arsenio M. Arsenio M. 28 . 1978. 7. Pesigan on May 25. On his retirement. Mrs. With the Integrated Reorganization Plan of 1973. Catalina C. Sta. 1966 to Dec. Sanchez took over as the next chief of the Narcotic Drugs Division in 1976. Pesigan on Dec. Manila at a cost of about Php 2. Department of Finance was Transferred to the Food and Drug Administration headed by Ms. records. Mrs. Arsenio M.A. supplies. 13. Regala as Deputy Administrator on January 13. Catalina C. the Narcotic Drugs Division. 1977 with Mr. functions and duties of the Division of Food and Drug Testing of the Bureau of Research and Laboratories and the Board of Food Inspection. Bureau of Internal Revenue.

R. Rational Use of Drugs.O. Alfredo R. Based on the issuance of E. and acquired new facilities including state-of-the-art analytical instruments and a modern experimental animal laboratory with the $12M grant from the Government of Japan through the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Executive Order No. A. Muntinlupa City. Jesus M.A. Mrs. 30 s. and Tailored Procurement.. 119 s. the Philippine National Drug Policy was organized. In 1987. with then Hon.) No. and Devices and Cosmetics Act”. Self-Reliance. 1987. Bengzon.On December 2. The FDA was abolished and created the Bureau of Food and Drugs (BFAD). 28.O. Sec. 1984. Sanchez was appointed the first Director of the BFAD on Feb. No. Drugs. Azurin. Provisions to Implement the Reorganization of the Department of Health. It was also on the same occasion of the inauguration of this new BFAD facility that Pres. Executive Order No. Executive Order No. 102 dated May 24. Nos. the Bureau moved to its new site in Alabang. Romualdez. Alberto G.O. 851 by Section 4. 3720 was amended by Executive Order 175 to the new title “Foods. 3720 “Food. of Health. i. In 1987. that again reorganized the BFAD on the basis of Administrative Order (A. 174 and 175 amendments to R. of Health. and Cosmetic Act” respectively. 1982. 1987. Quality Assurance. under the Minister of Health Hon. Corazon C. 1999 was signed and redirected the functions and operations of the Department of Health. Drug. 20. 1987 under Hon. 851 was superseded by E. This new BFAD in Alabang became operational on April 30. Aquino declared publicly the Philippine National Drug Policy (PNDP) together with its four pillars. Sec.A.A.e. wherein BFAD was expanded with an added 29 . 5921 “The Pharmacy Law” and R. Catalina C. 1984 and took her oath on Feb.

regulations and standards for licensing and accreditation of processed foods. Conducts licensing and accreditation of processed foods. 1989 – Jan. Sanchez on Feb. 1999 – June 10. 4. 30 . 1. Formulates rules. On the retirement of Mrs. Dr. with Deputy Director for Drugs. William D. Cecile P. 2001) and the lateral transfer of Mrs. 2000 – January 2. 1991). further strengthened the Bureau to meet new challenges in serving the interests of the Filipino people consistent with the Philippine National Drug Policy and the National Health Policy. drugs and other related products.Division. Leticia Barbara B. drugs and other related products b.2005). followed by Dr. Gutierrez was appointed new Director of the Bureau. Gonzales took over (Feb. Planning. 1. Kenneth Hartigan-Go (June 1. Prof. Quintin L. Develops plans policies. the Policy.1999 – August 31. Director III of the DOH Nutrition Service as Deputy Director for Food pursuant to E. 2002. Catalina C. programs and strategies for regulating processed foods. Dr. 31. Dr. 1991 – Jan. 2002). The joining of the National Drug Policy workforce with that of BFAD in Alabang. Torres (January 5. 1989. On September 1. 1999). drugs and other related products c. Adelisa Ramos.O. 102 (November 6. Kintanar (March 13. and Advocacy Division. General Functions: a.

rules and regulations pertaining to processed foods. Laguna. drugs and other related products to health rules and regulations and standards of quality. to the northwest by Parañaque City. ABOUT THE SITE LOCATION: MUNTINLUPA CITY The City of Muntinlupa (Filipino: Lungsod ng Muntinlupa) is the southernmost city in Metro Manila. It is bordered on the north by Taguig City. e. f.d.310. According to the 2000 census. evaluates and ensures compliance of manufacturers. Provides technical. the largest lake in the country. consultative and advisory services to and develops capability of filed offices on licensing and enforcement of laws. to the southwest by the municipality of Bacoor. 31 . Cavite. advertisers and retailers of processed foods. it has a population of 379. and by Laguna de Bay to the east. Advises the Secretary and Undersecretary of Health on matters pertaining to regulation of processed foods. drugs and other related products. by the municipality of San Pedro. It is nicknamed the "Emerald City of the Philippines". distributors. by Las Piñas City to the west. Monitors. drugs and other related products.

the Asian Hospital and Medical Center. part of the Second district of Muntinlupa City. the Filinvest Corporate City by the Filinvest Development Corporation. Prisoners used to call the prison as "Munti" after the place being erected.Muntinlupa City was once notoriously known as the home of the maximum security National Bilibid Prison. has undergone tremendous growth in the last decade. Some of the country's premier shopping centers. business. The town of Alabang. Because of two large scale commercial real estate development projects namely. and Ayala Land.'s Madrigal Business Park. where many of the wealthy and famous live. As the Southernmost city of Metro Manila. the towering Insular Life Towers. it has boomed in the last 10 years and acquired urban standards. where the country's most dangerous criminals were incarcerated. including the Alabang Town Center and the Festival Supermall. and younger residents often flock to other cities in Metro 32 . are important places of interest and landmarks of the city. industrial and commercial establishments. it has largely shaken-off this negative image to become one of the most progressive cities in the country. and the Northgate Business District. Inc. both of which changed the landscape of Muntinlupa City--from what was once vast fields of cow pasture in the late 1980s. into a super city that houses new residential. one of the country's biggest and most expensive residential communities. Nowadays. Muntinlupa is home to some of the best commercial establishments in the metropolis and is the location of Ayala Alabang Village. Nightlife is still relatively staid compared to those of its neighbors. which specializes in hosting information and technology industries.

Weather in Metro Manila is tropical in nature. or Manila. Metro Manila is considered not likely to experience serious rain attenuation because rainfall attenuation is measured in terms of its intensity at the time of its occurrence. It is characterized by extremely high temperature.Manila. Despite of having frequent rain in its rainy seasons. during the weekend to enjoy the night out. humidity and rainfall. rain attenuation as such is not considered sufficient to warrant special consideration in the design of the paths. Taguig. FACTORS AFFECTING THE SITE SELECTION At microwave frequencies up to the 6 and 8 GHz bands. except in very extreme situations. particularly Makati. which can be well illustrated by the fact that even 33 . which is marked for its high temperature.

during the coolest months of the year the temperature doesn't fall below 25 ° C. The magnitude of the effect is quite small at the lower frequencies from 2 to 8 GHz and is usually neglected.064 millimeters. temperature and humidity reaches their height thereby making the weather highly intolerable. Rainfall is a very essential factor conditioning the Weather of Metro Manila. The annual rainfall received by Metro Manila amounts to a maximum of 4. Some of the places receive heavy rainfall such as Baguio City and Surigao while rainfall is really low in places such as General Santos City. In fact it is the level of rainfall received by a particular place that decides its weather. Another important factor that influences the weather is a high level of humidity. Typhoons are known to develop in the Marianas and Caroline islands.57 miles is considered short compared to 20 or 30 miles thus atmospheric absorption could be a neglected. 34 . During the months of March to May. Atmospheric absorption due to water vapor may also exist. The path length of 14. much of Philippines's humidity and rainfall are the result of these typhoons. In fact. which is again interrelated with the high temperature. it is usually significant only on longer paths. The rate of precipitation varies from place to place depending upon the direction of the moisture-bearing winds and the location of the mountain systems. Another important factor that influences the weather of Metro Manila is typhoons. The average annual humidity of Philippines and Metro Manila remains in-between 71% to 85%. Since the amount of attenuation from this phenomenon is directly proportional to path length.

LATITUDE Technically.2. Latitude more loosely 35 . A region's latitude has a great effect on its climate and weather. Consequently. those two factors (climate and weather) greatly affect microwave links in certain instances. high latitude). The complementary angle of latitude is called the colatitude. latitude is an angular measurement in degrees (marked with °) ranging from 0° at the equator (low latitude) to 90° at the poles (90° N for the North Pole or 90° S for the South Pole.

determines tendencies in polar auroras. 36 . Latitude was calculated by observing with quadrant or astrolabe the inclination of the sun or of charted stars. Amerigo Vespucci was perhaps the first to proffer a solution. but longitude presented no such manifest means of study. LONGITUDE Mariners and explorers for most of history struggled to determine precise longitude. 3. prevailing winds. SITE A: DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH  14° 37' 4. after devoting a great deal of time and energy studying the problem during his sojourns in the New World.15" North  These values were obtained using the topographical map. and other physical characteristics of geographic locations.54" North SITE B: BUREAU OF FOOD AND DRUGS  14° 24' 51.

thus: 23° 27. and the observer needed to anticipate this event via an astronomical almanac. which was difficult to ascertain in foreign lands. rendering the technique useless on the rolling deck of a ship at sea. the seconds are specified with a decimal fraction.45833° E.By comparing the relative positions of the moon and Mars with their anticipated positions. 37 . An alternative representation uses degrees and minutes. A longitude is thus specified in sexagesimal notation as 23° 27′ 30" E. where parts of a minute are expressed in decimal notation with a fraction. Degrees may also be expressed as a decimal fraction: 23. Longitude is given as an angular measurement ranging from 0° at the prime meridian to +180° eastward and −180° westward. so longitude may also be expressed in this manner as a signed fraction of π (pi). Vespucci was able to crudely deduce his longitude. For higher precision. the angular measure may be converted to radians. One needed also to know the precise time.500′ E. Finally. Mars passing through the same right ascension as the moon). For calculations. But this method had several limitations: First. or an unsigned fraction of 2π. The Greek letter λ (lambda). Each degree of longitude is sub-divided into 60 minutes. is used to denote the location of a place on Earth east or west of the prime meridian. each of which divided into 60 seconds. it required a stable viewing platform. it required the occurrence of a specific astronomical event (in this case.

that East be positive -. a person needs to have a chronometer (watch) set to UTC and needs to determine local time by solar observation or astronomical observation.is consistent with a right-handed Cartesian coordinate system with the North Pole up. the convention of negative for East is also sometimes seen. the sun moves across the sky at a rate of 15 degrees per hour (360°/24 hours = 15° per hour).33" East 38 . Longitude at a point may be determined by calculating the time difference between that at its location and Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). This parameter is very important in calculating the azimuth from true north and the great earth distance. So if the time zone a person is in is three hours ahead of UTC then that person is near 45° longitude (3 hours × 15° per hour = 45°). however. In order to perform this calculation. A specific longitude may then be combined with a specific latitude (usually positive in the northern hemisphere) to give a precise position on the Earth's surface. The word near was used because the point might not be at the center of the time zone. Confusingly. The details are more complex than described here: see the articles on Universal Time and on the Equation of time for more details. The preferred convention -. SITE A: DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH  120° 58' 50. Since there are 24 hours in a day and 360 degrees in a circle. the West/East suffix is replaced by a negative sign in the western hemisphere. also the time zones are defined politically. so their centers and boundaries often do not lie on meridians at multiples of 15°.For calculations.

It is an advantage to construct a tower in which one or 39 . However. Ensuring a Line-of-Sight propagation is somewhat dependent to the elevation of the chosen site. It tends to follow a straight line in azimuth unless intercepted by structures in or near the path. SITE ELEVATION The microwave beam is influenced by the intermediate terrain between stations and by obstacles.SITE B: BUREAU OF FOOD AND DRUGS  121° 2' 29. 4. A higher elevation could minimize the tower height and so minimizing the cost of constructing a tower.35" East  These values were obtained using the topographical map. lower elevation means a higher tower is needed and increases the cost.

through hundreds and hundreds of years. This adds in assuring that the towers will see each other beyond any obstacles on its way.both of the terminals have a high elevation. was under water. Into the Bay there the river carried its load of mud and sand. the river forced a new channel. up to what's now Quezon City. The mouth of the river was a first somewhere near Pasig town. with many loops. In the beginning this delta was not a solid hunk of ground. under the cliffs. Through this triangle of ground that it had formed. Being barely 40 . Then. "a place of waves" and Makati. SITE A Manila took a long time to make. to reach the bay now farther off. Below is the topographical background of Site A and Site B. So. It rises from the North side of Laguna de Bay and flow West . The river thus divided the triangle into an upper side and lower side. The builder of manila was the Pasig River. The delta of the Pasig River is almost entirely occupied by the City of Manila. at that time.ward into Manila Bay. This became the site of the City of Manila. What is now its sea reached as far as the present towns of Mandaluyong. The ground thus formed at the mouth of a river is called a delta. This could mean that once upon a time Makati was seashore or seabed. The present Pasig is a stream 23 kilometers long. the highway called EDSA would have been a beach. "a place of tides". or into north and south. The line of the shore may have been along Guadalupe. And the mouth of the river was now almost exactly in the middle between these two halves. After hundreds of years these deposits of soil had piled up to form ground. All the land north of this. It is said that diggers in Makati often find seashells. Instead it was a jumble of small islands between which ran the rivulets that we call esteros. this foreshore began to till up until a triangle of ground appeared.

Laguna de Bay. the municipality of Bacoor. The higher ground beyond the delta was already inhabited. they would go under water during high tide or the monsoon rains. SITE B Muntinlupa City is the southern-most constituent city of the conurbation of Metro Manila. Manila is typically a sea that eventually became a land making it a relatively low area. In the dense forests of what is now Caloocan. Quezon City and San Juan roamed the aboriginal tribes. in Cavite to the southwest.above sea level. The city is delimited by Taguig City to the north. Department of Health. and to the east by the municipality of San Pedro in Laguna and the largest lake in the Philippines-. one of the six districts of Manila has an elevation of 32. Floods are still a problem in modern Manila because the land level has not raised much since the days when the Pasig delta was a jigsaw of tiny isles. Las Piñas City to the west.81 ft based from google earth software. the National Capital Region of the Philippines. which is located in Sta. The site of Manila was reclaimed from the sea . 41 . This only proves the topographical feature of Manila being barely above sea level. Parañaque City to the northwest. Cruz.and the sea is still trying to get it back.

in contrast is composed of Mountains. Moreover. Alabang has a ground elevation of 55. the name Muntinlupa may be translated to “mountain land”. is expanded by attaching the Tagalog word for land. Often there are restrictions related to flight safety governing 42 . must all be weighed in choosing an ideal tower size. “monte”. especially where there is no license fees charged the listener. 5.77 ft. according to the google earth. line of sight signal range (affected by terrain). Manila being barely above the sea level. Construction of Microwave tower in a place like this would be easy. where the Spanish term for mountain. The cost of a tower must be recoupled primarily through advertising carried on the broadcasts. Bureau of Food and Drugs located in Filinvest. Thus. and the costs of tower construction and maintenance versus height.Its name was derived from the topography of the land. Considerations such as population density. its high location is considered to be highly fit for a Microwave design site. TOWER HEIGHT For transmissions in the VHF and UHF range. Muntinlupa is the direct opposite of Manila in terms of topographic location. tower importance and value can vary depending on the area to be served. “lupa”. Muntinlupa.

a higher tower might not be useful if the signal is blocked by terrain or if all the listeners are in a concentrated area and a higher tower cannot pay for itself. Also.maximum allowable tower height. If it's too high then it's going to 'see' out over the horizon to a greater distance and pick up more environmental background noise and interference. To create an outdoor point-to-point or point-to-multipoint link requires no obstructions exist between the antennas that would cause degradation of the signal. e = height of obstruction 4 Received Signal Level (RSL) RSL = FM + PT 43 . Two shorter towers may be a better option then a single taller tower. The biggest obstruction is the Earth itself.1 (√d1d2/fnD) 2 Earth Bulge at k = 4/3 h = (d1d2)/2 3 Total Elevation of Obstruction (E) E = e + F1 + h Where. the further apart two radios are the more the curve of the Earth becomes an issue. "Higher" is not "better. If it's too low then it won't be able to properly 'see' its partner and the connection will suffer." FORMULA GUIDE: 1 First Fresnel Zone Radius Fn = 72. Since the Earth is curved. An outdoor wireless network system antenna should be installed at its optimal height.

) 12 Antenna Diameter B = Antilog [ (G – 20 log F(GHz) – 7. 10 Waveguide loss (rigid/flexible) WGL (rigid) = waveguide ht x dB attenuation per ft.Where. + 20 ft.5 20 log F(GHz) + 20 log B(ft.6 + 20 log F(GHz) + 20 log (miles) Rigid Waveguide = tower ht.5)/20] 44 . 11 Parabolic Antenna Gain G = 7. FM = Fade Margin PT = Practical Threshold 5 Received Signal Level (RSL) RSL = Pt + Total gain – Total loss 6 Total loss Total loss = FSL + Total fixed loss 7 Total fixed loss Total fixed loss = waveguide loss + connector loss + circulator loss + radome loss 8 Path Attenuation or Free-Space Loss (FSL) 9 Rigid Waveguide FSL = 96.

81 ft = 10 m Site B = 55.58 miles D = 14.77 ft = 17 m d1 = 12 miles d2 = 2.58 miles  45 .13 Net Path loss Net Path loss = Total gain – Total loss 14 Tower height Tower height = parabola height + ½(parabola diameter) 15 Radius of the nth Fresnel zone Fn = F1√n CALCULATIONS • Tower Height Calculations using Triangle Method: This calculation uses two important parameters to obtain the desired tower height and these are the parabola height and the parabola diameter. Parabola Height Calculations To compute for the parabola height the following calculations were made: Site Elevation: Site A = 32.

Earth Bulge at k-factor = 4/3: h = (d1 d2)/2 = [(12 mi.)(2.58 mi.)]/2 ⇒ h = 15.48 ft

First Fresnel Zone Radius: F1 = 72.1 ____ √d1d2 fn D The frequency of operation was chosen using the CCIR Recommendations. In this design 7.7 GHz is used, which is the center frequency of the 7.55 GHz to 7.85 GHz range Operational Fixed. _________________ F1 = 72.1 √ (12 mi.)(2.58 mi.) (7.7 GHz)(14.58 mi.) ⇒ F1 = 37.86 ft

Total Elevation of Obstruction (E): E = e + F1 + h + approximate obstruction height Where, e = elevation of obstruction e = 32 m. = 104.99 ft. E = 104.99 ft. + 37.86 ft. + 15.48 ft. + 32.81 ⇒ E = 191.14 ft. Now let H = parabola height at site A & B B = elevation of site B + H A = elevation of site A + H


E = maximum allowable obstruction

(B – A) D (55.77 ft. + H) – (32.81 ft. + H) (14.58 mi.)(5280) 22.96 76, 982.4 Solving for H:

= =

(E – A) d1 191.14 ft. – (32.81 ft. + H) (12 mi.)(5280) = 158.33 - H 63,360

H = 12,188,623.39 – 1,454,745.6 76,982.4 ⇒ H = 139.43 ft. Therefore, the parabola height that will be used for calculating the tower height is 139.43 ft. Parabola Diameter Calculations: Based from the receiver and transmitter specification sheets, the following values were obtained. These are important parameters in the calculation. Transmitter Power (Pt) = 25 dBm Practical Threshold (PT) = -74 dBm All the computations in obtaining the parabola diameter are listed below: Path Attenuation or Free Space Loss (FSL) = 96.6 + 20 log FGHz + 20 logDmiles FSL = 96.6 + 20 log (7.7 GHz) + 20 log (14.58 miles) ⇒ FSL = 137.60 dB 47

Length of Rigid Waveguide = parabola height + 20 ft. = 139.43 ft. + 20 ft. ⇒ Length of Rigid Waveguide = 159.43

Estimated Length of Flexible Waveguide is 5 ft for both Site A and Site B. Waveguide Loss (WGL): o WGL (Rigid) = length × attenuation per unit length = 159.43 ft. × (2.7 dB / 100 ft.) ⇒ WGL (Rigid) = 4.3046 dB o WGL (Flexible) = 5 ft × (0.12 dB / 1 foot) ⇒ WGL (Flexible) = 0.6 dB

Total Fixed Losses = WGL + connector loss + circular loss + radomes loss = (4.3046 dB + 0.6 dB) + 0.5 dB + 0.5 dB ⇒ Total Fixed Losses = 5.9046 dB

Total Losses = FSL + Total Fixed Losses = 137.60 dB + 2(5.9046 dB) ⇒ Total Losses = 149.41 dB


Received Signal Level = Fade Margin + Practical Threshold  Since the system must achieve a reliability of 99.99% which amounts to only 53 minutes outage time per year, the value of the Fade Margin that will be used in the design is 38 dBm which is a typical value for most microwave systems. RSL = FM + PT = 38 dBm + (-74 dBm) ⇒ RSL = -36 dBm

Also, RSL = Pt + total gain – total loss Therefore, total gain = RSL – Pt + total loss = -36 dBm – 25 dBm + 149.41 dB ⇒ Total Gain = 88.41 dB

Total Gain (GA) for Site A (Theoretical Gain) GA = 88.41 dB / 2 = 44.205 dB The Gain of the parabolic antenna is given by the formula: G = 7.5 + 20 log FGHz + 20 log Bft Therefore, the antenna diameter (BA) on Site A could be computed as

follows: BA = antilog [(GA – 20 log F – 7.5) / 20] = antilog [(44.205 dB – 20 log (7.7GHz) – 7.5) / 20] 49

18 dB  Diameter (BB) of Parabolic Antenna in Site B: BB = antilog [(43.5 + 20 log (7.89 ft.64 dB – 45.7) + 20 log (8) ⇒ GB = 43.23 dB ⇒ GB = 43.5) / 20] ⇒ BB = 7.23 dB *This is just an estimated value of the actual gain.29 dB *Again this value is just a close estimate of the actual antenna gain.5 + 20 log (7.90 ft.  Theoretical Gain (GB) of Antenna in Site B: GB = Total Theoretical Gain – Actual Gain of Antenna A GB = 85.7) + 20 log (10) ⇒ GA = 45. (Standard Available Size)  Actual Gain of the Antenna in Site B: GB = 7. BB ≡ 8 ft. BA ≡ 10 ft.⇒ BA = 8.18 dB – 20 log (7. (Standard Available Size)  Actual Gain of the Antenna in Site A: GA = 7. The computed parabola diameters are as follows: 50 .7GHz) – 7.

37 ft.43 ft. • Tower Height Calculation using Reflection Point Calculation: The following calculations were done to obtain another possible tower height for the design.43 ft. + ½ (10 ft. the tower heights to be used for the two sites are as follows: Site A = 139.14 ft. + ½ (8 ft. Minimum Antenna Height: From the Radio Path Profile and Data Calculation Sheet. which is 12 miles from Site A. the maximum elevation of obstruction is 191. Site B = 8 ft. T The total tower height could be computed using the formula: Tower Height = Parabola Height (H) + ½ Parabola Diameter Therefore.43 ft. Site B = 139. This could be 51 .) = 144.43 ft.Site A = 10 ft.) = 143. 135.

7B pp.45 and η = 0.33 ft Site B Antenna Height (h2) = 191. (14.64 = 0.14 ft – 55.considered as the critical point in the path where proper clearance must be established.)² = 0.14 ft ad the minimum antenna heights for Site A and Site B are as follows: Site A Antenna Height (h1) = 191.55 – 0.55 – 0. (14. the minimum antenna elevation in the design is 191. Therefore.77 ft = 135.55 – 0.)² = 135.  X= Computing for reflectivity (η) h1 D² = 158.20 (GTE Lenkurt) *intersection of x and y is in the point between η = 0.55 – η Solving for η: η = 0.74 Y= h2 D² Referring to fig.58mi.81 ft = 158. we could compute for the required antenna height.55 – 0.14 ft – 32.74 0.50 Interpolate: 0.37 ft.33 ft.80 .37 ft Using the minimum antenna heights for Site A and Site B as initial values.50 = 0.038 52 0.58mi.

means that the d1 and d2 should be increased or decreased by an unknown amount of x to be able to balance the equation and get the right value for the reflectivity η 158.21 and x3 = -0.46 mi.12 +x) -x² .37 7.628 = 0 Solving using equation function in the calculator.45 ⇒ Not equal.33 7.12 h2 d2 17.33 7. = 7.49 ≠ 15.58 mi.92x + 261.46 mi.12 mi. balance the equation for k = 4/3: h1 d1 158.x 7.512(14.46 = 2 7.12 + x Simplifying: 4x³ .24x + 220. we get the values of: x1 = 19. – 7.387.0456 7.12 + x) ² 135.46 .2.46 d1 = 2 7.η = 0. x2 = -18.512 d1 = ηD = 0.) = 7.04x² .92 -2x 14.12 + x 2 316.12 2 d2 135.24 + 2x 2(7.1. d2 = D – d1 = 14.14.58 mi.3129 53 .46 –x) -x² + 14.74 – (7.66 – (7.46 .0296x + 433.7.0084 = 14.x = 2 = 2(7.03.37 2 .46 – x) ² 270.

14.  Computing for Fn x1 6.7195 ft.58 mi. Fn – 108.58 mi.4554 ft. = 10. 22.8071 mi. 22.46 – (-0. = 6.) 2 ⇒ EB = 26.  Point of Reflection: d1 = 7.4554 ft.91 ft. = 6.)(6.12 + (-0.7729mi. d2 = 7. = x2 14. = (158.3129) = 7.37 ft. Fn + 26. Fn + EB – 135.58 mi.96 ft.8071 mi.3129) = 6.Since the other two values will result to extraneous results we will use the value of x3 to balance the equation and obtain the correct value of the reflectivity. 54 .  Earth Bulge at k = 4/3 EB = (7.7729 mi. 14.58 mi.33 – 135. x1 6.96 ft.8071 mi. 14.37)ft. – 135.8071 mi.8071 mi.37 ft.8071 mi.

8071mi.⇒ Fn = 119.63 ft.7 GHz)(14. therefore the receive signal will not result in out-of-phase for direct and reflected ray and the assumed total elevation at the beginning is correct. Computing for the nth Fresnel Zone:  Fn = F1√n ____________________ 119.63 ft.84  Since the Fresnel number at the point of reflection is odd.58 mi) ⇒ n = 5.)(7.1√ (6.) (7. = 72. √n 55 .7729 mi.

191. ANALYSIS: The triangle method of calculating the tower height. it is more economical if we will choose the values obtained from the triangle method calculation. as shown on the table above. provides a better clearance compared to the point of reflection calculation.24 ft. Also. 199.20 ft. Using Triangle Method A B 177. since the elevation in Site A (DOH) is relatively lower than that of Site B (BFAD).14 ft. 56 .COMPARISON OF TOTAL ANTENNA ELEVATION COMPUTED USING THE TWO DIFFERENT METHODS OF CALCULATION Site Using Reflection Point Calculation 191. This is mainly due to the fact that the terrain along the path is not purely reflective.14 ft.

the decision on whether a tower will be guyed or selfsupporting will be dictated by the site selected. guyed towers are less expensive. The best approach is to consult an engineer with tower design expertise prior to land acquisition. it may still make economical sense to consider a self-supporting tower. if the desired location is in a downtown or metropolitan area where land is very expensive. the differential in price will increase greatly. considering the height and antenna loading requirements. land contour and even the effects of nearby structures or mountains may alter the true land requirements. as in this case where the land area is very small. Solid rod towers have lower overall wind-catching surface area. However. for the same application. it would be advisable to contact several tower manufacturers in order to establish the base size of the tower. the tower manufacturer should be able to custom engineer the structure to accommodate the antenna tower height. above 100 feet high. pipe and angle-constructed towers are wider at the base than solid rod-type towers. 57 . antenna loading and wind load requirements while maintaining a desired base size dimension. INFO BITS Caution: A common error in tower site selection is inadequate land availability. This difference relates to the wind loading imparted on the structure itself. thus reducing the loading of the structure and permitting a smaller base dimension. As the height is increased. As a general rule. TOWER TYPE In most cases. If the tower required is to be self-supporting. Soil type. Generally.6. Before selecting a site for a self-supporting tower. Land areas required for self-supporting towers can vary by the tower design used by the various manufacturers.

.  Referring to the table for the tower height using self-supporting tower (Lenkurt 25B-3 leg Self Supported Tower). Cruz. In site B. it can accommodate a self supporting tower. for the Bureau of Food and Drugs (BFAD).6 ft. a self-supporting tower is also used since enough space is available. This is obtained by subtracting the approximate building height. the rupture area is 17. and height is 29. width is 33. Manila has a rooftop with sufficient space. 58 .Since the Department of Health (DOH) in Sta.3 ft.3 ft for a 100 ft tower. Using self-supporting in both sites would not affect the design cost that much because the computed tower height in those sites could not be considered as high.

8 50.4 28.8 36.5 32.2 54.1 23.0 W 17.Approximate Area Required for 3-Leg Self Supported Tower R H W APPROXIMATE DIMENSIONS (Feet) Tower Height 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 R 9.4 26.3 19.6 29.6 64.3 26.8 37.6 48.5 58.6 30.4 21.5 13.1 H 16.4 34.7 17.6 37. AZIMUTH FROM TRUE NORTH 59 .9 24.3 32.4 38.0 73.3 44.8 59.1 41.4 Height of tower used for both Sites 7.1 66.8 15.8 70.0 61.2 33.2 42 46.7 62.8 54.4 26.0 51.4 30.

64” log cot w Then.865299452 -0.35” ∆λ ∆λ = = 0° 3’ 14° 37’ 4.02” Convert to seconds 219.15” + (12’ 13.02” / 2) (0.33 sec sec =φ smaller + ∆ λ / 2 = 14° 24’ 51.340483775 2.002778000 = = -0.84” 0.39” = 733.536127599 73° 46’ 32.02 φ m Longitude 120° 58’ 50.014089922 2. w C = = = Calculate (slide rule adequate) ∆ λ /2 (sin φ m) (0° 3’ 39.25” ] 60 .The following describes the method for making the accurate calculations of the true azimuths of the design since we already obtained the end coordinates (latitudes and longitudes) of the microwave path. Latitude Site A: DOH Site B: BFAD Difference 39.250651478) 0’ 27.33” 121° 2’ 29.329171853 Subtract Add log Bm/Am (1) = log cos φ log ∆ λ m sec log ∆ φ sec = = = 2.15” ∆φ ∆φ = 00° 12’ 13.54” 14° 24’ 51.39” / 2) = 14° 30’ 57.

6” (1) Log Bm/Am and Log Am from the table of GTE Lenkurt C32. INFO BITS Azimuth is a mathematical concept defined as the angle. astronomy. for tabulated latitude nearest to φ m.90° 00’ 00” ± w ± C Az at W = .64” 0’ 27. 61 . referring to the ways or directions a person faces.64” 0’ 27. mapping. The word azimuth is derived from the Arabic ‫'( السمت‬as-sumūt') which means the ways. This concept is used in many practical applications including navigation. usually measured in degrees (°).11” 270° 00’ 00” ± w ± C Az at E = + 73° 46’ 32.25” 196° 13’ 54.25” 16° 13’ 0. mining and artillery. between a reference plane and a point.73° 46’ 32.

8. the farther the link. which uses a 7.370529874 = -3.57543329 ADD 62 . the lower the frequency.509641 3.163621474 = 14.7 GHz frequency of the CCIR recommended frequency. In this design.014089922 = 2.91 SUBTRACT SUBTRACT ADD m sec ⇒ Smtrs log Smtrs log 0. The design is considered as an urban type microwave installation due to its geographical location. As a general rule in microwave link system.2069084 1.46 kilometers. the link extends 14.370529874 = 23. Microwave link is a radio frequency transmission exclusively between two geographical stations using extremely high frequency separated by distance in kilometers or in miles. PATH LENGTH As being described in the previous discussions.326393852 log Am (1) = 8.553777022 4.470.58 miles or 23.000621 log Smiles = ⇒ Smil es 4.816752852 log cos w log Smtrs = = -0.340483775 2. The Path length of microwave link can be computed as follows: log cos φ log ∆ λ = -0.

It is known as the path attenuation. there is. diffraction and absorption do not exist. 63 . it provides a convenient reference point for calculations. It is important in this point to discuss in detail all concepts involving path attenuation. These gains may be easily applied to obtain the net loss from the waveguide out at the transmitter to the waveguide in at the receiver. where there are no ground influences or obstructions. An isotropic antenna is defined as one. Path loss charts for microwave transmission are customarily prepared on the basis of free space loss between isotropic antennas. in other words. which radiates or receives energy uniformly in all directions. spreading due to the distance and absorption while passing through media over vacuum. This is a very important factor in the establishment of a feasible microwave link between the chosen sites because the distance and frequency of operation must also be considered. Definition Free space loss is defined as the loss that would obtain between two isotropic antennas in free space. PATH ATTENUATION Path attenuation or also known as free space attenuation is the decrease in intensity of electromagnetic waves resulting from slowing down.9. for a given frequency and distance. and antenna gains are specified with respect to the gain of an isotropic antenna. This loss increases with both distance and frequency. Although the atmosphere and terrain over which a radio beam travels have a modifying effect on the loss in a radio path. where blocking. as mentioned earlier a characteristic loss. refraction. Although such an antenna is physically an unrealizable. This is often referred to as the net loss for the path.

This relationship represents the loss between a point source and an antenna whose “gain” in terms of A is equal to 4π A/λ 2. where λ is wavelength. from which the energy is transmitted equally in all directions. INFO BITS The decrease in energy between transmitting and receiving antenna terminals is generally expressed in decibel. Only a small amount of the energy. the loss between two isotropic antenna becomes: 64 . which is radiated from the transmitting antenna. it would appear as a sphere of radius d. the energy intercepted would bear a relationship to the total energy from the source as A bears to the total area of the sphere. The remainder is spread over areas of the wavefront outside the capture area of the receiving antenna. in accordance with the inversesquare law. Electromagnetic waves are attenuated as they travel outward from the source and are directly proportional to the square of the distance traveled. If one were to intercept the energy impinging on a small portion of that surface with an area of A. actually reaches the receiving antenna. which is 4π d2.Nature of Losses in Free Space Radio energy is lost in space primarily because of the spreading of energy in the wavefront as it travels through space. If one were to look instantaneously at the surface of constant phase at some point d distance from the source. Attenuation = 10 log (Pt / Pr) Free Space Formula The derivation of the formula for free space loss involves the isotropic radiator. By appropriate substitutions and converting d to miles and frequency in GHz as an inverse function of wavelength.

the designers were able to compute the appropriate value of the path attenuation. FSL (Free Space Loss) is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between isotropic radiators. 58 miles 65 . in dB F = frequency in GHz D = path distance. because the distance is given in miles and the frequency in GHz the correct formula to be used is: Path Attenuation = 96. Since the given parameters were already obtained from the path profile such as the path distance and frequency of operation. miles + 20 log FMHz = 37. Other formulas are: FSL = (4π Dm)2/ λ m2 FSL (dB) = 32.7 GHz D = 14. As a direct observation.40 + 20 log Dkm + 20 log FGHz = 36. Doubling the distance between the receiver and transmitter quadruples attenuation or increase FSL by 6 dB. in miles INFO BITS Path attenuation is the reduction of intercepted energy due to spreading of electromagnetic energy resulting from expanding spherical area of the propagated wave.6 + 20 log F + 20 log D where: A = free space attenuation between isotropics. which is very essential in the microwave path data calculations.80 + 20 log Dn.6 + 20 log FGHz + 20 log Dmiles Given: F = 7.A = 96. the calculations are just direct substitutions to the proper formula.miles + 20 log FMHz Calculation Using the given formula.58 + 20 log Dst.44 + 20 log Dkm + 20 log FMHz = 92.

60 dB The total path attenuation is 137. the path attenuation could also be approximated as 137. Using Figure 13 of Lenkurt.6 + 20 log 7. 66 .7 + 20 log 14.57 ⇒ Path Attenuation = 137.Computation: Path Attenuation = 96. This will become part of the Total loss of the system.60 dB.60 dB.

Attenuation is approximately 2.7 dB / 100 ft. Allows the antenna to be remotely installed away from the transmitter and receiver. Rigid rectangular waveguide is the most commonly used. transitions can be supplied for use with WR 159.5 dB / 100 ft. 6 GHz bands 7-8 GHz 11 GHz 12-13 GHz 67 . The dimensions of the cross section are selected such that electromagnetic waves can propagate within the interior of the guide (hence the name “waveguide”).5 dB / 100 ft. It has a loss of approximately 2. WR 90 is normally used. with oxygen-free. RIGID WAVEGUIDE Waveguide and transmission line is important not only for its loss characteristics. This is the best choice to be used for the design implementation of the microwave link. high conductivity copper (OFHC) the recommended material. due to high towers. In cases where. but also for the degree of impedance matching attainable. Attenuation is approximately 3.4 dB / 100 ft. INFO BITS Waveguide – is a hollow conductive tube. The latter becomes extremely important with high-density systems having long waveguide runs. WR 112 is normally used. Attenuation is approximately 4. a reduced transmission loss is required. usually rectangular in cross section but sometimes circular or elliptical.0 dB / 100 ft. which enter into the path loss calculation. because of the effect on echo distortion noise. The types and approximate characteristics according to Lenkurt are as follows: 4 GHz band WR 229 is standard for most installations.10. which has a loss of about 1. It has a loss of approximately 0. WR 75 is normally used.85 dB/100 ft. WR 137 is normally used.

this value will be used for the calculation of total Waveguide loss in item no.The frequency of operation is 7.43 ft. × 2. WGL (Rigid) = 4.43 ft. therefore Andrew Type WR 112 rectangular waveguide is used for the design.43 ft.7 GHz. Waveguide (Rigid) = 159.3046 dB. = 139. the computed value is accurate with a very minimal deviation. Lengths of 159. Calculation Waveguide (Rigid) = Parabola Height + 20 ft. 12 The rigid waveguide that will be used in the design is an Andrew straight section for WR112 with operating frequency of 7. were used for both sites.125 GHz to 8. Waveguide Loss (WGL) WGL (Rigid) = length × attenuation per unit distance = 159.43 ft + 20 ft. Therefore. 68 .5 GHz that is closely equal to the specifications given in the table above.7 dB / 100 ft.

1 dB / 1 foot. Calculation Flexible Waveguide = 5 ft.6 dB for each antenna (Site A&B) and will be used in item no. A flexible waveguide is also used extensively in microwave test equipment.12 db / 1 foot (see specification sheet). The lengths of the flexible guide were estimated to a degree in which proper allowances were considered. an estimated length of 5 ft of flexible waveguide for both sites were used in the calculations and recorded in item no. Short pieces of flexible waveguide are used in microwave systems when several transmitters and receivers are interconnected to a complex combining or separating unit. The typical value of attenuation for a flexible waveguide is 0. 12 for the calculation of total Waveguide Loss 69 . × 0. In our design we are using a flexible waveguide with attenuation of 0.12 dB / 1 foot = 0.11. The outside is covered with a soft dielectric coating (often rubber) to keep the waveguide air. (Site B) WGL (Flexible) = length × attenuation per unit distance = 5 ft. FLEXIBLE WAVEGUIDE A flexible waveguide consists of spiral-wound ribbons of brass or copper. 11 of the Microwave Path Data Calculation Sheet.and watertight. (Site A) Flexible Waveguide = 5 ft. Since the transmitter will be housed at the top of the specified buildings along with the towers.

WAVEGUIDE LOSS This is the total waveguide loss combining the computed losses of both rigid and flexible waveguide. Calculation Waveguide Loss = WGL (Rigid) + WGL (Flexible) For Site A: Waveguide Loss = 4.3046B + 0. and flexible sections to a minimum.9046 dB For Site B: Waveguide Loss = 4. for both antenna systems for site A and B.9046 dB of waveguide loss will be recorded in the data calculation sheet. or introduction of foreign material into the guides can create severe discontinuities. since even very slight misalignments. dents. an accompanying 4. INFO BITS In all types of waveguide systems it is desirable to keep the number of bends. twists.6 dB ⇒ Waveguide Loss = 4.3046dB + 0. It is also vitally important to use great care in installation.9046 dB Hence.6 dB ⇒ Waveguide Loss = 4. 70 .12.

5 dB per end is a safe. Connector Loss is a catchall item for small losses associated with pressure windows. Therefore this value is also a close and suitable estimate for the use in this design project. Connector Loss (Site A) = 0. probably conservative.5 dB 71 . bends and flanges. It is observed in both permanent splices and optical connectors. estimate for most waveguide runs.13. According to Lenkurt. The major contributors are mutual core displacement and fiber axis tilt. CONNECTOR LOSS Definition Energy loss encountered at connectors in optical fiber transmission systems.5 dB Connector Loss (Site B) = 0. The value of 0.

The beautiful thing about circulators is that they are non-reciprocal. In a reciprocal device the same fraction of energy that flows from port 1 to port 2 would occur to energy flowing the opposite direction. and from the antenna (port 2) to the 72 .14. and "circulator" and "duplexer" both have a "u". meaning that is duplexes two signals into one channel (e. What are circulators good for? To make a great antenna interfaces for a transmit/receive system. energy into port 2 exits port 3. from port 2 to port 1. Energy can be made to flow from the transmitter (port 1) to the antenna (port 2) during transmit. and energy into port 3 exits port 1. You can remember the correct definitions because "filter" and "diplexer" both have an "i" in them.g. This is not to be confused with the term "diplexer" which is refers to a filter arrangement where two frequency bands are separated into two channels from a single three-terminal device. CIRCULATOR OR HYBRID LOSS Definition A circulator is a ferrite device (ferrite is a class of materials with strange magnetic properties) with usually three ports. A lot of people mix up these terms. The selection of ports is arbitrary. That is. transmit and receive into an antenna). A circulator is sometimes called a "duplexer". energy into port 1 predominantly exits port 2. and circulators can be made to "circulate" either clockwise (CW) or counterclockwise (CCW).

receiver (port 3) during receive. and are purely an RF component (they don't work at DC). They usually operate over no more than an octave bandwidth. if you terminate the third arm in a perfect 50 ohms. Circulator rule of thumb! A circulator's isolation is roughly equal to its return loss. the clockwise isolation you will measure in a CCW circulator won't be better than the stray signal that is bouncing off the loaded port due to the reflected signal due to its mismatch to 50 ohms. 14 73 . Think about it. Circulators have low electrical losses and can be made to handle huge powers. and should always be specified to the same requirement. well into kilowatts. Since there are no circulators or hybrids external to the equipment based on the design. no entry is made in item no. A circulator with 20 dB isolation will need to have a return loss of 20 dB.

This becomes very significant in situations where very low VSWR’s are needed to control echo distortion.5 dB Radome Loss (Site B) = 0. and if these coincide with a used RF channel frequency.15. In some cases radomes have been found to create highly reflective spikes at particular frequencies. RADOME LOSS Definition Horn reflector and shrouded types of antenna usually includes integral radome whose losses are taken into account in the manufacturer’s published gain figures. Radomes also can be expected to degrade the VSWR as compared to that of the antenna without radomes. Radome Loss (Site A) = 0. therefore this value is a considerable estimate to be used in the calculations of total fixed losses.5 dB for a typical unheated radome in the high frequency bands. the results can be a high degree of distortion in that channel. Amount of losses may vary from less than 0.5 dB 74 .

circulator loss and radome loss.9046dB + 0.5 dB + 0. Calculation Total Fixed Losses = waveguide loss + connector loss + circulator loss + radome loss For Site A: Total Fixed Losses = 4. connector loss.5 dB ⇒ Total Fixed Losses = 5.9046 dB + 0.5 dB ⇒ Total Fixed Losses = 5.16.9046 dB For Site B: Total Fixed Losses = 4.5 dB + 0.9046B 75 . TOTAL FIXED LOSSES Definition The total fixed losses could be obtained by summing the total waveguide loss.

17. Calculation Total Loss = Path Attenuation + Total Fixed Losses (Site A and B) = 137.41 dB 76 .9046 dB + 5. TOTAL LOSSES Definition The total loss that will occur in the system design is computed by adding the path attenuation and the total fixed losses.60 dB + 5.9046 dB ⇒ Total Loss = 149.

43 ft 77 . 5) ⇒ Parabola Height = 139.18. Calculation Refer to the calculation of tower height (Item no. PARABOLA HEIGHT Definition This is the apparent height of the tower without the parabola diameter.

For Site A: BA = 8. PARABOLA DIAMETER Definition For the link design to obtain the desired net path loss between transmitter output and receiver input. the theoretical and chosen standard size for the parabola diameter (B) are as follows. Calculation Based on the calculations presented in item no. 5 (Tower Height Calculations). (Standard available size) 78 .19. the antenna system must have enough gain. ⇒ BB ≈ 8 ft.90 ft. (Standard available size) For Site B: BB = 7. proper choices of the parabola diameter to be used must be considered.89 ft. ⇒ BA ≈ 10 ft. To achieve a considerable gain for the design.

since the latter is a function of waveguide length as well as impedance match. and over certain ranges of separations. a periscope antenna system is used. For the purpose of discussion. Gain is a complex function of the antenna and reflector sizes and separation. With suitable choices of combinations. the frequency. Periscope Antenna System In many cases. 79 . It consists of a parabolic radiator. since the antenna system used in both Sites is a Parabolic Shielded Antenna and not a Periscope Antenna that uses a reflector. below is brief description of this antenna system. usually where considerable height is required (which is not the case in the design) or waveguide runs are difficult to make. PARABOLA REFLECTOR SEPARATION No entry was made on these items. antennareflector combinations can give net gains equal to.20 – 22 REFLECTOR HEIGHT. A periscope system allows waveguide runs to be kept short. and the geometric relationships. REFLECTOR SIZE. illuminating a reflector at the top of the tower. or even greater than. the gain of the parabola alone. thus reducing losses and improving the situation with respect to echo distortion. generally at or near ground or building level. thus in effect eliminating most of the losses due to waveguide.

and the receiver strength needed to give the required noise performance and fade margin. The calculations were formalized and recorded in the path data sheet. circulators. off-axis radiation and sensitivity patterns. side-lobe magnitudes. the unfaded path attenuation. By focusing the radio energy into a narrow beam that can be directed toward the receiving antenna. hybrids. in a manner analogous to that of a telescope. Impedance match (usually expressed as VSWR. though return loss is a much more useful parameter) across the band to be used is of great importance in situations where echo distortion is significant.23. can increase the effective received power by a similar amount. Although gain is the primary characteristic. the transmitting antenna can increase the effective radiated power by several orders of magnitude over that of a non-directional antenna. The receiving antenna also. fixed losses of waveguides. and polarization discrimination are of great significance for frequency coordination purposes. and any other items between the transmitter and its antenna. Nevertheless. there are other antenna characteristics that are of importance in the communication systems design. radomes. Antenna beam-width. it is basic that the antenna system must have enough gain so that the desired net path loss between transmitter output and receiver input is attained. and between the receiver and its antenna. 80 . The required antenna gains are determined by a calculation which involves a knowledge of the transmitter output power. ANTENNA SYSTEM GAIN Antenna System Discussion Highly directional antennas are used with point-to-point microwave systems. Consequently. it is no longer sufficient merely to select an antenna system for optimum gain efficiency.

Available in a wide variety of sizes. because of the more complex feedhorns. Parabolic Antennas This type of antenna consists of a parabolic dish. which is a theoretical omnidirectional antenna. the gain of an antenna (either transmitting or receiving) is a function of the effective area and is given by: G = 10 log10 (4π A e / λ 2) where G = gain over isotropic A = area of antenna aperture e = antenna efficiency λ = wavelength at operating frequency. 6’. illuminated by a feed horn at its focus. or 0 dB. in same units as A Since both antenna systems in site A and site B will use parabolic shielded antennas. with diameters of 2’. Others have dual polarized feeds (DP). with separate V and H connectors. 81 . with a gain which by definition would be 1. 8’. 10’ and sometimes 12’ and 15’ in most frequency bands The simplest form is with single plane polarized feed.45 GHz in the design). the following paragraphs discusses some descriptive comments about parabolic antennas and the accompanying formulas regarding the gain calculations for this type of antenna and also a short description of high performance or shrouded antennas.The gain of an antenna is expressed in dB relative to the gain of an isotropic antenna. which can be either vertical (V) or horizontal (H). At a given operating frequency (which is 12. 4’. DP’s usually have a bit less gain than the single polarized.

82 .05 to 1).5 Where: G = gain over isotropic. In the higher bands (11 to 13 GHz particularly). and with cross-band and other complex feed horn systems. the gain of a parabolic antenna is given by: G = 20 log10 B + 20 log10 F + 7. Calculation Using the formula: (Refer to tower height calculation) Actual gain of the antenna in site A: ⇒ GA = 45. With 55% efficiency. actual gain should be determined from the manufacturer published specifications. but front-to-back ratios on the order of 45 to 50 dB maximum are generally not adequate for back-to-back transmission (or reception) of the same frequency in both directions.Off beam discrimination is reasonably good.29 dB These are just close estimates to the actual value of the antenna gain. The gain efficiencies of most commercially available parabolic antennas are in the order of 55 to 65%. and actual gains may easily be 1 to 2 dB lower than that given by the equation. in dB F = frequency in GHz B = parabola diameter in feet Although this formula could be use for estimating purposes.23 dB Actual gain of the antenna in site B: ⇒ GB = 43. the efficiencies can be often considerably lower than given above. Often available with special low VSWR feeds (on the order of 1.

Low Band 43. Parabolic Shielded Antenna Gain Specification: Operating Frequency Band 7. the actual gain for the antenna systems in Site B is 44.744 dB Therefore.7 GHz.1 dBi For the design’s operating frequency that is 7.500 GHz Gain.1 N – 44. Low Band 44. Mid Band Gain.1 0.Referring to the antenna specification sheet. Referring to the antenna specification sheet.744 dB. the actual antenna gain in Site B is: Andrew 8 ft.5 dBi 44.125 7.125 – 7. Mid Band Gain.750 GHz Gain.8 – 44.9 dBi 42.8 dBi 44.125 N – 44. Top Band Gain. Parabolic Shielded Antenna Gain Specification: Operating Frequency Band 7.750 – 7.7 – 7. Top Band Gain.125 – 8.3 dBi 83 .7 GHz 7.644 44.1 ⇒ N = = = 44. the actual antenna gain in Site A is: Andrew 10 ft. the gain could be computed by interpolation: Let N = Gain at 7.6 dBi 42.

This is the primary reason why the designers have chosen this type of antenna.7 GHz. except that they include a cylindrical built-out shield which helps to improve the front-to-back ratio.3 ⇒ N = = = 43. the gain could be computed by interpolation: Let N = Gain at 7.5436 42.84 dB Therefore. They are substantially bulkier. Gain efficiency is usually slightly poorer than that of the simple parabolas.3 0. and the wide-angle radiation discrimination.3 N – 42. heavier. sufficient in many cases.84 dB. since this design is an initial step in creating a multi-hop system connecting the different government agencies.5 – 7. and more expensive than the ordinary parabolas.For the design’s operating frequency that is 7. However. 84 .125 7.7 – 7.6 – 42. High Performance or Shrouded Antennas These are similar to the common parabolic types.125 N – 42.7 GHz 8. Shrouded antennas are usually available as either single polarized or double polarized. they can provide front-to-back ratios on the order of 65 dB. The antenna in the design is single polarized. the actual gain for the antenna systems in Site B is 42. to allow back-to-back transmission of the same frequency in both directions.

84 dB ⇒ Total Gain = 87. TOTAL GAINS Definition The total gain of the system design is the summation of the two antenna system gains in Site A and Site B as obtained from the manufacturer’s specification sheet.744 dB + 42.24.584 dB 85 . Calculation Total Gain = Gain of Antenna A + Gain of Antenna B = 44.

Total Loss = Net Path Loss = 87.584 dB . Calculation Net Path Loss = Total Gain .149. NET PATH LOSS Definition The Net Path Loss of the system design can be computed by subtracting the total losses from the overall system gain.826 dB 86 .25.41 dB -61.

The radio antenna's design "focuses" the signal toward the horizon. which reduces some of the TPO to the antenna by both resistance and by radiating a small part of the signal. creating gain and increasing the ERP. and is the most interesting because microwave devices offer the highest efficiency of conversion between DC-electricity and microwave radiative power. This is not the amount of power that a radio station reports as its power. From the manufacturer specifications. the idea of using microwaves to transmit power was researched. It is a sub-type of the more general wireless energy transfer methods. MEDIUM RECEIVED POWER 87 . William C.over 90% in optimal circumstances. Following World War II.26. which saw the development of high-power microwave emitters known as cavity magnetrons. INFO BITS Microwave power transmission (MPT) is the use of microwaves to transmit power through outer space or the atmosphere without the need for wires. the rectenna is capable of very high conversion efficiencies . as in "we're 100. 27. allowing the helicopter to fly[1]. There is also some loss (negative gain) from the feedline. In 1964. Brown demonstrated a miniature helicopter equipped with a combination antenna and rectifier device called a rectenna. The transmitter power output is normally less than the ERP. the designers determine that the transmitter has a minimum output power of +25 dBm. In principle. transmitter power output (TPO) is the actual amount of power (in watts) of radio frequency (RF) energy that a transmitter produces at its output.000 watts of rock 'n' roll". which is usually the effective radiated power (ERP). The rectenna converted microwave power into electricity. TRANSMITTER POWER Definition In radio transmission.

Definition This is also known as the Received Signal Level or RSL.1 mV/m: the minimum strength at which a station can be received with acceptable quality on most receivers 88 . signal strength refers to the magnitude of the electric field at a reference point that is a significant distance from the transmitting antenna. Typically. Received Signal Level = Pt + total gain + total loss Received Signal Level = Minimum Transmitter Power – Net Path Loss = 25 dBm – 61. are expressed in dB-millivolts per metre (dBmV/m).826 dBm INFO BITS Examples of Common RSL: • • • 100 dBµ or 100 mV/m: blanketing interference may occur on some receivers 60 dBµ or 1. It may also be referred to as received signal level or field strength.826 dB ⇒ RSL = -36. 1 mV/m is 1000 µV/m or 60 dBµ (often written dBu). signal strength is usually expressed in dB-microvolts per metre (dBµV/m) or in decibels above a reference level of one milliwatt (dBm). In telecommunications. For very low-power systems. In broadcasting terminology. High-powered transmissions. particularly in radio.0 mV/m: frequently considered the edge of a radio station's protected area in North America 40 dBµ or 0. such as mobile phones. such as those used in broadcasting. it is expressed in voltage per length or signal power received by a reference antenna.

RECEIVER NOISE THRESHOLD Definition External noise appearing at the front end of a receiver.28. the receiver noise threshold is given by: ⇒ Input 1dB Compression Point: -20 dBm min INFO BITS One measure of a receiver's performance is its ability to reject noise while providing a clear desired signal. the better the sensitivity (and performance) of the receiver. However. this performance is rated by a signal-to-noise ratio. determines a noise threshold that has to be exceeded by the minimum discernible signal. The higher the signal-to-noise ratio. Others skilled in the art have used complicated detector and compensation arrangements that attempt to improve the receiver's sensitivity. which is often called the noise range. Typically. This noise barrier resides approximately below a 3dB signal-to-noise ratio. 89 . existing receiver sensitivity improvement techniques (such as "click swallowing") do not function well when the desired information signal has a received amplitude that is near the noise level. plus the noise added by the receiver itself. a need exists for a simple method to improve the receiver's sensitivity below the noise range. Therefore. From the manufacturer’s specification sheet.

29.0103 dBw Also.0103 ⇒ C/N = 0.0768 x 10-7 and converting it to dBw: RSLdBw = 10 log (RSL / 1W) = 10 log (2. RSLdBm = -36.826 = 10 log (RSL / 1mW) So that the value of the RSL = 2.6425 dB 90 . N = -204 + 10 log 500 x 106 + 13 N = -104.826 / -104. THEORETICAL RF C/N RATIO The formula is given by: C/N (dB) = RSL / N (dBw) NdBw = -204 dBw + 10 log BWIF(Hz) +NFdB Where: BWIF(Hz) = Intermediate Frequency Bandwidth (Obtained from the specification sheet) = 500 MHz NF = Receiver Noise Figure = 13 dB Therefore.0768 x 10-7 / 1) = -66.826 Therefore. C/N = -66.

or minimum acceptable RF input level point.01 dBm 91 . another useful formula could be used to compute for the FM Improvement Threshold or Practical Threshold at room temperature.30.01 dBm. but may be higher if it is established as an arbitrary value of noise in the top channel.01) – 48. The design is a 300 channel system with a receiver noise figure of 13 dB and IF bandwidth of 500 MHz.1) = 48. it is evident that the “practical threshold” will be at an RF input which is 6.0 Since the designers are using a value of 55 dBrnc0 as the maximum allowable limit. To calculate the the derived channel noise level at the FM threshold: dBrnc0 = -(-67.1 + 10 – (-19.99 dB below the FM threshold or: ⇒ Practical Threshold = -74 dBm Also. cannot be lower than the FM improvement threshold. PRACTICAL THRESHOLD Definition The “practical threshold”. We can calculate the FM Threshold as TFM = -104 + 10log500 +10 = -67. FMIT(dBm) = -174 +10 log BWIF(Hz) + NFdB = -174 + 10 log (500 x 106) + 13 ⇒ FMIT = -74.

they would still be needed.174 dB INFO BITS In telecommunication. THRES.31.826 – (-74) ⇒ Fade Margin = 37. the term fade margin (fading margin) has the following meanings: • A design allowance that provides for sufficient system gain or sensitivity to accommodate expected fading. Most line-of-sight microwave systems are engineered with fade margins in the range of 35 to 40 dB or more. • 92 . for the purpose of ensuring that the required quality of service is maintained. Calculation Fade Margin = Received Signal Level – Practical Threshold = -36. The amount by which a received signal level may be reduced without causing system performance to fall below a specified threshold value. in most cases. Even if there were no fading. The high normal signal levels are only partly to provide protection against fading. to meet basic system noise objectives. FADE MARGIN (TO PRAC.) Definition Fade Margin is the dB difference between the “practical threshold” level and the normal signal level.

Definition Path reliability Usually. "Unavailability" or the probability of an outage (because of propagation conditions) is often referred to and. while requirements for highcapacity. a short-haul reliability (availability) factor of99.9999%. It represents the percentage of time the link is expected to operate without an outage caused by propagation conditions. if expressed in percentage. This equation is used as an approximation for the one-direction effects of multipath fading with various terrain and atmospheric conditions. It is therefore very essential to know the overall reliability of the microwave system in our feasibility study. microwave links are designed to meet a specific reliability factor.995% (minimum). if the unavailability is 0.001%.26 minutes of unavailability (outage) per year. Availability and unavailability are referenced to a year. equipment failures. The propagation-related unavailability is derived from Equation 1 below. Reliability may also be termed "availability" and is expressed as a percentage. it could also be stated there will be: [365.25(days/yr)* 24(hr/day) * 60 (min/hr) * (0. For example.005%. In other words.32.001/100)]= 5. the value is determined by subtracting the availability (expressed as a percentage) from 100. and maintenance is important in the design of a microwave radio system. 93 . long-haul may be 99. The Bell standard for short-haul propagation reliability is 99.995% can also be expressed as an unavailability factor of 0. RELIABILITY A statistical study of outage time or service interruptions caused by radio fades.

Commercial path design software typically has this information in tables. temperate. particularly past 10GHz. 1/4: very rough. the wavelength becomes short enough that rain droplets (depending on their size and shape) can present themselves as obstructions to the path. requiring the user simply to select the geographic location of the proposed path. This occurs when the diameter of the droplets approach 1/4 wavelength of the frequency being used. some roughness. statistics for the particular area of interest must be obtained. b = one of the following generalized climate factors: 1/2: hot. At these higher frequencies. 1: average. 1/8: very dry. The National Weather Bureau also maintains this information for various cities throughout the United States. F = fade margin of the path (in dB).[Eq. humid. 1] where Pm = Outage probability (unavailability) due to multipath fading. (Note that the result of this equation must be multiplied by 100 in order to be expressed as a percentage. a = one of the following generalized terrain factors: 4: very smooth (including water). The values for that area are then accessed. 1/4: normal.) Another factor that can affect path reliability is rain attenuation. Because rain rates differ by geographic location. 94 . The maximum instantaneous intensity of the rainfall and the percentage of the total path within the rain cell are other factors to be considered. f = frequency (in GHz). D = path length (in miles).

free space and atmospheric losses. 95 . F = frequency in GHz. The difference in decibels between the transmitter RF output level (+ dBm) on one end of the path and the desired receive signal level (RSL) on the other end of the path will be the maximum allowable net path loss. can be determined and will exceed this allowable net path loss by some amount (measured in decibels).Increasing path reliability One method of increasing path reliability is to increase the fade margin. along with all hardware losses on both ends. the nominal signal level into the receiver can be determined (noise threshold [-dBm] plus fade margin [+ dB] = nominal receive level [-dBm]). Parabolic ("dish") antennas typically have gain efficiencies of 55% to 65%. If the design engineer dictates a particular fade margin requirement from the start.5 [Eq. After a proposed microwave path has been evaluated with regard to reliability. B = parabola diameter in feet. Because path distance and antenna heights are known. The amount by which it is exceeded will be the necessary combined gain of the antennas on each end of the path. To achieve this required gain. Knowing the noise threshold of the receiver being used (-dBm) and the required fade margin. the calculations may show that it will not meet the required standards. the power budget can be determined in a particular sequence. Using an efficiency of 55%. the gain of a parabolic antenna can be calculated as follows: G=20(log 10)B+20(log 10)F+7. 2] where G = gain over an isotropic antenna. proper antenna reflector diameters must be selected.

The additional "diversity" antenna is usually mounted on the same tower structure. as shown in Figure 1 above. One such technique is space diversity. additional techniques known as diversity methods may be employed. An additional receiver and associated switching/combining equipment will also be needed. receiver and combining and switching equipment create additional cost. Tower heights must be greater to achieve sufficient vertical antenna separation." One drawback of space diversity is increased cost. In general. yet vertically separated from the site's original receive antenna. In some cases. 30-40 feet at 6GHz and 25-30 feet at 11GHz. 45-50 feet at 4GHz. 96 . more vertical spacing between antennas offers less path correlation and better path reliability. When spacing is adequate between antennas. The diversity antenna. separated in distance from the first. This additional equipment essentially creates another microwave path between the two sites. The rule of thumb for antenna spacing is as follows: 60-80 feet at 2GHz. the existing tower structure might have to be retrofitted to handle the additional wind loading created by the diversity antenna.In such situations. there should be little correlation between the two paths with regard to propagation characteristics. which involves the addition of another receive antenna. Receiver switching and combining equipment then senses which receiver has the troubled signal (if fades occur) and switches that receiver "offline. Improvement in reliability comes from the reduced probability that both paths will be adversely affected by fading at the same time. This diversity antenna is connected to the diversity receiver.

are used to transmit the same information to separate receivers at the other end of the path. 97 . in feet. use that figure). Reliability improvement comes from the reduced chances of fading occurring on both frequencies (or frequency bands) at the same time. D = path length in miles. the FCC disallows the use of frequency diversity except under certain conditions. Microwave transmitters operating on two frequencies (with a typical in-band diversity spacing of about 2%). and therefore reduces tower cost. f = frequency in GHz.The following modified form of Arvids Vigants' fade reduction factor equation can be used to estimate the improvement offered by space diversity: I[sub]sd= [(7 * 10^-5 * f * s^2 * 10^(f/10)]/D [Eq. It does. Frequency diversity does not require the vertical antenna spacing used in space diversity. require the use of more spectrum because it uses two sets of frequencies. Because available frequencies are in limited supply. and sometimes in two frequency bands (called crossband diversity). s = vertical antenna spacing. however. F = path fade margin (if one antenna's path has a smaller fade margin. between centers. Frequency diversity is another method used to increase path reliability. Test comparisons between space and frequency diversity indicate that improvements realized with space diversity are generally greater than those achieved with frequency diversity. 3] where Isd = improvement factor (space diversity).

(The values of K shown above for the 8GHz and 12GHz bands are GTELenkurt engineering estimates based on work from W. Because microwave antenna beamwidths can be small. This has been termed "antenna decoupling. negative values of K can exist where the path bows skyward at mid-path and comes downward at the ends. Change in f/f = frequency diversity spacing (percent 4 100). K = 1/2 for 4 GHz band. Barnett that dealt strictly with the 4GHz and 6GHz bands. this increased vertical arrival angle may be outside the antenna's half-power beamwidth." 98 . although out-of-band frequency diversity (such as 6GHz/12GHz) does. 4] where Ifd = frequency diversity improvement factor.) Neither space diversity nor in-band frequency diversity provide improvement against rain attenuation. 1/8 for 8 GHz band. 1/12 for 12 GHz band. Under superrefractive atmospheric conditions.A general formula to calculate the improvement factor given by frequency diversity is as follows: Ifd = K * (change in f/f) * 10^(F/10) [Eq. The received signal level realized may be sufficiently low to cause noise problems or even an outage.T. This will create a wavefront that will arrive at the antenna with a greater vertical angle than normal (see Figure 2 above). F = fade margin. 1/4 for 6 GHz band.

Pm = annual unavailability (non-diversity) due to multipath (Eq. Hybrid diversity is where both frequency and space diversity are employed simultaneously. 3 and Eq. most of the improvement comes from the effect of the space diversity. 99 . 5] where Udiv = unavailability or probability of outage (using some diversity method). 1). angle diversity offers only a limited improvement factor over that of a non-diversity path under typical path conditions.A method of reducing this effect is to use a special angle diversity feed horn arrangement that essentially creates two vertically separated main lobes. so that if the signal level from the lower (normal) main lobe diminishes sufficiently because of the wave front’s increased arrival angle. However. the overall reliability figure (expressed as a percentage) is obtained by taking the sum of the unavailability figures (as a percentage) for each hop. The following equation is used when calculating fade probabilities with various methods of diversity: Udiv = (P[sub]m)/I [Eq. I = diversity improvement factor (Eq. In multiple-hop microwave systems. Because most fades are due to reflections and multipath effects rather than this anomalous superrefractive condition. the other (upper) lobe will be better oriented. and subtracting that figure from 100. 4).

4 1.8 53 minutes 5.44 minutes 8.2 29 minutes 14.4 minutes 1.8 2.3 minutes 32 seconds 720 360 144 72 36 14 7 43 minutes 4.99 99.3 minutes 26 seconds 2.6 seconds 0.0001 8760 4380 1752 876 438 175 88 8.999 99.Calculation Reliability and Outage Time Table Reliability (%) Outage Time (%) Year (Hours) Outage Time per Month (Hours) Day (Hours) 0 50 80 90 95 98 99 99.086 seconds Computation for the Actual Reliability and Outage Time 100 .9999 100 50 20 10 5 2 1 0.9 99.1 0.01 0.001 0.6 seconds 24 12 4.86 seconds 0.

174 – 28 e – 86.1 b – 0.3 – 43 37.174 – 28 c – 528 c – 528 = -437.3 minutes e 8.174 – 28 b – 0.982566 % Outage Time (%): 38 – 28 = 0.1 = -0.28 a – 99.44 minutes/ 86.4 37.01 – 0.4 seconds 37.8 hours / 528 minutes 43 minutes 1.235 minutes OT per month: 38 –28 = 4.04 38 a 99.99 – 99.6 seconds Reliability: 38 – 28 = 99.9 8.174 .08136 ⇒ a = 99.9 a – 99.9 = 0.082566 ⇒ b = 0.99 b 0.017434% OT per year: 38 – 28 = 53 – 528 37.4 e – 86.1 37.4 = -71.02628 seconds 101 .Fade Margin (dB) Reliability (%) Outage Time (%) 0.01 c 53 minutes d 4.1 OT per Year OT per month OT per Day 28 99.50338 ⇒ d = 7.6 – 86.174 – 28 d –43 d – 43 = -35.49662 minutes OT per day: 38 –28 = 8.9 37.37372 ⇒ e = 15.765 ⇒ c = 92.